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Sample records for white spot virus

  1. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    Witteveldt, J.

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon towards the presumed less susceptibleLitopenaeusvannamei , the use of specific pathogen free shrimp and the development of more advanced shrimp culturing techniques, WSSV continues to scourge shrimp farms. Therefore there is an urgent need for effective intervention strategies. Vac...

  2. Genomics and transcriptomics of White spot syndrome virus

    Marks, H.

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped DNA virus that infects shrimp and other crustaceans. The virions are approximately 275 x 120 nm in size and have an ovoid to bacilliform shape and a tail-like appendage at one end. Sequencing revealed that the circular, double stranded (ds) DNA genome of WSSV ranges between 293 and 307 kb in size depending on the WSSV isolate. For a sequenced isolate originating fromThailand(WSSV-TH) 184 putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified ...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of White Spot Syndrome Virus Isolated from Cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Mexico

    Rodriguez-Anaya, Libia Zulema; Gonzalez-Galaviz, Jose Reyes; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramón; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Estrada, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The first genome sequence of a Mexican white spot syndrome virus is presented here. White spot syndrome is a shrimp pandemic virus that has devastated production in Mexico for more than 10 years. The availability of this genome will greatly aid epidemiological studies worldwide, contributing to the molecular diagnostic and disease prevention in shrimp farming. PMID:26966222

  4. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

    Juan Hsueh-Fen; Aoki Takashi; Hirono Ikuo; Hsu Chun-Wei; Wu Jin-Lu; Chang Chih-Chin; Leu Jiann-Horng; Lo Chu-Fang; Kou Guang-Hsiung; Huang Hsuan-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results ...

  5. Virulence variation of white spot syndrome virus in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Laramore, S E; Scarpa, J; Laramore, C R; Lin, J

    2009-06-01

    The virulence of seven geographic isolates of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV; genus Whispovirus; China [strain CH1995], Nicaragua [strain N2000], Honduras [strain H2000], Ecuador [strains E-L1999 and E-LT2002], and Mexico [strains M-M2001 and M-LP2001]) was compared using a series of challenge experiments, each lasting 10 d. For each isolate, four quantified dilutions (10(-6), 10(7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)) of a viral inoculum were prepared from WSSV-infected shrimp tissue. Each viral inoculum was injected into 10 specific pathogen-free juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (0.25-1.50 g); controls received injections of marine crustacean physiological saline (3.2%). The minimum dose of viral inoculum that killed 50% of injected shrimp (LD50) was calculated for dilution, tissue concentration, and viral DNA amount. The CH1995 and M-M2001 isolates were the least virulent, with LD50 values of 10(-6) to 10(-7) of viral inoculum. The isolates could be grouped into three virulence clusters (CH1995 and M-M2001; N2000 and E-LT2002; and H2000, E-L1999, and M-LP2001). Virulence clusters were not altered by LD50 values based on viral DNA concentration, although a slight shifting of order in regards to virulence was seen among the three most virulent isolates (E-L1999, H2000, and M-LP2001). Overall, results indicate that there is a measurable virulence difference among WSSV isolates, which may correspond to geographical region. PMID:19873829

  6. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. Native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His6 tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Å; they belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Å and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labelled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Å

  7. Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Thirty-Nine Structural Proteins of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Wang, Han-Ching; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Hsiao, He-Hsuan; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the hemolymph of experimentally infected crayfish Procambarus clarkii, and their proteins were separated by 8 to 18% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to give a protein profile. The visible bands were then excised from the gel, and following trypsin digestion of the reduced and alkylated WSSV proteins in the bands, the peptide sequence of each fragment was determined by liquid chromatograph...

  8. Pupil - white spots

    White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black. ... Sometimes, the pupil of the eye may appear white, or the normal red reflex may appear to ...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments.

    Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K; van Aerle, Ronny; Bateman, Kelly S; Stentiford, Grant D; Santos, Eduarda M; Tyler, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host-pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host-pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment. PMID:26797629

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments

    Bas Verbruggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  11. Penaeus monodon Thioredoxin Restores the DNA Binding Activity of Oxidized White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1

    Huang, Jiun-Yan; Liu, Wang-Jing; Wang, Han-Ching; Lee, Der-Yen; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Wang, Hao-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Kang, Shih-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results: In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that Trx bound to WSSV IE1 when the transfected cells were subjected to oxidative stress. A pull-down assay with Trx mutants show...

  12. A Novel Detection Platform for Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Using an ICP11-Dependent Immunomagnetic Reduction (IMR) Assay

    Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yu-chen; Ho, Chia-Shin; Yang, Che-Chuan; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Chang, Jui-Feng; Li, Chun-Yuan; Cheng, Cheng-Shun; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Lee, Yen-Fu; Hsu, Ming-Hung; Lin, Feng-Chun; Wang, Hao-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Yang, Shieh-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Shrimp white spot disease (WSD), which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is one of the worlds most serious shrimp diseases. Our objective in this study was to use an immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay to develop a highly sensitive, automatic WSSV detection platform targeted against ICP11 (the most highly expressed WSSV protein). After characterizing the magnetic reagents (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with anti ICP11), the detection limit for ICP11 protein using IMR was ...

  13. White Spot Syndrome Virus Orf514 Encodes a Bona Fide DNA Polymerase

    Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is the causative agent of white spot syndrome, one of the most devastating diseases in shrimp aquaculture. The genome of WSSV includes a gene that encodes a putative family B DNA polymerase (ORF514, which is 16% identical in amino acid sequence to the Herpes virus 1 DNA polymerase. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the activity of the WSSV ORF514-encoded protein as a DNA polymerase and hence a putative antiviral target. A 3.5 kbp fragment encoding the conserved polymerase and exonuclease domains of ORF514 was overexpressed in bacteria. The recombinant protein showed polymerase activity but with very low level of processivity. Molecular modeling of the catalytic protein core encoded in ORF514 revealed a canonical polymerase fold. Amino acid sequence alignments of ORF514 indicate the presence of a putative PIP box, suggesting that the encoded putative DNA polymerase may use a host processivity factor for optimal activity. We postulate that WSSV ORF514 encodes a bona fide DNA polymerase that requires accessory proteins for activity and maybe target for drugs or compounds that inhibit viral DNA replication.

  14. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in recognition of -integrin

    Jing-Yan Zhang; Qing-Hui Liu; Jie Huang

    2014-06-01

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed that envelope proteins VP26, VP31, VP37, VP90 and nucleocapsid protein VP136 interacted with LvInt. RGD-, YGL- and LDV-related peptide functioned as motifs of WSSV proteins binding with -integrin. The -integrin ligand of RGDT had better blocking effect compared with that of YGL- and LDV-related peptides. In vivo assay indicated that RGD-, LDV- and YGL-related peptides could partially block WSSV infection. These data collectively indicate that multiple proteins were involved in recognition of -integrin. Identification of proteins in WSSV that are associated with -integrin will assist development of new agents for effective control of the white spot syndrome.

  15. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus

    Liu, Yang; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L., E-mail: dbshewcl@nus.edu.sg [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-08-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. Native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Å; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Å and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labelled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Å.

  16. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is facilitated by housekeeping molecules

    Vinayak Biradar; Santosh Narwade; Mandar Paingankar; Deepti Deobagkar

    2013-12-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed one-dimensional and two-dimension virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host proteins of Penaeus monodon that could interact with WSSV. The VOPBA results suggest that WSSV interacted with housekeeping proteins such as heat shock protein 70, ATP synthase subunit , phosphopyruvate hydratase, allergen Pen m 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, actin and 14-3-3-like protein. Our findings suggest that WSSV exploits an array of housekeeping proteins for its transmission and propagation in P. monodon.

  17. The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

  18. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa

  19. Development of dot-immunogold filtration assay to detect white spot syndrome virus of shrimp.

    Wang, Xiaojie; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing

    2006-03-01

    The dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) detects white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by using a nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) as a support of WSSV and anti-WSSV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 1D5 and 6A4 labelled with red color colloidal gold. The principle of filtration for the rapid reaction of antigen and antibody is adopted in order for the test process to be completed within 3min without incubation or any equipment. A reddish dot indicative of a positive result is present visibly. In comparison with dot-blot nitrocellulose enzyme immunoassay (DB-NC-EIA), the sensitivity of DIGFA is similar. However, DIGFA is a method that can be performed conveniently pond side providing a faster result without the production of false positive results. PMID:16325929

  20. A histological variant of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp. The major targets of WSSV infection are tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal embryonic origin, predominantly the cuticular epithelium and subcuticular connective tissues. Recently, we discovered a WSSV variant in Penaeus indicus that heavily infects the subcuticular connective tissue, with very slight indications in the cuticular epithelium. The variant was also unusual in that WSSV accumulations were found in the interstitial spaces of both the subcuticular connective tissue and the lymphoid organ. This WSSV variant was confirmed through immunohistochemistry with an anti-WSSV VP28 monoclonal antibody, and also by in situ hybridization with a VP28 DNA probe. By in situ hybridization, shrimp with variant and typical histology were shown a deletion in ORF94, which is characteristic of a new type of WSSV found in Saudi Arabia; apparently, the loss of this ORF is not associated with the variant's reduced capability of infecting the cuticular epithelium cells. PMID:23454062

  1. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus.

    Liu, Yang; Sivaraman, J; Hew, Choy L

    2006-08-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His6 tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 angstroms; they belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 angstroms and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labelled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 angstroms. PMID:16880562

  2. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus.

    Liu,Y.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2006-01-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapor diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Angstroms; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Angstroms and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labeled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Angstroms.

  3. White spot syndrome virus infection: Threat to crustacean biodiversity in Vembanad Lake, India

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 67% were found to carry the virus. A total of 258 samples of crustaceans from the Cochin backwater system that forms a part of the Vembanad lake viz., Metapenaeus dobsoni, Metapenaeus monoceros, Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus were found to contain WSSV in 62% of the samples. Fifteen species of crustaceans caught from the seas off Cochin were also screened for the presence of WSSV. Out of these, twelve species had WSSV incidence levels ranging from 6–23%. WSSV was not detected from three species of deep sea crustaceans tested. The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon had the highest incidence of WSSV among the species screened in farmed, estuarine and marine environments.

  4. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent

    Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single-challenge and serial challenge results, and on previous published work showing that S. serrata is relatively unaffected by WSSV infection, we propose that susceptibility to white spot disease in the genus Scylla is species-dependent and may also be dose-history dependent. In practical terms for shrimp farmers, it means that S. olivacea and S. paramamosain may pose less threat as WSSV carriers than S. serrata. For crab farmers, our results suggest that rearing of S. serrata would be a better choice than S. paramamosain or S. olivacea in terms of avoiding losses from seasonal outbreaks of white spot disease.

  5. White spot syndrome virus and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus simultaneous diagnosis by miniarray system with colorimetry detection.

    Qur, Ronan; Commes, Thrse; Marti, Jacques; Bonami, Jean Robert; Piquemal, David

    2002-09-01

    Highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools are essential for monitoring the health status of farmed species. After the development of genomic probe diagnostic systems in the 1990s, followed by PCR-based systems, a miniarray method has been developed allowing one-step multiple detection. The miniarray method was developed to enable the accessibility of powerful array technology. To use this system, hybridisation and washing process were modified, resulting into a significant increase in the test's rapidity and sensitivity. With miniarray technology, hybridisation time is reduced to 20 min, whereas other methods require a longer hybridisation time. Hybridisation of the PCR product on a nylon membrane and revelation of the hybrids by an antibody increase considerably the ability of pathogen's detection. A first application is developed for the diagnosis of two specific viruses which are, by their geographical range and their impact on the production, very important in shrimp pathology, namely, the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and the Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV). PMID:12270652

  6. Metabolic product response profiles of Cherax quadricarinatus towards white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Fan, Weiwei; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yina; Xie, Xiaolu; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens in both shrimp and crayfish farms, which often causes disease outbreak and leads to massive moralities with significant economic losses of aquaculture. However, limited research has been carried out on the intrinsic mechanisms toward WSSV challenge at the metabolic level. To gain comprehensive insight into metabolic responses induced by WSSV, we applied an NMR approach to investigate metabolic changes of crayfish gill and hepatopancreas infected by WSSV for 1, 6 and 12 h. In gill, an enhanced energy metabolism was observed in WSSV-challenged crayfish samples at 1 h, as marked by increased glucose, alanine, methionine, glutamate and uracil. Afterwards, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism as well as osmoregulation were markedly increased at 6 hpi, as shown by elevated glucose, alanine, methionine, fumarate, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, phosphorylcholine, betaine and uracil, whereas no obvious metabolites change was detected at 12 hpi. As for hepatopancreas, disturbed lipid metabolism and induced osmotic regulation was found at 6 hpi based on the metabolic biomarkers such as branched chain amino acids, threonine, alanine, methionine, glutamate, glutamine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lactate and lipid. However, no obvious metabolic change was shown in hepatopancreas at both 1 hpi and 12 hpi. Taken together, our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interactions in crayfish, which shed new light on our understanding of WSSV infection at metabolic level. PMID:27068762

  7. White spot syndrome virus VP12 interacts with adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Ma, Fang-fang; Chou, Zhi-guang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guangkuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus VP12 contains cell attachment motif RGD which is considered to be critical for host cell binding. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP12 with host cells. A new shrimp protein (adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvANT) is selected by far-western overlay assay. Tissue distribution of adenine nucleotide translocase mRNA showed that it was commonly spread in all the tissues detected. Cellular localization of LvANT in shrimp hemocytes showed that it was primarily located in the cytoplasm of hemocytes and colocalized with mitochondria. ELISA and far-western blot assay confirmed that VP12 interacted with LvANT. In vivo neutralization assay showed that anti-LvANT antibody can significantly reduce the mortality of shrimp challenged by WSSV at 48h post-treatment. Our results collectively showed that VP12 is involved in host cell binding via interaction with adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:24607653

  8. Optimized PCR assay for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-01-01

    A rapid PCR assay for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was developed based on the nested PCR procedure described by Lo et al. (1996) and outlined as the recommended PCR diagnostic assay in the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals published by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE, 2009). The optimized procedure incorporated the second step primers used in the nested WSSV PCR. By adjusting the annealing temperature and shortening the cycling times, this modified assay is substantially faster and as sensitive as the recommended OIE protocol. The modified PCR test was compared directly to the two-step nested PCR protocol and a modified nested procedure. The sensitivity of the published assay was determined by template dilutions of semi-purified WSSV virions that had been quantitated using real-time PCR for detection of WSSV. Various isolates were tested using the modified procedure, to ensure that the assay was able to detect WSSV from different geographical locations. PMID:21111001

  9. Litopenaeus vannamei clathrin coat AP17 involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Wang, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Qing-Hui; Wu, Yin; Huang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the main pathogen of shrimp culture, and has brought great losses of the shrimp aquaculture industry every year since it has been found. However, the specific mechanism of the virus into the cell is not very clear. Recent research suggests that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is involved in WSSV infection. By sequence analysis, clathrin coat AP17 is an σ subunit of AP-2 complex which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To obtain the full-length sequence of Clathrin coat AP17 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCCAP17), the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was performed to get the sequence of 3'and 5' end and splicing by DNAMAN. The full-length sequence of LvCCAP17 is 842 bp and expected to encoding 142 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence was analyzed by online software. The mRNA expression of LvCCAP17 in different tissues was carried out with quantitative real-time PCR and the LvCCAP17 was detected in all tested tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei. The transcriptional expression level of LvCCAP17 in epithelium and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated after WSSV infection. Far-Western blotting and ELISA assay showed that LvCCAP17 interacted with rVP26 and rVP37. Silencing of LvCCAP17 gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference significantly delay of cumulative mortality rate in WSSV infected shrimp and reduced the expression level of immediate early gene 1(ie1) and vp28. These results indicated that clathrin-meated endocytosis is responsible for WSSV infection. PMID:26988289

  10. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns. PMID:26880158

  11. Cloning of Litopenaeus vannamei CD63 and it's role in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Guan, Guang-Kuo; Liu, Qing-Hui; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is currently the most serious shrimp pathogen, which has brought huge losses to shrimp industry worldwide. CD63 of shrimp belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily, which plays an important role in signal transduction and immune process. In this paper, CD63 cDNA sequence of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned using RACE method. The amplified sequence is 1472 bp, with its ORF 744 bp, encoding 247 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the sequence of LvCD63 has 93% similarity with Penaeus monodon and 92% similarity with Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of LvCD63 expressed in the tissues of hemocytes, gill, epithelial tissue, heart, lymphoid, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestines, muscle and nerve. Among these tissues the highest expression level was showed in the tissue of haemolymph, followed by epithelial tissue, hepatopancreas, and nerve. The lowest expression level of LvCD63 was appeared in the muscle tissue. After WSSV challenge, the expression levels of LvCD63 were both up-regulated in the tissues of gill and epithelial. However the expression level of LvCD63 in hepatopancreas was down-regulated. Far-western blot analysis showed that LvCD63 interacts with VP28, and both VP28N and VP28C fragments interact with LvCD63. Flow cytometry analysis showed that LvCD63 was present on the surface of hemocytes and it is required for binding of WSSV virions. Neutral experiments in vivo showed that LvCD63LEL delayed WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:26964710

  12. Shrimp miRNAs regulate innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Kaewkascholkul, Napol; Somboonviwat, Kulwadee; Asakawa, Shuichi; Hirono, Ikuo; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of RNA interference pathways that regulate gene expression through partial complementary base-pairing to target mRNAs. In this study, miRNAs that are expressed in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Penaeus monodon, were identified using next generation sequencing. Forty-six miRNA homologs were identified from WSSV-infected shrimp hemocyte. Stem-loop real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 11 out of 16 selected miRNAs were differentially expressed upon WSSV infection. Of those, pmo-miR-315 and pmo-miR-750 were highly responsive miRNAs. miRNA target prediction revealed that the miRNAs were targeted at 5'UTR, ORF, and 3'UTR of several immune-related genes such as genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, signaling transduction proteins, heat shock proteins, oxidative stress proteins, proteinases or proteinase inhibitors, proteins in blood clotting system, apoptosis-related proteins, proteins in prophenoloxidase system, pattern recognition proteins and other immune molecules. The highly conserved miRNA homolog, pmo-bantam, was characterized for its function in shrimp. The pmo-bantam was predicted to target the 3'UTR of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KuSPI). Binding of pmo-bantam to the target sequence of KuSPI gene was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. Correlation of pmo-bantam and KuSPI expression was observed in lymphoid organ of WSSV-infected shrimp. These results implied that miRNAs might play roles as immune gene regulators in shrimp antiviral response. PMID:26945623

  13. A Novel Detection Platform for Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Using an ICP11-Dependent Immunomagnetic Reduction (IMR) Assay

    Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Chen; Ho, Chia-Shin; Yang, Che-Chuan; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Chang, Jui-Feng; Li, Chun-Yuan; Cheng, Cheng-Shun; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Lee, Yen-Fu; Hsu, Ming-Hung; Lin, Feng-Chun; Wang, Hao-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Yang, Shieh-Yueh; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Shrimp white spot disease (WSD), which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is one of the worlds most serious shrimp diseases. Our objective in this study was to use an immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay to develop a highly sensitive, automatic WSSV detection platform targeted against ICP11 (the most highly expressed WSSV protein). After characterizing the magnetic reagents (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with anti ICP11), the detection limit for ICP11 protein using IMR was approximately 2 x 10?3 ng/ml, and the linear dynamic range of the assay was 0.1~1 x 106 ng/ml. In assays of ICP11 protein in pleopod protein lysates from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp, IMR signals were successfully detected from shrimp with low WSSV genome copy numbers. We concluded that this IMR assay targeting ICP11 has potential for detecting the WSSV. PMID:26380977

  14. MOLECULAR DOCKING ANALYSES OF CYNODON DACTYLON DERIVED PHYTOCHEMICALS AGAINST WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV STRUCTURAL PROTEIN VP26

    Damayanthi Devi.I

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available White spot disease is a major infectious disease of penaeid shrimps caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. The viral structural proteins are responsib le for binding virus to the cellular membranes of the host that is being systematically infected. An In silic o attempt was made to identify the potential drug to inhibit the WSSV spread of diseases. For that an effort , was made to deduce the antiviral potentiality of Cynodon dactylon derived phytochemicals with docking tec hnique. To stimulate the structure based drug design the, 3D structure of the VP26 (PDB-ID: 2EDM, a tegument protein thought to be i nvolved in the entry of WSSV nucleocapsid into the host nucleus, is retrieved from PDB datab ase and docking studies are carried out with the sketched phytochemical structures using GOLD software. Among the phytochemicals scr eened, luteolin and apigenin shows the best binding affinity with binding energies of 42.51 and 38.92 K.cal/m ol exhibiting the potential to block VP26 (2EDM protein of WSSV. This study will be helpful in developing novel antiviral drugs from plant sources against aquatic important pathogens.

  15. Saturn's Great White Spots.

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin

    1994-06-01

    The term, Great White Spot, is used for large and unusual atmospheric disturbances on the planet Saturn. The phenomenology has been recorded only in five occasions during the last century, and its evolution can be described in terms of four different phases: (i) Onset (first week), outburst and rapid growth of a very bright cloud up to a size of approximately 20 000 km; (ii) planetary disturbance (changes in the location and reflectivity of the belts within the active band. Of the five events classified as GWS, three appeared in the equator, one in temperate latitudes (36 degrees N) and the fifth in the subpolar region (60 degrees N), with an average periodicity of 28.5+/-0.4 yr. This interval is close to the Saturnian year of 29.46 yr, so the outbursts could be linked to the seasonal insolation cycle. We propose that the initial spot could be driven by moist convection from the lower water clouds, whereas the planetary disturbance is the result of a wave dynamical instability, as indicated by cloud morphology and wind measurements. PMID:12780109

  16. Improvement of immunodetection of white spot syndrome virus using a monoclonal antibody specific for heterologously expressed icp11.

    Siriwattanarat, Ruthairat; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Wangman, Pradit; Vaniksampanna, Akapon; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2013-05-01

    The icp11 gene encoding the highly abundant DNA mimic protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was cloned into the pTYB1 and pGEX-6P-1 expression vectors and introduced into E. coli by transformation. After induction, C-terminally intein-tagged ICP11 (ICP11-intein) and N-terminally glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged ICP11 (GST-ICP11) proteins with molecular masses of 64 and 35kDa were obtained. These proteins were purified by SDS-PAGE and used for immunization of Swiss mice for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Two MAbs specific for ICP11 were selected; these MAbs can be used to detect natural WSSV infection in Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting, western blotting or immunohistochemistry without cross-reaction with other shrimp tissues or other common shrimp viruses. The detection sensitivity of the MAbs was approximately 0.7 fmole/spot of GST-ICP11 as determined by dot blotting. These MAbs showed stronger immunoreactivity than other MAbs from previous studies that are specific for VP28 and VP19. A combination of MAbs specific for ICP11, VP28 and VP19 increased the detection sensitivity of WSSV during early infection to a sensitivity 250 times lower than that of one-step PCR. Therefore, the MAbs specific for ICP11 could be used to confirm and enhance the detection sensitivity for WSSV infection in shrimp using various types of antibody-based assays. PMID:23242776

  17. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity

  18. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  19. The endemic region and infection regimes of the White Spot Syndrome virus (WSSV in shrimp farms in northwestern Mxico

    Hctor Manuel Esparza Leal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming with a value annually of US$711 million approximately, is one of the most important primary activities in Mexico. However, shrimp farming has had to face various problems that have limited their development, within which the mortality caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV is the most important. To have scientific elements to focus on preventive health management actions is necessary to know, among other factors, aspects of the epidemiologyof white spot disease (WSD. Therefore this study focused on delimiting the endemic region for WSD and its temporal regimes of infection and discusses possible risk factors related to outbreaks of the disease in shrimp farms of northwestern Mexico. We analyzed information from the databases of the State Committees of Aquaculture Health of Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit, as well as data of Integrated Program on Shrimp Aquaculture Health (PISA 2007-2008 and the Strategic Alliance Network Aquaculture Industry Innovation (AERI-2008. Data analysis showed that, for the shrimp production cycles of 2007-2008, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was endemic to the region of Tuxpan, Nayarit in the south and to Agiabampo, Sonora in the north. Spring outbreaks of WSD in the fishfarms had a spatiotemporal distribution, indicating three infections regimes: (1 March-April in the southern shrimpfarming region (Local Aquaculture Health Boards [LAHBs] of Mazatlan, El Rosario, Escuinapa, Tecuala, and Tuxpan; 2 April-May in the central region (LAHBs of Navolato Norte, Navolato Sur, and El dorado; and (3 May-June in the northern region (LAHBs of Agiabampo-Sonora, Ahome, Guasave Norte and Sur. The WSD were consistent between 2007 and 2008, with slight variations among some LAHBs, with respect to the onset or presence of spring WSD outbreaks. It shows the association of infection regimes throughout the region endemic with the location of Mazatlan,Pescadero and Farallon oceanographic basins according to the increasing differential temperature within them, which may be a determinant factor for the presence of WSD outbreaks.

  20. Protection of crayfish, Cambarus clarkii, from white spot syndrome virus by polyclonal antibodies against a viral envelope fusion protein.

    Li, H-X; Meng, X-L; Xu, J-P; Lu, W; Wang, J

    2005-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. WSSV produces five major structural proteins, including two major envelope proteins, VP28 and VP19. To produce VP28 and VP19 as a single protein for antibody production, DNA sequences encoding both open reading frames were fused together and cloned into pET-22b(+) expression vector. The fusion protein, VP(19+28), was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified using Ni2+ His affinity chromatography and injected into a rabbit. Antiserum collected from the immunized rabbit was tested in vivo for ability to protect crayfish, Cambarus clarkii, from disease caused by WSSV. Fifteen days after challenge with WSSV, treatment with VP(19+28) antiserum gave 100% protection against disease in the ambient temperature range of 15-22 degrees C and 65% protection at a constant temperature of 26 degrees C. These results demonstrated VP(19+28) antiserum is effective in protection of crayfish from WSSV and confirmed that VP19 and VP28 play an important role in WSSV host infection. Targeting both VP19 and VP28 may be effective for the design of both immunotherapeutic medicines and reagents to detect WSSV. PMID:15892754

  1. Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp

    Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter

  2. [Infection of white spot baculo-like virus(WSBV) in Penaeus chinensis: evidence from electron microscopy and DNA hybridization].

    Xu, H; Piao, C; Wang, L; Wang, W; Xiang, J; Wang, Y

    2000-06-01

    Severe epizootic causing high mortalities in cultivated Penaeus chinensis has occurred every year in mainland China since 1993 with great economic loss. Naturally diseased P. chinensis sampled in Qingdao shrimp farming regions between 1993 and 1998 were examined by electron microscopy. A similar non-occluded nuclear bacilliform virus like the white spot baculo-like virus (WSBV) reported in Taiwan was mostly found in the gill, cuticular epidermis under the exoskeleton, stomach, lymphoid organ and other tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin from these diseased samples. The viron was enveloped with a mean size of (125 +/- 7.6) nm x (345 +/- 16) nm. Sometimes, a nipple-like appendage could be found protruding from one extremity of the viron. Envelopes were all lost after purification from cesium chloride gradient ultracentrifugation. The cylindrical nucleocapsid in negatively staining preparations was (80 +/- 13) nm x (380 +/- 24) nm with 13-16 stripes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the nucleocapsid. Based on its pathogenic and morphological characteristics, this virus should be related to WSBV. A pair of primers created from information of WSBV genome DNA SalI fragment produced a 355 bp band using the WSBV isolate from P. chinensis in mainland China, as the DNA template. The specific PCR product was cloned, sequenced and labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) DNA labeling kit (Boehringer Mannherm). The sequence of the probe is identical to that of WSBV. All of the sampled diseased shrimps between 1993 and 1998 reacted with the DIG-labeled probe by dot-blot hybridization and no hybridization was observed using DNA from health shrimp as templates. These results based on electron microscopy and DNA hybridization indicated that the shrimp epizootic occurred in mainland China was related to the WSBV infection previously occurred in Taiwan early 1992. PMID:12548988

  3. Studies of the viral binding proteins of shrimp BP53, a receptor of white spot syndrome virus.

    Li, Chen; Gao, Xiao-Xiao; Huang, Jie; Liang, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The specific binding between viral attachment proteins (VAPs) of a virus and its cellular receptors on host cells mediates virus entry into host cells, which triggers subsequent viral infections. Previous studies indicate that F1 ATP synthase ? subunit (named BP53), is found on the surface of shrimp cells and involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection by functioning as a potential viral receptor. Herein, in a far-western blotting assay, three WSSV proteins with molecular weights of 28kDa, 37kDa, and >50kDa were found to interact with BP53. The 28kDa and 37kDa proteins were identified as the envelope protein VP28 and VP37 of WSSV respectively, which could be recognized by the polyclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent binding assays revealed that VP37 contributed to almost 80% of the binding capability for BP53 compared with the same amount of total WSSV protein. The relationship between BP53 and its complementary interacting protein, VP37, was visualized using a co-localization assay. Bound VP37 on the cell surface co-localized with BP53 and shared a similar subcellular location on the outer surface of shrimp cells. Pearson's correlation coefficients reached to 0.670.05 and the Mander's overlap coefficients reached 0.700.05, which indicated a strong relationship between the localization of BP53 and bound rVP37. This provides evidence for an interaction between BP53 and VP37 obtained at the molecular and cellular levels, supporting the hypothesis that BP53 serves as a receptor for WSSV by binding to VP37. The identification of the viral binding proteins of shrimp BP53 is helpful for better understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of WSSV to infect shrimp at the cellular level. PMID:26774599

  4. Specific monoclonal antibodies raised against Taura syndrome virus (TSV) capsid protein VP3 detect TSV in single and dual infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Longyant, Siwaporn; Poyoi, Piengjan; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Tejangkura, Thanawan; Sithigorngul, Weerawan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat

    2008-03-01

    The gene sequence encoding VP3 capsid protein of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. After induction, recombinant GST-VP3 (rVP3) fusion protein was obtained and further purified by electro-elution before use in immunizing Swiss mice for production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). One MAb specific to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and 6 MAb specific to VP3 were selected using dot blotting and Western blotting. MAb specific to VP3 could be used to detect natural TSV infections in farmed whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting and Western blotting, without cross reaction to shrimp tissues or other shrimp viruses, such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). These MAb were also used together with those specific for WSSV to successfully detect TSV and WSSV in dual infections in farmed P. vannamei. PMID:18429444

  5. PCR detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV from farmed Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in selected sites of the Philippines

    Mary Beth B. Maningas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Great losses caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV in shrimp culture have beenattributed to poor screening procedures in farms and the lack of sufficient access to specific pathogenfree brood stock. Thus, early detection of the virus is considered the best option for shrimp farmers. Thestudy, thus, assessed viral incidence in the Philippines and partially sequenced and characterized thePhilippine WSSV isolate with regards to other isolates in GenBank. Developed primers for PCR can detecttarget genes from 0.4 pg of DNA extract from shrimp samples. PCR detection revealed that 6.67 %(1/15 of market samples from Zambales are infected with WSSV. Shrimp samples from a local shop anda public market in General Santos City showed 46.67% (7/15 and 20% (3/15 WSSV-positive samplesrespectively. Shrimp sources from Capiz and Batangas, however, showed negative detection for WSV. Nosignificant difference in the number of infected samples from the sampling sites was found. Combineddetections reveal that the Philippines has a low infection rate of 14.67%. The study has partiallysequenced and characterized Philippine isolate. During the sampling period, most shrimps in GeneralSantos City were WSSV-positive by PCR detection.

  6. White Spot Syndrome Virus Protein Kinase 1 Defeats the Host Cell's Iron-Withholding Defense Mechanism by Interacting with Host Ferritin

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Lee, Der-Yen; Wang, Hao-Ching; Kang, Shih-Ting; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Huang, Ming-Fen; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all living organisms, including both hosts and invaders. Proteins such as ferritin regulate the iron levels in a cell, and in the event of a pathogenic invasion, the host can use an iron-withholding mechanism to restrict the availability of this essential nutrient to the invading pathogens. However, pathogens use various strategies to overcome this host defense. In this study, we demonstrated that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) protein kinase 1 (PK1)...

  7. Ferritin administration effectively enhances immunity, physiological responses, and survival of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    Ruan, Yuan-Hwa; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Lo, Chu-Fang; Lee, Min-Hsien; Lian, Juang-Lin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2010-04-01

    We examined the physiological (hemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, O(2)(-)) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin. Results showed that the THC, PO activity, and respiratory bursts of L. vannamei obviously increased (p saline. L. vannamei injected with ferritin at any dose maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to WSSV challenge after 12-36, 24-48, and 36-60 h, respectively. The survival of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin was significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline and of control shrimp after 72 h. The ferritin messenger RNA transcripts of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline after 36 h. It was, therefore, concluded that the immune ability and resistance against WSSV infection increased in L. vannamei that had received > 0.5 ng g(-1) ferritin. Ferritin does play important roles in the innate immunity of the white shrimp. We observed higher SOD activities of L. vannamei that had received 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng ferritin after 12 h than those that had received only saline (control), and the high SOD expression remained at the same levels even after 72 h of treatment. PMID:20045064

  8. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S

    2005-07-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan. PMID:16053274

  9. White spotting in the California vole.

    Gill, A E

    1976-08-01

    Previously unreported white spotting was found in two subspecies of the California vole, Microtus californicus. The pattern of spots on the ventral coat of the animals differs between the subspecies, and there is variation in the expressivity of the white spots. Expression of white spotting is greatly reduced by the epistatic action of another coat colour gene, the recessive buffy (bf). The incidence of white spotting, its variation in expression, and its inheritance were investigated in this study. The reproductive performance of white spotted voles were also analysed, and effects of fertility and litter size were found associated with the trait. PMID:783091

  10. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio (P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV led to massive death of L. vannamei.

  11. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp.

    Ananphongmanee, Vorawit; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7) and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae ?-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1) promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7) and partial VP28 (pVP28) were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against WSSV by oral administration. PMID:26083446

  12. Effect of dose and challenge routes of Vibrio spp. on co-infection with white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus vannamei

    Phuoc, L.H.; Corteel, M.; Thanh, N.C.; Nauwynck, H.J.; Pensaert, M B; Alday-Sanz, V.; Van den Broeck, W.; Sorgeloos, P.; Bossier, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dose and challenge routes of Vibrio spp. on co-infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei shrimp. Juvenile shrimp were first injected with WSSV at a dose of 30 SID50 shrimp- 1 (SID50 = shrimp infectious dose with 50% endpoint) and 24 h later with 103, 104, 105 or 106 CFU shrimp- 1 of V. campbellii. Controls did not die during the experiment, except the ones that received 106 CFU shrimp-...

  13. Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites▿

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Jinlu; Song, Jianxing; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a...

  14. First report on White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV infection in white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae under semi intensive culture condition in India

    Gunalan Balakrishnan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly inAndrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Continuous success of shrimp culture was affected by mass mortalities ofcultured shrimp in 1994. Thereafter disease infection on survival and production of shrimps get itsimportance in culture. The present study is the first report on WSSV (white spot syndrome virusinfection in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in India. WSSV infection was observed on 70thdays of culture due to cross contamination of white spot infected shrimp from the neighboring farmbecause of birds. Due to this infection within two days the mortality ratio has gone up to 25% in pond 1and 12% in pond 2. So this present study strongly recommends to every shrimp farmers to go for birdfencing & crab fencing to avoid horizontal contamination, before stocking the good quality seed, thenthey will have the risk free WSSV culture.

  15. Haemocyanin content of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) associated with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio harveyi infection process.

    Chang, Yanhong; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Haemocyanin (Hc) is frequently reported to vary significantly by physiological status and environmental stress in Crustaceans. In this paper, the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was infected with different concentrations of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi. Then, the variation of Hc and total protein content of the haemolymph (TPCH) were investigated using the established double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and Coomassie brilliant blue method, respectively. The results showed that the Hc content peaked at 12 h post-infection (PI) in the 10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6) viral supernatant (VS) groups, and the maximum was 93.03 ± 2.55 mg ml(-1), 77.57 ± 6.02 mg ml(-1) and 70.25 ± 3.96 mg ml(-1), respectively. TPCH reached the maximum of 108.18 ± 1.36 mg ml(-1) and 103.49 ± 1.33 mg ml(-1) at 12 h PI in the 10(-2) and 10(-4) VS groups, respectively. The maximum was 96.94 ± 1.06 mg ml(-1) at 24 h PI in the 10(-6) VS group. In the V. harveyi infection groups, the Hc content reached a maximum of 87.97 ± 4.39 mg ml(-1) at 36 h PI in the 10(6) CFU ml(-1) group, 73.74 ± 4.38 mg ml(-1) and 72.47 ± 2.09 mg ml(-1) at 12 h PI in the 10(7) and 10(8) CFU ml(-1) groups, respectively. TPCH reached a maximum of 111.16 ± 0.86 mg ml(-1) at 36 h PI in the 10(6) CFU ml(-1) group, 100.41 ± 0.51 mg ml(-1) and 101.94 ± 0.47 mg ml(-1) at 12 h PI in the 10(7) and 10(8) CFU ml(-1) groups, respectively. These data showed that both Hc content and TPCH varied as the same extent after infection. The up-regulation of the Hc content at 6-36 h PI might be a reference threshold for shrimp infection. PMID:26616234

  16. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N

    2013-09-01

    A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 ?g mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions. PMID:23617699

  17. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  18. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Patricia Braunig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

  19. Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.

    Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding. PMID:24509436

  20. White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh

    Mohammad M. Monwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

  1. Transcriptional upregulation of fortilin in shrimp, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus fed diets containing recombinant VP28, an antigenic protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV

    Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is considered as one of the serious viral pathogens ofshrimp. There are several preventive measures that have been developed to curb the devastating effectsof this virus in shrimp aquaculture. Juvenile shrimps, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus were fed withcommercial feeds that were mixed with recombinant VP28, a structural protein antigen of WSSV for aperiod of 14 days. The immune response of the shrimp during oral administration of the medicated feedwas determined by expression analysis of fortilin, a gene that is involved in the antiviral response. Therewas a significant increase in the level of expression of fortilin both in the gut and the gills in the fedgroup during the duration of feeding. The level of expression gradually decreased in the fed group,whereby at the 7th and 14th day after the last day of feeding with medicated feeds, no significantdifferences were observed between the fed and control groups in the expression at the gills and gut,respectively.

  2. Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV

  3. Identification of a novel nonstructural protein, VP9, from white spot syndrome virus: its structure reveals a ferredoxin fold with specific metal binding sites.

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Jinlu; Song, Jianxing; Sivaraman, J; Hew, Choy L

    2006-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells. PMID:16956937

  4. Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites▿

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Jinlu; Song, Jianxing; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells. PMID:16956937

  5. Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites

    Liu,Y.; Wu, J.; Song, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells.

  6. Expression Profile of Penaeus monodon Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme (PmUbc) at Protein Level in White spot syndrome virus Challenged Shrimp.

    Keezhedath, Jeena; Kurcheti, Pani Prasad; Pathan, Mujahid Khan; Babu, Gireesh P; Tripathi, Gayatri; Sudhagar, Arun; Rao, Srinivas P

    2013-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. Four proteins of WSSV are predicted to encode a RING H2 domain, which in presence of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) in shrimps can function as viral E3 ligase and modulate the host ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Modulation of host ubiquitin proteasome pathway by viral proteins is implicated in viral pathogenesis. In the present study, expression profile of Penaeus monodon Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (PmUbc) was studied at protein level in WSSV challenged shrimp. A time point analysis of the expression of PmUbc was carried out at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h post WSSV challenge in P. monodon. Recombinant PmUbc (rPmUbc) was produced in prokaryotic expression vector, BL21 (DE3) pLys S. The PmUbc expression pattern was studied by ELISA with rPmUbc antibodies raised in rabbit. A significant increase in PmUbc expression at 24h post infection (hpi) was observed followed by a decline till 72hpi. Since the up-regulation and a tremendous decline of PmUbc protein expression was observed at 24 and in 72hpi respectively in ELISA, it can be speculated that these proteins might interact with host ubiquitination pathway for viral pathogenesis. Many findings have shown that viral infection can up-regulate expression of ubiquitin and that the ubiquitin system plays a key role in the course of viral infection. The present study reveals the expression patterns of PmUbc at protein level in WSSV infected P. monodon. However, further studies are to be carried out to unfold the molecular mechanism of interaction between host and virus to devise efficient control strategies for this major culprit in shrimp culture industry. PMID:24426257

  7. The c-Fos and c-Jun from Litopenaeus vannamei play opposite roles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection. PMID:25912357

  8. A simple non-enzymatic method for the preparation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) DNA from the haemolymph of Marsupenaeus japonicus using FTA matrix cards.

    Sudhakaran, R; Mekata, T; Kono, T; Supamattaya, K; Linh, N T H; Suzuki, Y; Sakai, M; Itami, T

    2009-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important shrimp pathogen responsible for large economic losses for the shrimp culture industry worldwide. The nucleic acids of the virus must be adequately preserved and transported from the field to the laboratory before molecular diagnostic analysis is performed. Here, we developed a new method to isolate WSSV-DNA using Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA matrix card; Whatman) without centrifugation or hazardous steps involved. FTA technology is a new method allowing the simple collection, shipment and archiving of nucleic acids from haemolymph samples providing DNA protection against nucleases, oxidation, UV damage, microbial and fungal attack. DNA samples prepared from 10-fold dilutions of moribund shrimp haemolymph using FTA matrix cards were analysed using semi-quantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were compared with two commercially available DNA isolation methods, the blood GenomicPrep Mini Spin Kit (GE Healthcare) and the DNAzol (Invitrogen). Sequence analysis was performed for the DNA samples prepared using the various isolation procedures and no differences in the sequence among these methods were identified. Results based on the initial copy number of DNA prepared from the GenomicPrep Mini Spin Kit are a little more sensitive than the DNA prepared from FTA matrix cards, whereas the DNAzol method is not suitable for blood samples. Our data shows the efficiency of retention capacity of WSSV-DNA samples from impregnated FTA matrix cards. Matrix cards were easy to store and ship for long periods of time. They provide ease of handling and are a reliable alternative for sample collection and for molecular detection and characterization of WSSV isolates. PMID:19476557

  9. Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Brazil using Negative Staining, Immunoelectron Microscopy and Immunocytochemistry Techniques Deteccin del Virus del Sndrome de Mancha Blanca en el Brasil Utilizando Inmunomicroscopa e Inmunomarcacin con Partculas de Oro Coloidal

    M Hipolito

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study thirty shrimp samples from commercial marine shrimp (L. vannamei farms of southern region of Brazil were obtained. Hepatopancreas and shell scrapings fragments collected in these animals were processed by transmission electron microscopy using negative staining (rapid preparation, immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles techniques. On the transmission electron microscopy a great number of white spot virus particles, ovoid or bacilliform-to-ellipsoid, measured 230-290 nm in length and 80-160 nm in diameter with intra-nuclear projections were visualized by the negative staining technique in 27 (90% out of 30 samples examined. Using immunoelectron microscopy technique, the anti-VP 664 serum agllutinated a large number of particles formed by antigen-antibody interaction. In the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody reaction was styrongly marked by the particles of colloidal gold over the virus. Notably, this is the first report, to our knowledge, describing use of these microscopy techniques to study Brazilian L. vannamei marine shrimp samples; moreover, this methodology also appears to be a viable complementary tool for diagnosing the presence of the white spot virus within shrimp tissues. Importantly, these are the first photoelectron micrographs of the WSSV in Brazil.Se obtuvieron para el estudio 30 muestras de camarones marinos comerciales (L. vannamei de las granjas de la regin sur de Brasil. Fueron procesados fragmentos de hepatopncreas y raspados internos del cefalotrax recogidos en estos animales por microscopa electrnica de transmisin con tincin negativa (preparacin rpida, inmunomicroscopa y tcnicas de inmunocitoqumica (inmunomarcacin con partculas de oro coloidal. En la microscopa electrnica de transmisin de un gran nmero de partculas de virus de la mancha blanca, ovoide o elipsoidal a baciliformes, medan 230-290 nm de longitud y 80-160 nm de dimetro. En 27 (90% de las 30 muestras examinadas intra-nuclear proyecciones se visualizaron mediante la tcnica de tincin negativa. Utilizando una tcnica de inmunomicroscopa electrnica, el anti-suero VP 664 reuni a un gran nmero de partculas formadas por la interaccin antgeno-anticuerpo. En la tcnica de inmunocitoqumica, la reaccin antgeno-anticuerpo fue fuertemente reforzada por las partculas de oro coloidal en los virus. En particular, en Brasil este es el primer informe, a nuestro entender, que describe el uso de estas tcnicas de microscopa en muestras de camarn marino L. vanamei. Adems, esta metodologa tambin parece ser una herramienta complementaria viable para diagnosticar la presencia del virus de la mancha blanca en tejidos de camarn. Es importante destacar que estas son las primeras fotos en microscopia electrnica del WSSV obtenidas en Brasil.

  10. Expression kinetics of ?-integrin in Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemocytes following infection with white spot syndrome virus.

    Zhong, Rujie; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen

    2013-08-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that an integrin ? subunit of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) (Fc?Int) involved in WSSV infection. In order to further elucidate the potential role of the Fc?Int in the WSSV infection, expression response of Fc?Int to WSSV infection in shrimp hemocytes was investigated after intra-muscular injection with the virus. Following time-course hemocytes sampling, the expression variation of Fc?Int in hemocytes was examined by flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay (FCIFA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the monoclonal antibody (Mab) 2C5 against Fc?Int, which was successfully produced with recombinant partial Fc?Int and exhibited binding to a 120 kDa hemocyte protein. Meanwhile, the dynamic state of Fc?Int mRNA level and WSSV copies in hemocytes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The result of FCIFA showed that Fc?Int was mainly expressed on the semi-granular and granular cells, which was down-regulated at 6 h post infection (p.i.), and significantly increased to the peak level at 12 h p.i., then decreased to the control level by 24 h. However, Fc?Int on the hyaline cells was lowly expressed and didn't show active response to the viral infection. The variation of Fc?Int concentrations in total hemocytes determined by ELISA was roughly in accordance with the changing tendency of Fc?Int expressed on the semi-granular and granular cells. Fc?Int mRNA level in total hemocytes was significantly up-regulated to the peak level at 12 h p.i. Moreover, the number of WSSV copies in hemocytes began to exhibit a significant increase at 24 h p.i. The present study demonstrated that WSSV infection would induce a differential regulation of Fc?Int expression in different type hemocytes, which provided valuable evidences for the close correlation between Fc?Int and WSSV infection. PMID:23711468

  11. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...... concentration all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis....

  12. Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Brazil using Negative Staining, Immunoelectron Microscopy and Immunocytochemistry Techniques Detección del Virus del Síndrome de Mancha Blanca en el Brasil Utilizando Inmunomicroscopía e Inmunomarcación con Partículas de Oro Coloidal

    M. Hipolito; Catroxo, M.H.B.; A. M. C. R. P. F Martins; N.A Melo; E. M Pituco; N.T.C Galleti; M. J. T Ranzani-Paiva; J.L.P Mouriño; Ferreira, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study thirty shrimp samples from commercial marine shrimp (L. vannamei) farms of southern region of Brazil were obtained. Hepatopancreas and shell scrapings fragments collected in these animals were processed by transmission electron microscopy using negative staining (rapid preparation), immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles) techniques. On the transmission electron microscopy a great number of white spot virus particles, ovo...

  13. The protection of CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against White spot syndrome virus infection

    Q Yi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The white spot syndrome is one of the most serious disease which has caused high mortalities and huge economic losses to shrimp culture. In the present study, the oral administrations with CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 (rVP28-yl as dietary supplement for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were conducted to evaluate their protective effects against WSSV. After feeding for 15 days, the cumulative mortality and the copy number of WSSV in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps were significantly lower when they were challenged by WSSV, compared with those in control shrimps (p < 0.05. The caspase-3 activity was suppressed in rVP28-yl feeding shrimps but ascended in CpG feeding shrimps after WSSV challenge. Besides, the PO activity in CpG feeding shrimps was significantly increased after feeding trial, and kept increasing post WSSV challenge (p < 0.05. While the increased NO production was observed both in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps after feeding trial and WSSV challenge. In addition, increased mRNA expression levels of STAT and Dicer were observed in CpG group post WSSV challenge. These results together indicated that oral feeding of CpG ODNs and rVP28-yl could enhance the innate non-specific immune responses especially antiviral immunity of shrimps in varying degrees, and increase their resistance against WSSV infection

  14. White spots in the pupil (image)

    ... occasion, the pupil of the eye may appear white. This is never a normal condition and requires ... an ophthalmologist. The causes of a cloudy or white cornea are different than those of a white ...

  15. The Shrimp NF-?B Pathway Is Activated by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) 449 to Facilitate the Expression of WSSV069 (ie1), WSSV303 and WSSV371

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is essential for defending against viruses in insects and mammals. Viruses also develop strategies to utilize this pathway to benefit their infection and replication in mammal hosts. In invertebrates, the TLR-mediated NF-?B pathway has only been well-studied in insects and has been demonstrated to be important in antiviral responses. However, there are few reports of interactions between viruses and the TLR-mediated NF-?B pathway in invertebrate hosts. Here, we studied Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle, which is the central regulator of the Toll pathway, and proposed that a similar TLR/MyD88/Tube/Pelle/TRAF6/NF-?B cascade may exist in shrimp for immune gene regulation. After performing genome-wild analysis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) encoded proteins, we found that WSSV449 shows 15.7-19.4% identity to Tube, which is an important component of the insect Toll pathway. We further found that WSSV449 activated promoters of Toll pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes, indicating WSSV449 has a similar function to host Tube in activating the NF-?B pathway. We suspected that WSSV449 activated the Toll-mediated NF-?B pathway for regulating viral gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the promoters of viral genes and found 40 promoters that possess NF-?B binding sites. A promoter screen showed that the promoter activities of WSSV069 (ie1), WSSV303 and WSSV371 can be highly induced by the shrimp NF-?B family protein LvDorsal. WSSV449 also induced these three viral promoter activities by activating the NF-?B pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus that encodes a protein similar to the Toll pathway component Tube to upregulate gene expression in the invertebrate host. PMID:21931849

  16. Management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions

    Sonesson, Mikael; Bergstrand, Fredrik; Gizani, Sotiria; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions is based on remineralization strategies or a minimal-invasive camouflage of the lesions. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of evidence for the various clinical technologies...... to manage post-orthodontic white spot lesions. Further well-performed controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to establish best clinical practice....

  17. Nucleotide sequence variations of the major structural proteins (VP15, VP19, VP26 and VP28) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a pathogen of cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Mexico.

    Molina-Garza, Z J; Galaviz-Silva, L; Rosales-Encinas, J L; Alcocer-Gonzlez, J M

    2008-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was first reported in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei stocks in Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico during 1999 and continues to cause severe shrimp losses. WSSV genes encoding nucleocapsid (VP26 and VP15) and envelope proteins (VP19 and VP28) of a Mexican isolate were cloned in the pMosBlue vector. The nucleotide sequences of these genes were compared with WSSV isolates in GenBank. VP15 is highly conserved, and VP26 showed 99% homology to a Chinese isolate. The VP28 fragment demonstrated 100% homology to the majority of the isolates analysed (UniProt accession no. Q91CB7), differing from two Indian WSSV and one Chinese WSSV isolates by two non-conserved and one conserved replacements, respectively. Because of their highly conserved nature, these three structural proteins are good candidates for the development of antibody-based WSSV diagnostic tools or for the production of recombinant protein vaccines to stimulate the quasi-immune response of shrimp. In contrast, VP19 of the Mexican isolate was distinguishable from almost all isolates tested, including an American strain of WSSV (US98/South Carolina, GenBank accession no. AAP14086). Although homology was found with isolates from Taiwan (GenBank accession no. AAL89341) and India (GenBank accession no. AAW67477), VP19 may have application as a genetic marker. PMID:18261033

  18. Effects of various toothpastes on remineralization of white spot lesions

    Jo, Su-Yeon; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of fluoridated, casein phosphopeptide.amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP)-containing, and functionalized β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP)-containing toothpastes on remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) by using Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF-D) Biluminator™ 2. Methods Forty-eight premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons from 12 patients, with artificially induced WSLs were randomly and equ...

  19. Binding of egg white proteins to viruses.

    Tsuge, Y; Shimoyamada, M; Watanabe, K

    1996-09-01

    The binding of some egg white proteins to bovine rotavirus, hen new castle disease virus (NDV), and human influenza virus (IV) was investigated by using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and supplemented by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In comparison with other egg white proteins, ovomucin showed the highest affinity for the three viruses, while ovomucoid showed only slight affinity for NDV in the HI test and ELISA. PMID:8987603

  20. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    Kilic, Mukremin; Bell, Keaton J; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R; Hermes, J J; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P; Winget, D E; Winget, K I

    2015-01-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 min due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B<70 kG. Since up to 15% of white dwarfs display kG magnetic fields, such ecli...

  1. Endogenous retrovirus insertion in the KIT oncogene determines white and white spotting in domestic cats.

    David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S; Nelson, George; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Connelly, Catherine J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryugo, David K

    2014-10-01

    The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P < 0.0001) and white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. PMID:25085922

  2. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Bell, Keaton J.; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  3. Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Oliveira Resende, R., de

    1993-01-01

    In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie, 1971). Under experimental conditions however, it is common practice to maintain the virus by mechanical inoculation onto susceptible host plants.Repeated passages of animal viruses, certainly at high inoculum ...

  4. Minimally invasive treatment for esthetic enhancement of white spot lesion in adjacent tooth

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the treatment provided to a patient with the maxillary anterior teeth exhibiting severe secondary caries beneath the previous restoration and a white spot lesion on the adjacent incisor. Two implants were placed after extraction of hopeless teeth with the guided bone regeneration technique. A white spot lesion of the adjacent incisor was treated with minimally invasive treatment. This clinical report describes the multidisciplinary treatment for the white spot lesion an...

  5. White spot disease risk factors associated with shrimp farming practices and geographical location in Chanthaburi province, Thailand.

    Piamsomboon, Patharapol; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 2 decades, shrimp aquaculture in Thailand has been impacted by white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Described here are results of a survey of 157 intensive shrimp farms in Chanthaburi province, Thailand, to identify potential farm management and location risk factors associated with the occurrence of WSD outbreaks. Logistic regression analysis of the survey responses identified WSD risks to be associated with farms sharing inlet water and culturing shrimp year round and with a single owner operating more than 1 farm. The analysis also showed WSD risks to be reduced at farms that used probiotics and applied lime to pond bottoms when fallow to neutralize acidity and kill microorganisms. Regression modeling identified no association of geographical location with WSD. The data should assist shrimp farms in mitigating the effects of WSD in Thailand. PMID:26648106

  6. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    Haan, de, E.J.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; R. Goldbach; Grinsven, van, H

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can be obtained by introgression of natural sources of resistance from wild relatives or by expressing viral sequences in transgenic tomato plants. We report high levels of resistance to TSWV obtained...

  7. Fluoride-Releasing Materials to Prevent White Spot Lesions around Orthodontic Brackets: A Systematic Review.

    Nascimento, Patrícia Layane de Menezes Macêdo; Fernandes, Micaelle Tenório Guedes; Figueiredo, Fabricio Eneas Diniz de; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis

    2016-02-01

    The relation between orthodontic fixed appliances use and enamel demineralization is well established. Different preventive approaches have been suggested to this problem, but controversy remains about which is the best. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials that investigated the effectiveness of materials containing fluorides to lute brackets or cover the bonding interface in order to inhibit the development and progression of white spot lesions. The null hypothesis was that fluoride materials do not affect the incidence of white spot lesions around brackets. A MEDLINE search was conducted for randomized clinical trials evaluating the development of white spot lesions in patients using fixed orthodontic appliances, followed by meta-analysis comparing the results for patients for whom dental materials containing fluorides were used (experimental group) to those for whom these materials were not used (control group). The pooled relative risk of developing white spot lesions for the experimental group was 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.25 to 0.72); hence, when fluoride-releasing materials are used, the patient has 58% less risk of white spot lesion development. Regarding white spot lesion extent, the pooled mean difference between the experimental and control groups was not statistically significant (-0.12; 95% confidence interval: -0.29 to 0.04). In conclusion, the results of the present systematic review suggest that fluoride-releasing materials can reduce the risk of white spot lesions around brackets. However, when white spot lesions had already occurred, there is no evidence that fluoride-releasing materials reduce the extent of these lesions. PMID:27007355

  8. The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Snchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Snchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

  9. Herpes simplex virus and Alzheimer's disease: a search for virus DNA by spot hybridisation.

    Taylor, G.R.; CROW, T. J.; Markakis, D A; Lofthouse, R; Neeley, S; Carter, G.I.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive hybridisation screening technique (spot hybridisation) was used to search post-mortem brain DNA extracts for herpes simplex I virus sequences in non-neurological controls, Alzheimer's disease cases and Herpes simplex virus infected mice. A reconstruction experiment showed that 0.1 herpes genome equivalents per cell could be detected in 100 micrograms tissue extracts. Although herpes sequences were readily detected in infected mice, none of the human brains examined could be shown ...

  10. White-spot disease of Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus *

    Li, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Chu-long; Fang, Wei-huan; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) in culture farms using an artificial warming system in Zhejiang, China, often show typical signs of white-spot disease such as white spots on their bodies, skin lesions, anorexia and eventually death. The sick turtles were mostly 5~80 g in weight. A suspected fungal pathogen was isolated from the sick turtles and verified as Paecilomyces lilacinus by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of its ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Detailed m...

  11. Characterization and epidemiology of outbreaks of Impatiens necrotic spot virus on lettuce in coastal California

    Beginning in 2006, outbreaks of diseases caused by tospoviruses in lettuce have occurred in California with greater frequency. Lettuce in the coastal region has been affected primarily by Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), though Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was also present. In contrast, TSW...

  12. Variability in field response of peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China to tomato spotted wilt virus and leaf spots

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips, and early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum) are among the most important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in the southeastern United States. The objective ...

  13. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus on Annual Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) in the United States

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in the ornamental crop Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as vinca) in south Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting this species. Genetic diversity of the virus was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging vir...

  14. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  15. Role of the envelope glycoproteins in the infection cycle of tomato spotted wilt virus

    Kikkert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms the type member of the genus Tospovirus , which today harbors more than twelve different species. TSWV is able to infect an enormous variety of different plants, to which it often causes devastating effects, resulting in severe economical losses. Among the plant viruses, TSWV and the other tospoviruses form a distinct group. Taxonomically, they surprisingly do not belong to a plant virus family, but to a virus family which further consists of animal-infe...

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of iris yellow spot virus and thrips in Colorado onion fields

    Iris yellow spot virus and its onion thrips vector (Thrips tabaci) are yield limiting pests of onion in the western U.S. This 2-year project investigated the relationship of iris yellow spot to thrips populations, soil properties, and grower management practices in Colorado onion fields. A random sy...

  17. Trichoderma L-Lysine-?-Oxidase Producer Strain Culture Fluid Inhibits Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus.

    Smirnova, I P; Shneider, Yu A; Karimova, E V

    2016-01-01

    A method for PCR diagnosis of impatiens necrotic spot virus is developed. Concentrated culture fluid with active L-lysine-?-oxidase (0.54 U/ml) from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai fungus producer strain F-180 inhibits vitally hazardous impatiens necrotic spot phytovirus. PMID:26742733

  18. Praziquantel treatment of captive white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) infested with monogean trematodes

    Janse, M.; Borgsteede, F. H. M.

    2003-01-01

    Captive white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) were infested with Clemacotyle australis (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) on the skin and with a species of the Hexabothriinae on the gills. Different behavioural changes have been described caused by these infections. Oral treatment with 10-40 mg praziquantel per kg bodyweight had no effect. Bath treatment with 20 mg praziquantel per litre for 45-90 minutes showed good results against both parasite species. The presence of cleaner wrasse (Labro...

  19. White spot lesions during multibracket appliance treatment : a challenge for clinical excellence

    Enaia, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and further course of White Spot Lesions (WSL) during and after multibrackets appliance (MB) treatment. All former MB-patients finishing orthodontic treatment at the University of Giessen between 1996 and 2006 were screened. The first 400 patients (168 male, 232 female) meeting the in-clusion criteria - all upper front teeth (UFT) fully erupted and visible on before treatment photographs, no fillings or structural abnormalities, duratio...

  20. Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano; Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz; Orlando Saliba; Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service an...

  1. Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service and other information. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and ADA (American Dental Association. The data were processed and analyzed with the Epi-info software program, version 3.2, and Microsoft Excel. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied to assess the association among the variables. The enamel white spot prevalence was 30.8% and the age group, duration of the bedtime milk feeding habit, age of initial practice of oral hygiene and presence of caries lesions with cavitation were considered statistically significant with regard to enamel white spot prevalence (p < 0.05. No association was found between oral hygiene quality and the study variables.

  2. Silencing Homologous RNA Recombination Hot Spots with GC-Rich Sequences in Brome Mosaic Virus

    Nagy, Peter D.; Bujarski, Jozef J.

    1998-01-01

    It has been observed that AU-rich sequences form homologous recombination hot spots in brome mosaic virus (BMV), a tripartite positive-stranded RNA virus of plants (P. D. Nagy and J. J. Bujarski, J. Virol. 71:37993810, 1997). To study the effect of GC-rich sequences on the recombination hot spots, we inserted 30-nucleotide-long GC-rich sequences downstream of AU-rich homologous recombination hot spot regions in parental BMV RNAs (RNA2 and RNA3). Although these insertions doubled the length o...

  3. First report of the natural occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  4. Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein domains involved in tubule formation,movement and symptoms

    Direct demonstration of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) gene function has been slowed by the absence of a reliable reverse genetics system. A Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression system was previously used by us to demonstrate that the TSWV NSm protein is able to support cell-to-cell movemen...

  5. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Hoya wayetii and Schlumbergera truncata (Haw.) Moran

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in two ornamental crops [Hoya wayetii (commonly known as porcelainflower or waxflower) and Schlumbergera truncata (false Christmas cactus)] in central Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting these or other ornamentals anywhere. Genetic d...

  6. Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein domains involved in tubule formation, movement and symptoms

    Absence of a reliable reverse genetics system for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has impeded direct demonstration of gene function. We previously used a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression system to demonstrate that the TSWV NSm protein is able to support cell-to-cell movement in the absen...

  7. Differential acquisition and transmission of Florida Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates by Western flower thrips

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most important insect-vectored plant pathogens globally. The virus host range encompasses many key vegetable, ornamental and agronomic crops. TSWV populations are highly heterogeneous, which has important implications for vector relati...

  8. Proteomic analysis of shrimp white spot syndrome viral proteins and characterization of a novel envelope protein VP466.

    Huang, Canhua; Zhang, Xiaobo; Lin, Qingsong; Xu, Xun; Hu, Zhihong; Hew, Choy-L

    2002-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is at present one of the major pathogens in shrimp culture worldwide. The complete genome of this virus has been sequenced recently. To identify the structural and functional proteins of WSSV, the purified virions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Twenty-four protein bands were excised, in-gel digested with trypsin, and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Eighteen proteins matching the open reading frames of WSSV genome were identified. Except for three known structural proteins and collagen, the functions of the remaining 14 proteins were unknown. Temporal analysis revealed that all the genes were transcribed in the late stage of WSSV infection except for vp121. Of the newly identified proteins, VP466 (derived from band 16) was further characterized. The cDNA encoding VP466 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Specific antibody was generated with the purified GST-VP466 fusion protein. Western blot showed that the mouse anti-GST-VP466 antibody bound specifically to a 51-kDa protein of WSSV. Immunogold labeling revealed that VP466 protein is a component of the viral envelope. Results in this investigation thus proved the effectiveness of proteomic approaches for discovering new proteins of WSSV. PMID:12096122

  9. White House Seeks $1.8 Billion to Fight Zika Virus

    ... White House Seeks $1.8 Billion to Fight Zika Virus Emergency funds from Congress would combat the global ... to combat the threat of the mosquito-borne Zika virus, the White House announced Monday. The funding will ...

  10. Measuring color change of tooth enamel by in vitro remineralization of white spot lesion.

    Betina Raquel Tolcachir; Luis Crohare; Raquel Vivian Gallará

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Objective colour determination is based on calculating the colorimetric distance (ΔE) within a colour space. So far, the most used colour space in dentistry is CIE L*a*b (Comission Internationale de l´Éclairage). CIE L*C*h* has been recently developed, showing a better correlation with the perception of the human eye. Objective: To determine the ability of an in vitro remineralisation substance to mimic the colour of white spot lesions (WSL) with sound enamel, determining ΔE by...

  11. Effects of Microabrasion on non Active White Spots in Primary Teeth

    Carolina Jdica RAMOS

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the enamel micromorphology with non active white spot lesions after the application of two different compounds used in microabrasion technique. Method: Thirty primary molars with non active white spot lesions in approximal surfaces were selected. Samples were randomly divided into three groups. G1 (n=10: control, untreated. G2 (n=10: compound (35% phosphoric acid and pumice mixed - 1:1 was applied on stain enamel. G3 (n=10: compound Opalustre, a slurry containing 6.6% HCl (hydrochloric acid and silicon carbide microparticles was applied. After this, all specimens were dehydrated, mounted on metal stubs, coated with gold and examined under scanning electron microscope (Jeol, JSM - 6100. Results: Eletronmicrographs analysis showed that the G1 samples (control, without treatment had a smooth surface with the presence of pumice residue. G2 samples (phosphoric acid and pumice presented rugous enamel surface with areas of enamel prisms demineralization. In G3 samples (Opalustre it were observed the formation of scratchs and grooves, beyond the presence of compound residue. Conclusion: The application of different types of compounds led to the formation of different aspects in micromorphology of primary teeth enamel.

  12. Effect of Fluoridated Toothpaste on White Spot Lesions in Postorthodontic Patients

    Pandey, Harsh; Pandey, Lavesh; Choudhary, Garima

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This article illustrates a new treatment approach and evaluates the effect of use of fluoridated toothpaste on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) diagnosed at debonding. Materials and methods: Thirty-one orthodontic patients (mean age: 19.6 years), with a minimum of four WSLs on the buccal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular incisors, canines, premolars and first molars after orthodontic therapy, were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, longitudinal trial lasting 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into two groups using fluoridated toothpaste (test group, n = 31) and nonfluoridated toothpaste (control group, n = 31). A custom-made mouth tray, covering the maxillary dentition, was used while brushing with the fluoridated toothpaste three times per day. Maxillary dentition acted as control and mandibular as the test. The WSLs were scored by using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) index, at baseline and 8 weeks after debonding. Results: The ICDAS II index of the WSLs decreased in the test group in the mandibular dentition but not on the maxillary dentition during the 8-week trial (p < 0.0001). There was also a slight improvement in the control group (not significant). Conclusion: The frequent use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on WSLs. How to cite this article: Agarwal A, Pandey H, Pandey L, Choudhary G. Effect of Fluoridated Toothpaste on White Spot Lesions in Postorthodontic Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):85-88. PMID:25206198

  13. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, whil...

  14. Development of a Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) risk evaluation methodology for a processing tomato region

    Mateus, C; Pequito, A.; S Teixeira; Queirs, R.; Godinho, M.C.; Figueiredo, E.; Amaro, F.; Lacasa, A.; Mexia, A.

    2012-01-01

    A risk map for the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was elaborated for the main Portuguese processing tomato producing region, the Ribatejo e Pennsula de Setbal region, where periodically this virus causes severe losses. Forty nine tomato fields were monitored. Risk factors for TSWV infection were identified and quantified according to their relative importance in TSWV incidence. The risk factors considered for each field were: (1) presence of TSWV in tomato plants; (2) presen...

  15. Occurrence of iris yellow spot virus from onion crops in Egypt

    E. E. Hafez; El-Morsi, A. A.; O.A. El-Shahaby; Abdelkhalek, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a infects onion bulb and seed crops in many countries including Egypt. Results of the mechanical inoculation reveled that, small chlorotic lesions and systemic necrosis were observed on both Nicotiana benthamiana and Datura stramonium after 10 days, while there were no symptoms were appeared on the onion plant. The viral biological transmission with Thrips tabaci was highly reported to be efficiently for virus transmitted. Our results confirmed the presentence...

  16. Tomato spotted wilt virus infection improves host suitability for its vector Frankliniella occidentalis

    Maris, P. C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R. W.; Peters, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection on plant attractiveness for the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) was studied. Significantly more thrips were recovered on infected than were recovered on noninfected pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in different preference tests. In addition, more offspring were produced on the virus-infected pepper plants, and this effect also was found for TSWV-infected Datura stramonium. Thrips behavior was minimally influenced by TS...

  17. Ensuring US onion sustainability: Breeding and genomics to control thrips and iris yellow spot virus

    This five-year project was initiated in the fall of 2008 and has three main goals: evaluate onion germplasms for reduced damage by thrips and/or Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV); elucidate the diversity among IYSV isolates and develop efficient inoculation protocols; and produce a detailed molecular m...

  18. Resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus and root-knot nematode in peanut interspecific breeding lines

    The peanut root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1] and tomato spotted wilt virus Tospovirus (TSWV) are economically significant pathogens of peanut in the southeastern United States. Peanut cultivars are available that have resistance to either the peanut root-knot nematode...

  19. Effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on white spot lesion development in orthodontic patients

    Gizani, Sotiria; Petsi, Georgia; Twetman, Svante; Caroni, Crys; Makou, Margarita; Papagianoulis, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily intake of lozenges containing probiotic bacteria on white spot lesion (WSL) formation as well as on salivary lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci (MS) counts, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with...... randomly allocated to a test or placebo group. Subjects in the test group were instructed to take one probiotic lozenge containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri once daily. An identical lozenge without active bacteria was used in the placebo group. Dental plaque, WSL, and salivary MS and LB levels....... CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Daily intake of probiotic lozenges did not seem to affect the development of WSL during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances....

  20. Current technology and techniques in re-mineralization of white spot lesions: A systematic review

    Podray, Susan S.

    White Spot lesions are a common iatrogenic occurrence on patients who are treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. There is a dynamic chemical interaction between enamel and saliva at the tooth surface that allow a lesion to have phase changes involving demineralization of enamel and reminerlization. This is due to calcium and phosphate dissolved in saliva that is deposited onto the tooth surface or removed depending on the surrounding pH. Caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is gaining popularity in dentistry as a way to increase the available level of calcium and phosphate in plaque and saliva to improve the chemical gradient so that if favors reminerlization. The aim of our investigation is to search the available current literature and formulate a recommendation for use of CPP-ACP in orthodontics. Publications from the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Searches from August 2010 to April 1st 2012 were performed under the terms "MI Paste OR Recaldent OR caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate OR CPP-ACP or tooth mousse". The searches yielded 155 articles, These were reviewed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles with inappropriate study design or no outcome measures at both baseline and end point were also excluded. 13 articles were deemed of relevance with a high quality study design and were included in this study for evaluation. The current literature suggests a preventative treatment regimen in which MI Paste Plus is used. It should be delivered once daily prior to bed after oral hygiene for 3 minutes in a fluoride tray, throughout orthodontic treatment. It should be recommended for high risk patients determined by poor oral hygiene, as seen by the inability to remove plaque from teeth and appliances. This protocol may prevent or assist in the remineralization of enamel white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

  1. Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S.

    Culbreath, A K; Srinivasan, R

    2011-08-01

    Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (SWP), caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), was first observed in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern U.S., but F. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on peanut, and is considered to be the more important vector. Several non-crop sources of potential primary vectors and TSWV inoculum have been identified, but their relative importance has not been determined. The peanut growing season in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is from April through November, and 'volunteer' peanut plants can be present for much of the remainder of the year. Therefore peanut itself has huge potential for perpetuating both vector and virus. Symptoms are often evident within a few days of seedling emergence, and disease progress is often rapid within the first 50-60 days after planting. Based on destructive sampling and assays for TSWV, there is often a high incidence of asymptomatic infections even in peanut genotypes that produce few and mild symptoms of infection in the field. Severity of SWP epidemics fluctuates significantly from year to year. The variability has not been fully explained, but lower incidences have been associated with years categorized as "La Niña" in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Planting date can have a large effect on disease incidence within a location. This may be linked to the thrips reproductive cycle and environmental effects on the plant and plant-thrips-virus interactions. Row pattern, plant population, and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide can also affect epidemics of SWP. Considerable progress has been made in developing cultivars with natural field resistance to TSWV. Use of cultivars with moderate field resistance combined with other suppressive measures has been very successful for managing spotted wilt disease. Several new cultivars with higher levels of field resistance can improve control and allow more flexibility in the integrated management programme. Although effects of these factors on epidemics of SWP have been documented, mechanisms responsible for disease suppression by most factors have not been fully elucidated. PMID:21620508

  2. Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala

    Batuman, O.; Kuo, Y.-W.; Palmieri, M; Rojas, M R; Gilbertson, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as “mancha de chocolate” (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissu...

  3. Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.

    Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both by mechanical infection and by the vector F. accidentalis. Moreover, evolved strains, here indicated as TSWV-RB-PI (Pepper, Italy), are not able to infect tomato plants carrying the Sw5 gene, confirming that distinct viral gene products control the outcome of infection in plants carrying Sw5 and Tsw. The simultaneous presence of evolved TSWV strains, showing the same biological characteristics (such as host range and symptomatology on different hosts) in two geographic areas of southern Italy, very far each other, let us hypothesize a unique focus of infection. Only subsequently, infected plants, through trade of plant material, have been diffused in locations so far apart. Further molecular studies are underway to assess the possible correlation between the different isolates in different geographical areas. PMID:25151838

  4. Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations

    Lilian Fernanda Santos PAIVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek™ Z250 – control group and glass-ionomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R™ and Fuji IX™ - experimental groups. Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15 or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15. After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p 0.05 versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p < 0.05. Filtek™ Z250 was not able to prevent white spot formation around restorations in comparison with Ionomaster R™ (p < 0.001 and Fuji IX™ (p = 0.004. GICs reduced white spot formation and presented a preventive effect (p = 0.051. GICs presented a greater percentage of fluoride, aluminum, and strontium, and proved effective in white spot lesion prevention around restorations.

  5. Tomato chlorotic spot virus in hydroponically-grown lettuce in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Colariccio Addolorata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the regions of Campinas and Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil, hidroponically grown crops of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Verônica, which showed virus-like symptoms were examined by electron microscope, biological, serological and molecular tests. Pleomorphic, enveloped particles (80-100 nm in diameter were always detected in these samples. Experimentally inoculated host plants, including lettuce, reacted with tospoviruses-induced symptoms. Some differences were observed in Gomphrena globosa, which reacted by showing local lesions and systemic mosaic. Two isolates of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV were identified by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The sequencing and alignment of the RT-PCR coat protein amplified fragments have indicated a high degree of homology with the TCSV sequences stored in the GenBank. This is the first report of losses due to a virus from the genus Tospovirus in commercial hydroponic lettuce crops in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies are needed for better understanding the spread of the virus in hydroponic crops, since Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is reported to spread through the nutritive solution.

  6. Molecular Detection of Latent Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in Elite Mother Plants of Apple

    Santosh Watpade; Baswaraj Raigond; Thakur, P. D.; Handa, Anil; Pramanick, K. K.; Sharma, Y.P.; Tomar, Manica

    2012-01-01

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV; family Betaflexiviridae genus Trichovirus) is one of the economically important latent virus infecting apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures were used to amplify coat protein gene of ACLSV. Among 5 primer sets used, two primer sets (1F1R and 1F2R) amplified fragments of expected size (432 bp). Products visible on agarose gel were produced using templates extracted from apple leaves. The res...

  7. Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoproteins Exhibit Trafficking and Localization Signals That Are Functional in Mammalian Cells

    2001-01-01

    The glycoprotein precursor (G1/G2) gene of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was expressed in BHK cells using the Semliki Forest virus expression system. The results reveal that in this cell system, the precursor is efficiently cleaved and the resulting G1 and G2 glycoproteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex, where they are retained, a process that could be blocked by tunicamycin. Expression of G2 alone resulted in transport to and retention in the Golg...

  8. Cytopathological changes in Schefflera actinophylla Harms. naturally infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV

    Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Schefflera actinophylla Harms. with stunted growth, chlorotic and necrotic spots and patterns, leaf epinasty and distortion are infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus classified as a member of genus Tospovirus. Studies with electron microscope revealed that in cells of S. actinophylla leaves there were no virus particle inclusions typical for tospovirus infection, but only single particles were present. The isolate of INSV was defective and the amount of INSV particles was strongly reduced in Schefflera plants. Some inclusions (I type were composed of short branched cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and a dark substance forming characteristic bands. The II type represented inclusions that were usually ballshaped and composed of a dark substance resembling that of the I type, but not accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. The III type of inclusions was composed of dark, osmophilic masses. The inclusions present in the cells differ from those typical for tospovirus infection.

  9. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Vegetables in Florida and the Southeastern United States.

    Webster, Craig G; Frantz, Galen; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Mellinger, H Charles; McAvoy, Eugene; Turechek, William W; Marshall, Spencer H; Tantiwanich, Yaowapa; McGrath, Margaret T; Daughtrey, Margery L; Adkins, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) are two emerging tospoviruses in Florida. In a survey of the southeastern United States, GRSV and TCSV were frequently detected in solanaceous crops and weeds with tospovirus-like symptoms in south Florida, and occurred sympatrically with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and pepper in south Florida. TSWV was the only tospovirus detected in other survey locations, with the exceptions of GRSV from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in South Carolina and New York, both of which are first reports. Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were the only non-solanaceous GRSV and/or TCSV hosts identified in experimental host range studies. Little genetic diversity was observed in GRSV and TCSV sequences, likely due to the recent introductions of both viruses. All GRSV isolates characterized were reassortants with the TCSV M RNA. In laboratory transmission studies, Frankliniella schultzei was a more efficient vector of GRSV than F. occidentalis. TCSV was acquired more efficiently than GRSV by F. occidentalis but upon acquisition, transmission frequencies were similar. Further spread of GRSV and TCSV in the United States is possible and detection of mixed infections highlights the opportunity for additional reassortment of tospovirus genomic RNAs. PMID:25317844

  10. Measuring color change of tooth enamel by in vitro remineralization of white spot lesion.

    Betina Raquel Tolcachir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective colour determination is based on calculating the colorimetric distance (ΔE within a colour space. So far, the most used colour space in dentistry is CIE L*a*b (Comission Internationale de l´Éclairage. CIE L*C*h* has been recently developed, showing a better correlation with the perception of the human eye. Objective: To determine the ability of an in vitro remineralisation substance to mimic the colour of white spot lesions (WSL with sound enamel, determining ΔE by using the CIE L*C*h* colour space. Methods: In vitro WSL was generated by immersing 10 samples obtained from human third molars in a demineralization solution for 72 h. Amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP was then applied for 60 days while maintaining the samples in artificial saliva at 37º C. To evaluate the colour of enamel, images were taken from the samples placed in specifically designed silicone moulds after generating the WSL (pre stage and after remineralisation by scanning, applying the colorimetric distance equation (ΔE*CMC according to the Color Measurement Committee. Results: Treatment with CPP-ACP caused a significant ΔE decrease with respect to the pre stage (p

  11. Identifying geographic hot spots of reassortment in a multipartite plant virus.

    Savory, Fiona R; Varma, Varun; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-05-01

    Reassortment between different species or strains plays a key role in the evolution of multipartite plant viruses and can have important epidemiological implications. Identifying geographic locations where reassortant lineages are most likely to emerge could be a valuable strategy for informing disease management and surveillance efforts. We developed a predictive framework to identify potential geographic hot spots of reassortment based upon spatially explicit analyses of genome constellation diversity. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined spatial variation in the potential for reassortment among Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae, Babuvirus) isolates in Northeast India. Using sequence data corresponding to six discrete genome components for 163 CBDV isolates, a quantitative measure of genome constellation diversity was obtained for locations across the sampling region. Two key areas were identified where viruses with highly distinct genome constellations cocirculate, and these locations were designated as possible geographic hot spots of reassortment, where novel reassortant lineages could emerge. Our study demonstrates that the potential for reassortment can be spatially dependent in multipartite plant viruses and highlights the use of evolutionary analyses to identify locations which could be actively managed to facilitate the prevention of outbreaks involving novel reassortant strains. PMID:24944570

  12. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein

    T Rana; V Chandel; Y Kumar; R Ram; V Hallan; A A Zaidi

    2010-12-01

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ACLSV isolates and Trichoviruses were used for comparative analysis. Indian ACLSV isolates among themselves and with isolates from elsewhere in the world shared 91–100% and 70–98% sequence identities at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of the isolates was observed. Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. Recombination analysis (RDP3 ver.2.6) done for all the available ACLSV complete CP sequences of the world and Indian isolates indicate no significant evidence of recombination. However, one recombination event among Indian ACLSV-CP isolates was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of complete CP sequence variability study from India and also the first evidence of homologous recombination in ACLSV.

  13. Evaluation of white-spotted kidneys associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows

    Shahrzad Azizi; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Mohammad R. Hajimirzaei; Mohssen Gholami Varnamkhast; Hossein Sadeghian; Ahmad Oryan

    2012-01-01

    The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys) can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3%) showed focal to multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18) and blood (n = 24) samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the LipL32 gene. Le...

  14. Evaluation of white-spotted kidneys associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows

    Shahrzad Azizi; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Mohammad R. Hajimirzaei; Mohssen Gholami Varnamkhast; Hossein Sadeghian; Ahmad Oryan

    2012-01-01

    The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys) can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3%) showed focal to multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18) and blood (n = 24) samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the LipL32 gen...

  15. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant), as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector’s life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis’ life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector–based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector. PMID:27159134

  16. Null mutation of endothelin receptor type B gene in spotting lethal rats causes aganglionic megacolon and white coat color.

    Gariepy, C E; Cass, D T; Yanagisawa, M

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) produce congenital aganglionic megacolon and pigment abnormalities in mice and humans. Here we report a naturally occurring null mutation of the EDNRB gene in spotting lethal (sl) rats, which exhibit aganglionic megacolon associated with white coat color. We found a 301-bp deletion spanning the exon 1-intron 1 junction of the EDNRB gene in sl rats. A restriction fragment length polymorphism caused by this deletion perfectly...

  17. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

    Ruchi Vashisht; Rajamani Indira; Ramachandran, S.; Anil Kumar; Manali Ramakrishnan Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSLs) and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups:...

  18. Colour improvement and stability of white spot lesions following infiltration, micro-abrasion, or fluoride treatments in vitro

    Yetkiner, Enver; Wegehaupt, Florian; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES White spot lesions (WSLs) are unwelcome side effects of fixed appliances that compromise the treatment outcome. Recently, infiltration of WSLs has been introduced as a viable treatment alternative. The objective was to evaluate the colour improvement of WSLs and their stability against discolouration following infiltration, fluoride, or micro-abrasion treatments in vitro. MATERIALS/METHODS Artificial WSLs were created in bovine enamel (N = 96) using acidic buf...

  19. Variation in Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Titer in Frankliniella Occidentalis and Its Association with Frequency of Transmission

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by Frankliniella occidentalis, the Western flower thrips. While it is well established that vector competence depends on TSWV acquisition by young larvae and virus replication within the insect, the biological factor...

  20. Dynamics of Saturns 2010 Great White Spot from high-resolution Cassini ISS observations

    Hueso, Ricardo; Snchez-Lavega, A.; del Ro-Gaztelurrutia, T.

    2012-10-01

    On December 5th 2010 a storm erupted in Saturns North Temperate latitudes which were experiencing early spring season. The storm quickly developed to a planet-wide disturbance of the Great White Spot type. The ISS instrument onboard Cassini acquired its first images of the storm on 23th December 2010 and performed repeated observations with a variety of spatial resolutions over the nearly 10 months period the storm continued active. Here we present an analysis of two of the image sequences with better spatial resolution of the mature storm when it was fully developed and very active. We used an image correlation algorithm to measure the cloud motions obtained from images separated 20 minutes and obtained 16,000 wind tracers in a domain of 60 degrees longitude per 20 degrees in latitude. Intense zonal and meridional motions accompanied the storm and reached values of 120 m/s in particular regions of the active storm. The storm released a chain of anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices at planetocentric latitudes of 36 and 32 respectively. The short time difference between the images results in estimated wind uncertainties of 15 m/s that did not allow to perform a complete analysis of the turbulence and kinetic spectrum of the motions. We identify locations of the updrafts and link those with the morphology in different observing filters. The global behaviour of the storm was examined in images separated by 10 hours confirming the intensity of the winds and the global behaviour of the vortices. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad Pas Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  1. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon. PMID:26673673

  2. Tomato spotted wilt virus in ornamental plants, vegetables and weeds in the Czech Republic.

    Mertelk, J; Mokr, V

    1998-11-01

    The occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in horticulture crops and weeds in the Czech Republic has been studied in 1992-1997. During this period TSWV was established in 91 plant species. Virus identity was based on the host range, serology and electron microscopy. Natural TSWV infection was detected in glasshouses where the main vector Frankliniella occidentalis was present too. The most frequently TSWV-infected plant species were Chrysanthemum morifolium and Zantedeschia sp. Among vegetable crops, the TSWV infection was very frequently detected in tomatoes and peppers. In all cases these plants were nursed or grown in glasshouses together with different species of ornamental plants, many of which were TSWV-infected. Among weeds, the TSWV infection occurred very often in Stellaria media and Galinsoga parviflora. These two plant species were prevalent in glasshouses and were also good hosts of F. occidentalis. PMID:10358737

  3. Factors Affecting the Formation, Severity and Location of White Spot Lesions during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances

    Khaled Khalaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the formation, severity and location of white spot lesions in patients completing fixed appliance therapy. Material and Methods: A total of 45 patients (19 males and 26 females, mean age 15.81 years, standard deviation 2.89 years attending consecutively Aberdeen Dental Hospital (ADH between January and June 2013 to have their fixed appliances removed were given a questionnaire to elicit information regarding their dental care and diet. They were then examined clinically as well as their pre-treatment photographs to record treatment data and white spot lesion (WSL location and severity using a modified version of Universal Visual Scale for Smooth Surfaces (UniViSS Smooth. Absolute risk (AR and risk ratios (RR were also calculated. Results: The incidence of at least one WSL observed in patients was 42%, with males displaying a higher incidence than females. The highest incidence of WSLs was recorded on the maxillary canines and lateral incisors, and on the maxillary and mandibular premolars and first molars. The gingival areas of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were the most affected surfaces. Significant (P < 0.05 relationships were found between the presence of WSLs and the following factors: poor oral hygiene (OH, males, increased treatment length, lack of use of fluoride supplements, use of carbonated soft drinks and/or fruit juices and the use of sugary foods. Poor OH posed the highest risk of developing WSL (RR = 8.55. Conclusions: 42% of patients have developed white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Various contributing risk factors were identified with the greatest risk posed by a poor oral hygiene.

  4. Role of Oxalis corniculata L. as plant virus reservoir with special regard to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-RB strain occurrence in rock-wool cultivation in Hungary

    Hodi, Anna Maria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata L. in Central Europe occurs mainly in anthropogenic areas, where it grows in parks and landfill sites or in protected cultivation sites like greenhouses and nurseries. In Hungary O. corniculata has been spreading since the 19th century. In glass- and greenhouses it is the only weed species that was able to settle and flourish on hydroponic rock-wool and coconut fibre growing media. Among virus pathogens of forced tomato (LYPES and paprika crops (CPSAN in Hungary the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV has become an important one, severely affecting the plants and on occasions causing 100% yield losses. The spread of the virus was largely assisted by its effective vector the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Initially the control of the disease was based on the control of the thrips, later, virus-resistant varieties were introduced. This however proved insufficient to fight the disease as it was discovered, quite recently, that in certain white pepper (CPSAN varieties the virus was able to break up the resistance. According to data of the year 2012, those varieties that were considered resistant, showed up to 50% virus infection. Considering the wide spread of O. corniculata and increasing occurrence of the resistance-breaking TSWV isolates, surveys in greenhouses were conducted to examine whether the weed could serve as reservoir for TSWV. Samples were collected of the virus infected crop plants and O. corniculata growing in the same coconut fibre cubes. The samples were examined using test-plants, serological and RT-PCR methods. In result it was found that the symptoms were indeed caused by resistance-breaking TSWV isolates. However, no virus was found in the suspected O. corniculata samples. Therefore it was concluded that in this particular case the O. corniculata cannot be considered reservoir for the virus, in the hydroponic culture.

  5. A comparison of the antigens present on the surface of virus released artificially from chick cells infected with vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus and its white pock mutant

    Baxby, Derrick

    1972-01-01

    Antisera prepared against vaccinia and cowpox viruses were absorbed with purified suspensions of vaccinia virus, red cowpox and white cowpox viruses. They were then tested for their ability to neutralize the viruses, and to precipitate the virus soluble antigens. The results showed that some virus specific antigens were not virus surface components and that some components were present on the surface of all three viruses. However, certain components were detected on the surface of vaccinia virus but not on the surface of cowpox virus, and vice versa. Some evidence for the existence of a vaccinia-specific surface component was also obtained. Comparisons between results of cross-neutralization tests and immunodiffusion tests on the absorbed sera indicated that antibody to a number of antigens, including the classical LS, and the cowpox-specific d antigen play no part in the process of poxvirus neutralization. ImagesFig. AFig. BFig. CFig. DFig. EFig. FFig. G PMID:4624399

  6. Occurrence of iris yellow spot virus from onion crops in Egypt.

    Hafez, E E; El-Morsi, A A; El-Shahaby, O A; Abdelkhalek, A A

    2014-12-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a infects onion bulb and seed crops in many countries including Egypt. Results of the mechanical inoculation reveled that, small chlorotic lesions and systemic necrosis were observed on both Nicotiana benthamiana and Datura stramonium after 10 days, while there were no symptoms were appeared on the onion plant. The viral biological transmission with Thrips tabaci was highly reported to be efficiently for virus transmitted. Our results confirmed the presentence of virus-like particles of a Tospovirus infected onion leaf using transmission electron microscopy. Both of sequence and phylogenetic analysis of N gene revealed that our viral isolate is IYSV with 95 % identity with reported Israel isolate. The sequence of N gene had three motifs: casein kinase II Phosphorylation site, N-myristoylation site and protein kinase C phosphorylation site. These motifs are involved in regulation, activity and stability of IYSV. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of IYSV in Egypt. PMID:25674622

  7. The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Katis, N.I.

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Basmas) were studied. When a T. tabaci female was given an oviposition period of 4¿days, an average of 21 larvae were produced on leaves of D. stramonium, 17.5 on...

  8. Hypoxia increases susceptibility of Pacific white shrimp to whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV

    M. Lehmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the mortality, reactive oxygen species production (ROS and total hemocyte counts (THC of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV at three levels of oxygen saturation. For this, 360 shrimp (20±2g were distributed in 24 tanks (60L, divided in two groups (infected and non-infected, which were subjected to 30, 60 and 100% of dissolved oxygen saturation (in quadruplicate. During 96 hours after infection, daily hemolymph samples were collected for hemato-immunological parameter evaluation (THC and ROS and dead animals were removed and computed to assess cumulative mortality rates. In the infected group, animals subjected to 100% saturation showed higher ROS production (P<0.05 after 48 hours, while THC was significantly reduced (P<0.05, regardless of oxygen saturation. The hypoxia resulted in high mortality when compared to 100% saturation condition. In the uninfected group, no significant differences were observed in all evaluated parameters. Thus, the hypoxia condition increased the susceptibility of shrimp to the infection of WSSV, which may be partly related to the low ROS production showed by the animals subjected to 30% oxygen saturation.

  9. Differences in organotin accumulation in relation to life history in the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis

    Research highlights: → Otolith Sr:Ca ratios in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → Sea-run type have higher risk of TBT and TPT than freshwater-residents in white-spotted charr. - Abstract: To examine the accumulation pattern of organotins (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate migration type. Mean Sr:Ca ratio from the core to the edge of the otolith in sea-run individuals was significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident one. There were no significant correlations in S. leucomaenis between OT accumulation and various biological characteristics. It is noteworthy that TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are both of the same species. These results suggest that sea-run S. leucomaenis have a higher ecological risk of OT exposure than freshwater-residents during their life histories.

  10. Interacting Virus Abundance and Transmission Intensity Underlie Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Incidence: An Example Weather-Based Model for Cultivated Tobacco

    Chappell, Thomas M.; Beaudoin, Amanda L. P.; Kennedy, George G.

    2013-01-01

    Through a modeling approach, we investigated weather factors that affect the summer incidence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a virus vectored exclusively by thrips, in cultivated tobacco. Aspects of thrips and plant biology that affect disease spread were treated as functions of weather, leading to a model of disease incidence informed by thrips and plant biology, and dependent on weather input variables. We found that disease incidence during the summer was influenced by weather affect...

  11. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST PELARGONIUM ZONATE SPOT VIRUS COAT PROTEIN EXPRESSED IN ESCHERICHIA COLI AND APPLICATION FOR IMMUNODIAGNOSIS

    Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), a new emerging disease on tomato in the United States, has been classified as the first member of new proposed genus, Anulavirus, within the family Bromoviridae and characterized as having unstable virions with weakly immunogenic properties. To develop serologic...

  12. Complete genome sequence of an emerging melon necrotic spot virus isolate infecting greenhouse cucumber in North America

    The complete genome (4,267 nt) of an Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) isolate (ABCA13-01) infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada was determined through deep sequencing of small RNAs. Its genome sequence was most closely related to MNSV-N (97%), but lacking a 55-nt insertion at the 3’UTR for resista...

  13. Symptom and Resistance of Cultivated and Wild Capsicum Accessions to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    Jung-Heon Han

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred Capsicum accessions were screened for symptomatic response and resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus-pb1 (TSWV-pb1. Symptom and its severity rating were checked by visual observation at 9, 12, 14, and 45 days after inoculation, respectively. Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay was performed all tested individuals on non-inoculated upper leaves after the third rating to indentify viral infection. Leaf curling was predominant in almost susceptible individuals of each accession. Stem necrosis was most frequent in wild species while yellowing in commercial hybrids and Korean land race cultivars. Ring spot, a typical symptom of TSWV, was rarely detected in some of a few accessions. Different levels of resistance to TSWV-pb1 were observed among the tested accessions. High level of resistance was detected in 4 commercial cultivars of Kpc- 35, -36, -57, and -62, and 8 wild species of PBI-11, C00105, PBC076, PBC280, PBC426, PBC495, PBC537, and PI201238 through seedling test by mechanical inoculation.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the nucleocapsid protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    The nucleocapsid protein from Tomato spotted wilt virus has been crystallized as a trimer. The crystal diffracted to resolution of 2.7 Å. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which causes severe damage to various agricultural crops such as tomato, pepper, lettuce and peanut, is a negative-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Tospovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Viral genomic RNA molecules are packaged in the form of ribonucleoprotein complexes, each of which contains one viral RNA molecule that is coated with many nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Here, the expression and crystallization of TSWV N protein are reported. Native and selenomethionine-substituted crystals of N protein belonged to the same space group P21. Their unit-cell parameters were a = 66.8, b = 97.2, c = 72.0 Å, β = 112.8° and a = 66.5, b = 96.3, c = 72.1 Å, β = 113.4°, respectively

  15. Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala.

    Batuman, O; Kuo, Y-W; Palmieri, M; Rojas, M R; Gilbertson, R L

    2010-06-01

    Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as "mancha de chocolate" (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissue to Nicotiana benthamiana and, when graft-transmitted to tomato, this agent induced chocolate spot symptoms. This virus-like agent also was sap-transmitted to Datura stramonium and Nicotiana glutinosa, but not to a range of non-solanaceous indicator plants. Icosahedral virions approximately 28-30 nm in diameter were purified from symptomatic N. benthamiana plants. When rub-inoculated onto leaves of N. benthamiana plants, these virions induced symptoms indistinguishable from those in N. benthamiana plants infected with the sap-transmissible virus associated with chocolate spot disease. Tomatoes inoculated with sap or grafted with shoots from N. benthamiana plants infected with purified virions developed typical chocolate spot symptoms, consistent with this virus being the causal agent of the disease. Analysis of nucleic acids associated with purified virions of the chocolate-spot-associated virus, revealed a genome composed of two single-stranded RNAs of approximately 7.5 and approximately 5.1 kb. Sequence analysis of these RNAs revealed a genome organization similar to recently described torradoviruses, a new group of picorna-like viruses causing necrosis-associated diseases of tomatoes in Europe [tomato torrado virus (ToTV)] and Mexico [tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) and tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV)]. Thus, the approximately 7.5 kb and approximately 5.1 kb RNAs of the chocolate-spot-associated virus corresponded to the torradovirus RNA1 and RNA2, respectively; however, sequence comparisons revealed 64-83% identities with RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of ToTV, ToANV and ToMarV. Together, these results indicate that the chocolate-spot-associated virus is a member of a distinct torradovirus species and, thus, another member of the recently established genus Torradovirus in the family Secoviridae. The name tomato chocolate spot virus is proposed. PMID:20376682

  16. Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations

    Lilian Fernanda Santos, PAIVA; Tatiana Kelly da Silva, FIDALGO; Lucianne Cople, MAIA.

    2014-08-29

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek Z250 control group) and glass-i [...] onomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R and Fuji IX - experimental groups). Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15) or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15). After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p 0.05) versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p

  17. Problems and solutions with the design and execution of an epidemiological study of white spot disease in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Vietnam.

    Corsin, F; Phi, T T; Phuoc, L H; Tinh, N T N; Hao, N V; Mohan, C V; Turnbull, J F; Morgan, K L

    2002-02-14

    White spot disease (WSD) is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and is an acutely fatal pandemic disease of crustaceans. It has resulted in massive losses to the shrimp-farming industry in Asia and has now spread to the Americas. This paper reports the problems and solutions associated with the design and execution of a longitudinal epidemiological study of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) health on farms practising a crop rotation of rice and shrimp in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The pre-sampling phase of the project involved selecting an appropriate site and sampling variables, obtaining permission and establishing the necessary laboratory and logistic facilities. At the start of the sampling phase, 40 farmers were selected and 32 of these were visited and interviewed. This resulted in the enrolment of only 17 farmers. A further seven had to be enrolled to obtain the maximum number of farmers that could be sampled by the study team. Compliance was enhanced through meetings, regular visits by senior members of the project team and ensuring that visits were punctual and that all information was treated confidentially. The production cycle began in January 1998 and lasted for approximately 5 months. An attempt was made to collect 500 post larvae (PL) before each pond was stocked to assess the health of the batch and to test for the presence of WSSV by one-step PCR. After stocking, the wild crustaceans also were sampled from the pond for PCR analyses. Information was collected on the management practices and samples of water, pond bottom, feed and shrimp collected throughout the production cycle. Water quality variables with predictable diurnal variation were sampled in the morning and afternoon, twice a week. Two months after stocking, the first outbreak of WSD occurred; subsequently, 18 farms conducted a complete emergency harvest due to the actual or perceived presence of a WSD outbreak. Detectable mortalities were reported from 19 farms, and moribund shrimps were collected from four of these for PCR and histological analyses. PMID:11821141

  18. Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore

    van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de; Hordijk, Cornelis A.; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Snoeren, Tjeerd A.L.; Dam, Nicole M. van; Stuefer, Josef F.

    2012-01-01

    Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between...... feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females...... suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought....

  19. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome--an uncommon cause for an enlarged blind spot.

    Fong, K S; Fu, E R

    1996-11-01

    This report describes 3 cases of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) which presented to the Singapore National Eye Centre over a 3-year period. MEWDS is an usual condition with distinct clinical features and typical findings on fundal fluorescein angiography. As the retinal lesions are transient, timing of examination is crucial for an accurate diagnosis. Usually only one eye is involved and recurrences are uncommon. Occasionally, signs of optic nerve disease may be the predominant feature. Although the aetiology remains unknown and no active treatment is required, the visual prognosis remains good. PMID:9055018

  20. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerl...

  1. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Ma Hao; Song Congfeng; Borth Wayne; Sether Diane; Melzer Michael; Hu John

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petun...

  2. Biolistic transformation of chrysanthemum with the nucleocapsid gene of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Yepes, L M; Mittak, V; Pang, S Z; Gonsalves, C; Slightom, J L; Gonsalves, D

    1995-08-01

    In vitro regeneration and biolistic transformation procedures were developed for several commercial chrysanthemum Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev, syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivars using leaf and stem explants. Studies on the effect of several growth regulators and kanamycin on chrysanthemum regeneration were conducted, and a step-wise procedure to optimize kanamycin selection and recovery of transgenic plants was developed. A population of putative transformed chrysanthemum plants cvs. Blush, Dark Bronze Charm, Iridon, and Tara, was obtained after bombardment with tungsten microprojectiles coated with the binary plasmid pBIN19 containing the nucleocapsid (N) gene of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II). PCR analysis of 82 putative transgenic plants selected on kanamycin indicated that the majority of the lines (89%) were transformed and contained both genes (71%). However, some transgenic lines contained only one of the genes: either the NPT II (15%) or the TSWV (N) gene (14%). Southern blot analysis on selected transgenic lines confirmed the integration of the TSWV (N) gene into the chrysanthemum genome. These results demonstrate the development of an efficient procedure to transfer genetic material into the chrysanthemum genome and selectively regenerate transgenic chrysanthemum plants at frequencies higher than previously reported. PMID:24186624

  3. Pattern of the Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Jeonnam Province

    Sug-Ju Ko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV was occurred at 8 areas including Naju, Suncheon, Younggwang, Youngam, and Shinan in Jeonnam province and the crops of Younggwang were severely damaged by TSWV. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum v ar. angulosum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon in greenhouse and hot pepper in open field were infected by TSWV. Especially, hot pepper was severely damaged by TSWV infection. The survey data indicated that 1.1?30% in the nursery field at Naju, Suncheon, and Jangheung were infected by TSWV. Plants were infected by TSWV from early June to August. However, TSWV-infected seedlings from nursery fields showed the disease symptoms from May after transplanting. In pepper greenhouses, Frankliniella occidentalis was more dominant insect vector than Frankliniella intonsa. But in open field, the population of insect vector was opposed to greenhouse. In addition, the removal of weeds was able to delay the incidence of TSWV via side-window of greenhouse in Winter. Taken together, the control of weed and insect vector nearby side-window of greenhouse is important to prevent TSWV infection of plants.

  4. Iris Yellow Spot Virus in the Netherlands: Occurence in Onion and Confirmation of Transmission by Thrips tabaci

    Hoedjes, K.; Verhoeven, J. Th. J.; Goldbach, R. W.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first detection in the Netherlands in 1992, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) has been reported worldwide in Allium crops, in a few ornamentals and in a small number of weeds. After recent findings of IYSV in Alstroemeria and Eustoma in the Netherlands, a number of neighbouring onion fields were surveyed. In 2005 and 2006, only few infected plants were found with obvious symptoms of IYSV. In 2007, after sampling and testing small leaf samples with various types of dama...

  5. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in American White Pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006–2007

    Johnson, Gregory; Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV)–associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5× higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies...

  6. The AU-Rich RNA Recombination Hot Spot Sequence of Brome Mosaic Virus Is Functional in Tombusviruses: Implications for the Mechanism of RNA Recombination

    Shapka, Natalia; Nagy, Peter D.

    2004-01-01

    RNA recombination can be facilitated by recombination signals present in viral RNAs. Among such signals are short sequences with high AU contents that constitute recombination hot spots in Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and retroviruses. In this paper, we demonstrate that a defective interfering (DI) RNA, a model template associated with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a tombusvirus, undergoes frequent recombination in plants and protoplast cells when it carries the AU-rich hot spot sequence from ...

  7. Identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to TSWV and leaf spots through genetic mapping and selction of high oleic cultivars with high resistance to TSWV

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, and southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii). In peanut production areas in the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt viru...

  8. Introduction of West Nile Virus in the Middle East by Migrating White Storks

    Malkinson, Mertyn; Banet, Caroline; Weisman, Yoram; Pokamunski, Shimon; King, Roni; Deubel, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated in a flock of 1,200 migrating white storks that landed in Eilat, a town in southern Israel, on August 26, 1998. Strong, hot westerly winds had forced the storks to fly under considerable physical stress before reaching the agricultural land surrounding the town. Most of the flock were fledglings,

  9. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

    Ruchi Vashisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on white spot lesions (WSLs and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: A test group using CPP-ACP cream (GC-Tooth Mousse, Leuven, Belgium and a control group using only fluoride containing toothpaste for a period of 3-month. Baseline WSLs were scored using DIAGNOdent device (KaVo Germany and the saliva samples were collected to measure S. mutans counts. After the 3-month period the WSLs were again recorded and the saliva collection was repeated. Result: DIAGNOdent measurements were increased by time (P = 0.002 in the control group and no statistically significant difference (P = 0.217 was found in the test group by the 3-month period. In both groups, the mutans counts were decreased in the 3-month experimental period. Conclusion: These clinical and laboratory results suggested that CPP-ACP containing cream had a slight remineralization effect on the WSL in the 3-month evaluation period however, longer observation is recommended to confirm whether the greater change in WSLs is maintained.

  10. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  11. Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes.

    Janse, M; Kappe, A L; Van Kuijk, B L M

    2013-03-01

    A group of captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari produced 20 offspring, with an unknown father. Part of the poisonous sting was removed from each fish and DNA was extracted from the epidermis for paternity research using eight microsatellite markers of which four were from another species Aetobatus flagellum. This non-invasive sampling technique can be applied on all members of Myliobatiformes. PMID:23464564

  12. A Review on Prevention and Treatment of Post-Orthodontic White Spot Lesions – Evidence-Based Methods and Emerging Technologies

    Bergstrand, Fredrik; Twetman, Svante

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and methods: A search for relevant human clinical trials published in English between 2004 and March 2011 retrieved 25 publications that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The papers were assessed for prevented fraction and/or absolute risk reduction when possible. Results and conclusions: The findings consol...

  13. Postsynaptic Alpha 2-Adrenoceptors Mediate Melanosome Aggregation in Melanophores of the White-Spotted Rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus)

    M.H. Amiri

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature of neuro-melanophore junction in the white-spotted rabbit fish Siganus cancliculatus. In vitro experiments using split fin preparation indicated that melanophores of S. cancliculatus are highly responsive to potassium ions and adrenergic agonists. Potassium ions and the adrenergic agonists induced prompt melanosome aggregation that could be competitively blocked by yohimbine (alpha-2 specific adrenergic antagonist) and phento...

  14. Characterization of Tomato yellow spot virus, a novel tomato-infecting begomovirus in Brazil Caracterização do Tomato yellow spot virus, um novo begomovírus isolado de tomateiro no Brasil

    Renata Faier Calegario

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the biological and molecular characterization of a begomovirus detected in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, named TGV-[Bi2], by determining its host range, complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other begomoviruses. Biological characterization consisted of a host range study using either sap inoculation or particle bombardment as inoculation methods. The yellow spot virus can infect plants in Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae, including economically importat crops as sweet pepper, and weeds as Datura stramonium and Nicotiana silvestris. For the molecular characterization, the full-length genome (DNA-A and DNA-B was amplified, cloned and completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that TGV-[Bi2] constitutes a novel begomovirus species named Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV, closely related to Sida mottle virus (SiMoV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização biológica e molecular de um begomovírus detectado em tomateiros em São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, denominado TGV-[Bi2]. A caracterização biológica consistiu em teste de gama de hospedeiros, realizado por meio de inoculação via extrato foliar tamponado ou bombardeamento de partículas. O isolado TGV-[Bi2] infecta plantas das famílias Solanaceae e Amaranthaceae, inclusive espécies economicamente importantes como o pimentão, e algumas plantas daninhas como Datura stramonium e Nicotiana silvestris. A caracterização molecular consistiu na clonagem e seqüenciamento de seu genoma completo (DNA-A e DNA-B. A comparação de seqüências e análise filogenética indicaram que o TGV-[Bi2] constitui uma nova espécie de begomovírus, denominada Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV, filogeneticamente relacionado ao Sida mottle virus (SiMoV.

  15. New Mexico and the southwestern US are affected by a unique population of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) strains.

    French, J M; Goldberg, N P; Randall, J J; Hanson, S F

    2016-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an important pathogen of many ornamental, greenhouse and agronomic crops worldwide. TSWV also causes sporadic problems in a number of crops in New Mexico (NM). Nucleocapsid gene sequences obtained from six different crop species across the state over four different years were used to characterize the NM TSWV population. This analysis shows that NM is affected by a unique TSWV population that is part of larger independent population present in the southwestern US. This population likely arose due to geographic isolation and is related to other TSWV populations from the US, Spain, and Italy. PMID:26721573

  16. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  17. Antiviral property of marine actinomycetes against white spot syndrome virus in penaeid shrimps

    Kumar, S.S.; Philip, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    have ope ned up new vistas to the whole scenario of aquaculture activities. Recently, Achuthankutty and Desai 7 have described a patented leaf extract formulation that is effective as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against WSSV in penaeid...

  18. Treatment of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in penaeid shrimp aquaculture using plant extract

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Desai, U.M.

    granted the US patent (No.: 6,440,466) during the year 2002 with claims on composition, formulation and treatment and is also awaiting patent grant in India and some Asian and Latin American countries....

  19. White spot syndrome virus VP51 interact with ribosomal protein L7 of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Liu, Qing-Hui; Ma, Fang-Fang; Guan, Guang-Kuo; Wang, Xiu-Fang; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between viral structural proteins and host plays key functions in viral infection. In previous studies, most research have been undertaken to explore the interaction of envelope structural proteins with host molecules. However, how the nucleocapsid proteins of WSSV interacted with host molecules remained largely unknown. In this study, the interaction of nucleocapsid protein VP51 and ribosomal protein L7 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvRPL7) was reported. Furthermore, the mRNA transcriptional response of LvRPL7 to WSSV was investigated. The results showed that LvRPL7 was widely distributed in all analyzed tissues of L. vannamei. The high expression levels of LvRPL7 were found in the tissues of muscle and gills. The temporal expression of LvRPL7 in WSSV-challenged shrimp showed that LvRPL7 was up-regulated (P antibody significantly delayed WSSV infection. Our results reveal that LvRPL7 was involved in WSSV infection. PMID:25736720

  20. Replication of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the polychaete Dendronereis spp.

    Desrina; Verreth, J A J; Prayitno, S B; Rombout, J H W M; Vlak, J M; Verdegem, M C J

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated whether WSSV replicates in naturally infected Dendronereis spp., a common polychaete (Nereididae) species in shrimp ponds in Indonesia. To detect WSSV replication, (i) immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a monoclonal antibody against WSSV VP28 protein and (ii) nested RT-PCR using specific primers set for the vp28 gene to detect WSSV-specific mRNA were applied. WSSV immunoreactive-nuclei were detected in the gut epithelium of the polychaete and WSSV mRNA was detected with nested RT-PCR. This, together with the IHC results, confirmed that WSSV could replicate in Dendronereis spp. This is the first report showing that WSSV replicated in a naturally infected non-crustacean host. PMID:23685030

  1. First Report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in Blackberry in the United States

    Blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD) has emerged in the last six years in the south and southeastern United States and can be devastating. It is caused by the synergistic effect of several viruses, with Blackberry yellow vein associated virus being a consistent component of the disorder. In an eff...

  2. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.

    Fanning, Liam J

    2012-02-03

    The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

  3. Interacting virus abundance and transmission intensity underlie tomato spotted wilt virus incidence: an example weather-based model for cultivated tobacco.

    Chappell, Thomas M; Beaudoin, Amanda L P; Kennedy, George G

    2013-01-01

    Through a modeling approach, we investigated weather factors that affect the summer incidence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a virus vectored exclusively by thrips, in cultivated tobacco. Aspects of thrips and plant biology that affect disease spread were treated as functions of weather, leading to a model of disease incidence informed by thrips and plant biology, and dependent on weather input variables. We found that disease incidence during the summer was influenced by weather affecting thrips activity during the preceding year, especially during a time when thrips transmit TSWV to and from the plant hosts that constitute the virus' natural reservoir. We identified an interaction between spring precipitation and earlier weather affecting thrips, relating this to virus abundance and transmission intensity as interacting factors affecting disease incidence. Throughout, weather is the basic driver of epidemiology in the system, and our findings allowed us to detect associations between atypically high- or low-incidence years and the local climatic deviations from normal weather patterns, brought about by El Niño Southern Oscillation transitions. PMID:23977384

  4. Pre-cut Filter Paper for Detecting Anti-Japanese Encephalitis Virus IgM from Dried Cerebrospinal Fluid Spots

    Bharucha, Tehmina; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Phuangpanom, Soumphou; Phonemixay, Ooyanong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Lee, Sue; Newton, Paul N.; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of filter paper as a simple, inexpensive tool for storage and transportation of blood, ‘Dried Blood Spots’ or Guthrie cards, for diagnostic assays is well-established. In contrast, there are a paucity of diagnostic evaluations of dried cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spots. These have potential applications in low-resource settings, such as Laos, where laboratory facilities for central nervous system (CNS) diagnostics are only available in Vientiane. In Laos, a major cause of CNS infection is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). We aimed to develop a dried CSF spot protocol and to evaluate its diagnostic performance using the World Health Organisation recommended anti-JEV IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). Methodology and Principal Findings Sample volumes, spotting techniques and filter paper type were evaluated using a CSF-substitute of anti-JEV IgM positive serum diluted in Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) to end-limits of detection by JEV MAC-ELISA. A conventional protocol, involving eluting one paper punch in 200μl PBS, did not detect the end-dilution, nor did multiple punches utilising diverse spotting techniques. However, pre-cut filter paper enabled saturation with five times the volume of CSF-substitute, sufficiently improving sensitivity to detect the end-dilution. The diagnostic accuracy of this optimised protocol was compared with routine, neat CSF in a pilot, retrospective study of JEV MAC-ELISA on consecutive CSF samples, collected 2009–15, from three Lao hospitals. In comparison to neat CSF, 132 CSF samples stored as dried CSF spots for one month at 25–30°C showed 81.6% (65.7–92.3 95%CI) positive agreement, 96.8% (91.0–99.3 95%CI) negative agreement, with a kappa coefficient of 0.81 (0.70–0.92 95%CI). Conclusions/Significance The novel design of pre-cut filter paper saturated with CSF could provide a useful tool for JEV diagnostics in settings with limited laboratory access. It has the potential to improve national JEV surveillance and inform vaccination policies. The saturation of filter paper has potential use in the wider context of pathogen detection, including dried spots for detecting other analytes in CSF, and other body fluids. PMID:26986061

  5. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N

    2016-02-01

    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71bp microsatellite and 457bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy?g(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P.monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock. PMID:24735185

  6. Peanut EST Genomics Project: Identification and characterization of molecular marker(s) associated with resistance to TSWV and white mold in peanuts

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, and southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii). In peanut production areas in the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt viru...

  7. Characterization and genetic mapping of disease resistance genes to TSWV and white mold and development of molecular markers for breeding selection

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, and southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii). In peanut production areas in the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt viru...

  8. First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting greenhouse-grown potatoes in Washington State

    In April and May 2010, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Atlantic) plants grown from pre-nuclear minitubers in three separate greenhouses located at the USDA-ARS facility in Prosser, WA exhibited necrotic spots on leaves similar to those produced by the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani (Sor.)...

  9. Spinach: A new natural host of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in California.

    Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (INSV; family Bunyaviridae) was detected in a spinach (Spinacia oleracea) experimental field in Monterey County, CA in October of 2008. Spinach plants exhibiting severe stunting and with leaves that showed interveinal yellowing, thickening, and deformation were obs...

  10. Effect of Spinosad Resistance on Transmission of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus by the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Zhao, Weiwei; Wan, Yanran; Xie, Wen; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wei, Guoshu; Zhou, Xiaomao; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in a persistent-propagative manner. We previously observed significant results in terms of feeding behavior of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and -resistant (Spin-R) strains of F. occidentalis using electrical penetration graph. TSWV transmission by the two strains was compared in the present study. The results showed that the titer of TSWV-N RNA (a part of S RNA of TSWV and encoding the nucleocapsid protein) in Ivf03 and Spin-R strains was not significantly different after a 48-h inoculation access period. The TSWV transmission rate did not significantly differ between the two strains and was 51.0% for Ivf03 and 44.4% for Spin-R. The virus transmission rate was significantly higher for males than females of both strains. The virus transmission rate for males and females of Ivf03 was 68.1 and 33.8%, respectively; however, in case of Spin-R, it was 60 and 28.8% for males and females, respectively. Additionally, number of probes and duration of probes were generally greater for viruliferous females of Ivf03 than for viruliferous females of Spin-R but the total number and duration of noningestion probes did not significantly differ between males of the two strains. The latter finding behavior may help explain the similar transmission rates for the susceptible and resistant strains. PMID:26377766

  11. Remineralization effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel white spot lesions. A quantitative energy dispersive X ray elemental analysis: An in vitro study

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate, by means of elemental analysis the mineral density, calcium, and phosphorus weight percent of sound enamel, demineralized and CPP-ACP treated enamel. Elemental analysis allows elemental and isotopic composition of a biologic sample. It can be qualitative (determining what elements are present, and quantitative (determining how much of each are present. INCA Energy 250, Oxford Analytical Instruments Ltd. (UK, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system for elemental analysis was performed on random assigned samples. Methods: 12 sound premolars were extracted for orthodontic reason. Each tooth was sectioned by using a double-faced diamond microtome under water cooling into three section for a total of 36 samples and randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (WS: white spot , Group 3 (WST white spot treated of 12 samples each. Samples (Group 2 and Group 3 underwent equally to 24 h and 48 h of acid bath duration. Then all the treated samples (Group 3 were coated with CPP-ACP for 5 min before immersion into water twice a day. Group 2 served as control for enamel damage evaluation. Inca Point & ID, an analytic platform software for SEM was used for elemental analysis on samples from Group 1 (C, 2 (WS and Group 3 (WST in order to determine the weight % and atomic % presence of Ca and P. Results: The results of the samples analysis from the three Groups show different weight % and atomic% of Ca and P, and clearly reflect the different mineralization rates. Conclusions: 10% Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, promotes remineralization in vitro. The results of this in vitro study completely agree with this statement. Clinical studies to investigate the intraoral effectiveness of topical applications of CPP-ACP on white spot lesions are required to confirm these results.

  12. 3-(4-Methylfuran-3-yl)propan-1-ol: a white-spotted Stinkbug ( Eysarcoris ventralis ) repellent produced by an endophyte isolated from green foxtail.

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Sawa, Yuji; Sakuno, Emi

    2010-03-10

    Stinkbug is a major rice plant pest in Asia. The extract of the culture filtrate of a fungus isolated from a green foxtail, Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., was found to have a repellent effect on the white-spotted stinkbug, Eysarcoris ventralis (Westwood). The active principle was purified and isolated, and identified as 3-(4-methylfuran-3-yl)propan-1-ol (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data. Four acyl derivatives were prepared from 1 and assessed for repellent effect on the stinkbug; the acetyl derivative 2 was most effective. PMID:20131802

  13. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) and American black nightshade (Solanum americanum) in the United States

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in the vegetable crop scarlet eggplant and the weed American black nightshade in south Florida. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting these plant species in the U.S. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides ...

  14. Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitism reduces both the feeding of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut and the transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least nine thrips species to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipping & Nguyen, a natural enemy of F....

  15. Pink spot, white spot: the pineal skylight of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) skull and its possible role in the phenology of feeding migrations

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, which have an irregular pink area on the crown of the head known as the pineal or ‘pink spot’, forage upon jellyfish in cool temperate waters along the western and eastern margins of the North Atlantic during the summer. Our study showed that the skeletal structures underlying the pink spot in juvenile and adult turtles are compatible with the idea of a pineal dosimeter function that would support recognition of environmental light stimuli. We interrogated an extensive turtle sightings database to elucidate the phenology of leatherback foraging during summer months around Great Britain and Ireland and compared the sightings with historical data for sea surface temperatures and day lengths to assess whether sea surface temperature or light periodicity/levels were likely abiotic triggers prompting foraging turtles to turn south and leave their feeding grounds at the end of the summer. We found that sea temperature was too variable and slow changing in the study area to be useful as a trigger and suggest that shortening of day lengths as the late summer equilux is approached provides a credible phenological cue, acting via the pineal, for leatherbacks to leave their foraging areas whether they are feeding close to Nova Scotia or Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Surveillance for West Nile virus in American white pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006-2007.

    Johnson, Gregory; Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5x higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful. PMID:20202414

  17. The silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of the plant virus Tomato spotted wilt virus enhances heterologous protein expression and baculovirus pathogenicity in cells and lepidopteran insects.

    de Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Resende, Renato Oliveira; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we showed that cell death induced by a recombinant (vAcNSs) Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expressing the silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was enhanced on permissive and semipermissive cell lines. The expression of a heterologous gene (firefly luciferase) during co-infection of insect cells with vAcNSs and a second recombinant baculovirus (vAgppolhfluc) was shown to increase when compared to single vAgppolhfluc infections. Furthermore, the vAcNSs mean time-to-death values were significantly lower than those for wild-type AcMNPV on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda and Anticarsia gemmatalis. These results showed that the TSWV-NSs protein could efficiently increase heterologous protein expression in insect cells as well as baculovirus pathogenicity and virulence, probably by suppressing the gene-silencing machinery in insects. PMID:26323262

  18. Products of different chemical groups to control maize white spotProdutos de diferentes grupos químicos no controle da mancha branca do milho

    Eliseu dos Santos Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of different products used to control maize white spot, a leaf disease caused by the bacterium Pantoea ananatis. Six products from different chemical groups were used for this experiment, and they were tested on the susceptible hybrid HS200. Parameters, such as severity (%, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC, and productivity, have been estimated. The treatment with oxytetracyline resulted higher grain productivity for maize. Natural products, such as Rocksil and Pyroligneous acid, even though they are used as supplement for plants, were not effective in controlling the maize white spot. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes produtos no controle da mancha branca do milho, doença foliar causada pela bactéria Pantoea ananatis. Para o experimento foram utilizados seis produtos pertencentes a diferentes grupos químicos, testados no híbrido suscetível HS200. Avaliaramse as variáveis severidade, área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e a produtividade de grãos. O tratamento com oxitetraciclina resultou maior produtividade de grãos da cultura do milho. Produtos naturais testados no experimento, como Rocksil e Ácido Pirolenhoso, utilizados como suplementos nutricionais para as plantas, não foram eficientes no controle da mancha branca do milho.

  19. Small RNA profiles of wild-type and silencing suppressor-deficient tomato spotted wilt virus infected Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Margaria, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Rosa, Cristina; Axtell, Michael J; Pappu, Hanu R; Turina, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Tospoviruses are plant-infecting viruses belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. We used a collection of wild-type, phylogenetically distinct tomato spotted wilt virus isolates and related silencing-suppressor defective mutants to study the effects on the small RNA (sRNA) accumulation during infection of Nicotiana benthamiana. Our data showed that absence of a functional silencing suppressor determined a marked increase of the total amount of viral sRNAs (vsRNAs), and specifically of the 21 nt class. We observed a common under-representation of vsRNAs mapping to the intergenic region of S and M genomic segments, and preferential mapping of the reads against the viral sense open reading frames, with the exception of the NSs gene. The NSs-mutant strains showed enrichment of NSm-derived vsRNA compared to the expected amount based on gene size. Analysis of 5' terminal nucleotide preference evidenced a significant enrichment in U for the 21 nt- and in A for 24 nt-long endogenous sRNAs in all the samples. Hotspot analysis revealed a common abundant accumulation of reads at the 5' end of the L segment, mostly in the antiviral sense, for the NSs-defective isolates, suggesting that absence of the silencing suppressor can influence preferential targeting of the viral genome. PMID:26047586

  20. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RIBOFLAVIN CARRIER PROTEIN FROM EGG WHITE OF SOUTH INDIAN SPOTTED OWLET (ATHENE BRAMA)

    M. P. Pratap Rudra; N.Veerababu; Ramchander Merugu

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin carrier protein has been isolated and purified from the Indian spotted owlet. The protein was purified to its homogeneity. Purification was achieved successfully by DEAE_ Sepharose column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The protein content was estimated with Lowry method. The purity of the proteins was judged by SDS-PAGE technique. The molecular weight of the protein was found to be 29 Kd. The protein was characterized using absorption, fluoresce...

  1. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  2. Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmisso experimental do virus por Triatomideos Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally

    Cornelius B. Philip

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. - As seguintes especies de Triatomideos no puderam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas a cobayas normaes, nos seguintes prazos aps a suco de animal infectado: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75 e 141 dias (1 exemplar; Triatoma protracta, 15 e 37 dias (1 exemplar, Triatoma infestans, 8 dias (15 exemplares, e Rhodnius prolixus, 2 dias (1 exemplar. Foi demonstrado por inoculaao que o ultimo insecto ainda continha o virus vivo. 2. - Experiencias de transmisso mechanica, por picada interrompida em animal infectado e continuada immediatamente em animal so, foram tambem negativas, com as especies T. protracta e R. prolixus. Um unico insecto da primeira especie picou 2 vezes cada animal, emquanto que 22 exemplares da segunda especie picaram de 1 a 3 vezes cada cobaya. 3. - A inoculao de gottas de dejeces de um R. prolixus eliminadas 2 dias depois de sugar animal infectado, no produziu a infeco em cobaya normal, no obstante ter sido demonstrada a presena do virus no organismo do barbeiro, por inoculao do contedo estomacal em outra cobaya. 4. - Foram feitas experiencias para determinar o tempo de sobrevivencia do virus nos barbeiros, inoculando-se contedo intestinal a diversos intervallos depois da suco de cobayas infectadas, com os seguintes resultados: T. infestans: positivo 1 vez em 24 horas e 2 vezes em 48 horas; negativo 2 vezes em 72. 96, 120 e 192 horas. P. megistus: positivo 3 vezes em 24 horas, 2 vezes em 48 horas e 1 vez em 72 horas; negativo 1 vez em 72 e 96 horas; resultado duvidoso ou sem valor (infeco intercorrente 1 vez em 48 horas e 2 vezes a 72, 96 e 144 horas cada um. R. prolixus: positivo 1 vez em 24, 48 e 72 horas e negativo em 96 horas. 5. - Em vista dos resultados destas experiencias, feitas com 5 especies pertecentes a 4 generos de Triatomideos, torna-se muito pouco provavel que estes Hemipteros possam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias.1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug; Triatoma protracta, 15 and 37 days (one bug; T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs; and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug. The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

  3. Characterization of White bream virus reveals a novel genetic cluster of nidoviruses.

    Schtze, Heike; Ulferts, Rachel; Schelle, Barbara; Bayer, Sonja; Granzow, Harald; Hoffmann, Bernd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Ziebuhr, John

    2006-12-01

    The order Nidovirales comprises viruses from the families Coronaviridae (genera Coronavirus and Torovirus), Roniviridae (genus Okavirus), and Arteriviridae (genus Arterivirus). In this study, we characterized White bream virus (WBV), a bacilliform plus-strand RNA virus isolated from fish. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence, organization, and expression of the 26.6-kb genome provided conclusive evidence for a phylogenetic relationship between WBV and nidoviruses. The polycistronic genome of WBV contains five open reading frames (ORFs), called ORF1a, -1b, -2, -3, and -4. In WBV-infected cells, three subgenomic RNAs expressing the structural proteins S, M, and N were identified. The subgenomic RNAs were revealed to share a 42-nucleotide, 5' leader sequence that is identical to the 5'-terminal genome sequence. The data suggest that a conserved nonanucleotide sequence, CA(G/A)CACUAC, located downstream of the leader and upstream of the structural protein genes acts as the core transcription-regulating sequence element in WBV. Like other nidoviruses with large genomes (>26 kb), WBV encodes in its ORF1b an extensive set of enzymes, including putative polymerase, helicase, ribose methyltransferase, exoribonuclease, and endoribonuclease activities. ORF1a encodes several membrane domains, a putative ADP-ribose 1"-phosphatase, and a chymotrypsin-like serine protease whose activity was established in this study. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that WBV represents a separate cluster of nidoviruses that significantly diverged from toroviruses and, even more, from coronaviruses, roniviruses, and arteriviruses. The study adds to the amazing diversity of nidoviruses and appeals for a more extensive characterization of nonmammalian nidoviruses to better understand the evolution of these largest known RNA viruses. PMID:16987966

  4. Evolution and structure of Tomato spotted wilt virus populations: evidence of extensive reassortment and insights into emergence processes.

    Tentchev, Diana; Verdin, Eric; Marchal, Cécile; Jacquet, Monique; Aguilar, Juan M; Moury, Benoît

    2011-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) genetic diversity was evaluated by sequencing parts of the three RNA genome segments of 224 isolates, mostly from pepper and tomato crops in southern Europe. Eighty-three per cent of the isolates showed consistent clustering into three clades, corresponding to their geographical origin, Spain, France or the USA, for the three RNA segments. In contrast, the remaining 17% of isolates did not belong to the same clade for the three RNA segments and were shown to be reassortants. Among them, eight different reassortment patterns were observed. Further phylogenetic analyses provided insights into the dynamic processes of the worldwide resurgence of TSWV that, since the 1980s, has followed the worldwide dispersal of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) tospovirus vector. For two clades composed essentially of Old World (OW) isolates, tree topology suggested a local re-emergence of indigenous TSWV populations following F. occidentalis introductions, while it could not be excluded that the ancestors of two other OW clades were introduced from North America contemporarily with F. occidentalis. Finally, estimation of the selection intensity that has affected the evolution of the NSs and nucleocapsid proteins encoded by RNA S of TSWV suggests that the former could be involved in the breakdown of resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in pepper. PMID:21169211

  5. Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans.

    Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators. PMID:21175073

  6. RNAi-based inhibition of infectious myonecrosis virus replication in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Feijó, Rubens Galdino; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Cunha Martins, Pedro Carlos; de Abreu, Keuly Ladislau; Oliveira-Neto, João Mafaldo; Guertler, Cristhiane; Justino, Emily Bruna; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-05-21

    Disease in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei caused by the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) causes significant socioeconomic impacts in infection-prone shrimp aquaculture regions. The use of synthetic dsRNA to activate an RNA interference (RNAi) response is being explored as a means of disease prophylaxis in farmed shrimp. Here, survival was tracked in L. vannamei injected with long synthetic dsRNAs targeted to IMNV open reading frame (ORF) 1a, ORF1b, and ORF2 genome regions prior to injection challenge with IMNV, and real-time RT-PCR was used to track the progress of IMNV infection and mRNA expression levels of the host genes sid1, dicer2, and argonaute2. Injection of dsRNAs targeting the ORF1a and ORF1b genes but not the ORF2 gene strongly inhibited IMNV replication over a 3 wk period following IMNV challenge, and resulted in 90 and 83% shrimp survival, respectively. Host gene mRNA expression data indicated that the Sid1 protein, which forms a transmembrane channel involved in cellular import/export of dsRNA, increased in abundance most significantly in shrimp groups that were most highly protected by virus-specific dsRNA injection. Subclinical IMNV infections present in the experimental L. vannamei used increased markedly in the 2 d between injection of any of the 4 virus-specific or non-specific dsRNAs tested and IMNV challenge. While handling and injection stress are implicated in increasing IMNV replication levels, the underlying molecular factors that may have been involved remain to be elucidated. PMID:25993884

  7. Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes Positively Regulate Programmed Cell Death during Compatible Infections with the Synergistic Pair Potato Virus X-Potato Virus Y and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    García-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Tenllado, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necros...

  8. Oxylipin biosynthesis genes positively regulate programmed cell death during compatible infections with the synergistic pair potato virus x-potato virus Y and tomato spotted wilt virus

    García-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Tenllado, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necros...

  9. Arachis hypogaea (peanut) oxalate oxidase (OxOxs)mRNA, complete sequence (accession No. EU024475), in peanut seed tissue and the relationship to White Mold (Sclerotium rolfsii)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases in the U.S., such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii), and sclerotinia blight (Sclerotinia minor). Peanut is also one of the...

  10. Seasonal dynamics of thrips (Thrips tabaci) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) transmitters of iris yellow spot virus: a serious viral pathogen of onion bulb and seed crops.

    Bag, Sudeep; Rondon, Silvia I; Druffel, Keri L; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-02-01

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is an important economic constraint to the production of bulb and seed onion crops in the United States and many other parts of the world. Because the virus is exclusively spread by thrips, the ability to rapidly detect the virus in thrips vectors would facilitate studies on the role of thrips in virus epidemiology, and thus formulation of better vector management strategies. Using a polyclonal antiserum produced against the recombinant, Escherichia coli-expressed nonstructural protein coded by the small (S) RNA of IYSV, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detecting IYSV in individual as well as groups of adult thrips. The approach enabled estimating the proportion of potential thrips transmitters in a large number of field-collected thrips collected from field-grown onion plants. Availability of a practical and inexpensive test to identify viruliferous thrips would be useful in epidemiological studies to better understand the role of thrips vectors in outbreaks of this economically important virus of onion. PMID:24665687

  11. Determining the Effect of Calculus, Hypocalcification, and Stain on Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy for Detecting White Spot Lesions

    Lin-P'ing Choo-Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS have been shown as useful methods for distinguishing sound enamel from carious lesions ex vivo. However, factors in the oral environment such as calculus, hypocalcification, and stain could lead to false-positive results. OCT and PRS were used to investigate extracted human teeth clinically examined for sound enamel, white spot lesion (WSL, calculus, hypocalcification, and stain to determine whether these factors would confound WSL detection with these optical methods. Results indicate that OCT allowed differentiating caries from sound enamel, hypocalcification, and stain, with calculus deposits recognizable on OCT images. ANOVA and post-hoc unequal N HSD analyses to compare the mean Raman depolarization ratios from the various groups showed that the mean values were statistically significant at P<.05, except for several comparison pairs. With the current PRS analysis method, the mean depolarization ratios of stained enamel and caries are not significantly different due to the sloping background in the stained enamel spectra. Overall, calculus and hypocalcification are not confounding factors affecting WSL detection using OCT and PRS. Stain does not influence WSL detection with OCT. Improved PRS analysis methods are needed to differentiate carious from stained enamel.

  12. Determining the Effect of Calculus, Hypocalcification, and Stain on Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy for Detecting White Spot Lesions

    Huminicki, Amanda; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael; Hewko, Mark; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) have been shown as useful methods for distinguishing sound enamel from carious lesions ex vivo. However, factors in the oral environment such as calculus, hypocalcification, and stain could lead to false-positive results. OCT and PRS were used to investigate extracted human teeth clinically examined for sound enamel, white spot lesion (WSL), calculus, hypocalcification, and stain to determine whether these factors would confound WSL detection with these optical methods. Results indicate that OCT allowed differentiating caries from sound enamel, hypocalcification, and stain, with calculus deposits recognizable on OCT images. ANOVA and post-hoc unequal N HSD analyses to compare the mean Raman depolarization ratios from the various groups showed that the mean values were statistically significant at P < .05, except for several comparison pairs. With the current PRS analysis method, the mean depolarization ratios of stained enamel and caries are not significantly different due to the sloping background in the stained enamel spectra. Overall, calculus and hypocalcification are not confounding factors affecting WSL detection using OCT and PRS. Stain does not influence WSL detection with OCT. Improved PRS analysis methods are needed to differentiate carious from stained enamel. PMID:20652044

  13. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    GuohuiZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  14. Liver spots

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  15. Grafting on a Non-Transgenic Tolerant Tomato Variety Confers Resistance to the Infection of a Sw5-Breaking Strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus via RNA Silencing.

    Spanò, Roberta; Mascia, Tiziana; Kormelink, Richard; Gallitelli, Donato

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing controls endogenous gene expression and drives defensive reactions against invasive nucleic acids like viruses. In plants, it has been demonstrated that RNA silencing can be transmitted through grafting between scions and silenced rootstocks to attenuate virus and viroid accumulation in the scions. This has been obtained mostly using transgenic plants, which may be a drawback in current agriculture. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of infection of a resistance-breaking strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus (RB-TSWV) through the graft between an old Apulian (southern Italy) tomato variety, denoted Sl-Ma, used as a rootstock and commercial tomato varieties used as scions. In tests with non-grafted plants, Sl-Ma showed resistance to the RB-TSWV infection as viral RNA accumulated at low levels and plants recovered from disease symptoms by 21 days post inoculation. The resistance trait was transmitted to the otherwise highly susceptible tomato genotypes grafted onto Sl-Ma. The results from the analysis of small RNAs hallmark genes involved in RNA silencing and virus-induced gene silencing suggest that RNA silencing is involved in the resistance showed by Sl-Ma against RB-TSWV and in scions grafted on this rootstock. The results from self-grafted susceptible tomato varieties suggest also that RNA silencing is enhanced by the graft itself. We can foresee interesting practical implications of the approach described in this paper. PMID:26496695

  16. Detection and sequence comparsion of blackcurrant reversion virus in black, red and white current

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špak, Josef; Kubelková, Darina; Špaková, Vlastimila

    Ankara : Mustafa Kemal University, 2006, s. 140. [XXth International Symposium on Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops and XIth International Symposium of Small Fruit Virus Diseases. Antalya (TR), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : blackcurrant reversion virus * Detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  18. The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  19. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  20. Potential vectors of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses of cattle and white-tailed deer in Alabama.

    Mullen, G R; Hayes, M E; Nusbaum, K E

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen Culicoides spp. were collected on Holstein cattle in Alabama: C. arboricola, C. bickleyi, C. biguttatus, C. debilipalpis, C. guttipennis, C. haematopotus, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis, C. piliferus, C. sanguisuga, C. spinosus, C. stellifer, C. variipennis and C. venustus. Six Culicoides spp. were collected directly from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): C. debilipalpis, C. niger, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis, C. sanguisuga and C. stellifer. Based on their host-feeding behavior, abundance and seasonal occurrence, the following 4 species warrant particular attention as potential vectors of bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses in the southeastern US: C. debilipalpis, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis and C. stellifer. PMID:2989854

  1. Experimental infection of specific pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits with five strains of amyxomatous myxoma virus.

    Marlier, D; Cassart, D; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Coignoul, F; Vindevogel, H

    1999-11-01

    Myxomatosis is a specific disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) due to a virus belonging to the genus Leporipoxvirus. Forty-seven years after its deliberate introduction into Europe, the clinical aspects and the epizootiology of myxomatosis have changed. Two forms (nodular and amyxomatous) of the disease have been identified to date. A comparative study was made of the clinical signs, pathogenesis and gross lesions observed in male specific pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits inoculated with five strains of amyxomatous myxoma virus. All five strains induced the characteristic amyxomatous myxomatosis clinical syndrome with clinical signs that differed only in intensity. The varying clinical intensity, together with the results of virological examination question the virulence of at least three of the five strains. Genomic analysis confirmed that the five strains came from the Lausanne strain introduced in 1952 in France and not from an unnoticed introduction of a Californian strain of myxoma virus. No link was found between the amyxomatous myxoma virus strains and the SG33 vaccine strain. 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID:10542126

  2. White noise effects of U.S. crude oil spot prices on stock prices of a publicly traded company: A case study cross-correlation analysis based on green energy management theory

    Roberts, Peter M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine white noise effects of U.S. crude oil spot prices on the stock prices of a green energy company. Epistemological, Phenomenological, Axiological and Ontological assumptions of Green Energy Management (GEM) Theory were utilized for selecting Air Products and Chemicals Inc. (APD) as the case study. Exxon Mobil (XOM) was used as a control for triangulation purposes. The period of time examined was between January of 1999 and December of 2008. Monthly stock prices for APD and XOM for the ten year period of time were collected from the New York Stock Exchange. Monthly U.S. crude oil spot prices for the ten year period of time were collected from the US Energy Information Administration. The data was entered into SPSS 17.0 software in order to conduct cross-correlation analysis. The six cross-correlation assumptions were satisfied in order to conduct a Cross-correlation Mirror Test (CCMT). The CCMT established the lag time direction and verified that U.S. crude oil spot prices serve as white noise for stock prices of APD and XOM. The Theory of Relative Weakness was employed in order to analyze the results. A 2 year period of time between December, 2006 and December, 2008 was examined. The correlation coefficient r = - .155 indicates that U.S. crude oil spot prices lead APD stock prices by 4 months. During the same 2 year period of time, U.S. crude oil spot prices lead XOM stock prices by 4 months at r = -.283. XOM stock prices and APD stock prices were positively correlated with 0 lag in time with a positive r = .566. The 4 month cycle was an exact match between APD stock prices, XOM stock prices and U.S. crude oil spot prices. The 4 month cycle was due to the random price fluctuation of U.S. crude oil spot prices that obscured the true stock prices of APD and XOM for the 2 year period of time.

  3. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  4. Detection and sequence comparison of the Blackcurrant reversion virus in black, red and white currant

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špak, Josef; Petrzik, Karel; Kubelková, Darina; Špaková, Vlastimila

    Leueven 1 : ISHS Acta Horticulturea, 2008 - (Martin, R.), s. 61-65 ISBN 978-90-6605-038-9. ISSN 0567-7572. [International Symposium on Small Fruit Virus Diseases /11./. Antalya (TR), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Blackcurrant reversion virus * curran * RT-PCR Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Caracterização do Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolado de jiló no Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo Characterization of a Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolated from gilo in Paraíba Valley, São Paulo, Brazil

    MARCELO EIRAS

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os tospovírus são responsáveis por perdas significativas em diversas culturas, principalmente solanáceas. No município de São José dos Campos (SP, plantas de jiló (Solanum gilo apresentando sintomas de mosaico, bolhosidades, nanismo e queda acentuada da produção foram coletadas para análise. Visando a caracterização do agente causador dos sintomas, testes biológicos, elétrono microscópicos, sorológicos e moleculares foram realizados. Através de inoculação mecânica em plantas indicadoras das famílias Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae e Solanaceae obtiveram-se resultados típicos aos esperados para tospovírus. Ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, observaram-se, em contrastação negativa, partículas pleomórficas com diâmetro entre 80 e 110 nm e em cortes ultra-finos partículas presentes em vesículas do retículo endoplasmático. Através de DAS-ELISA, identificou-se o Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. A partir de RNA total extraído de folhas infetadas, amplificaram-se, via RT-PCR, fragmentos correspondentes ao gene da proteína do capsídeo (cp os quais foram seqüenciados e comparados com outros depositados no "GenBank". A homologia de nucleotídeos e aminoácidos deduzidos foi respectivamente de 99 e 95% quando comparada com seqüências de isolados de TCSV. A comparação com as outras espécies do gênero Tospovirus apresentou valores de homologia entre 72 e 84%. Estes resultados confirmam a identidade deste vírus como pertencente à espécie TCSV, que é predominante no Estado de São Paulo e importante patógeno de outras plantas cultivadas. Além disso, variedades de jiló quando inoculadas foram susceptíveis tanto ao TCSV como às espécies Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV e Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV.Tospoviruses are responsible for important losses in most crops, mainly Solanaceae. Gilo (Solanum gilo plants showing mosaic, blistering, stunting and 100% production losses were collected for analysis from São José dos Campos in the State of São Paulo. Biological, electron microscopy, serological and molecular tests were carried out in order to characterize the virus isolate. The mechanical inoculation on Amaranthaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae plants showed typical tospovirus-induced symptoms. Pleomorphic particles from 80 to 110 nm were observed in negatively stained preparations and in vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV was identified by DAS-ELISA. DNA fragments were amplified by RT-PCR, with specific primers designed to the nucleocapsid gene (N of the main Tospovirus species, sequenced and compared with others in the GenBank. The nucleotide and amino acid deduced sequences homology was 99 and 95%, respectively, with TCSV. Comparison with other Tospovirus species presented values between 74 and 81%. These results confirmed the identity of this virus isolate as TCSV, the main tospovirus species in São Paulo that also damages other Solanaceous crops. Varieties of gilo have been inoculated showing susceptibility to TCSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV and Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV.

  6. Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus.

    Hjelle, B; Lee, S. W.; Song, W.; Torrez-Martinez, N; Song, J. W.; Yanagihara, R; Gavrilovskaya, I; Mackow, E R

    1995-01-01

    The complete M segment sequences of hantaviruses amplified from tissues of a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States and from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, from New York were 99% identical and differed from those of Four Corners virus by 23%. The serum of this patient failed to recognize a conserved, immunodominant epitope of the Four Corners virus G1 glycoprotein. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. leucopus harbors a genetically and a...

  7. Comparative evaluation of remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride on artificial enamel white spot lesion: An in vitro light fluorescence study

    R Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Results: As compared with artificial saliva both CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP produced significant amount of remineralization of the artificial enamel white spot lesion (P < 0.001, however when the remineralizing effect of CPP-ACP was compared with the remineralizing effect of CPP-ACFP there was no significant difference. Significant amount of remineralization was produced by CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP only after the 7 th day. After the 14 th day, the remineralization produced by both CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP as compared to artificial saliva was non-significant.

  8. Improved universal cloning of influenza A virus genes by LacZ?-mediated blue/white selection.

    Wessels, Ute; Stech, Olga; Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Judel, Andreas; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Stech, Jrgen

    2015-12-01

    Reverse genetics of influenza A viruses facilitates both basic research and vaccine development. However, efficient cloning of virus gene segments was cumbersome in established systems due to the necessary cleavage of amplicons with outside cutter restriction enzymes followed by ligation. Occasionally, virus genes may contain cleavage sites for those enzymes. To circumvent that problem, we previously established target-primed plasmid amplification using the negative selection marker ccdB cloned into the plasmid pHW2000, flanked by the highly conserved gene segment termini. Here, we further introduced the LacZ? fragment downstream of the ccdB region for additional ad-hoc selection of transformed bacteria by blue/white pre-screening. For comparison, we cloned three gene segments (PA, HA, and NS) from the influenza strain A/Swine/Belgium/1/1979 (H1N1) (SwBelg79) into plasmid vectors pHWSccdB and pHWSccdB-LacZ? and observed same cloning efficiency. Furthermore, the plasmid pHWSccdB-LacZ? allows easy elimination of bacterial colonies containing empty plasmid clones. Using this improved plasmid, we obtained the complete genomic set of eight functional plasmids for SwBelg79. PMID:26404948

  9. Analysis of resistance to Yam mosaic virus, genus Potyvirus in white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir. genotypes

    Babajide Odu O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to Yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus was studied in 10 populations of selected white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata. Plants of resistant genotypes: TDr 35, TDr 1621, TDr 93-1, TDr 93-32, TDr 95-107, TDr 93-23, and susceptible ones: TDr 87/00211, TDr 87/00571 and TDr 95-127 were screened for their reaction to the pathogen by symptom severity scoring scale of 1-5, and by quantifying virus multiplication by triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA. Controlled crosses were made among the genotypes within and between the groups according to reactions to the pathogen. The resultant F1 progenies were evaluated for the infection by disease symptom development and by TAS ELISA to detect a symptomless infection in an insect-proof screenhouse for the assessment of inheritance of resistance to YMV. A genetic analysis of the reactions of progenies derived from the D. rotundata genotypes to inoculation with YMV strongly suggests that resistance to the virus is a dominantly inherited trait. Segregation ratios obtained from the families indicate that at least two dominant genes are involved.

  10. Cache Valley and Potosi viruses (Bunyaviridae) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): experimental infections and antibody prevalence in natural populations.

    Blackmore, C G; Grimstad, P R

    1998-11-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host. Cross-infection experiments also were carried out to investigate the level of antibody cross-reactivity and cross-protection between the two viruses. The seroprevalence rate was high for both CVV (> 66%) and POTV (> 43%) in adult deer statewide. Antibodies neutralizing CVV were more common among deer harvested in the northern part of Indiana whereas the prevalence of POTV antibodies suggested a more southern distribution for this virus. Experimental infections of captive deer showed that they may serve as amplifying hosts for either virus. Deer infected with CVV or POTV developed a 1-3-day viremia with 3.0 and 4.1 log10 plaque-forming units/ml mean peak titers, respectively. However, significant levels of antibody cross-reactivity between the two viruses were observed. Viremia was lower and shorter when animals immune to either CVV or POTV were cross-infected with the alternate virus and antibody responses following cross-infections resembled original antigenic sin with higher titers of antibodies against the primary agent. PMID:9840585

  11. Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line

    Genomic analysis of integration will be important in evaluating the safety of human gene therapy with retroviral vectors. Here, we investigated MLV vector integration sites in human T-cells, since they are amenable to gene transfer studies, and have been used therapeutically in clinical trials. We mapped 340 MLV vector integration sites in the infected human T-cell clones we established. The data showed that MLV preferred integration near the transcription start sites (±5 kb), near CpG islands (±1 kb), and within the first intron of RefSeq genes. We also identified MLV integration hot spots that contained three or more integrations within a 100 kb region. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA-levels of T-cell clones that contained MLV integrations near transcription start sites or introns were dysregulated compared to the uninfected cells. These studies help define the profile of MLV integration in T-cells and the risks associated with MLV-based gene therapy

  12. Expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in white-tailed deer infected with Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus.

    Sharma, Prachi; Stallknecht, David E; Murphy, Molly D; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2015-12-31

    The pathogenesis of epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) in white?tailed deer (WTD) may be related to factors other than direct viral damage caused by replication in endothelium, such as the release of cytokines. This study focused on interleukin?1 ? (IL?1) and interleukin?6 (IL?6), which have been shown to be variably upregulated in Bluetongue virus (BTV) infected cattle and sheep endothelial cultures possibly explaining species susceptibility to BTV. We evaluated circulating and tissue levels of IL?1 and IL?6 in WTD experimentally infected with EHD virus serotype 2 (EHDV?2). Circulating levels of IL?1 were assayed by ELISA. RT?PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect upregulation of IL?1 and IL?6 mRNA as well as protein expression, respectively. RT?PCR was also used to determine whether IL?1 and IL?6 were upregulated in WTD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with EHDV?2 in vitro. We found increased circulating levels of IL?1 and upregulation of IL?1 mRNA and protein expression and upregulation of IL?6 mRNA in tissues of WTD infected with EHDV. Upregulation of mRNA levels of IL?1 and IL?6 in EHDV infected PBMCs was also observed. Findings suggest a role for IL?1 and IL?6 in the pathogenesis of EHD in WTD. PMID:26741245

  13. The Cucumber leaf spot virus p25 auxiliary replicase protein binds and modifies the endoplasmic reticulum via N-terminal transmembrane domains

    Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) is a member of the Aureusvirus genus, family Tombusviridae. The auxiliary replicase of Tombusvirids has been found to localize to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), peroxisomes or mitochondria; however, localization of the auxiliary replicase of aureusviruses has not been determined. We have found that the auxiliary replicase of CLSV (p25) fused to GFP colocalizes with ER and that three predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs) at the N-terminus of p25 are sufficient for targeting, although the second and third TMDs play the most prominent roles. Confocal analysis of CLSV infected 16C plants shows that the ER becomes modified including the formation of punctae at connections between ER tubules and in association with the nucleus. Ultrastructural analysis shows that the cytoplasm contains numerous vesicles which are also found between the perinuclear ER and nuclear membrane. It is proposed that these vesicles correspond to modified ER used as sites for CLSV replication. - Highlights: • The CLSV p25 auxiliary replicase targets the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). • Targeting of CLSV p25 is associated with ER restructuring. • Restructuring of the ER occurs during CLSV infection. • CLSV p25 contains 3 predicted transmembrane domains 2 of which are required for ER targeting. • Vesicles derived from the ER may be sites of CLSV replication

  14. The Cucumber leaf spot virus p25 auxiliary replicase protein binds and modifies the endoplasmic reticulum via N-terminal transmembrane domains

    Ghoshal, Kankana [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Theilmann, Jane; Reade, Ron; Sanfacon, Helene [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Hwy 97, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada V0H 1Z0 (Canada); Rochon, D’Ann, E-mail: dann.rochon@agr.gc.ca [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Hwy 97, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada V0H 1Z0 (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) is a member of the Aureusvirus genus, family Tombusviridae. The auxiliary replicase of Tombusvirids has been found to localize to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), peroxisomes or mitochondria; however, localization of the auxiliary replicase of aureusviruses has not been determined. We have found that the auxiliary replicase of CLSV (p25) fused to GFP colocalizes with ER and that three predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs) at the N-terminus of p25 are sufficient for targeting, although the second and third TMDs play the most prominent roles. Confocal analysis of CLSV infected 16C plants shows that the ER becomes modified including the formation of punctae at connections between ER tubules and in association with the nucleus. Ultrastructural analysis shows that the cytoplasm contains numerous vesicles which are also found between the perinuclear ER and nuclear membrane. It is proposed that these vesicles correspond to modified ER used as sites for CLSV replication. - Highlights: • The CLSV p25 auxiliary replicase targets the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). • Targeting of CLSV p25 is associated with ER restructuring. • Restructuring of the ER occurs during CLSV infection. • CLSV p25 contains 3 predicted transmembrane domains 2 of which are required for ER targeting. • Vesicles derived from the ER may be sites of CLSV replication.

  15. Bier spots

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  16. Age Spots

    ... for treating age spots include: Improved appearance. Enhanced self-esteem. Promotion of better skin health. What you need ... premier specialty group representing dermatologists performing all procedures – cosmetic, general, reconstructive and Mohs. ASDS members are experts ...

  17. MONEY LAUNDERING AS AN ISOLATED PHENOMENON AND LEADING FACTOR IN WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY, PUTS MOLDOVA CASE JUDICIARY ON THE SPOT

    Jacob RUB

    2015-01-01

    Money laundering is a leading factor in white-collar criminality, with a big effect upon Gross National Product of the Israeli and Moldova economies. Israel and Moldova have made the first steps In order to cope with money laundering phenomenon. The model of handling the phenomenon in the USA has been studied that constitutes a role model of fighting money laundering. The vast majority (77%) of all frauds were committed by individuals working in one of six departments: accounting, operations,...

  18. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. PMID:26314037

  19. Winter weeds as inoculum sources of tomato spotted wilt virus and as reservoirs for its vector, Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in farmscapes of Georgia.

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Shrestha, Anita; Culbreath, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a broad host range including crops and weeds. In Georgia, TSWV is known to consistently affect peanut, tomato, pepper, and tobacco production. These crops are grown from March through November. In the crop-free period, weeds are presumed to serve as a green bridge for thrips and TSWV. Previous studies have identified several winter weeds as TSWV and thrips hosts. However, their ability to influence TSWV transmission in crops is still not completely understood. To further understand these interactions, population dynamics of two prevalent vectors, viz., Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on selected winter weeds were monitored from October through April in four counties from 2004 to 2008. Peak populations were typically recorded in March. F. fusca and F. occidentalis adults were found on winter weeds and their percentages ranged from 0 to 68% in comparison with other adults. Immatures outnumbered all adults. Microcosm experiments indicated that the selected winter weeds differentially supported F. fusca reproduction and development. The time required to complete one generation (adult to adult) ranged from 11 to 16 d. Adult recovery ranged from 0.97 to 2.2 per female released. In addition, transmission assays revealed that thrips efficiently transmitted TSWV from peanut to weeds, the incidence of infection ranged from 10 to 55%. Back transmission assays with thrips from TSWV-infected weeds resulted in up to 75% TSWV infection in peanut. These whole-plant transmission and back transmission assays provide the basis for TSWV persistence in farmscapes year round. PMID:24612539

  20. Characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from a bovine with clinical disease with high nucleotide sequence identity to white-tailed deer isolates.

    Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Hause, Ben M

    2014-10-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was isolated from a pregnant cow in Indiana, USA, exhibiting excessive salivation, pyrexia and abortion. VP2, VP5, and VP7 sequences of the isolated bovine EHDV showed 97.7, 97.4, and 97.9 % identity to a serotype 2 reference virus. Bovine EHDV was closely related (>99.9 %) to white tailed deer (WTD) EHDV collected from Iowa in 2013 and showed less than 2.1 % divergence from EHDV collected from WTD across the USA in 2013. The high degree of sequence identity between bovine and WTD EHDV isolates demonstrates that similar viruses concurrently circulate in both species and suggests possible further incursions into bovines. PMID:24852073

  1. The two envelope membrane glycoproteins of Tomato spotted wilt virus show differences in lectin-binding properties and sensitivities to glycosidases

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Genus: Tospovirus, Family: Bunyaviridae) is a major constraint to the production of several different crops of agronomic and horticultural importance worldwide. The amino acid sequence of the two envelope membrane glycoproteins, designated as GN (N-terminal) and GC (C-terminal), of TSWV contain several tripeptide sequences, Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, suggesting that the proteins are N-glycosylated. In this study, the lectin-binding properties of the viral glycoproteins and their sensitivities to glycosidases were examined to obtain information on the nature of potential oligosaccharide moieties present on GN and GC. The viral proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and probed by affinoblotting using a battery of biotinylated lectins with specificity to different oligosaccharide structures. GC showed strong binding with five mannose-binding lectins, four N-acetyllactosamine-binding lectins and one fucose-binding lectin. GN was resolved into two molecular masses and only the slow migrating form showed binding, albeit to a lesser extent than GC, with three of the five mannose-binding lectins. The N-acetyllactosamine- and fucose-specific lectins did not bind to either molecular mass form of GN. None of the galactose-, N-acetylgalactosamine-, or sialic acid-binding lectins tested showed binding specificity to GC or GN. Treatment of the denatured virions with endoglycosidase H and peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) resulted in a significant decrease in the binding of GC to high mannose- and N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectins. However, no such differences in lectin binding were apparent with GN. These results indicate the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides of high mannose- and complex-type on GC and possibly high mannose-type on GN. Differences in the extent of binding of the two envelope glycoproteins to different lectins suggest that GC is likely to be more heavily N-glycosylated than GN. No evidence was observed for the presence of O-linked oligosaccharides on GN or GC

  2. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    Richard W. Moyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3‑(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination.

  3. MONEY LAUNDERING AS AN ISOLATED PHENOMENON AND LEADING FACTOR IN WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY, PUTS MOLDOVA CASE JUDICIARY ON THE SPOT

    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a leading factor in white-collar criminality, with a big effect upon Gross National Product of the Israeli and Moldova economies. Israel and Moldova have made the first steps In order to cope with money laundering phenomenon. The model of handling the phenomenon in the USA has been studied that constitutes a role model of fighting money laundering. The vast majority (77% of all frauds were committed by individuals working in one of six departments: accounting, operations, sales, executive/upper management, customer service and purchasing. In Moldova, money laundering for the most part is connected to traditional forms and activities sources of illegal proceeds .Moldova is a transit country for money laundering. A money-laundering scandal is casting Moldova’s judiciary in an unfavorable light and is raising concerns about the government’s commitment to reforms needed to keep European Union integration on track. It is a need to address corruption as a national priority, and the priority of the relations between the EU and Moldova. The money laundering scandal indicates that Moldova is reluctant to wade deeply into judicial reform. In fact, the laundered of $20 billion, is an amount more than twice the size of Moldova’s GDP in 2013, and may be that it is just the tip of the iceberg, probably. White-collar criminality in Israel and Moldova means success of coping of the enforcement and judicial systems. In order to cope with this phenomenon, Israel makes its first steps. Anyway, the message must pave the way through a creation of a new model for dealing with reduction the isolated phenomenon of money laundering in both states.SPĂLAREA DE BANI, UN FENOMEN IZOLAT ŞI UN FACTOR IMPORTANT ÎN CRIMINALITATEA GULERELOR ALBE, PUNE PRACTICA JUDICIARĂ DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA INTR-O SITUAŢIE DIFICILĂSpălarea de bani este un factor important în criminalitatea gulerelor albe, având un efect semnificativ asupra produ-sului naţional brut al economiei din Israel şi din Moldova. Israelul şi Republica Moldova au făcut primii paşi în ceea ce priveşte combaterea fenomenului spălarea banilor. A fost studiat modelul de manipulare a fenomenului din SUA, care este un model demn de urmat privind combaterea spălării banilor. Majoritatea fraudelor (77% au fost comise de către persoane care lucrează în unul dintre cele şase departamente: contabilitate, operaţiuni, vânzări, director / manager, servicii pentru clienţi, cumpărare. În Moldova, spălarea de bani este legată în cea mai mare parte de formele tradiţionale şi de activităţile surse ale veniturilor ilegale. Moldova este o ţară de tranzit pentru spălarea banilor. Spălarea banilor pune sistemul judiciar al Republicii Moldova într-o lumină nefavorabilă şi acest flagel creşte îngrijorarea privind realizarea angajamentului guvernului de a face reformele necesare pentru a menţine pe drumul cel bun integrarea în Uniunea Europeană. Deci, corupţia necesită a fi abordată drept o problemă prioritară în consolidarea relaţiilor dintre UE şi Moldova. Recentul scandal privind spălarea banilor indică faptul că Moldova nu doreşte să intre în esenţa reformelor sistemului judiciar. De fapt, s-ar părea că spălarea a 20 miliarde de dolari – o sumă de două ori mai mare decît PIB-ul Republicii Moldova în 2013 – să fie doar vârful aisbergului. Criminalitatea gulerelor albe în Israel şi în Republica Moldova înseamnă insuccesul activităţii sistemelor judiciare. În ce priveşte combaterea acestui flagel, Israelul a făcut primii paşi. Acelaşi lucru îl face şi Republica Moldova. Oricum, mesajul trebuie să deschidă calea creării unui nou model de a reduce în ambele state fenomenul spălarea banilor.

  4. Import risk analysis: A case study of white shrimp in Thailand

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As the culture industry of black tiger shrimp in Thailand has encountered several problems causing unsuccessful shrimp culture over decades, a new non-indigenous marine species, i.e. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei was imported into Thailand as an alternation. However, imported white shrimp may carry some infectious agents which pose serious threats on aquatic species native to Thailand. Therefore, in the present study the import risk analysis (IRA was conducted to identify any hazard and estimate the risk presented by importation of white shrimp. The process involves the risk analysis steps of hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment and risk management. The risks associated with individual diseases and disease agents of white shrimp have been evaluated. Risk assessment conducted using risk evaluation matrix indicated high risk of Taura syndrome virus (TSV, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in imported white shrimp. The iterative process of risk management leads to a set of acceptable measures or strategies for each identified hazard for which the unrestricted risk is considered higher than appropriate level of protection. These measures or strategies will reduce risk to a level that is considered acceptable. Where measures or strategies that reduce the risk associated with a particular hazard to an acceptable level cannot be identified, permission to import the relevant commodity will be denied. The measures implemented in the control of white shrimp imports constitute quarantine and health certificate issued by exporting countries.

  5. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Post Exposure Antiviral in NewZealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, aModel for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    Scott Foster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting New Zealand White rabbits from mortality following intradermal infection with rabbitpox virus as a model for smallpox, monkeypox and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Here we extend these studies by exploring different dosing regimens and performing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies. In addition, because rabbitpox virus can be transmitted via naturally generated aerosols (animal to animal transmission, we report on studies to test the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting rabbits from lethal rabbitpox virus disease when infection occurs by animal to animal transmission. In all cases, CMX001 treatment was initiated at the onset of observable lesions in the ears to model the use of CMX001 as a treatment for symptomatic smallpox. The results demonstrate that CMX001 is an effective treatment for symptomatic rabbitpox virus infection. The rabbitpox model has key similarities to human smallpox including an incubation period, generalized systemic disease, the occurrence of lesions which may be used as a trigger for initiating therapy, and natural animal to animal spread, making it an appropriate model.

  6. Analysis of the populations genetic variability of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), virus vector of the rice white leaf

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a monophagous insect of the rice and virus vector of the white leaf (RHBV). It is distributed in America Central, El Caribe, part of the America del Sur and in Costa Rica it is in all the producing zones of rice. The genetic variability was analyzed by means of RAPD-PCR of individuals from three populations of Costa Rica: Parrita, Guanacaste (Liberia) y San Carlos (Santa Clara), that they are found separated geographically. The technique consisted of amplifying regions at random of the genome of these insects utilizing five primers. A total of 72 polymorphic bands were obtained, that upon being analyzed statistically by means of the multivariate analysis program of numerical taxonomy could show a clear genetic distancing among said populations. The genetic distance observed in the molecular analysis can be explained for the climatic and/or geographical isolation of the populations or by the incident of Wolbachia, riquettsia that induces cytoplasmic sterility in insects. These symbionts are transmitted of generation in generation, of the mother to their offspring and they cause reproductive alterations as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. The presence of Wolbachia was determined by means of transmission electronic microscopy being observed in the greasy and muscular weave of the abdomen of T. orizicolus. Rickettsias present pleomorphic morphology and form small groups, that are characterized for the presence of electrondense material semidetached to the cell wall with an interior electronlucent. Its size in transverse cuts ranged between 520 nm of length X 470 nm of width. In addition, its presence was detected by means of the amplification by PCR of the genomic DNA of the insects; a specific primer for the DNA ribosomal 16S of Wolbachia was utilized for it. A 86% of insects of the San Carlos population were positive, a 96% was determined for Guanacaste, a 37% for Parrita and a 100% for Colombia. Individual insects originating from populations of T. orizicolus of the zones of Parrita and Guanacaste, maintained in greenhouse, they were crossed among them in the greenhouse. Of the crossing infected males with uninfected females progeny was not obtained, what it seems to indicate that is cytoplasmic incompatibility unidirectional. Also, a reduction or a drastic absence of offspring was observed in those crossings where both insects were infected, what could be explained by the incidence of more than a race of the bacterium (bidirectional mutual incompatibility). This last phenomenon could be a head in part of the genetic isolation observed among populations of T. orizicolus originating from different localities. (author)

  7. Mongolian spots

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  8. Histophathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings in Two White-tail Deer Fawns Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...

  9. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-02-12

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  10. Thermal inactivation of H5N2 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus in dried egg white with 7.5% moisture.

    Thomas, Colleen; Swayne, David E

    2009-09-01

    High-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) cause severe systemic disease with high mortality in chickens. Isolation of HPAIV from the internal contents of chicken eggs has been reported, and this is cause for concern because HPAIV can be spread by movement of poultry products during marketing and trade activity. This study presents thermal inactivation data for the HPAIV strain A/chicken/PA/1370/83 (H5N2) (PA/83) in dried egg white with a moisture content (7.5%) similar to that found in commercially available spray-dried egg white products. The 95% upper confidence limits for D-values calculated from linear regression of the survival curves at 54.4, 60.0, 65.5, and 71.1 degrees C were 475.4, 192.2, 141.0, and 50.1 min, respectively. The line equation y = [0.05494 x degrees C] + 5.5693 (root mean square error = 0.0711) was obtained by linear regression of experimental D-values versus temperature. Conservative predictions based on the thermal inactivation data suggest that standard industry pasteurization protocols would be very effective for HPAIV inactivation in dried egg white. For example, these calculations predict that a 7-log reduction would take only 2.6 days at 54.4 degrees C. PMID:19777906

  11. Grafting on a Non-Transgenic Tolerant Tomato Variety Confers Resistance to the Infection of a Sw5-Breaking Strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus via RNA Silencing

    Spanò, R.; Mascia, T.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Gallitelli, D.

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing controls endogenous gene expression and drives defensive reactions against invasive nucleic acids like viruses. In plants, it has been demonstrated that RNA silencing can be transmitted through grafting between scions and silenced rootstocks to attenuate virus and viroid accumulation in the scions. This has been obtained mostly using transgenic plants, which may be a drawback in current agriculture. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of infection of a resistance-brea...

  12. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Patricia Braunig; Rafael Diego da Rosa; Caroline Heidrich Seibert; Mariana Borsa; Patricia Hermes Stoco; Edmundo Carlos Grisard; Aguinaldo Roberto Pinto

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the produ...

  13. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    , of Karnataka on the west coast of India. Of 12 grow-out farms in Kundapur, 6 (F1 to F6) yielded shrimp samples that were negative for WSSV by both immunodot test and 1-step PCR from stocking to successful harvest. Samples from the other 6 farms (F7 to F12) were...

  14. Identification of potential hot spots in the carboxy-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BNLF-1 gene in both malignant and benign EBV-associated diseases

    Sandvej, K; Peh, S C; Andresen, B S; Pallesen, G

    1994-01-01

    In this study, we have sequenced the C-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-BNLF-1 gene encoding for the latent membrane protein-1 from tissues of EBV-positive Danish Hodgkin's disease (HD) and of Danish and Malaysian peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTLs) and from tonsils of Danish infectious...... mononucleosis (IM). Our study showed that some of the 7 single-base mutations and the 30-bp deletion previously detected between codons of amino acid 322 and 366 in the BNLF-1 gene of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CAO were present in all Malaysian PTLs and in 60% of the Danish PTLs. In HD and the IM...... the CAO-BNLF-1 gene do not characterize a new EBV type A substrain. Rather, some of the positions of single base mutations and the 30-bp deletion are hot spots that may have mutated independently through the evolution of EBV strains....

  15. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  16. Red Spot Movie

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  17. Detection of Low Levels of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) May Be Critical for Early Diagnosis of Pediatric HIV Infection by Use of Dried Blood Spots?

    Walter, Jan; Kuhn, Louise; Semrau, Katherine; Decker, Don W.; SINKALA, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M; Bulterys, Marc; Ou, Chin-Yih; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2009-01-01

    We compared a DNA-based assay with a total nucleic acid-based assay for early detection of infant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The codetection of DNA and RNA did not result in an overall higher sensitivity compared to that of DNA alone. Discordant results were associated with low levels of HIV DNA, indicating that the sample amount may be critical.

  18. A multiplex nested PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus and a phytoplasma in white jute (Corchorus capsularis L.).

    Biswas, C; Dey, P; Satpathy, S

    2013-05-01

    A multiplex nested PCR assay was developed by optimizing reaction components and reaction cycling parameters for simultaneous detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV) and a phytoplasma (Group 16Sr V-C) causing little leaf and bunchy top in white jute (Corchorus capsularis). Three sets of specific primers viz. a CoGMV specific (DNA-A region) primer, a 16S rDNA universal primer pair P1/P7 and nested primer pair R16F2n/R2 for phytoplasmas were used. The concentrations of the PCR components such as primers, MgCl2 , Taq DNA polymerase, dNTPs and PCR conditions including annealing temperature and amplification cycles were examined and optimized. Expected fragments of 1kb (CoGMV), 674bp (phytoplasma) and 370bp (nested R16F2n/R2) were successfully amplified by this multiplex nested PCR system ensuring simultaneous, sensitive and specific detection of the phytoplasma and the virus. The multiplex nested PCR provides a sensitive, rapid and low-cost method for simultaneous detection of jute little leaf phytoplasma and CoGMV. Based on BLASTn analyses, the phytoplasma was found to belong to the Group 16Sr V-C. PMID:23413927

  19. Differences of immune responses between Tongcheng (Chinese local breed) and Large White pigs after artificial infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Liang, Wan; Li, Zhenhong; Wang, Peng; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qingde; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Bang

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the severest infectious diseases of pigs throughout the world. Pigs of different breeds infected with PRRS virus (PRRSV) have been reported to vary in their immune responses. Here, the differences of immune responses to highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) were investigated by artificially infecting Tongcheng (TC) pigs (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Large White (LW) pigs with PRRSV WUH3. Compared to LW pigs, TC pigs showed less severe symptoms and lower level of viral load. The routine blood test results indicated that TC pigs were relatively steady in terms of erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet. Additionally, PRRSV infection induced higher IFN-γ activity in TC pigs, but stimulated an excessive level of IL-10 and IL-12p40 in LW pigs. Our study provides direct evidence that TC pigs have stronger resistance to early PRRSV infection than LW pigs, suggesting that the resistance of pigs to PRRSV is likely associated with breed differences. PMID:26878768

  20. Impact of West Nile virus and other mortality factors on American white pelicans at breeding colonies in the northern plains of North America

    Sovada, M.A.; Pietz, P.J.; Converse, K.A.; Tommy, King D.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Scherr, P.; Ip, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial-nesting birds and their breeding sites are concentrated in a few small areas, making this species especially vulnerable to factors that can influence productivity, such as disease, disturbance, predation, weather events and loss of nesting habitat. Nearly half of the American white pelican population breeds at four colonies in the northern plains: Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Dakota, Bitter Lake (Waubay NWR) in South Dakota, Medicine Lake NWR in Montana, and Marsh Lake in Minnesota. Thus, sustained productivity at these colonies is crucial to the health of the entire species. During the latter half of the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons, unusually high mortality of pelican chicks was observed at these colonies. West Nile virus (WNv) was identified as one source of these losses. In 2004-2007 we monitored three major colonies in the northern plains to assess mortality of chicks during the late breeding season. We documented severe weather events, disturbance, and WNv as factors contributing to chick mortality. Before WNv arrived in the region in 2002, chick mortality after mid-July was ???4%, and then jumped to as high as 44% in the years since WNv arrived. WNv kills older chicks that are no longer vulnerable to other common mortality factors (e.g., severe weather, gull predation) and typically would have survived to fledge; thus WNv appears to be an additive mortality factor. Persistence of lower productivity at American white pelican colonies in the northern plains might reduce the adult breeding population of this species in the region.

  1. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and died due to infection. The mortality of affected species associated with a causative agent was confirmed in most species, except the mud crab and freshwater prawn (Marcrobrachium rosenbergii. However, viral particles can be still detected in surviving animals 10 days after infection. The results of this study will be a helpful tool employed in establishing measures on disease control and reduction of risk with the importation of white shrimp broodstock.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV including the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. The plants for planting pathway is considered the most important one and rated as likely, with medium uncertainty. TSWV, reported in many Member States, has one of the widest host range for plant viruses and has three widely distributed thrips vector species in the risk assessment area. For countries falling under the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII legislation, the probability of establishment is rated as very likely, with low uncertainty. For Finland and Sweden, protected zone under the 2000/29/EC Annex IB legislation, the probability of establishment is rated unlikely to moderately likely. Spread can occur through the activity of thrips vectors and through trade of infected hosts. The probability of spread in Member States under Annex IIAII provisions is evaluated as likely, with low uncertainty. In Finland and Sweden, spread is rated as unlikely to moderately likely, with medium uncertainty. Since TSWV may cause both yield and quality losses in a wide range of hosts, a major impact is predictable in the absence of appropriate control measures, with medium uncertainty. The risk reduction options evaluated by the Panel are those addressing either the sanitary status of the propagation material (including the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII and Annex IB, statutory certification system and the use of voluntary industry standards or those addressing the control of TSWV epidemic development through actions directed at the virus or at its vectors (including cultural methods to reduce crop infestation and chemical or biological control of thrips vectors. Limitations of the current measures and the potential consequences of repealing the current legislation are discussed.

  3. [Genetic characterization of the Sakhalin virus (SAKV), Paramushir virus (PMRV) (Sakhalin group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae), and Rukutama virus (RUKV) (Uukuniemi group, Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) isolated from the obligate parasites of the colonial sea-birds ticks Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae, White 1852 and I. signatus Birulya, 1895 in the water area of sea of the Okhotsk and Bering sea].

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Full-length genomes of the Sakhalin virus (SAKH) and Paramushir virus (PRMV) (Sakhalin group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) isolated from the ticks Ixodes uriae White 1852 were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing (Genbank ID: KF801659, KF801656). SAKV and PRMV have 81% identity for the part of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) on the nucleotide level and 98.5% on the amino acid level. Full-length genome comparison shows that SAKV have, in average, from 25% (N-protein, S-segment) to 50% (RdRp, L-segment) similarity with the nairoviruses. The maximum value of the amino acid similarity (50.3% for RdRp) SAKV have with the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Dugbe virus (DUGV), which are also associated with the Ixodidae ticks. Another virus studied is Rukutama virus (RUKV) (isolated from ticks I. signatus Birulya, 1895) that recently was classified (based on morphology and antigenic reaction) to the Nairovirus genus, presumably to the Sakhalin group. In this work the genome of the RUKV was sequenced (KF892052-KF892054) and RUKV was classified as a member of the Uukuniemi group (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae). RUKV is closely related (93.0-95.5% similarity) with our previously described Komandory virus (KOMV). RUKV and KOMV form separate phylogenetic line neighbor of Manawa virus (MWAV) isolated from the ticks Argas abdussalami Hoogstraal et McCarthy, 1965 in Pakistan. The value of the similarity between RUCV and MWAV is 65-74% on the amino acid level. PMID:25335413

  4. Characterization of the yeast form symbiant of Togosodes orizicolus (Hemiptera: delphacidae), vector of the rice white leaf virus

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the yeast forms symbionts of Togo soles Orizicolus (YLSTo), through its morphologic description and locating in situ through microscopy of light, electronic microscopy of transmission and of sweeping and immuno microscopy. Likewise, molecular tests were carried out to classify phylogenetically the symbionts, utilizing partial sequences of the ribosomal DNA 18S. This study will permit to determine, the existence or not of interactions among the YLSTo and the insect vector, in the future. The paper of that interaction in the mechanism of trans ovarial transmission of the virus and the search of alternatives for the control of the disease in the rice. (S. Grainger)

  5. SpotADAPT

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Cetintemel, Ugur; Kraska, Tim

    Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times of...

  6. Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid

    Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

  7. Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)

    ... more likely to have blue-gray spots than preterm infants. Signs and Symptoms Blue-gray spots may be ... Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe There is no therapy or treatment for this diagnosis in infants because it is a harmless condition that should ...

  8. A real-time PCR for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus in penaeid shrimp.

    Liu, Hong-Ling; Yan, Dong-Chun; Sun, Hu-Shan; Wang, Yi-Yan; Wang, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a recently observed shrimp virus, which threats the cultured Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry. The specific aim of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of shrimp IMNV. A real-time PCR assay with a pair of primers to specifically amplify a 101bp IMNV cDNA fragment and a corresponding TaqMan probe was developed, which shown to be specific for IMNV without cross reaction with DNA samples prepared from four other shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic virus (IHHNV). The method could detect as low as one single copy of IMNV plasmid cDNA. PMID:23639336

  9. Prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus among patients with tuberculosis in Sierra Leone, established from dried blood spots on filter paper

    BOILLOT,F; Peeters, Martine; Kosia, A.; Delaporte, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation de l'utilisation sur le terrain de la technique des taches de sang séchées sur papier filtre pour la surveillance de la tuberculose associée au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH). La technique a été évaluée par comparaison avec le sérum chez 359 patients consentants enregistrés dans le registre de district de la tuberculose dans la capitale. Des tests répétés par ELISA utilisant des antigènes différents ont été effectués sur les éluats des papiers-filtres. Les sérums ont été...

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky Mountain ...

  11. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    ... which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne disease first recognized in 1896 in the Snake River Valley of Idaho. It was originally called black ...

  12. Iris Leaf Spot

    Hansen, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Heterosporium leaf spot, or iris leaf spot, is the most common disease of iris in Virginia. It is caused by the fungus Didymellina macrospora, which is also known as Heterosporium iridis. This publication covers the symptoms, cycle, and control of iris leaf spot.

  13. Effect of blood spots on table egg albumen on Salmonella growth

    Presence of blood spots in eggs has been correlated with a higher rate of Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Therefore this study was conducted to determine whether Salmonella inoculated into egg albumen with naturally occurring blood spots would survive or grow. In each of three trials white-s...

  14. Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.

    da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

    2011-11-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/μg of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/μg in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/μg in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/μg in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

  15. Modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide on a DNA vaccine against nervous necrosis virus in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Chen, Shiang-Peng; Peng, Ran-Hong; Chiou, Pinwen P

    2015-08-01

    We report the development of a DNA vaccine pcMGNNV2 against nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a leading cause of mass mortality in grouper larvae. In addition, the modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, on the DNA vaccine was evaluated. The DNA vaccine alone elicited the production of NNV-specific antibodies, indicating that the vaccine was capable of triggering adaptive humoral response. Furthermore, significant induction of TLR9, Mx and IL-1? was observed in the spleen on day 7 post-vaccination, supporting that the vaccine could trigger TLR9 signaling. The incorporation of CpG ODN at high dose did not significantly affect the level of NNV-specific antibodies, but was able to moderately enhance the expression of Mx and IL-1? on day 7, indicating its ability in modulating innate response. After challenge with NNV, the vaccine alone enhanced the survival rate in infected larvae at both 1 and 2 weeks post-vaccination. The combination of CpG ODN further increased the survival rate at week 1 but not week 2. Interestingly, at week 2 the ODN appeared to induce a Th1-like response, as indicated by upregulation of T-bet (a Th1 marker) and downregulation of GATA-3 (a Th2 marker). Thus, the results suggest that the boosted Th1 response by CpG ODN does not augment the protection efficacy of pcMGNNV2 vaccine. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a successful DNA vaccine against NNV in grouper. PMID:26093207

  16. QTL analysis of disease resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Early leaf spot (ELS), caused by Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Cercosporidium personatum, and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) result in great losses in yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to these dise...

  17. Still from Red Spot Movie

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  18. Watermarking spot colors

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  19. Investigation of likely causes of white patch formation on irradiated WWER fuel rod claddings

    The information concerning white patches observed on fuel cladding surfaces has been analytically treated. The analysis shows at least three kinds of the white patch appearance: bright white spots which appear to be loose corrosion product deposits disclosing corrosion pits upon spalling; indistinct streaks with separate pronounced spots 1-2 in dia. The spots seem to be thin superficial deposits; light-coloured dense uniform crud distributed over the surface of fuel claddings and fuel assembly jackets. (author)

  20. Café-au-lait spots in schoolchildren.

    Burwell, R. G.; James, N. J.; Johnston, D I

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports a study of café-au-lait spots of a minimum diameter of 1 cm in 732 white schoolchildren. Three groups were identified, according to the number of café-au-lait spots on each child: (1) those with none (74%), (2) those with fewer than 5 (25%), and (3) those with at least 5 (5 children, 2 considered to be normal, and 3 siblings each presumed to have neurofibromatosis, one having died from leukaemia). Excluding the last group, the number of café-au-lait spots in the sample was ...

  1. Mongolian blue spots

    ... are a kind of birthmark that are flat, blue, or blue-gray. They appear at birth or in the ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. ...

  2. Spotted Seal Distribution Map

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce A Biological Review Team (BRT) convened by the National Marine Fisheries Service assessed the best available information concerning the status of spotted seals...

  3. Mononucleosis spot test

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  4. Detection of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) of penaeid shrimp by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Poulos, Bonnie T; Lightner, Donald V

    2006-11-21

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) infecting cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Brazil is a double-stranded RNA virus that causes a slowly progressive disease with cumulative mortalities of up to 70%. The disease is currently diagnosed using a combination of gross signs (primarily skeletal tail muscle necrosis with white opaque discoloration), histopathology, and in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled gene probe. A rapid and sensitive method for definitive diagnosis of the disease was developed using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two primer sets were used to detect 328 and 139 bp amplicons in a nested RT-PCR assay. Using RNA extracted from purified virions, the first step reaction detected 100 copies of the IMNV viral genome whereas the nested step detected 10 copies. The primers were shown to be specific for IMNV and no amplicons were detected using RNA extracted from shrimp infected with other penaeid shrimp viruses (Taura syndrome virus [TSV], yellowhead virus [YHV], infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus [IHHNV] and white spot syndrome virus [WSSV]). PMID:17240754

  5. Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV.

    Busayarat, Nattaphon; Senapin, Saengchan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Unajak, Sasimanas; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Lo, Chu-Fang; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2011-07-01

    Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409

  6. White House

    ... to main content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Barack Obama Contact Us Get Email Updates ... and more Live Events Tune in to White House events and statements as they happen Music & Arts ...

  7. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

  8. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white backgr...

  9. Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras

    A. S. Costa

    1942-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding. New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*, N. Gossey Domin, N. Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**, S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (* This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (** One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

  10. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    Kajita, Shin, E-mail: kajita.shin@nagoya-u.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tsventoukh, Mikhail M. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, Sergey A. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  11. TV spots' impact.

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates. PMID:12288256

  12. A possible dominant white gene in Jersey cattle

    Sponenberg D Phillip

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A white heifer ("Snow" was born in 1991 from coloured registered Jersey parents. She produced six calves sired by coloured Jersey bulls: three white bull calves, two white heifer calves, and one coloured bull calf. One of the white bull calves was mated with 40 Hereford × Friesian yearling heifers (white face, predominantly black body with some white patches. The 38 resulting calves included 16 white and 22 coloured calves. Twelve of the 16 white calves were heifers and four were bulls. Red or black spotting was recorded on some white calves. The results are consistent with an autosomal dominant mutant causing the white phenotype. The mutation appears to have arisen spontaneously in Snow, then passing to her white progeny and white grand-progeny. The white individuals varied from entirely white in a few cases, to most having some residual small areas of red or black pigmentation in patterns not typical of other reported white spotting patterns of cattle.

  13. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  14. Detection of shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.

    Puthawibool, Teeranart; Senapin, Saengchan; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Flegel, Timothy W

    2009-03-01

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has caused a slowly progressive disease with cumulative mortalities of up to 70% or more in cultured Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in Northeast Brazil and Indonesia. Rapid detection of viruses by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of genomic material with high specificity and sensitivity can be applied for diagnosis, monitoring and control of diseases in shrimp aquaculture. Using an IMNV template, successful detection was achieved after a 60-min RT-LAMP reaction using biotin-labeled primers followed by 5min hybridization with an FITC-labeled DNA probe and 5min assay using a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD). Thus, the combined system of RT-LAMP and LFD required a total assay interval of less than 75min, excluding the RNA extraction time. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of other commonly used methods for nested RT-PCR detection of IMNV. In addition to reducing amplicon detection time when compared to electrophoresis, LFD confirmed amplicon identity by hybridization and eliminated the need to handle carcinogenic ethidium bromide. The RT-LAMP-LFD method gave negative test results with nucleic acid extracts from normal shrimp and from shrimp infected with other viruses including infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), a hepatopancreatic parvovirus from P. monodon (PmDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), Taura syndrome virus (TSV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and gill associated virus (GAV). PMID:19022295

  15. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewert, Uwe [BAM

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One possibility is to use the wires in the ASTM E2002 unsharpness gage and take two orthogonal images. The signal levels in the image need to be linear with radiation exposure and so may need conversion if a nonlinear detector is used to acquire the image.

  16. Sequence comparison and trasmission of Blackcurrant reversion virus isolates in black, red and white currants with black currant reversion disease and full blossom disease symptoms

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špak, Josef; Petrzik, Karel; Kubelková, Darina; Špaková, Vlastimila

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 1 (2008), s. 67-75. ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : plant diseases * reversion virus * Sequence comparison Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2008

  17. Vaccine by chicken line interaction alters the protective efficacy against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus in white leghorn chickens

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic and highly contagious a-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine ef...

  18. Spotting a fake

    Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

  19. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  20. El spot electoral negativo

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  1. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  2. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  3. Avaliao de produtos qumicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doena foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma bactria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de leses jovens da doena mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doena quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetao. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doena em condies de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqncia de isolamento da bactria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na regio de Londrina, Estado do Paran, e reproduzir sintomas da doena atravs de inoculaes artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetao. Utilizando os produtos qumicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doena a campo, foi tambm objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibio da bactria tanto em condies de laboratrio como em condies de infeco natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das leses jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetao sob condies controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos qumicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doena a campo, em concordncia com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactria em laboratrio, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos no foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles tambm no inibiram a bactria em laboratrio. Estes resultados representam evidncias adicionais de que a bactria P. ananatis o agente causal da doena mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in the field. This bacterium produced similar symptoms of the disease when inoculated on maize plants in greenhouse. Previous studies carried out by other authors demonstrated that the control of this disease in field conditions has been achieved through the use of fungicides mainly with the Mancozeb in the initial phases of its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of P. ananatis from infected plants in the region of "Londrina, Paran State" and to reproduce symptoms of the disease through artificial inoculation of maize plants in greenhouse. Using the chemical products tested previously by other authors for the control of this disease in the field, it was also objective of this work to evaluate the potential of these products to inhibit the bacterium, at both in laboratory and in condition of natural infection. The results showed that P. ananatis was successfully isolated from 40% of the young lesions collected in the field and when inoculated in greenhouse (controlled conditions, it reproduced symptoms similar to what was observed in the field. Among the tested chemical products, the fungicide Mancozeb was the best in the control of the disease under field conditions, in agreement with previous reports. This product inhibited completely the bacterium in laboratory, explaining the results found in the field. The others products were not efficient to control the disease and they did not also inhibit the bacterium in laboratory. The results represent additional evidences that the bacterium P. ananatis is the causal agent of the maize white spot disease.

  4. Borna disease virus antigen distribution in naturally infected bicolored white-toothed shrews, Crocidura leucodon, supporting its role as reservoir host species

    Puorger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Borna Disease is a severe, immunopathological disorder of the central nervous system, caused by infection with Borna Disease Virus (BDV). The main known naturally affected animal species in endemic areas in central Europe are horses and sheep[24]. In this study we present evidence of shrew mice (Crocidura leucodon) as a vector of BDV. The widespread presence of viral antigen and –RNA in the organs of this animal species without producing pathological lesions differs from the classical host...

  5. European Whiteness?

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U.......S. gender, race, and whiteness studies....

  6. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  7. Identification of a receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (Pm-RACK1), a cellular gene product from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) interacts with a protein, VP9 from the white spot syndrome virus.

    Tonganunt, Moltira; Saelee, Netnapa; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2009-03-01

    A gene encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase C1 homolog has been isolated from the shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Pm-RACK1). The full length Pm-RACK1 cDNA has 957 bp, and an open reading frame encoding a protein of 318 amino acid residues. The protein contains seven WD40 repeats and shares approximately 78% identity with vertebrate RACK1. In adult shrimp, Pm-RACK1 transcripts were detected in all tissues. During WSSV infection, Pm-RACK1 was upregulated in hepatopancreas, stomach and hemocytes. We identified Pm-RACK1 as a specific cellular target protein for VP9, a nonstructural protein of WSSV. The interaction of these two proteins may be involved in mediating intracellular VP9 functions. PMID:19340954

  8. Measuring the Impact of Vitiligo: Behind the White Spots.

    Speeckaert, Reinhart; Lambert, Jo; van Geel, Nanja

    2016-01-01

    The impact of vitiligo is generally believed to be underestimated. Salzes etal. propose a questionnaire to measure the actual burden of vitiligo. Using a stepwise approach they constructed and validated this instrument taking into account the differences between fair and dark skin phototypes. It is a promising approach that can be implemented on an international scale. PMID:26763415

  9. Immune response to Newcastle disease virus vaccine, fowl-pox vaccine, and Escherichia coli vaccine in Bedouin and White Leghorn chickens.

    Heller, D; Soller, M; Peleg, B A; Ron-Kuper, N; Hornstein, K

    1981-01-01

    Immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, fowl pox, and E. coli vaccine was compared in the native Bedouin fowl of the Sinai desert, in a commercial Leghorn layer strain, and in the reciprocal crosses between them. Differences were not found in antibody titer levels to attenuated or inactivated NDV vaccines, in the proportion of birds showing post-vaccination immunity to fowl pox, or in the kinetics of postvaccination NDV titer levels. Rate of development of titer to Escherichia coli from day 1 to day 4, however, was significantly more rapid in Bedouin chicks than in the purebred Leghorn or the reciprocal crosses. PMID:6262741

  10. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    ... Disease Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited in ... information about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White Matter Disease ...

  11. BloodSpot

    Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Sasivarevic, Damir; Sohi, Sina Hadi; Laursen, Linea Gricke; Pundhir, Sachin; Snderby, Casper Kaae; Winther, Ole; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2015-01-01

    Research on human and murine haematopoiesis has resulted in a vast number of gene-expression data sets that can potentially answer questions regarding normal and aberrant blood formation. To researchers and clinicians with limited bioinformatics experience, these data have remained available, yet...... largely inaccessible. Current databases provide information about gene-expression but fail to answer key questions regarding co-regulation, genetic programs or effect on patient survival. To address these shortcomings, we present BloodSpot (www.bloodspot.eu), which includes and greatly extends our...... relationship between different cell types in the database. The database now includes 23 high-quality curated data sets relevant to normal and malignant blood formation and, in addition, we have assembled and built a unique integrated data set, BloodPool. Bloodpool contains more than 2000 samples assembled from...

  12. Detection of Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) in cultured Penaeus monodon from India.

    Prakasha, B K; Ramakrishna, Raju P; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2007-08-13

    Viral diseases have become a major constraint on the growth of shrimp aquaculture in India. During a study of new diseases in cultured tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, diseased samples randomly collected from the southwestern and southeastern coasts of India were analyzed for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) by nested PCR, and for Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Of the 56 samples analyzed, 3 were positive for LSNV. These samples had signs of loose shell syndrome (LSS). Of the 3 samples that tested positive for LSNV, 2 were also positive for WSSV and MBV, and of these 2 samples, 1 was also positive for HPV. This is the first reported presence of LSNV in cultured shrimp in India. PMID:17933400

  13. White Rock

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can't see . . . things like information about what kinds of minerals make up the landforms. Mars scientists once thought, for instance, that these unusual features might be vast hills of salt, the dried up remains of a long-ago, evaporated lake. Not so, said an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, which revealed that the bright material is probably made up of volcanic ash or windblown dust instead. And talk about a cyclical 'ashes to ashes, dust to dust' story! Particles of this material fell and fell until they built up quite a sedimentary deposit, which was then only eroded away again by the wind over time, leaving the spiky terrain seen today. It looks white, but its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the surrounding material is so dark. Of course, good eyesight always helps in understanding. A camera on Mars Global Surveyor with close-up capabilities revealed that sand dunes are responsible for the smudgy dark material in the bright sediment and around it. But that's not all. The THEMIS camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that took this image reveals that this ashy or dusty deposit once covered a much larger area than it does today. Look yourself for two small dots of white material on the floor of a small crater nearby (center right in this image). They preserve a record that this bright deposit once reached much farther. Since so little of it remains, you can figure that the material probably isn't very hard, and simply blows away. One thing's for sure. No one looking at this image could ever think that Mars is a boring place. With all of its bright and dark contrasts, this picture would be perfect for anyone who loves Ansel Adams and his black-and-white photography.

  14. Advances in spot curing technology

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  15. China White

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    ’. We maintain a distinction, with White and with Frank Knight, of risk, on the one hand, and uncertainty, on the other, where ‘risk’ has to do with entities that are in principle insurable or calculable and ‘uncertainty’ has to do with what is not calculable/insurable. An entrepreneur’s decision to...

  16. First Report of a Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria brassicae on the Invasive Weed Lepidium draba in North America

    A second leaf spot disease on the perennial invasive weed white top, aka hoary cress, was found in a stand of white top in south central Montana. The plant pathogen causing the lesions was identified as the fungus Alternaria brassicae. It was isolated, purified grown on a V-8 agar growth medium and ...

  17. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus.

    Verbeek, Martin; Dullemans, Annette; van den Heuvel, Hans; Maris, Paul; van der Vlugt, René

    2010-05-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus. PMID:20229114

  18. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus

    2010-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus.

  19. Obama Asks Congress for $1.9 Billion to Battle Zika Virus

    ... Congress for $1.9 Billion to Battle Zika Virus Money would go toward mosquito-control programs, vaccine development and tests to better spot the virus To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  20. How to Spot Health Fraud

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness How to Spot Health Fraud Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... health fraud. --P.K. Joining Forces to Fight Fraud Health fraud isn't confined to the United ...

  1. Performance of an Early Infant Diagnostic Test, AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT, Using Dried Blood Spots Collected from Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Mothers in Ukraine.

    Chang, Joy; Tarasova, Tetyana; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Azarskova, Marianna; Nguyen, Shon; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zhang, Guoqing; Osmanov, Saladin; Ellenberger, Dennis; Yang, Chunfu; Vitek, Charles; Liulchuk, Maria; Nizova, Natalya

    2015-12-01

    An accurate accessible test for early infant diagnosis (EID) is crucial for identifying HIV-infected infants and linking them to treatment. To improve EID services in Ukraine, dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from 237 HIV-exposed children (?18 months of age) in six regions in Ukraine in 2012 to 2013 were tested with the AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT assay, the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test, and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Qualitative assay. In comparison with the paired whole-blood results generated from AmpliSens testing at the oblast HIV reference laboratories in Ukraine, the sensitivity was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Roche CAP/CTM Qual assays and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98) for the Abbott Qualitative assay. The specificity was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Abbott Qualitative assays and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.00) for the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay. McNemar analysis indicated that the proportions of positive results for the tests were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cohen's kappa (0.97 to 0.99) indicated almost perfect agreement among the three tests. These results indicated that the AmpliSens DBS and whole-blood tests performed equally well and were comparable to the two commercially available EID tests. More importantly, the performance characteristics of the AmpliSens DBS test meets the World Health Organization EID test requirements; implementing AmpliSens DBS testing might improve EID services in resource-limited settings. PMID:26447114

  2. Divide and conquer spot noise

    Leeuw, W.C. de; Liere, R. van

    1997-01-01

    The design and implementation of an interactive spot noise algorithm is presented. Spot noise is a technique which utilizes texture for the visualization of flow fields. Various design tradeoffs are discussed that allow an optimal implementation on a range of high end graphical workstations. Two applications are given: the steering of a smog prediction simulation and browsing a very large data set resulting from a direct numerical simulation of turbulence. These applications provide the motiv...

  3. Heighting Accuracy Of Spot Imagery

    Diefallah, M. A. M.

    1991-01-01

    The SPOT imaging system is the first sensor with stereoscopic capability and global continuous coverage. Stereopairs with overlap and base to height ratio suitable for the extraction of height information with reasonable accuracy can be obtained. This paper summarises the results of an investigation carried out to determine the accuracy of heights derived from SPOT stereoscopic data and to assess the potential of contouring and digital terrain modelling. A stereopair, covers an area in the...

  4. Programmable Positioner For Spot Welding

    Roden, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Welding station mechanized by installing preset indexing system and gear drive. Mechanism includes a low-cost, versatile, single-axis motion control and motor drive to provide fully-automatic weld sequencing and spot-to-spot spacing. Welding station relieves operator of some difficult, tedious tasks and increases both productivity and quality of welds. Results in welds of higher quality and greater accuracy, fewer weld defects, and faster welding operation.

  5. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color.

    Kirkpatrick, D M; McGhee, P S; Hermann, S L; Gut, L J; Miller, J R

    2016-02-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  6. A New Age Approach to the Management of Tomato Spotted Wilt? Effects of Plant Essential Oils and Particle Films on Tomato Spotted Wilt in Tomatoes

    Because the thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is a limiting factor in tomato production in the southern USA, we are investigating novel control methods that would be effective and environmentally non-disruptive. In laboratory choice tests, we found that three plant essential oils, geraniol, ...

  7. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with cutaneous and sinus lymphoproliferation in a white female patient with 25 years' follow-up: an original case report.

    Picard, C; Gouarin, S; Comoz, F; Barreau, M; Verneuil, L; Troussard, X; Dompmartin, A

    2015-11-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is characterized by chronic infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms associated with very high viral load, as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We present an unusual case in a French woman who was followed up over 25 years with cutaneous and sinus lymphoproliferation. This white woman presented with a long history of recurrent cutaneous necrotic papules of the skin, which started during childhood and healed spontaneously with depressed scars. The lesions spread to the left maxillary sinus and were associated with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly with no other visceral locations. Pathological examination of the skin and sinus revealed a dermal monoclonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, CD7(+) and CD20(-) , with no epidermotropism. T-cell receptor rearrangement was positive, showing the monoclonality from the first biopsy. This T-cell proliferation was positive for EBV-encoded small RNA and was associated with a high EBV viral load. Since then, the patient has been in good health, despite a permanently high EBV viral load. Hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like lymphoma and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma were discussed, but none really fit our case. Natural killer cell lymphoma was ruled out because of the indolent course, but sinus lesions do not exist in HV-like lymphoma. A therapeutic approach is difficult because of the coexistence of viral infection and monoclonal T-cell proliferation. Chemotherapy is not efficient and induces immunosuppression, which may worsen the prognosis. Although rituximab may have an immunomodulatory function, it was not effective in our case. PMID:26148205

  8. Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.

    Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

  9. Immune responses induced by a BacMam virus expressing the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus in mice.

    Li, Miao; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Hui; Li, Na; Sun, Yuan; Liang, Bing-Bing; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2009-08-15

    Non-replicating baculovirus-mediated gene transfer into mammalian cells has been developed as a vaccine strategy against a number of diseases in several animal models. In the present study, the BacMam vector, a baculovirus pseudotyped with the glycoprotein from vesicular stomatitis virus, was used as a recombinant vector to express classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein under the control of the immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter from shrimp white spot syndrome virus. The E2 gene was efficiently expressed in both insect and mammalian cells. Intramuscular injection of mice with the recombinant baculovirus resulted in the production of high-titers of CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Specific lymphoproliferative responses to CSFV stimulation were detected in the splenocytes of the immunized mice as demonstrated by CFSE staining assay and WST-8 assay. This study demonstrates that the BacMam virus vector can efficiently express the E2 protein and effectively induce immune responses against CSFV. This is a first step in the demonstration that the pseudotyped baculovirus-delivered CSFV E2 gene can be a potential non-replicating vaccine against CSFV infections. PMID:19589357

  10. Further Insights Into The Epidemiology And Monitoring Practices Of Tomato Viruses

    There are a number of serious virus threats to tomato production in Florida. These include the whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and, more recently, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) which are both vectored by thrips. GRSV and TCSV are cl...

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  12. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Jong-Seung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful prime...

  13. Impact modeling of spot welds

    Resistance spot welds in most current finite element crash models are characterized as a rigid link at the location of the weld which transfers the load but is not designed to fail. Newer weld elements in the popular finite element analysis codes include the option of incorporating a failure criteria for the weld element. As many automotive companies move towards the use of high-strength steels, the dynamic behavior of the spot welds will become increasingly important and the failure of any welds should be incorporated during the simulation. The failure criteria will be influenced by mesh size, weld element properties, weld element type, surrounding material properties, strain rate, and weld placement. The influence of some of these parameters using current spot weld modeling techniques will be discussed along with recommendations for future work in this area

  14. Virus fitopatgenos en insectos asociados al ajo / Plant viruses in garlic-associated insects

    Octavio Gustavo, Garca-Rodrguez; Luis, Prez-Moreno; Martha Juana, Navarro-Len; Manuel Daro, Salas-Araiza; Oscar Alejandro, Martnez-Jaime; Ma. Fabiola, Len-Galvn; Hctor Gordon, Nez-Palenius.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La propagacin vegetativa del ajo (Allium sativum) es la principal va de transmisin de virus para este cultivo. No obstante, no se debe descartar la dispersin por insectos vectores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue detectar, mediante la prueba de ELISA, la presencia de virus en insectos colec [...] tados en plantas de ajo. El experimento se llev a cabo durante el ciclo Otoo-Invierno 2008-2009. La toma de muestras de insectos se realiz en tres fechas despus de la siembra. La identificacin de las especies de insectos se realiz utilizando un estereomicroscopio Zeiss de 30X y claves taxonmicas. La deteccin de virus fue mediante la tcnica de DAS-ELISA para los potyvirus Virus del rayado amarillo del puerro (Leek yellow spot virus: LYSV) y Virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla (Onion yellow dwarf virus: OYDV); los carlavirus Virus latente comn del ajo (Garlic common latent virus: GCLV) y Virus latente del chalote (Shallot latent virus: SLV); y el tospovirus Virus del manchado amarillo del iris (Iris yellow spot virus: IYSV). Se identificaron 19 especies de insectos, de los que destacaron Thrips tabaci Lindeman, como positivo en 18 muestras para GCLV y dos muestras para IYSV, y Collops quadrimaculatus, como positivo en una muestra para GCLV. Abstract in english Vegetative propagation of garlic (Allium sativum) is the main route of virus transmission for this crop. However, insect-vector spread should not be ruled out. The aim of this study was to detect, by means of the ELISA test, the presence of five viruses in insects collected in garlic plants. The exp [...] eriment was conducted during the fall-winter (2008-2009) cycle. Insect samples were taken on three dates: 45, 110 and 140 days after garlic sowing. Insect species identification was performed using a Zeiss (30X) stereomicroscope and the O'Brien and Wilson (1985) and Mound and Kibby (1998) taxonomy keys. The serology test for virus detection was the DAS-ELISA technique. Coat-protein virus antibodies were applied for the potyviruses: Leek yellow spot virus (LYSV) and Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV); for the carlaviruses: Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) and Shallot latent virus (SLV); and for the tospovirus: Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Of the 19 insect species identified, Thrips tabaci Lindeman tested positive in 18 samples for GCLV and in 2 samples for IYSV, and Collops quadrimaculatus tested positive in one sample for GCLV.

  15. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  16. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

  17. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  18. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  19. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Panama

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Christopher D Paddock; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  20. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests. PMID:26263892

  1. [Zika, a neurotropic virus?].

    Del Carpio-Orantes, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the neurotropism potential Zika virus is discussed, by comparison with viruses both RNA and DNA are neurotropic known, also it is said that compared with the new viruses that have affected the Americas, as the chikungunya, Zika has shown great affinity by brain tissue, manifested by a high incidence of acute neurological conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, among others, as well as the reported incidence of microcephaly that is abnormally high compared with the previous incidence, which, in a stillborn subject necropsied significant alterations demonstrated in brain tissue, identifying viral material and live virus in the fetoplacental complex, and demonstrating the impact both white matter and gray matter as well as basal ganglia, corpus callosum, ventricles and spinal cord, which could explain the microcephaly that concerns him. Although not a direct cause-effect relationship is demonstrated, however current evidence supports that relationship, hoping to be supported scientifically. PMID:27197113

  2. LED downlights with non-circular spots

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    2005-09-01

    The ubiquitous downlight inhabits our ceilings by the millions. Hot, inefficient, and electrically wasteful, it is next in line for replacement by the latest high-brightness, high-efficacy white LEDs. The conventional downlight configuration of a large incandescent spotlight in a low-cost, ceiling-recessed metal can, represents the culmination of old technology, fated never to improve significantly. Incandescent downlights add greatly both to direct and indirect electrical consumption, with the lamps requiring relatively frequent replacement. The small size of LED emitters means small optical elements can produce much higher-quality beams than incandescent spotlight-lamps can produce. Herein we introduce compact high-luminosity LED downlights with lenses that deliver uniform illumination to delimited targets such as tables. One version utilizes circular lenses and micro-diffuser films to deliver square outputs. The other uses lenses cut to the target shape. In particular, one of these lenses is the first to offer a semicircular spot suitable for gambling tables.

  3. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  4. White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI

    Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

    2013-02-01

    Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

  5. 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet

    ... Losing Weight Safely 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Healthy Weight > 5 Ways ... A Text Size 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet Lots of today's popular diets take advantage of ...

  6. Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots

    Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

  7. The KIT Gene Is Associated with the English Spotting Coat Color Locus and Congenital Megacolon in Checkered Giant Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Fontanesi, Luca; Vargiolu, Manuela; Scotti, Emilio; Latorre, Rocco; Faussone Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Asti, Martina; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Romeo, Giovanni; Clavenzani, Paolo; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The English spotting coat color locus in rabbits, also known as Dominant white spotting locus, is determined by an incompletely dominant allele (En). Rabbits homozygous for the recessive wild-type allele (en/en) are self-colored, heterozygous En/en rabbits are normally spotted, and homozygous En/En animals are almost completely white. Compared to vital en/en and En/en rabbits, En/En animals are subvital because of a dilated (mega) cecum and ascending colon. In this study, we investigated th...

  8. Characterization of host microRNAs that respond to DNA virus infection in a crustacean

    Huang Tianzhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many processes of eukaryotic cells. It is known that the expression profiles of host miRNAs can be reshaped by viruses. However, a systematic investigation of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection has not yet been performed. Results In this study, the shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Small RNA sequencing of WSSV-infected shrimp at different time post-infection (0, 6, 24 and 48?h identified 63 host miRNAs, 48 of which were conserved in other animals, representing 43 distinct families. Of the identified host miRNAs, 31 were differentially expressed in response to virus infection, of which 25 were up-regulated and six down-regulated. The results were confirmed by northern blots. The TargetScan and miRanda algorithms showed that most target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immune responses. Gene ontology analysis revealed that immune signaling pathways were mediated by these miRNAs. Evolutionary analysis showed that three of them, miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34, are highly conserved in shrimp, fruit fly and humans and function in the similar pathways. Conclusions Our study provides the first large-scale characterization of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection. This will help to reveal the molecular events involved in virus-host interactions mediated by miRNAs and their evolution in animals.

  9. Design of Spot Welding Robot

    Zelun Li; Zhicheng Huang; Youjun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Welding robot has played an extremely important role in the welding production of high-quality, high-efficiency. The paper designed the hardware structure and software of spot welding robot. The hardware design mainly includes the major modules of arm and base; the hardware design includes two parts: manual mode and automatic mode. Manual mode is generally used for the robot system installation, commissioning and troubleshooting, and the major modules are controlled by the start of the corres...

  10. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. PMID:25878171

  11. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  12. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  13. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    Athi, N.; Wylie, S. R.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Jader, M.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.

    2009-07-01

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  14. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  15. Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure

    In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

  16. Design of Spot Welding Robot

    Zelun Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Welding robot has played an extremely important role in the welding production of high-quality, high-efficiency. The paper designed the hardware structure and software of spot welding robot. The hardware design mainly includes the major modules of arm and base; the hardware design includes two parts: manual mode and automatic mode. Manual mode is generally used for the robot system installation, commissioning and troubleshooting, and the major modules are controlled by the start of the corresponding button; automatic mode is mainly used for production stage. The welding robot uses PLC for controlling; the system runs faster and has a short production cycle.

  17. Surveillance Potential of Non-Native Hawaiian Birds for Detection of West Nile Virus.

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Dusek, Robert J; Brand, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP(®) test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance. PMID:26304918

  18. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  19. VIRUS FITOPATÓGENOS EN INSECTOS ASOCIADOS AL AJO

    Octavio Gustavo García-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La propagación vegetativa del ajo ( Allium sativum es la principal vía de transmisión de virus para este cultivo. No obs - tante, no se debe descartar la dispersión por insectos vectores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue detectar, mediante la prueba de ELISA, la presencia de virus en insectos colectados en plantas de ajo. El experimento se llevó a cabo durante el ciclo Otoño-Invierno 2008-2009. La toma de muestras de insectos se realizó en tres fechas después de la siembra. La identificación de las especies de insectos se realizó utilizando un estereomicroscopio Zeiss de 30X y claves taxonómicas. La detección de virus fue mediante la técnica de DAS-ELISA para los potyvirus Virus del rayado amarillo del puerro ( Leek yellow spot virus : LYSV y Virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla ( Onion yellow dwarf virus: OYDV; los carlavirus Virus latente común del ajo ( Garlic common latent virus : GCLV y Virus latente del chalote ( Shallot latent virus : SLV; y el tospovirus Virus del manchado amarillo del iris ( Iris yellow spot virus : IYSV. Se identificaron 19 especies de insectos, de los que destacaron Thrips tabaci Lindeman, como positivo en 18 muestras para GCLV y dos muestras para IYSV, y Collops quadrimaculatus , como positivo en una muestra para GCLV.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 ref|NP_477758.1| wsv236 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33240.1| wsv2 ... 36 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89160.1| WSSV292 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477758.1 2.4 29% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2338 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2338 ref|NP_477662.1| wsv140 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33144.1| wsv1 ... 40 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89063.1| WSSV195 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477662.1 0.54 32% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1232 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1232 ref|NP_478006.1| wsv484 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33485.1| wsv4 ... 84 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL88879.1| WSSV011 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_478006.1 8.9 27% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 ref|NP_477761.1| wsv239 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33243.1| wsv2 ... 39 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89163.1| WSSV295 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477761.1 7e-05 36% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1367 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1367 ref|NP_477616.1| wsv094 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33098.1| wsv0 ... 94 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89018.1| WSSV150 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477616.1 1.7 37% ...

  5. Oil futures and spot markets

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  6. X-ray spot filmer

    An X-ray apparatus is described which includes a spot filmer for feeding sheets of unexposed film one at a time into a vacuum evacuable cassette for exposure, and for returning exposed film sheets to an exposed film magazine. The spot filmer has a housing defining a light-tight enclosure. The film magazines are insertable through a door into the housing and into a film feed mechanism. The film feed mechanism unlatches, opens and positions the magazines; it then feeds a sheet of unexposed film into the vacuum evacuable cassette, releases the film sheet so the cassette can position the film sheet for exposure, and closes the film magazines. An orthogonal drive system positions the vacuum evacuable cassette to expose selected film sheet portions and returns the cassette to a retracted position. The film feed mechanism opens the magazines, feeds the exposed film sheet into the exposed film magazine, and closes the magazines. A film identification system is provided for forming an identifying image on a marginal portion of each film sheet

  7. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the white dwarfs through the formation of strong radiating shock waves. A comparative study of the IPS and Polars can elucidate the primary effects of the magnetic fields on the dynamics and thermodynamics in accreting white dwarf systems.

  8. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

  9. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F. [Foundation Joint Implementation Network JIN, Paterswolde (Netherlands); Overmars, P. (ed.) [Energy Delta Institute EDI, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection.

  10. SpotADAPT: Spot Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical Processing Tasks on Amazon EC2

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Cetintemel, Ugur; Kraska, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times of...

  11. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jess; Farfn, Miguel ngel; Mrquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  12. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  13. Whiteness and wideness

    Thau, Carsten

    Katalogartikel til Robert Wilsons og Kaleidoskops forestilling på Bellevue Teatret 'The white town'......Katalogartikel til Robert Wilsons og Kaleidoskops forestilling på Bellevue Teatret 'The white town'...

  14. Spot market power and future market trading

    Muermann, Alexander; Shore, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    When a spot market monopolist participates in the futures market, he has an incentive to adjust spot prices to make his futures market position more protable. Rational futures market makers take this into account when they set prices. Spot market power thus creates a moral hazard problem which parallels the adverse selection problem in models with inside information. This moral hazard not only reduces the optimal amount of hedging for those with and without market power, but also makes compl...

  15. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has pr...

  16. Confronting White Privilege

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.

  17. Hot spots of mutualistic networks.

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. PMID:25402941

  18. A spot market for electricity

    Electric utilities in many parts of the world are being transformed from regulated monopolies to competitive enterprises. They are buying power from sources they don't control, and experiencing new competitive pressures in selling. In response, utilities have begun to use such techniques as ''active demand-side management'' and ''real-time pricing'' to improve their responsiveness to customers and to create new opportunities for revenue. As an extension of the industry's evolution so far, this article describes how the utilities industry might develop a ''spot market'' for electricity, with the utility providing value in the form of a service for arbitrating requests and demands from various generators and users. The author presents a possible future organization of the electricity market, for which there is no model currently known. Most of its elements do exist in some form at one or more power companies around the world

  19. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  20. Multicentric histiocytosis related to avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J)-infection in meat-type local chickens.

    Furukawa, Seiko; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Maeda, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Gross lesions characterized by swollen livers and spleens accompanied by diffuse white miliary spots, which resembled those of Marek's disease, were detected in two flocks of local meat-type chickens at a Japanese poultry processing plant in June and August 2010. The microscopic examinations revealed proliferative foci consisting of spindle or polymorphic cells in the interstitium of livers, splenic follicles and the interstitium of kidneys. These cells were positive immunohistochemically with Iba1 antibody, indicating they were histiocytic cells. Some of them contained antigens of avian leukosis virus (ALV) by immunohistochemistry,and the env gene of ALV subgroup J was detected from the spleens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product indicated that the env gene might be descended from the American ADOL-7501 strain of ALV-J. These results suggest that the swollen livers and spleens of the meat-type chickens may come from histiocytic proliferation caused by ALV-J infection. PMID:23978900

  1. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Morel, Paul; WU, XIAODONG; Blin, Guillaume; Vialette, Stéphane; Flynn, Ryan; Hyer, Daniel; Dongxu WANG

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and methods The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU) of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot; it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot that a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on...

  2. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A M; Heuvel, van den, G.; Maris, P. C.; Vlugt, van der, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus. M. Verbeek and A. Dullemans contributed to this res...

  3. Distribution of viral antigen gp85 and provirus in various tissues from commercial meat-type and experimental white leghorn line 0 chickens with different subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection profiles

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test for the presence of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV J) envelope antigen gp85 and provirus, respectively in various tissues (adrenal gland, bone marrow, gonad, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, proventriculus, s...

  4. Detection of infectious myonecrosis virus using monoclonal antibody specific to N and C fragments of the capsid protein expressed heterologously.

    Kunanopparat, Areerat; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Senapin, Saengchan; Longyant, Siwaporn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Flegel, Timothy W; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the capsid protein in ORF1 of the genome of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) (GenBank AY570982) was amplified into three parts named CP-N (nucleotides 2248-3045), CP-I (nucleotides 3046-3954) and CP-C (nucleotides 3955-4953). The CP-N fragment was inserted into expression vector pTYB1 while CP-I and CP-C were each inserted into expression vector pGEX-6P-1 for transformation of BL21 E. coli strain. After induction, intein-CP-N (84 kDa), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-CP-I (60 kDa) and GST-CP-C (62 kDa) fusion proteins were produced. They were separated by SDS-PAGE and electroeluted before immunization of Swiss mice for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Two MAbs specific to CP-N and one MAb specific to CP-C were selected for use for detection of natural IMNV infections in Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. There was no cross-reaction with shrimp tissues or common shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), Taura syndrome virus (TSV), Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV), Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) and Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV). The detection sensitivities of the MAbs were approximately 6 fmol/spot of purified recombinant intein-CP-N protein and 8 fmol/spot of GST-CP-C as determined by dot blotting. A combination of all three MAbs resulted in a twofold increase in sensitivity over use of any single MAb. However, this sensitivity was approximately 10 times lower than that of one-step RT-PCR using the same sample. Immunohistochemical analysis using MAbs specific to CP-N and CP-C in IMNV-infected shrimp revealed intense staining patterns in muscles, the lymphoid organ, gills, the heart, hemocytes and connective tissue. PMID:21029750

  5. Modelling of the Resistance Spot Welding Process

    Govik, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A literature survey on modelling of the resistance spot welding process has been carried out and some of the more interesting models on this subject have been reviewed in this work. The underlying physics has been studied and a brief explanation of Heat transfer, electrokinetics and metallurgy in a resistance spot welding context have been presented.\

  6. Occupational asthma due to spot-welding.

    Lee, H S; Chia, S E; Yap, J C; Wang, Y T; Lee, C S

    1990-10-01

    A case of occupational asthma from fumes due to spot-welding is described. The hazards from resistance welding have been considered minimal as compared to other types of welding. This paper illustrates the possible hazards of occupational asthma among welders including those doing spot-welding. It also illustrates the difficulties encountered in identifying the specific causative agent in such cases. PMID:2259956

  7. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  9. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  10. The effects of plant essential oils and particle films on tomato spotted wilt and thrips in tomatoes

    Because the thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is a limiting factor in tomato production in the southern USA, we are investigating novel control methods that would be effective and environmentally non-disruptive. In laboratory choice tests, we found that three plant essential oils, geraniol, ...

  11. Production System of Virus-free Apple Plants Using Heat Treatment and Shoot Tip CultureShoot Tip Culture

    Gunsup Lee; Il Sheob Shin; Kang Hee Cho; Se Hee Kim; Juhee Shin; Dae Hyun Kim; Jeong Hee Kim; Hyun Ran Kim

    2013-01-01

    In worldwide, viral diseases of apple plants has caused the serious problems like reduced production and malformation of fruits. Also, the damages of apple plants by virus and/or viroid infection (Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem grooving virus, Apple mosaic virus, and Apple scar skin viroid) were reported in Korea. However there is few report about the protection approach against the infection by apple viruses. Therefore, this paper introduced the experimental protocol...

  12. Element spots in HgMn stars

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade now the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are known to be distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Temporal evolution of these elemental spots have been reported in a few HgMn stars, first secular evolution of the mercury spots in alpha And, and recently also a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the affected elements. In this paper I review what is known of elemental spots in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

  13. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  14. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  15. Robust design of spot welds in automotive structures: A decision-making methodology

    Ouisse, M.; Cogan, S.

    2010-05-01

    Automotive structures include thousands of spot welds whose design must allow the assembled vehicle to satisfy a wide variety of performance constraints including static, dynamic and crash criteria. The objective of a standard optimization strategy is to reduce the number of spot welds as much as possible while satisfying all the design objectives. However, a classical optimization of the spot weld distribution using an exhaustive search approach is simply not feasible due to the very high order of the design space and the subsequently prohibitive calculation costs. Moreover, even if this calculation could be done, the result would not necessarily be very informative with respect to the design robustness to manufacturing uncertainties (location of welds and defective welds) and to the degradation of spot welds due to fatigue effects over the lifetime of the vehicle. In this paper, a decision-making methodology is presented which allows some aspects of the robustness issues to be integrated into the spot weld design process. The starting point is a given distribution of spot welds on the structure, which is based on both engineering know-how and preliminary critical numerical results, in particular criteria such as crash behavior. An over-populated spot weld distribution is then built in order to satisfy the remaining design criteria, such as static torsion angle and modal behavior. Then, an efficient optimization procedure based on energy considerations is used to eliminate redundant spot welds while preserving as far as possible the nominal structural behavior. The resulting sub-optimal solution is then used to provide a decision indicator for defining effective quality control procedures (e.g. visual post-assembly inspection of a small number of critical spot welds) as well as designing redundancy into critical zones. The final part of the paper is related to comparing the robustness of competing designs. Some decision-making indicators are presented to help the analyst to plan robust resistance spot welds designs along with quality controls in order to insure a specified level of structural performance. All examples are presented on a full body-in-white structure (one million dofs and thousands spot welds).

  16. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  17. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  18. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  19. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  20. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, t...

  1. Geo Spots and Vortex Theory

    Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between the convection currents of the mantle-lithosphere system with terrestrial dynamics has represented one of the main themes of tectonophysics for over a century, in addition to the relationships interwoven with crust dynamics. Likewise, the relevant debate has animated the scientific community for more than a century, as recalled by the work of Kreighauger (1902), Ampferer (1906), Schwinner (1919), Holmes (1928), Griggs (1932), Pekeris (1935), Kraus (1951), Hess (1962). Though never directly observed, the convection currents in the mantle manifest their effects in the Earth's crust in various ways, such as the flow of heat in the oceans and continents, and magnetic anomalies. These are the result of effects caused by ferromagnetic materials dragged upwards by convection movements, as demonstrated by the laboratory simulations carried out by Glatzmaier and Olson (2005). With respect to the initial simplified and theoretical modelling of the first authors of the last century, the studies by Bercovici, Schubert and Glatzmaier (1989) and those of Glatzmaier and Olson (2005) revealed a complex three-dimensional model of the dynamics of convection processes in the mantle, even if it is not yet clear to what extent this mechanism actually reflects reality. The differences in temperature in the Earth's inner shells causes convection movements that can manifest both on a large scale with laminar flows and plumes, and on a small scale with turbulent flows concentrated in limited areas of the globe. The trajectories in a vortex, also proposed by Gurevich (2012), generated by complex motions in the mantle-lithosphere system, are driven by the Coriolis Effect. The combination of these mechanisms together with the Coriolis force creates, on the whole, ascending helical motions with a similar effect to that of an atmospheric cyclone interacting with the lithospheric shell. In this study it is believed that the ascending whirling movements (Vortex Theory), when limited to particular regions, may have created in the past and perhaps still do to this day torsions in localized spots of the Earth's crust (Geo Spots), which over time have conditioned the distribution of tectonic stresses on the surface of the Earth at a regional scale.

  2. Proteomic analysis of hen egg white.

    Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Pasco, Maryvonne; Mollé, Daniel; Désert, Colette; Croguennec, Thomas; Nau, Françoise

    2006-05-31

    Hen egg white is an original biological fluid in which major proteins have been widely studied, unlike the minor components. In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry enabled the separation of 69 protein spots and their matching with major proteins, which were already known, and with minor proteins. Sixteen proteins were identified, and among them, two had never been previously detected in hen egg white, i.e., Tenp, a protein with strong homology with a bacterial permeability-increasing protein family (BPI), and VMO-1, an outer layer vitelline membrane protein. Thirteen proteins present a very wide polymorphism (ovotransferrin, ovomucoid, clusterin, etc.), some of them up to nine isoforms (ovoinhibitor). Eleven functional protein families were identified (serpin, transferrin, protease inhibitors Kazal, glycosyl hydrolases, lipocalin, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein, clusterin, UPAR/CD59/Ly6/ snake neurotoxin, cysteine protease inhibitor, VMO-1, and folate receptor families). These various biological functions could be interesting for further valorizations. In addition, three spots remain unidentified, probably because these proteins are not yet indexed in the international protein databanks. PMID:16719513

  3. Dried blood spots--preparing and processing for use in immunoassays and in molecular techniques.

    Grner, Nico; Stambouli, Oumaima; Ross, R Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of collecting blood on a paper card and subsequently using the dried blood spots (DBS) for diagnostic purposes originated a century ago. Since then, DBS testing for decades has remained predominantly focused on the diagnosis of infectious diseases especially in resource-limited settings or the systematic screening of newborns for inherited metabolic disorders and only recently have a variety of new and innovative DBS applications begun to emerge. For many years, pre-analytical variables were only inappropriately considered in the field of DBS testing and even today, with the exception of newborn screening, the entire pre-analytical phase, which comprises the preparation and processing of DBS for their final analysis has not been standardized. Given this background, a comprehensive step-by-step protocol, which covers al the essential phases, is proposed, i.e., collection of blood; preparation of blood spots; drying of blood spots; storage and transportation of DBS; elution of DBS, and finally analyses of DBS eluates. The effectiveness of this protocol was first evaluated with 1,762 coupled serum/DBS pairs for detecting markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus infections on an automated analytical platform. In a second step, the protocol was utilized during a pilot study, which was conducted on active drug users in the German cities of Berlin and Essen. PMID:25867233

  4. Analysis on the expression and function of syndecan in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Syndecan is considered to be a multifunctional protein which functions as a cell surface receptor involved in cell adhesion, migration, cytoskeleton organization and differentiation. Previous bioinformatic analysis has revealed that syndecan in shrimp might interact with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In the present study, we experimentally studied the function of syndecan in shrimp immunity. The syndecan from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvSDC) was cloned and analyzed. The full-length cDNA of LvSDC was 1005?bp, consisting of 59?bp 5'-UTR, 253?bp 3'-UTR, and 693?bp open reading frame encoding 230 amino acids. LvSDC consisted of an extracellular domain (ED), a transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic domain (CD). TM and CD shared high similarities with those of syndecan proteins from other species. LvSDC was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, with the highest level in Oka. After WSSV challenge, the transcription level of LvSDC in Oka was apparently up-regulated. Recombinant LvSDC protein and its rabbit polyclonal antibody were prepared for detecting the location of LvSDC in hemocytes using immunocytochemistry approach. Data showed that LvSDC mainly located at the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of hemocytes. After silencing of LvSDC with siRNA, the WSSV copy numbers and mortality of shrimp after WSSV infection were both significantly decreased. These data provide useful information for understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp to WSSV infection. PMID:25847874

  5. A theory of a spot

    We present a simple inflationary scenario that can produce arbitrarily large spherical underdense or overdense regions embedded in a standard ? cold dark matter paradigm, which we refer to as bubbles. We analyze the effect such bubbles would have on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). For super-horizon sized bubble in the vicinity of the last scattering surface, a signal is imprinted onto CMB via a combination of Sach-Wolfe and an early integrated Sach-Wolfe (ISW) effects. Smaller, sub-horizon sized bubbles at lower redshifts (during matter domination and later) can imprint secondary anisotropies on the CMB via Rees-Sciama, late-time ISW and Ostriker-Vishniac effects. Our scenario, and arguably most similar inflationary models, produce bubbles which are over/underdense in potential: in density such bubbles are characterized by having a distinct wall with the interior staying at the cosmic mean density. We show that such models can potentially, with only moderate fine tuning, explain the cold spot, a non-Gaussian feature identified in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data by several authors. However, more detailed comparisons with current and future CMB data are necessary to confirm (or rule out) this scenario

  6. Diseases of white matter

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  7. The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene

    Strain George M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to determine the underlying genes involved in coat color determination in the dog, e.g., in the Labrador Retriever, but none to date have addressed black versus liver in the Dalmatian. Results A genome scan was conducted in a multi-generational kindred of Dalmatians segregating black and liver spot color. Linkage analysis was performed using a total of 113 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the kindred. Linkage was found between spot color and a single microsatellite marker, FH2319 (LOD = 12.5 on chromosome 11. Conclusion The TYRP1 (Brown locus is located at position 50.1 Mb on chromosome 11, which is approximately 0.4 Mb from marker FH2319. Given the recent characterization of TYRP1 genetic variations in the dog and the linkage evidence reported here, TYRP1 is likely responsible for the spot color variation of black versus liver seen in the Dalmatian.

  8. Probabilistic modelling of the high-pressure arc cathode spot displacement dynamic

    Coulombe, S

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic modelling approach for the study of the cathode spot displacement dynamic in high-pressure arc systems is developed in an attempt to interpret the observed voltage fluctuations. The general framework of the model allows to define simple, probabilistic displacement rules, the so-called cathode spot dynamic rules, for various possible surface states (un-arced metal, arced, contaminated) and to study the resulting dynamic of the cathode spot displacements over one or several arc passages. The displacements of the type-A cathode spot (macro-spot) in a magnetically rotating arc using concentric electrodes made up of either clean or contaminated metal surfaces is considered. Experimental observations for this system revealed a 1/f sup - sup t sup i sup l sup d sup e sup 1 signature in the frequency power spectrum (FPS) of the arc voltage for anchoring arc conditions on the cathode (e.g. clean metal surface), while it shows a 'white noise' signature for conditions favouring a smooth movement (e.g. ox...

  9. Oligonucleotide microarray-based detection and identification of 10 major tomato viruses.

    Tiberini, Antonio; Tomassoli, Laura; Barba, Marina; Hadidi, Ahmed

    2010-09-01

    A DNA microarray chip was developed for screening 10 major economically important tomato viruses from infected plants using "Combimatrix" platform 40-mer oligonucleotide probes. A total of 279 oligonucleotide virus probes were specific for simultaneous multiple detection, identification, differentiation and/or genotyping of each of the following tomato RNA viruses and/or strains and a virus satellite: Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA, Tomatoinfectiouschlorosisvirus, Tomato chlorosisvirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Pepino mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus and Tomato mosaic virus. This selection included both positive and negative single-stranded RNA viruses. The single-stranded DNA viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus were detected but were not differentiated using probes designed from their coat protein genes. A sectored oligonucleotide microarray chip containing four sets of 2000 features (4 x 2 K) was designed. In this way, four samples were tested simultaneously in a hybridization event and 16 samples were analyzed by re-using the chip four times. The hybrids had low background signals. Many of the 40-mer oligonucleotide probes were specific for the detection and identification of each RNA viral species, RNA viral satellite and genotyping strains of Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepino mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Universal probes were developed for strains of the last three viruses and also for the genus Tobamovirus which includes both Tobacco mosaicvirus and Tomato mosaic virus. PMID:20470828

  10. White matter dementia

    Filley, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    White matter dementia (WMD) is a syndrome introduced in 1988 to highlight the potential of cerebral white matter disorders to produce cognitive loss of sufficient severity to qualify as dementia. Neurologists have long understood that such a syndrome can occur, but the dominance of gray matter as the locus of higher function has strongly directed neurobehavioral inquiry to the cerebral cortex while white matter has received less attention. Contemporary neuroimaging has been crucial in enablin...

  11. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer. PMID:6644934

  12. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    Nemiroff, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are {\\it not} particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below $c$, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above $c...

  13. Accreting White Dwarfs

    Hernanz, M

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear (type Ia) supernovae are explosions in accreting white dwarfs, but the exact scenario leading to these explosions is still unclear. An important step to clarify this point is to understand the behaviour of accreting white dwarfs in close binary systems. The characteristics of the white dwarf (mass, chemical composition, luminosity), the accreted material (chemical composition) and those related with the properties of the binary system (mass accretion rate), are crucial for the further evolution towards the explosion. An analysis of the outcome of accretion and the implications for the growth of the white dwarf towards the Chandrasekhar mass and its thermonuclear explosion is presented.

  14. A study of the photometric variability of the peculiar magnetic white dwarf WD1953-011

    Valyavin, G; Plachinda, S; Clark, D M; Wade, G A; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Bagnulo, S; Zharikov, S V; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Shulyak, D; Burlakova, T

    2011-01-01

    We present and interpret simultaneous new photometric and spectroscopic observations of the peculiar magnetic white dwarf WD1953-011. The flux in the V-band filter and intensity of the Balmer spectral lines demonstrate variability with the rotation period of about 1.45 days. According to previous studies, this variability can be explained by the presence of a dark spot having a magnetic nature, analogous to a sunspot. Motivated by this idea, we examine possible physical relationships between the suggested dark spot and the strong-field magnetic structure (magnetic "spot", or "tube") recently identified on the surface of this star. Comparing the rotationally-modulated flux with the variable spectral observables related to the magnetic "spot" we establish their correlation, and therefore their physical relationship. Modeling the variable photometric flux assuming that it is associated with temperature variations in the stellar photosphere, we argue that the strong-field area and dark, low-temperature spot are c...

  15. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Ladislav Kolařík; Miroslav Sahul; Marie Kolaříková; Martin Sahul; Milan Turňa; Michal Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA). Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to e...

  16. MKK6 from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is responsive to bacterial and WSSV infection.

    Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Qian, Zhe; Wu, Zhenzhen; L, Kai; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-02-01

    p38 mitogen-actived protein kinases (MAPKs) broadly exist from yeast to mammals and participate in diverse cellular responses to various stimuli, whose activation can be induced by the MAPK kinase 6 (MKK6). In this study, a novel MKK6 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvMKK6) was cloned and characterized. The transcript of LvMKK6 was 1465bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 987bp that encoded a polypeptide of 328 amino acids. LvMKK6 was a both cytoplasmic- and nuclear-localized protein and its expression was up-regulated with the treatment of different stimuli including LPS, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Poly (I:C) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Overexpression of LvMKK6 could lead to activate the promoter activities of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as PEN4. The further investigation demonstrated that LvMKK6 could interact with and phosphorylate Lvp38, suggesting LvMKK6 was an activator of Lvp38. Knockdown of LvMKK6 caused attenuate expression of several AMPs and resulted in the higher mortality of shrimp under V. parahaemolyticus infection, suggesting LvMKK6 could play vital roles in defense against bacterial infection. Interestingly, silencing of LvMKK6 led to the lower virus loads and suppressed viral gene (VP28) expression during WSSV challenge. In addition, overexpression of LvMKK6 promoted the promoter activities of 19 WSSV immediate-early genes such as wsv069, wsv249, wsv108 and wsv403. These results suggested that LvMKK6 could be used by WSSV. Above all, these data provided experimental evidences that participation of LvMKK6 in regulating AMPs and host defense against bacteria, as well as the immune response to WSSV infection. PMID:26745320

  17. A mammalian spot test: induction of genetic alterations in pigment cells or mouse embryos with X-rays and chemical mutagens

    Embryos heterozygous for five recessive coat-color genes from the cross C57 BL/6 J Han x T-stock were X-irradiated with 100 r or treated in utero with 50 mg/kg methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), respectively. Controls consisted of irradiated embryos of C57 BL x C57 BL matings homozygous wild-type for the genes under study, and non-treated offspring of both types of mating. The colors of the spots observed in the adult fur were either due to expression of the recessive coat genes or were white. 1) Irradiated and mutagen-treated offspring of C57 BL x T-stock matings had almost exclusively nonwhite spots, distributed randomly over the mouse surface. 2) Irradiated offspring of C57 BL x C57 BL matings had only white spots which were always midventral. 3) In non-treated offspring of both types of mating no spot could be observed. It is discussed that the white midventral spots are preferentially the result of pigment cell killing, while the nonwhite spots are preferentially the result of gene mutations or recombinational processes like mitotic crossing over and mitotic gene conversion. (orig./BSC)

  18. Monitoring the Behavior of Star Spots Using Photometric Data

    Ioannidis, P.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We use high accuracy photometric data to monitor the behavior of star spots . We develop an algorithm to determine the size and longitude of spots or spot groups, using Kepler light curves . Our algorithm separates the light curve in rotational-period sized intervals and calculates the size and longitude of the star spots by using limb darkened spot crossing models. The results can then be used to identify populations of spots, active regions on the stellar surface, mean spot lifetimes or even evidence for activity cycle evidences. To check the efficiency of our code we calculate the spot positions and sizes for the planet host star Kepler-210 .

  19. Retinoblastoma protein functions as a molecular switch determining white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    Hansen, Jacob B.; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K.; Hallenborg, Philip; De Matteis, Rita; Bøye, Hans A.; Petrovic, Natasa; Enerbäck, Sven; Nedergaard, Jan; Cinti, Saverio; Riele, Hein te; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Adipocyte precursor cells give raise to two major cell populations with different physiological roles: white and brown adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates white vs. brown adipocyte differentiation. Functional inactivation of pRB in wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and white preadipocytes by expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen results in the expression of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in the adipose state. Ret...

  20. Chikungunya virus

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  1. Zika Virus

    ... and sexual contact. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, parts ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  2. Zika Virus

    ... live but weakened virus, so that it cannot cause disease) investigational Zika vaccine building on a similar vaccine approach for the closely-related dengue virus. An investigational Zika vaccine that uses a ...

  3. Chikungunya Virus

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  4. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  5. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  6. Sailing to White Boat

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  7. Creating White Australia

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  8. The white noise generator

    Full text: A thermal noise generator, that is close to the 'white' generator by its energy spectra. This generator allows to increase power of noise m1/2 times conserving initial noise band with, where m is a number of parallel of a white noise can be used in radiation ecology for statistical trials

  9. ECHO virus

    Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the United States, they are most common in ...

  10. Secondary spot for pulsed laser SEE testing

    The pulsed laser is an effective method to simulate single event effect (SEE) induced by heavy ions. When the laser focused on the chip surface using the backside approach, the laser spot was observed. The experiment data of Si substrate and Si wafer show that the secondary spot is formed due to the reflection of metal layer, and it is verified by the thickness of Si substrate and the depth of laser focusing. (authors)

  11. X-ray spot film device

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  12. New sensors benchmark report on SPOT7

    VAJSOVÁ BLANKA; PARAGE Vincent; FAGET Nathalie; AASTRAND Paer

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to assess whether SPOT7 sensor can be qualified for Control with Remote Sensing program (CwRS), in Common Agriculture Policy (CAP). The benchmarking presented herein aims at evaluating the usability of SPOT7 for the CAP checks through an estimation of its geometric (positional) accuracy, as well as measuring the influence of different factors (viewing angle, number of GCPs, software implementation) on this accuracy. For that purpose, the External...

  13. Concentrator hot-spot testing, phase 1

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1987-05-01

    Results of a study to determine the hot-spot susceptibility of concentrator cells, to provide a hot-spot qualification test for concentrator modules, and to provide guidelines for reducing hot-spot susceptibility are presented. Hot-spot heating occurs in a photovoltaic module when the short-circuit current of a cell is lower than the string operating current forcing the cell into reverse bias with a concurrent power dissipation. Although the basis for the concentrator module hot-spot qualification test is the test developed for flat-plate modules, issues, such as providing cell illumination, introduce additional complexities into the testing procedure. The same general guidelines apply for protecting concentrator modules from hot-spot stressing as apply to flat-plate modules. Therefore, recommendations are made on the number of bypass diodes required per given number of series cells per module or source circuit. In addition, a new method for determining the cell temperature in the laboratory or in the field is discussed.

  14. On the origin of delta spots. [on sun

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with H-alpha filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot borne piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. The findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots and spots of normal magnetic configuration.

  15. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  16. Spot weld arrangement effects on the fatigue behavior of multi-spot welded joints

    In the present study, the effects of spot weld arrangements in multi-spot welded joints on the fatigue behavior of the joints are studied. Three different four-spot welded joints are considered: one-row four-spot parallel to the loading direction, one-row four-spot perpendicular to the loading direction and two-row four-spot weld specimens. The experimental fatigue test results reveal that the differences between the fatigue lives of three spot welded types in the low cycle regime are more considerable than those in the high cycle regime. However, all kinds of spot weld specimens have similar fatigue strength when approaching a million cycles. A non-linear finite element analysis is performed to obtain the relative stress gradients, effective distances and notch strength reduction factors based on the volumetric approach. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job in predicting the fatigue life of the multi-spot welded joints

  17. Sunshine virus in Australian pythons.

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Cathy M; Doneley, Robert J T; Nicholls, Philip K

    2012-12-28

    Sunshine virus is a recently discovered novel paramyxovirus that is associated with illness in snakes. It does not phylogenetically cluster within either of the two currently accepted paramyxoviral subfamilies. It is therefore only distantly related to the only other known genus of reptilian paramyxoviruses, Ferlavirus, which clusters within the Paramyxovirinae subfamily. Clinical and diagnostic aspects associated with Sunshine virus are as yet undescribed. The objective of this paper was to report the clinical presentation, virus isolation, PCR testing and pathology associated with Sunshine virus infection. Clinical records and samples from naturally occurring cases were obtained from two captive snake collections and the archives of a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. The clinical signs that are associated with Sunshine virus infection are localised to the neurorespiratory systems or are non-specific (e.g. lethargy, inappetence). Out of 15 snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus (detected in any organ by either virus isolation or PCR), the virus was isolated from four out of ten (4/10) sampled brains, 3/10 sampled lungs and 2/7 pooled samples of kidney and liver. In these same 15 snakes, PCR was able to successfully detect Sunshine virus in fresh-frozen brain (11/11), kidney (7/8), lung (8/11) and liver (5/8); and various formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (7/8). During a natural outbreak of Sunshine virus in a collection of 32 snakes, the virus could be detected in five out of 39 combined oral-cloacal swabs that were collected from 23 of these snakes over a 105 day period. All snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus were negative for reovirus and ferlavirus by PCR. Snakes infected with Sunshine virus reliably exhibited hindbrain white matter spongiosis and gliosis with extension to the surrounding grey matter and neuronal necrosis evident in severe cases. Five out of eight infected snakes also exhibited mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Infection with Sunshine virus should be considered by veterinarians investigating disease outbreaks in snakes, particularly those that are associated with neurorespiratory disease. PMID:22883310

  18. Whiteness Studies I

    Kolchin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness Studies. Over the past two decades, scholars in the social sciences and humanities have increasingly focused on « whiteness » as a new way of exploring race and racism in America. These two articles evaluate the way historians have approached the subject. The first article, originally published in the Journal of American History in 2002, examines the development of whiteness studies in the 1990s, and the second, which appears here for the first time, provides an update on more recen...

  19. Whiteness Studies II

    Kolchin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness Studies. Over the past two decades, scholars in the social sciences and humanities have increasingly focused on « whiteness » as a new way of exploring race and racism in America. These two articles evaluate the way historians have approached the subject. The first article, originally published in the Journal of American History in 2002, examines the development of whiteness studies in the 1990s, and the second, which appears here for the first time, provides an update on more recen...

  20. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  1. Borna Disease Virus RNA in Immunocompromised Patients in Southwestern France

    Cotto, Emmanuelle; Neau, Didier; Cransac-Neau, Martine; Auriacombe, Marc; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Ragnaud, Jean-Marie; Fillet, Anne-Marie; Belnard, Magali; Fleury, Hervé; Lafon, Marie-Edith

    2003-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus with a wide host range. Human infections, although controversial, have been described in Europe, Asia, and the United States. The present study investigated the existence of BDV infections in immunocompromised human beings, namely, 82 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 80 therapeutically immunosuppressed patients. BDV p40 RNAs were detected in peripheral white blood cells with reverse transcription-nested PCR and hybridization ...

  2. Extensive Mongolian Spots with Autosomal Dominant Inheritance

    Beeregowda YC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mongolian spots are benign skin markings at birth which fade and disappear as the child grows. Often persistent extensive Mongolian spots are associated with inborn error of metabolism. We report thirteen people of the single family manifested with extensive Mongolian spots showing autosomal dominant inheritance.Case Presentation: A one day old female child, product of second degree consanguineous marriage, born by normal vaginal delivery with history of meconium stained amniotic fluid and birth asphyxia. On examination the child showed extensive bluish discoloration of the body involving trunk and extremities in both anterior and posterior aspects associated with bluish discoloration of the tongue. A detailed family history revealed most of the family members manifested with extensive bluish discoloration of the body soon after birth which faded in the first few years of life and completely disappeared by puberty. Thus it was diagnosed to be extensive Mongolian spots with an autosomal dominant inheritance.Conclusion: Knowledge about the natural history of extensive Mongolian spots, their inheritance and association with certain metabolic diseases mainly IEM and Mucopolysaccharidosis aids in the diagnosis and in order to improve the patients prognosis.

  3. Wolff - ?arkinson - White syndrome

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolff - Parkinson - White syndrome is the second most common cause of supraventricular tachycardia in the world. Morphological substrate of Wolff - Parkinson - White syndrome is presented by a muscle bridge, which exists in addition to the existing specialized area of AV-connection and is able to conduct electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles. Today intracardiac electrophysiological study is the gold standard for diagnosis of Wolff - Parkinson - White syndrome and an obligatory stage of preoperative examination. Intracardiac electrophysiologic study allows to evaluate the risk of sudden death of a patient. Gold standard treatment of Wolff - Parkinson - White syndrome is currently considered to be radiofrequency ablation, which is a safe and highly effective method of therapy.

  4. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point. First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides. In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust. CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found. The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  5. MR imaging of white matter lesions in AIDS

    Autopsy reports have shown white-matter abnormalities from infection of the brain by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors observed abnormal signal on T2-weighted images in the white matter of approximately one third of all AIDS patients. Of 50 patients with white-matter lesions, approximately two thirds had no clinical or biopsy evidence of cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, PML, or lymphoma. Several patients were shown at autopsy to have isolated evidence of HIV encephalitis. The authors conclude that white-matter lesions are common in AIDS and are frequently caused by infection with HIV. Some MR findings may be helpful in characterizing these lesions, but the various etiologies are often indistinguishable

  6. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  7. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications

  8. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  9. White dwarf planets

    Bonsor Amy; Veras Dimitri; Villaver Eva; Mustill Alexander J.; Wyatt Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 ? 5?M?...

  10. Black and white holes

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  11. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Cesar Marcial Escobedo-Bonilla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV. Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa, batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa, respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

  12. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

    Escobedo-Bonilla, Csar Marcial; Rangel, Jos Luis Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection. PMID:25561847

  13. Simulating acoustic waves in spotted stars

    Papini, Emanuele; Gizon, Laurent; Hanasoge, Shravan M

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic modes of oscillation are affected by stellar activity, however it is unclear how starspots contribute to these changes. Here we investigate the non-magnetic effects of starspots on global modes with angular degree $\\ell \\leq 2$ in highly active stars, and characterize the spot seismic signature on synthetic light curves. We perform 3D time-domain simulations of linear acoustic waves to study their interaction with a model starspot. We model the spot as a 3D change in the sound speed stratification with respect to a convectively stable stellar background, built from solar Model S. We perform a parametric study by considering different depths and perturbation amplitudes. Exact numerical simulations allow investigation of the wavefield-spot interaction beyond first order perturbation theory. The interaction of the axisymmetric modes with the starspot is strongly nonlinear. As mode frequency increases, the frequency shifts for radial modes exceed the value predicted by linear theory, while the shifts for...

  14. Note: Resistance spot welding using a microgripper.

    Hwang, G; Podrzaj, P; Hashimoto, H

    2013-10-01

    Interest in thin-film nanostructures as building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is increasing. Resistance spot welding (RSW) on a nano or micro scale can play a significant role; similar to that of its macro counterpart for forming connections in device assembly processes. This Note presents a novel micron scale RSW technique using a microgripper as mobile spot welding electrodes to assemble ultra-thin film nanostructures. As an example, assembly of three-dimensional helical nanobelt (HNB) based device was successfully demonstrated using the proposed system. The spot-welding process was fully monitored by the built-in capacitive micro force sensor of the microgripper. Experiments show that RSW, using the microgripper, provides a stable electrical contact with sufficient mechanical strength for the construction of devices such as HNB based devices demonstrated here. PMID:24182178

  15. Ocular hazards of industrial spot welding.

    Chou, B R; Cullen, A P

    1996-06-01

    Any welding process is perceived to be a radiation hazard to the eye. Site visits were made to an automotive assembly plant to assess the levels of optical radiation and other hazards on the production line. Measurements were taken with a scanning spectro-radiometer and optical power and energy meters at operating working distances at spot welding stations where nonrobotic procedures were performed. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiance levels produced while spot welding with electrodes operating at 10 to 15 kA and 10 to 20 V were several orders of magnitude below recommended safety limits for industrial exposure. Flashes were rich in visible light and infrared (IR) radiation, but not at hazardous levels. The principal hazards in manual spot welding with high-current electrodes are high-speed droplets of molten metal produced by the process. These are easily defended against by wraparound polycarbonate eye shields. PMID:8807655

  16. How much extra spot gas is there?

    With the increase of European gas demand and the sharp decrease of local supply, security of supply is becoming an ever greater issue. However, liberalization tilts the traditional equilibrium based on long term 'take or pay' contracts between big suppliers and national distribution companies. Today, buying gas on the spot market is becoming more and more important to balance supply portfolio with a fast moving market share. But the way gas spot markets are operating is not well documented. It is very difficult to assess its impact on the European security of supply. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate the amount of 'spot' liquefied natural gas (LNG) that could be found in case of a major supply disruption in pipe gas delivered to Europe

  17. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector. PMID:25775106

  18. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White

  19. Illiquidity transmission from spot to futures markets

    Korn, Olaf; Krischak, Paolo; Theissen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model of the illiquidity transmission from spot to futures markets that formalizes the derivative hedge theory proposed by Cho and Engle (1999). The model shows that spot market illiquidity does not translate one-to-one to the futures market, but rather interacts with price risk, liquidity risk, and the risk aversion of the market maker. The predictions of the model are tested empirically with data from the stock market and the market for single-stock futures. The results support...

  20. Pulsed thermographic inspection of spot welds

    Shepard, Steven M.; Chaudhry, Bharat B.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Zaluzec, Matthew J.

    1998-03-01

    In automotive manufacturing, the lack of nondestructive methods for assessment of spot weld integrity has been a critical shortcoming, with enormous economic consequences for both domestic and foreign auto makers. At present, auto body welds are subjectively evaluated using destructive pull tests, or visual examination after the weld has been mechanically separated using an impact tool. Pulsed thermographic evaluation of spot welds offers a fast, noncontact method for quantitative assessment of the weld nugget. The technique can be applied using either one or both faces of the weld. Results on steel resistance welds will be presented, along with correlation to weld process parameters.

  1. Repairing Of Resistance Spot Welding Solenoid Valve

    Repairing of resistance spot welding solenoid valve on Technical Implementation Unit -Technical Workshop - Nuclear Safety Technology Development Center (UPT-BK- P2TKN) has been done. This resistance spot welding is rarely used and maintained. Then the solenoid valve seal has been broken and the machine could not operated. Caused by the budget constraint, then those rubber seals replaced temporary by chair support rubber with some modification on its shape. The result is the machine could run well for the time being but unfortunately the reliability of rubber seal needed to be tested furthermore

  2. Development of AFP blood spot immunoradiometric assay

    Two AFP McAb are used in AFP blood spot immunoradiometric assay. One is labelled with iodine-125 and the other is coated to the test tubes. The whole blood standards are spotted on filter paper. The measurement range is 10-800 ?g/L. The sensitivity is no more than 7.2 ?g/L. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation are 5.1%-10.0% and 4.7%-8.6% respectively. The normal value is less than 10 ?g/L. The correlation coefficient comparing with the IRMA of serum AFP is 0.979

  3. Recurrent lumbosacral herpes simplex virus infection

    Vassantachart, Janna M.; Menter, Alan

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old white woman with episodic lumbosacral lesions that she had been treating as psoriasis. Evaluation revealed classic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The discussion reviews the significance and potential complications of recurrent lumbosacral HSV infection.

  4. Rotation of the sun measured from Mount Wilson white-light images

    Howard, R.; Gilman, P. I.; Gilman, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumentation, data and data reduction procedures used in white light observations of sunspot rotation rates are described. The study covered 62 yr of rotation observations. The data were all gathered using the same Mt. Wilson telescope, which has had three different main lenses in the interval 1981-82. Details of the exposure calibration and lens operation procedures are provided. The data were treated in terms of eight evenly space determinations of the solar limb and account was taken of all sunspots within 60 deg of the central meridian. Spot movements were traced in terms of groups of contiguous individual spots. Large spots rotated slower than small spots, a condition attributed to greater viscous drag in the larger flux tubes in the photosphere. The data tend to confirm theories that the photospheric gas revolves at a different rate than the sunspots.

  5. White matter diseases

    There are many causes for white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRI, though sensitive, is only rarely specific for the etiology. Histologic and pathologic examination are far more specific, however. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the known MR characteristics of white matter diseases and relate them to the underlying pathophysiologic processes. Knowledge of the pathologic basis for demyelination and dysmyelination should improve our understanding of the MR appearance and thereby improve the specificity of diagnoses. Compared with computed tomography (CT), MRI is far superior in detecting and demonstrating the extent of intracerebral white matter diseases. Furthermore, lesions of the optic nerves and spinal cord are frequently seen on MRI, but have only rarely been reported by CT. A limitation of MRI may actually be its high sensitivity, coupled with its lack of specificity, which results in similar-appearing images of diverse white matter processes, some of which are completely benign, and some of which are neurologically devastating. To maximize the MR evaluation of white matter diseases, it is important to acquire an adequate clinical history, to recognize the various disease patterns, as they correspond to pathology, and to understand the response of the diseases to different pulse sequences

  6. 'Cherry red spot' in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease: case report.

    Arago, Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de; Ramos, Rgia Maria Gondim; Pereira, Felipe Bezerra Alves; Bezerra, Andreya Ferreira Rodrigues; Fernandes, Daniel Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, caused by enzyme hexosaminidase A deficiency that leads to an accumulation of GM2 in neurocytes which results in progressive loss of neurological function. The accumulation of lipid in retinal ganglion cells that leads to a chalk-white appearance of the fundus called 'cherry red spot' is the hallmark of Tay-Sachs disease. It is also seen in others neurometabolic diseases as well as in central retinal artery occlusion. This case reports a child with Tay-Sachs disease in a family with four previous similar deaths without diagnostic. PMID:19820796

  7. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques. PMID:21645437

  8. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  9. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs, Brazil

    Labruna, Marcelo B.; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Mauricio C. Horta; Pacheco, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  10. Genetics of tan spot resistance in wheat

    Tan spot is a devastating foliar disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Much has been learned during the past two decades regarding the genetics of wheat-P. tritici-repentis interactions. Research has shown that the fungus produces at least three ho...

  11. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All...

  12. TSH IRMA of dried blood spots

    TSH determination is most useful for screening of neonatal hypothyroid in the population in iodine deficient areas. The NETRIA IRMA method for serum TSH was applied for blood-spot TSH. Cord blood on SS No. 903 filter paper was left dry overnight. The spot of 6 mm diameter, one/tube, was mixed with an assay buffer, diluted labelled m-anti-TSH, and diluted anti-TSH-solid phase. The mixture was rotated for 22-24 hours. After washing twice with wash buffer, it was counted for 1 minute. The standard curve with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mIU/L whole blood was obtained with the maximum binding of 25%. The precision profile was satisfactory with %CV of 0C) or 40 C or -200C. The correlation between serum and blood-spot TSH values (n=120) showed r of 0.9541 and y=1.6123 (BS-TSH) +1.382. The mean of normal cord blood spot TSH (n=142) was 5.27 mIU/L. The technique was found to be precise, sensitive and easy to perform. Mass screening with this developed method is underway

  13. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  14. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and

  15. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This...

  16. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and…

  17. Oysters as hot spots for mimivirus isolation.

    Andrade, Ktyllen R; Boratto, Paulo P V M; Rodrigues, Felipe P; Silva, Lorena C F; Dornas, Fbio P; Pilotto, Mariana R; La Scola, Bernard; Almeida, Gabriel M F; Kroon, Erna G; Abraho, Jnatas S

    2015-02-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous organisms, but their role in the ecosystem and their prevalence are still poorly understood. Mimiviruses are extremely complex and large DNA viruses. Although metagenomic studies have suggested that members of the family Mimiviridae are abundant in oceans, there is a lack of information about the association of mimiviruses with marine organisms. In this work, we demonstrate by molecular and virological methods that oysters are excellent sources for mimiviruses isolation. Our data not only provide new information about the biology of these viruses but also raise questions regarding the role of oyster consumption as a putative source of mimivirus infection in humans. PMID:25344898

  18. A homologue gene of ?-catenin participates in the development of shrimps and immune response to bacteria and viruses.

    Xie, Ya-Kai; Ding, Ding; Wang, Hui-Min; Kang, Cui-Jie

    2015-11-01

    ?-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that is involved in many physiological processes, including development, cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. However, the function of ?-Catenin in crustacean is unknown. In this study, the first shrimp homologous gene of ?-catenin in Marsupenaeus japonicus (i.e., Mj?-catenin) was identified and characterized. The full-length of the complementary DNA of Mj?-catenin is 3130 bp, including a 2463 bp open reading frame that encodes 821 amino acid. Multiple alignment of ?-Catenin proteins suggested that the Armadillo/?-Catenin-like repeat domains were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ?-Catenin from shrimp was clustered into one group with invertebrate ?-Catenin. The transcription of ?-catenin in various development stages of shrimp was detected and persistently increased as the shrimp matured. In adult shrimp, ?-catenin was widely distributed in detected tissues and has the relatively high expression level in gills, hemocytes, testes, and ovaries. The transcripts of ?-catenin in tissues of adult shrimp were significantly up-regulated at various time points after infecting with Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio anguillarum, and white-spot syndrome virus. Furthermore, knockdown of ?-catenin resulted in impaired bacterial clearance ability and increased virus copy in shrimp in vivo. Therefore, ?-Catenin in shrimp participates in the development and immune response of shrimps. PMID:26334791

  19. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  20. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  1. Infection of Alstroemeria Plants with Tomato yellow ring virus in Iran

    Beikzadeh, N.; H. Bayat; B. Jafarpour; Rohani, H.; Peters, D.; Hassani-Mehraban, A.

    2012-01-01

    Alstroemeria cv. Ovation plants with virus-like necrotic spots and streaks on leaves and petals were observed in greenhouses in Khorasan Razavi (Mashhad) and Markazi (Mahallat) provinces, Iran. Samples with virus-like symptoms reacted positively in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a polyclonal antibody raised against Tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. TYRV-specific primers were used in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify the N gene. The de...

  2. Black & White Nim games

    Larsson, Urban

    2011-01-01

    We present a new family of Nim games where the rules depend on a given `coloring' of the tokens, each token being either black or white. The rules are as in Nim with the restriction that a white token on top of each heap is not allowed. We resolve the winning strategies of two disjoint game families played on two heaps. The heap-sizes with black tokens correspond to the numbers $\\lfloor \\beta n \\rfloor$, where $\\beta>2$ is an integer for one of the families and irrational for the other, and w...

  3. White hemithorax in children.

    Lucaya, Javier; Garcs-Iigo, Enrique F; Garca-Pea, Pilar; Piqueras, Joaquim; Enriquez, Goya

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this pictorial review is to introduce the radiologist to the differential diagnosis of a white hemithorax in children, to provide significant information on the diagnostic work-up, and to promote radiation-free techniques whenever possible. There are many causes of white hemithorax in children and it can be due to a variety of chest disorders. In most cases, plain chest radiographs and ultrasound will suffice. However, additional information provided by, e.g., CT or MRI is sometimes required. PMID:21553041

  4. Efficacy Evaluation of an Inactivated Duck Tembusu Virus Vaccine.

    Lin, Jian; Liu, Yuehuan; Wang, Xiuqing; Yang, Baoshou; He, Pingyou; Yang, Zhiyuan; Duan, Huijuan; Xie, Jia; Zou, Lihong; Zhao, Jicheng; Pan, Jie

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of an inactivated virus-based vaccine for the control and prevention of the newly emerged duck Tembusu virus infection in China, a duck Tembusu virus isolate, Tembusu-HB, was propagated in 12-day-old duck embryos and inactivated by treatment with formaldehyde. The inactivated viral antigen was emulsified with mineral oil, and five batches of the vaccine were manufactured. The immunogenicity and protection efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated in Beijing ducks and Beijing white geese. Results showed that more than 80% of immunized ducks were protected against virulent virus challenge after two intramuscular or subcutaneous injections of the inactivated vaccine, as evidenced by the negative virus isolation results. The protection is also correlated with a positive virus-specific antibody response as detected by ELISA. In contrast, none of the control ducks and geese had any detectable antibody response. Virus was isolated from all control ducks and geese after virulent virus challenge. Interestingly, a variable level of protection (20%-80%) was observed in Beijing white geese immunized twice with the same batches of vaccine, suggesting a species-specific effect of the vaccine. Overall, the results clearly suggest that the inactivated duck Tembusu virus vaccine is immunogenic and provides protection against virulent virus challenge. PMID:26473674

  5. Peptide inhibitors of dengue virus and West Nile virus infectivity

    Garry Robert F

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral infection. The envelope glycoprotein (E of flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV and dengue virus (DENV, are class II viral fusion proteins comprised predominantly of beta sheets. We used a physio-chemical algorithm, the Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity scale (WWIHS 1 in combination with known structural data to identify potential peptide inhibitors of WNV and DENV infectivity that target the viral E protein. Viral inhibition assays confirm that several of these peptides specifically interfere with target virus entry with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the 10 μM range. Inhibitory peptides similar in sequence to domains with a significant WWIHS scores, including domain II (IIb, and the stem domain, were detected. DN59, a peptide corresponding to the stem domain of DENV, inhibited infection by DENV (>99% inhibition of plaque formation at a concentrations of 99% inhibition at

  6. Radon concentration profiles in soil at a mysterious spot and a normal spot

    Based on the 222Rn and 220Rn concentration survey in Japan, a spot with extremely high 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations (a mysterious spot) was found at Tsuruga area, Fukui Prefecture, facing Japan Sea. The main source of this high concentration was localized in a small but deep channel between the basement of a building and the surrounding soil. In order to more deeply understand the sources and the transport mechanisms of 222Rn gas in this spot, some investigations were done. The investigations included the measurements of soil 222Rn concentration, soil 226Ra concentration, the determination of soil parameters such as porosities, water contents, 222Rn diffusion coefficients, emanation power, soil permeability, and soil temperature. To compare with a normal spot, the same experiment was done at the campus of Nagoya University. The measurements were done in four seasons. The measurement results at the mysterious spot showed that the soil radon concentration was not the function of soil depth. Moreover, the concentration dramatically changed hour by hour and the biggest fluctuation of the concentration was in soil depth of 120 cm. In contrast to that, at the normal spot, radon concentration was the function of soil depth and the fluctuation of radon concentration hour by hour was small. The geographical site study and the simulation program of radon transport in unsaturated soil, showed that the water movement in soil was a parameter which strongly influences the radon transport in soil. (J.P.N.)

  7. Programming balanced optical beam splitters in white paint

    Huisman, S R; Goorden, S A; Mosk, A P; Pinkse, P W H

    2014-01-01

    Wavefront shaping allows for ultimate control of light propagation in multiple-scattering media by adaptive manipulation of incident waves. We shine two separate wavefront-shaped beams on a layer of dry white paint to create two enhanced output speckle spots of equal intensity. We experimentally confirm by interference measurements that the output speckle spots are almost correlated like the two outputs of an ideal balanced beam splitter. The observed deviations from the phase behavior of an ideal beam splitter are analyzed with a transmission matrix model. Our experiments demonstrate that wavefront shaping in multiple-scattering media can be used to approximate the functionality of linear optical devices with multiple inputs and outputs.

  8. Suspicious Pigment Spots More Common on Darker Skin

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156220.html Suspicious Pigment Spots More Common on Darker Skin Screening can ... one-third more likely to have potentially dangerous pigment "spots" on their palms and soles, a new ...

  9. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma debido a que el diámetro del punto de soldadura es en el primer caso mayor. La resistencia en los dos tipos de soldaduras es aproximadamente igual.

  10. Mutation hot spots in the canine herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene.

    Yamada, Shinya; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Haruki

    2005-08-01

    The guanine and cytosine content (GC-content) of alpha-herpesvirus genes are highly variable despite similar genome structures. It is known that drug resistant HSV, which has the genome with a high GC-content (approximately 70%), commonly includes frameshift mutations in homopolymer stretches of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene. However, whether such mutation hotspots exist in the TK gene of canine herpesvirus (CHV) which has a low GC-content was unknown. In this study, we investigated mutations in the TK gene of CHV. CHV was passaged in the presence of iodo-deoxyuridine (IDU), and IDU-resistant clones were isolated. In all IDU-resistant virus clones, mutations in the TK gene were observed. The majority of these mutations were frameshift mutations of an adenine (A) insertion or deletion within either of 2 stretches of eight A's in the TK gene. It was demonstrated that CHV TK mutations frequently occur at a limited number of hot spots within long homopolymer nucleotide stretches. PMID:15965615

  11. Big White Wall app.

    2015-11-11

    For anyone struggling with anxiety or stress, the Big White Wall app offers an anonymous space to voice concerns or speak to others. Before trying the app, users need to go to www.bigwhitewall . com and answer a brief questionnaire to set up login details and a password to protect anonymity. PMID:26554985

  12. White matter lesion progression

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C; DeCarli, Charles; Fornage, Myriam; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Srikanth, Velandai; Trompet, Stella; Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Wolf, Christiane; Yang, Qiong; Adams, Hieab H H; Amouyel, Philippe; Beiser, Alexa; Buckley, Brendan M; Callisaya, Michele; Chauhan, Ganesh; de Craen, Anton J M; Dufouil, Carole; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ford, Ian; Freudenberger, Paul; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Heiss, Gerardo; Hofman, Albert; Lumley, Thomas; Martinez, Oliver; Mazoyer, Bernard; Moran, Chris; Niessen, Wiro J; Phan, Thanh; Psaty, Bruce M; Satizabal, Claudia L; Sattar, Naveed; Schilling, Sabrina; Shibata, Dean K; Slagboom, P Eline; Smith, Albert; Stott, David J; Taylor, Kent D; Thomson, Russell; Töglhofer, Anna M; Tzourio, Christophe; van Buchem, Mark; Wang, Jing; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Windham, B Gwen; Vernooij, Meike W; Zijdenbos, Alex; Beare, Richard; Debette, Stéphanie; Ikram, M Arfan; Jukema, J Wouter; Launer, Lenore J; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  13. White dots do matter

    Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    general Toffoli circuits. We also show how to use these rules to derive more complex formulas. The major difference compared to existing approaches is the use of negative controls (white dots), which significantly increases the algebraic strength. We show how existing optimisation approaches can be...

  14. White matter lesion progression

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C; DeCarli, Charles; Fornage, Myriam; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Srikanth, Velandai; Trompet, Stella; Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Wolf, Christiane; Yang, Qiong; Adams, Hieab H H; Amouyel, Philippe; Beiser, Alexa; Buckley, Brendan M; Callisaya, Michele; Chauhan, Ganesh; de Craen, Anton J M; Dufouil, Carole; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ford, Ian; Freudenberger, Paul; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Heiss, Gerardo; Hofman, Albert; Lumley, Thomas; Martinez, Oliver; Mazoyer, Bernard; Moran, Chris; Niessen, Wiro J; Phan, Thanh; Psaty, Bruce M; Satizabal, Claudia L; Sattar, Naveed; Schilling, Sabrina; Shibata, Dean K; Slagboom, P Eline; Smith, Albert; Stott, David J; Taylor, Kent D; Thomson, Russell; Tglhofer, Anna M; Tzourio, Christophe; van Buchem, Mark; Wang, Jing; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Windham, B Gwen; Vernooij, Meike W; Zijdenbos, Alex; Beare, Richard; Debette, Stphanie; Ikram, M Arfan; Jukema, J Wouter; Launer, Lenore J; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  15. Computer viruses

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  16. The White Sea, Russia

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  17. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne; Tranæus, Sofia; Karlsson, Lena; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Twetman, Svante

    recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste...... a reduced area of the lesions after 4 weeks as assessed by QLF. The improvement was however not superior to the "natural" regression following daily use of fluoride toothpaste....... included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p <0.05) regression of the WSL was disclosed in both study groups compared to baseline, but there was no difference between the groups. The mean area of the lesions decreased by 58% in the CPP-ACP group and 26% in the fluoride group (p = 0...

  18. White Institutional Presence: The Impact of Whiteness on Campus Climate

    Gusa, Diane Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, Diane Gusa highlights the salience of race by scrutinizing the culture of Whiteness within predominately White institutions of higher education. Using existing research in higher education retention literature, Gusa examines embedded White cultural ideology in the cultural practices, traditions, and perceptions of

  19. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  20. Brazilian spotted fever: a reemergent zoonosis

    H. Greca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is the most pathogenic species of the spotted-fever rickettsiae group and is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Amblyomma cajennense is the most important tick species involved in the cycle of this zoonosis in Brazil as it presents low host specificity, great number of natural reservoirs and wide geographic distribution. It was first described in the state of São Paulo in 1929 and later in Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Bahia. The number of cases decreased in the 1940's with the development of new plague control techniques and antibiotics. In the last decades, the number of new cases has increased. The current review aimed at reporting some of the epidemiological and public health aspects of this reemergent disease with new foci, mainly in the southeastern region of Brazil.