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Complete Genome Sequence of the Shrimp White Spot Bacilliform Virus  

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We report the first complete genome sequence of a marine invertebrate virus. White spot bacilliform virus (WSBV; or white spot syndrome virus) is a major shrimp pathogen with a high mortality rate and a wide host range. Its double-stranded circular DNA genome of 305,107 bp contains 181 open reading frames (ORFs). Nine homologous regions containing 47 repeated minifragments that include direct repeats, atypical inverted repeat sequences, and imperfect palindromes were identified. This is the l...

Yang, Feng; He, Jun; Lin, Xionghui; Li, Qin; Pan, Deng; Zhang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xun

2001-01-01

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On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus  

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More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon towards the presumed less susceptibleLitopenaeusvannamei , the use of specific pathogen free shrimp and the development of more advanced shrimp c...

Witteveldt, J.

2006-01-01

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THE WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV LOAD IN Dendronereis spp.  

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Full Text Available The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative agent of White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD, is a major shrimp pathogen in Indonesia. Dendronereis spp. is a ubiquitous Polychaetes and natural food of shrimp raised in brackishwater pond in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to determine the occurrence of WSSV and the viral load in Dendronereis spp. obtained from the shrimp pond. Dendronereis spp. was obtained with PVC (10 cm in diameter from a traditional shrimp pond in Semarang vicinity. As acomparison, healthy looking Penaeus monodon was also obtained from the same pond. The occurrence of WSSV in Dendronereis spp. was determined with 1-step and nested PCR using primer for WSSV major envelope protein, VP 28. The viral load was counted with 1-step Real Time PCR. The WSSV was detected in Dendronereis spp. with 1-step and nested PCR. The point prevalence of WSSV infection in Dendronereis spp. is 90 %. The viral load ranged from 0 to 1.9 x 104 copy of DNA/µg total DNA. The viral load in Dendronereis is comparable with that of naturally infected and at carrier state P.monodon from the same pond. This is the first report of WSSV load in naturally infected Dendronereis spp.

Desrina

2012-06-01

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Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp  

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White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, ¿variable region ORF14/15¿ and ¿variable region ORF23/24¿. Here, we characterize a WSSV isolate originating from shrimp collected in Thailand in 1996 (TH-96-II). This isolate contains the largest WSSV genome (312 kb) identified so far, mainly because of...

Marks, H.; Duijse, J. J. A.; Zuidema, D.; Hulten, M. C. W.; Vlak, J. M.

2005-01-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus Orf514 Encodes a Bona Fide DNA Polymerase  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome, one of the most devastating diseases in shrimp aquaculture. The genome of WSSV includes a gene that encodes a putative family B DNA polymerase (ORF514), which is 16% identical in amino acid sequence to the Herpes virus 1 DNA polymerase. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the activity of the WSSV ORF514-encoded protein as a DNA polymerase and hence a putative antiviral target. A 3.5 kbp fragment encoding the c...

Enrique de-la-Re-Vega; Garcia-orozco, Karina D.; Arvizu-flores, Aldo A.; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Adriana Muhlia-Almazan; Jesús Hernández; Brieba, Luis G.; Sotelo-mundo, Rogerio R.

2011-01-01

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Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

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Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to 100% within 3 to 10 days.One of the clinical signs of WSSV is the appearance of white spots in the exoskeleton of ...

Hulten, M. C. W.

2001-01-01

7

Pupil - white spots  

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White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black. ... Sometimes, the pupil of the eye may appear white, or the normal red reflex may appear to ...

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Designing and Introduce a Diagnostic Kit for Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Cultured Penaeus indicus in Iran  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is designing a diagnostic kit for white spot syndrome virus. We designed 2 series of primers for diagnosis of viral VP24 gene and also primers as internal controls which amplify part of genome in both positive and negative samples. DNA of shrimps were extracted and PCR amplification carried out. In this research, a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps designed and tested using 32 shrimp samples which were dubious to have this disease. White spot virus were found in 23 samples and the other 9 were negative. For extra confirmation, the PCR product was sequenced and deposited to GenBank. We designed a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps and tested successfully.

A.M. Saberi

2008-01-01

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Changes in tissue defence system in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected Penaeus monodon.  

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The present study examined the changes occurring in the pro phenoloxidase system and antioxidant defence status in haemolymph, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected Penaeus monodon. Tiger shrimps (P. monodon) were infected with white spot virus by intramuscular injection of the virus inoculum. Levels of lipid peroxides and the activities of phenoloxidase, glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)] and antiperoxidative enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] were determined. WSSV infection induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in haemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas of experimental P. monodon compared to normal controls. This was paralleled by significant reduction in the activities of phenol oxidase, glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes. The results of the present study indicate that the tissue antioxidant defence system in WSSV infected P. monodon is operating at a lower rate, which ultimately resulted in the failure of counteraction of free radicals, leading to oxidative stress as evidenced by the increased level of lipid peroxidation. PMID:17287147

Mathew, Suseela; Kumar, K Ashok; Anandan, R; Viswanathan Nair, P G; Devadasan, K

2007-04-01

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Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild shrimp Penaeus monodon in the Philippines.  

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Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology on DNA extracted from the gills of wild black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon collected from 7 sampling sites in the Philippines. These 7 sampling sites are the primary sources of spawners and broodstock for hatchery use. During the dry season, WSSV was detected in shrimp from all sites except Bohol, but during the wet season it was not detected in any site except Palawan. None of the WSSV-PCR positive shrimp showed signs of white spots in the cuticle. Prevalence of WSSV showed seasonal variations, i.e. prevalence in dry season (April to May) was higher than in the wet season (August to October). These results suggest that WSSV has already become established in the local marine environment and in wild populations of P. monodon. Thus, broodstock collected during the dry season could serve as the main source of WSSV contamination in shrimp farms due to vertical transmission of the virus in hatcheries. PMID:18062468

de la Peña, Leobert D; Lavilla-Pitogo, Celia R; Villar, Corina Belle R; Paner, Milagros G; Sombito, Christopher D; Capulos, Geimbo C

2007-10-15

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Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in recognition of beta-integrin.  

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The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that beta-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of beta-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed that envelope proteins VP26, VP31, VP37, VP90 and nucleocapsid protein VP136 interacted with LvInt. RGD-, YGL- and LDV-related peptide functioned as motifs of WSSV proteins binding with beta-integrin. The beta-integrin ligand of RGDT had better blocking effect compared with that of YGL- and LDV-related peptides. In vivo assay indicated that RGD-, LDV- and YGL-related peptides could partially block WSSV infection. These data collectively indicate that multiple proteins were involved in recognition of beta-integrin. Identification of proteins in WSSV that are associated with beta-integrin will assist development of new agents for effective control of the white spot syndrome. PMID:24845502

Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Qing-Hui; Huang, Jie

2014-06-01

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DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of around 300 kb and it replicates in the nucleus of the host cells. The machinery of how the viral DNA is packaged has been remained unclear. VP15, a highly basic protein, is one of the major capsid proteins found in the virus. Previously, it was shown to be a DNA binding protein and was hypothesized to participate in the viral DNA packaging process. Using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging, we show that the viral DNA is associated with a (or more) capsid proteins. The organized viral DNA qualitatively resembles the conformations of VP15 induced DNA condensates in vitro. Furthermore, single-DNA manipulation experiments revealed that VP15 is able to condense single DNA against forces of a few pico Newtons. Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA.

2010-12-20

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Highly sensitive capacitive biosensor for detecting white spot syndrome virus in shrimp pond water.  

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Water is one major pathways by which the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogen enters aquaculture facilities. This paper describes the production and use of a capacitive biosensor for the quantitative detection of as little as 1copy/?l of WSSV in shrimp pond water. A glutathione-S-transferase tag for white spot binding protein (GST-WBP) was immobilized on a gold electrode through a self-assembled monolayer. Binding between WSSV and the immobilized GST-WBP was directly detected by a capacitance measurement. Under optimum conditions, the capacitive biosensor detected WSSV over a wide linear range of between 1 and 1 × 10(5)copies/?l. The system was highly selective for WSSV. One analysis cycle required only 20-25 min of analysis time and 25 min of regeneration time. The capacitive biosensor was applied to analyze WSSV concentration in eight shrimp pond water samples and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) method (P>0.05). The immobilized GST-WBP provided and could be reused for up to 39 analysis cycles for one electrode preparation with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4% and a good reproducibility of residual activity (95.8 ± 2.3%). The appealing performance of this biosensor indicated that it had great potential for an accurate very sensitive, quantitative, detection method for WSSV. PMID:21256870

Samanman, Saluma; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Deachamag, Panchalika; Thavarungkul, Panote

2011-04-01

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Polychaete worms--a vector for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

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The present work provides the first evidence of polychaete worms as passive vectors of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the transmission of white spot disease to Penaeus monodon broodstocks. The study was based on live polychaete worms, Marphysa spp., obtained from worm suppliers/worm fishers as well as samples collected from 8 stations on the northern coast of Tamilnadu (India). Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon broodstock with undeveloped ovaries were experimentally infected with WSSV by feeding with polychaete worms exposed to WSSV. Fifty percent of polychaete worms obtained from worm suppliers were found to be WSSV positive by 2-step PCR, indicating high prevalence of WSSV in the live polychaetes used as broodstock feed by hatcheries in this area. Of 8 stations surveyed, 5 had WSSV positive worms with prevalence ranging from 16.7 to 75%. Polychaetes collected from areas near shrimp farms showed a higher level of contamination. Laboratory challenge experiments confirmed the field observations, and > 60% of worms exposed to WSSV inoculum were proved to be WSSV positive after a 7 d exposure. It was also confirmed that P. monodon broodstock could be infected with WSSV by feeding on WSSV contaminated polychaete worms. Though the present study indicates only a low level infectivity in wild polychaetes, laboratory experiments clearly indicated the possibility of WSSV transfer from the live feed to shrimp broodstock, suggesting that polychaete worms could play a role in the epizootiology of WSSV. PMID:15819425

Vijayan, K K; Stalin Raj, V; Balasubramanian, C P; Alavandi, S V; Thillai Sekhar, V; Santiago, T C

2005-02-28

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??????: Tomato spotted wilt virus  

Full Text Available Viruses Bunyaviridae Tomato spotted wilt virus TSWV (acronym) NCBI 11613 Tomato spotted wilt vir us (scientific name) NCBI 11613 tomato spotted wilt virus TSWV (synonym) NCBI 11613

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Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico  

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Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

González-Galaviz José Reyes

2013-01-01

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Characterization of ORF89 - A latency-related gene of white spot syndrome virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Open reading frame 89 (ORF89) is one of the three genes that are believed to be involved in the latent infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of ORF89. cDNA sequencing, 5' RLM-RACE, and 3' RLM-RACE showed that ORF89 gene is transcribed into an unspliced mRNA of 4436 nucleotides, which is predicted to encode a protein of 1437 amino acids. ORF89 expressed an approximately 165-kDa protein in Sf9 cells that localized in the nucleus. Amino acids 678-683 were found to be essential for nuclear localization. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that ORF89 protein repressed its own promoter as well as those of a protein kinase and the thymidine-thymidylate kinase genes of WSSV. SYBR Green real-time PCR indicated that the repression occurred at the transcriptional level

2004-07-20

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First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from Lagoa dos Patos estuary, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul.

Lissandra Souto Cavalli

2011-09-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus Induces Metabolic Changes Resembling the Warburg Effect in Shrimp Hemocytes in the Early Stage of Infection ?  

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The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the viral genome replication stage (12 h postinfection [hpi]), glucose consumption and plasma lactate concentration were both increased in WSS...

Chen, I-tung; Aoki, Takashi; Huang, Yun-tzu; Hirono, Ikuo; Chen, Tsan-chi; Huang, Jiun-yan; Chang, Geen-dong; Lo, Chu-fang; Wang, Han-ching

2011-01-01

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Detection and Quantification of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus and White Spot Virus in Shrimp Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and SYBR Green Chemistry  

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A rapid and highly sensitive real-time PCR detection and quantification method for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), a single-stranded DNA virus, and white spot virus (WSV), a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus infecting penaeid shrimp (Penaeus sp.), was developed using the GeneAmp 5700 sequence detection system coupled with SYBR Green chemistry. The PCR mixture contains a fluorescence dye, SYBR Green, which upon binding to dsDNA exhibits fluorescence enhancement....

Dhar, Arun K.; Roux, Michelle M.; Klimpel, Kurt R.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Immune response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius to yellow head virus (YHV and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV  

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Full Text Available Immunological responses of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon were induced under laboratory conditions by injecting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and yellow head virus (YHV. The survivors from WSSV and YHV infection showed improvement in their immunity against the re-challenging by both viruses. The WSSV survivors showed higher capability than that of YHV survivors in developing the immunity. The highest relative percent survival (RPS against WSSV and YHV noted after a 43-day period of WSSV injection was 67 and 37.5%, respectively. While the RPSs against both viruses after periods of 46 and 60 days of the YHV injection were 37.5 and 12.1%. Similarly, an in vitro neutralization activity of plasma separated from the survivors with WSSV injection showed preference of virus being eliminated over the plasma from YHV injection.Blood parameters for survivors with WSSV injection for 43 days showed an increase in phenoloxidase activity, while the YHV injected survivors exhibited higher level of total hemocytes and phenoloxidase activity. Histopathological examinations in survivors revealed changes of lymphatic tubes into spheroids higher than those in normal individual.

Supamattaya, K.

2005-02-01

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Transcriptome analysis of gills from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus.  

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We report the analysis of 872 cDNA clones from a WSSV-infected white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei gill cDNA library. Comparison against the GenBank protein and nucleotide sequences identified 87% (E SelM), chicadae, prohibitin and oncoprotein nm23 are reported. Their mRNAs steady state levels in addition to ferritin, changed at different times post-WSSV infection as estimated by RT-PCR. These results suggest that WSSV alters gene expression in gills and has led to the identification of novel white shrimp specific genes. PMID:17337210

Clavero-Salas, Alejandra; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

2007-08-01

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Does hyperthermia increase apoptosis in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Litopenaeus vannamei?  

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Apoptosis plays a critical role in development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. It has also been described as an anti-viral mechanism in both insects and vertebrates. In fact, to escape the immune system and to increase their spread, some viruses such as baculovirus produce anti-apoptotic molecules. Conversely, a recent report showing a positive correlation between the number of apoptotic cells and the severity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Penaeus monodon suggested that apoptosis might be the cause of death in viral-infected shrimp. Searching for the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect of hyperthermia for WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) and considering that hyperthermia increases apoptosis in other experimental models, we investigated the presence of apoptosis by Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end label (TUNEL), from 4 of 168 h in 3 groups of 50 L. vannamei juveniles. Group 1 consisted of experimentally infected shrimp (intramuscular injection of 3 x 10(7) viral copies) kept at 25 degrees C, Group 2 of similarly infected shrimp kept at 32 degrees C and Group 3 of uninjected shrimp kept at 32 degrees C. Apoptosis was found only in WSSV-infected individuals. Shrimp at 25 degrees C were positive for apoptotic cells in 48 (16%) of their examined tissues or organs, compared to 62 (21%) for those at 32 degrees C. Moreover, shrimp at 32 degrees C also had a significantly higher overall mean apoptotic index (AI) than shrimp at 25 degrees C (p < 0.05). Comparison of mean AI at 72, 96 and 120 h post-infection showed that individuals at 32 degrees C presented a significantly higher values than those at 25 degrees C. These results suggested that hyperthermia might facilitate apoptosis in WSSV-infected L. vannamei and might be one of the mechanisms responsible for increased survival of infected shrimp maintained at 32 degrees C. PMID:12718474

Granja, Clarissa B; Aranguren, Luis Fernando; Vidal, Oscar M; Aragón, Lacides; Salazar, Marcela

2003-03-17

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New genotypes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) are highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and have caused significant economic losses in the shrimp culture industry around the world. During 2010 and 2011, both WSSV and TSV were found in Saudi Arabia, where they caused severe mortalities in cultured Indian white shrimp Penaeus indicus. Most outbreaks of shrimp viruses in production facilities can be traced to the importation of infected stocks or commodity shrimp. In an attempt to determine the origins of these viral outbreaks in Saudi Arabia, we performed variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses for WSSV isolates and a phylogenetic analysis for TSV isolates. From the WSSV genome, the VNTR in open reading frames (ORFs) 125 and 94 were investigated with PCR followed by DNA sequence analysis. The genotypes were categorized as {N125, N94} where N is the number of repeat units in a specific ORF, and the subscript indicates the ORF (i.e. ORFs 125 and 94 in this case). From 15 Saudi Arabia WSSV isolates, we detected 3 genotypes: {6125, 794}, {7125, del94}, and {8125, 1394}. The WSSV genotype of {7125, del94} appears to be a new variant with a 1522 bp deletion encompassing complete coding regions of ORF 94 and ORF 95 and the first 82 bp of ORF 93. For TSV genotyping, we used a phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of TSV capsid protein 2 (CP2). We analyzed 8 Saudi Arabian isolates in addition to 36 isolates from other areas: SE Asia, Mexico, Venezuela and Belize. The Saudi Arabian TSV clustered into a new, distinct group. Based on these genotyping analyses, new WSSV and TSV genotypes were found in Saudi Arabia. The data suggest that they have come from wild shrimp Penaeus indicus from the Red Sea that are used for broodstock. PMID:22832716

Tang, Kathy F J; Navarro, Solangel A; Pantoja, Carlos R; Aranguren, Fernando L; Lightner, Donald V

2012-07-25

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Designing and Introduce a Diagnostic Kit for Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Cultured Penaeus indicus in Iran  

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The aim of this study is designing a diagnostic kit for white spot syndrome virus. We designed 2 series of primers for diagnosis of viral VP24 gene and also primers as internal controls which amplify part of genome in both positive and negative samples. DNA of shrimps were extracted and PCR amplification carried out. In this research, a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps designed and tested using 32 shrimp samples which were dubious to have this disease. White spot virus were fou...

Saberi, A. M.; Bandehpour, M.; Afsharnasab, M.; Ghayour, E.; Yousefi Namin, S. A.; Kazemi, B.

2008-01-01

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Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-­terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1?M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0?M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2?M calcium acetate, 0.1?M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2?Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31?Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37?Å, and diffracts to 2.0?Å resolution.

Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

2007-01-01

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Sensitivitas Berbagai Stadia Kepiting Bakau (Scylla paramamosain Estampador terhadap White Spot Syndrome Virus  

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Full Text Available Mud crab is the most commercial crabs which are highly sold because oftheir delicious taste and high protein content. In nature, the capture intensity of this crab is very high so the population would decrease rapidly. For this reason people start to breed it. At the moment breeding of mud crab still have a lot of problems. One of those is the lower survival rate of larva stage due to the diseases. The objective of this research was to observe the sensitivity of mud crab from various stages to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV. The research was conducted in Pathology laboratory, Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali, January to April 2004. This experiment was run using three stages they were zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet stage. The treatment of this research were: for zoea-1 and zoea-3 stage, i.e. treatment (A the larvae were bathed for 2 hours in stock WSSV suspension, in which the solution was diluted for 150 times; treatment (B the larvae were bathed for 2 hours in stock WSSV suspension, in which the solution was diluted for 15000 times; C as control, without WSSV. For crablet stage the WSSV infection was done by feeding them with tiger shrimp which infected by WSSV. ANOVA used to analyze the different effect of infection treatment, i.e. diluted 150x, 15000x, and control to survival rate, then continue DMRT test in 5% level. T test used to compare two treatments i.e. infection treatment with feed and without infection. PCR method used to detect WSSV of infection in zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet stages. The results showed that for zoea-1 and zoea-3 stage, increasing concentration virus showed significant difference respect, showed by decreasing of survival rate. In crablet stage the WSSV infection by feeding can decrease survival rate. In proving the dead of mud crab zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet were due to the infection of WSSV, the PCR method was used. The result showed that look PCR product was revenged in the cell with size of band were as expractise. According to this result can be concluded that zoea-1, zoea-3, and crablet stages of tested mud crab were sensitive to WSSV infection.

ZAFRAN

2005-05-01

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A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity?  

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C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis reveale...

Zhao, Zhi-ying; Yin, Zhi-xin; Xu, Xiao-peng; Weng, Shao-ping; Rao, Xia-yu; Dai, Zong-xian; Luo, Yong-wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-sheng; Guan, Hao-ji; Li, Se-dong; Chan, Siu-ming; Yu, Xiao-qiang; He, Jian-guo

2009-01-01

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Characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP51A and Its Interaction with Viral Tegument Protein VP26?  

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In this study, we characterize a novel white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) structural protein, VP51A (WSSV-TW open reading frame 294), identified from a previous mass spectrometry study. Temporal-transcription analysis showed that vp51A is expressed in the late stage of WSSV infection. Gene structure analysis showed that the transcription initiation site of vp51A was 135 bp upstream of the translation start codon. The poly(A) addition signal overlapped with the translation stop codon, TAA, and t...

Chang, Yun-shiang; Liu, Wang-jing; Chou, Tsung-lu; Lee, Yuan-ting; Lee, Tai-lin; Huang, Wei-tung; Kou, Guang-hsiung; Lo, Chu-fang

2008-01-01

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PmRab7 Is a VP28-Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Shrimp  

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Our aim was to isolate and characterize white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-binding proteins from shrimp. After a blot of shrimp hemocyte membrane proteins was overlaid with a recombinant WSSV envelope protein (rVP28), the reactive bands on the blot were detected using anti-VP28 antibody. Among three membrane-associated molecules identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, there was a 25-kDa protein that bound to both rVP28 and WSSV. Since it had a primary structure with high h...

Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Wannapapho, Wanphen; Lo, Chu Fang; Flegel, Timothy W.

2006-01-01

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Development and application of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of white spot syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of penaeid shrimp. The virus isolate used for immunization was obtained from China in 1994 and was passaged in Penaeus vannamei. The 4 hybridomas selected for characterization all produced MAbs that reacted with the 28 kD structural protein by Western blot analysis. The MAbs tested in dot-immunoblot assays were capable of detecting the virus in hemolymph samples collected from moribund shrimp during an experimentally induced WSSV infection. Two of the MAbs were chosen for development of serological detection methods for WSSV. The 2 MAbs detected WSSV infections in fresh tissue impression smears using a fluorescent antibody for final detection. A rapid immunohistochemical method using the MAbs on Davidson's fixed tissue sections identified WSSV-infected cells and tissues in a pattern similar to that seen with digoxigenin-labeled WSSV-specific gene probes. A whole mount assay of pieces of fixed tissue without paraffin embedding and sectioning was also successfully used for detecting the virus. None of the MAbs reacted with hemolymph from specific pathogen-free shrimp or from shrimp infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, yellow head virus or Taura syndrome virus. In Western blot analysis, the 2 MAbs did not detect any serological differences among WSSV isolates from China, Thailand, India, Texas, South Carolina or Panama. Additionally, the MAbs did not detect a serological difference between WSSV isolated from penaeid shrimp and WSSV isolated from freshwater crayfish. PMID:11797911

Poulos, B T; Pantoja, C R; Bradley-Dunlop, D; Aguilar, J; Lightner, D V

2001-10-29

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Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

2009-09-01

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The endemic region and infection regimes of the White Spot Syndrome virus (WSSV in shrimp farms in northwestern México  

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Full Text Available Shrimp farming with a value annually of US$711 million approximately, is one of the most important primary activities in Mexico. However, shrimp farming has had to face various problems that have limited their development, within which the mortality caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV is the most important. To have scientific elements to focus on preventive health management actions is necessary to know, among other factors, aspects of the epidemiologyof white spot disease (WSD. Therefore this study focused on delimiting the endemic region for WSD and its temporal regimes of infection and discusses possible risk factors related to outbreaks of the disease in shrimp farms of northwestern Mexico. We analyzed information from the databases of the State Committees of Aquaculture Health of Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit, as well as data of Integrated Program on Shrimp Aquaculture Health (PISA 2007-2008 and the Strategic Alliance Network Aquaculture Industry Innovation (AERI-2008. Data analysis showed that, for the shrimp production cycles of 2007-2008, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was endemic to the region of Tuxpan, Nayarit in the south and to Agiabampo, Sonora in the north. Spring outbreaks of WSD in the fishfarms had a spatiotemporal distribution, indicating three infections regimes: (1 March-April in the southern shrimpfarming region (Local Aquaculture Health Boards [LAHBs] of Mazatlan, El Rosario, Escuinapa, Tecuala, and Tuxpan; 2 April-May in the central region (LAHBs of Navolato Norte, Navolato Sur, and El dorado; and (3 May-June in the northern region (LAHBs of Agiabampo-Sonora, Ahome, Guasave Norte and Sur. The WSD were consistent between 2007 and 2008, with slight variations among some LAHBs, with respect to the onset or presence of spring WSD outbreaks. It shows the association of infection regimes throughout the region endemic with the location of Mazatlan,Pescadero and Farallon oceanographic basins according to the increasing differential temperature within them, which may be a determinant factor for the presence of WSD outbreaks.

Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal

2012-09-01

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Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter

2005-04-10

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Passive immunization of crayfish (Procambius clarkiaii) with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major cause of mortality in shrimp lacking a true adaptive immune response. In this study, high activity egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against WSSV for passive immunization of crustaceans was already prepared as crude and purified product, while an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used for quality control of IgY activity. The effectiveness of IgY of intramuscular injection, oral administration, and immersion was investigated in crayfish (Procambius clarkiaii) against WSSV. The result showed that the groups treated with IgY from inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine were, respectively, 20% and 80% mortality, which were significant difference in survival rates (P egg yolk powder and 1% IgY power showed 53.3% and 67.7% mortality, respectively, and the immersion showed 46.7% mortality, which have significantly different compared to the positive groups (P additive and immersion solution is useful and feasible methods in practical work. Thus, our results suggest that the passive immunization of crayfish with IgY against WSSV will have potential development to prevent and control WSSV in practical culture. PMID:19238337

Lu, Yanan; Liu, Junjun; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhen, YuHong; Xue, Hongyu; Lin, Qiuye; Xu, Yongping

2009-12-01

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Specific monoclonal antibodies raised against Taura syndrome virus (TSV) capsid protein VP3 detect TSV in single and dual infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

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The gene sequence encoding VP3 capsid protein of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. After induction, recombinant GST-VP3 (rVP3) fusion protein was obtained and further purified by electro-elution before use in immunizing Swiss mice for production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). One MAb specific to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and 6 MAb specific to VP3 were selected using dot blotting and Western blotting. MAb specific to VP3 could be used to detect natural TSV infections in farmed whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting and Western blotting, without cross reaction to shrimp tissues or other shrimp viruses, such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). These MAb were also used together with those specific for WSSV to successfully detect TSV and WSSV in dual infections in farmed P. vannamei. PMID:18429444

Longyant, Siwaporn; Poyoi, Piengjan; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Tejangkura, Thanawan; Sithigorngul, Weerawan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat

2008-03-01

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Transmission of white spot syndrome virus in improved-extensive and semi-intensive shrimp production systems: A molecular epidemiology study  

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Experimental evidence suggests that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) can be transmitted horizontally through water, via carrier organisms and/or by cannibalism of infected shrimp, but also vertically through infected broodstock. However the mode(s) of WSSV transmission in shrimp farming systems and the epidemiological consequences are not well understood. In this study, molecular markers have been used to analyse the spread of WSSV within and between farms in Viet Nam for two different farmin...

Tuyet Hoa, T. T.; Zwart, M. P.; Phuong, N. T.; Vlak, J. M.; Jong, M. C. M.

2011-01-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus Proteins and Differentially Expressed Host Proteins Identified in Shrimp Epithelium by Shotgun Proteomics and Cleavable Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag? †  

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Shrimp subcuticular epithelial cells are the initial and major targets of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Proteomic studies of WSSV-infected subcuticular epithelium of Penaeus monodon were performed through two approaches, namely, subcellular fractionation coupled with shotgun proteomics to identify viral and host proteins and a quantitative time course proteomic analysis using cleavable isotope-coded affinity tags (cICATs) to identify differentially expressed cellular proteins. P...

2007-01-01

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[Expression of single chain fragment variable P1D3 antibody against shrimp white spot syndrome virus in Pichia pastoris].  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in aquaculture penaeid shrimp, which caused catastrophic economic losses in the worldwide. No adequate treatments against WSSV are available. In order to study infection mechanism of WSSV, a phage display scFv cDNA library against WSSV was constructed and a neutralizing antibody of scFv P1D3 was selected in our lab previously. In this study, scFv P1D3 was expressed successfully in yeast. Firstly, the original expression vector of P1D3, M13 phagmid, was used as a template to design primers with restriction sites of SnaB I and EcoR I . Then the gene of P1D3 was amplified by PCR. After digested by SnaB I and EcoR I , the fragment of scFv P1D3 with E-tag was inserted into yeast and E. coli shuttle plasmid pPIC9k. The recombinant plasmid pPIC9k-scFv P1D3-Etag was linearized with Bgl II and then transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Positive clones were selected and verified by PCR and DNA sequencing. The scFv PID3 was induced to express in yeast by methanol. The results of ELISA demonstrate that scFv P1D3 expressed in yeast still has high specificity to bind on WSSV and the binding activity is higher than that expressed in E. coli TG1. After several optimizing experiments, the results show that the expression amount of scFv P1D3 can reach to 302 mg/L in yeast culture supernatant. This experiment has offered a new source of antibody for the researches on passive immunology for shrimp. PMID:17168322

Yang, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Dai, He-Ping

2006-11-01

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Transcriptome analysis of hemocytes and hepatopancreas in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, challenged with white spot syndrome virus  

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Full Text Available Red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is used for the innate immune defense of crustaceans due to its convenience for laboratory culture and study. To know more about the transcriptome of the crayfish, we constructed and sequenced a cDNA library from a mixture of hemocytes and hepatopancreas from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected crayfish. By random sequencing, we obtained 9115 high-quality expressed sequence tags with a mean length of 370 bp, representing 3033 unigenes. Most of the unigenes are first reports for the red swamp crayfish. Besides the metabolic genes, many genes that may be involved in the innate immune system of the crayfish are also obtained from the library, such as antimicrobial peptides, pattern recognition receptors, proteases and protease inhibitors, signal transduction proteins, apoptosis-, antioxidant-, and RNA interference-related proteins. We chose ten immune-related genes to analyze their expression pattern by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR from the hemocytes of normal and WSSV-challenged crayfish. Seven of them, including anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, astacidin, crustin 1, H3 histone family 3A, serine/threonine protein kinase, TGF beta-inducible nuclear protein, and tar RNA binding protein, were upregulated after WSSV injection, but the mRNA expression levels of crustin 2, a lectin, and a digestive cysteine protease decreased after WSSV infection. Our results showed that the transcriptome analysis provides a useful resource for identification of immune related genes and understanding the immune responses of the crayfish.

X-Z Shi

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
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White Spot Syndrome Virus Open Reading Frame 222 Encodes a Viral E3 Ligase and Mediates Degradation of a Host Tumor Suppressor via Ubiquitination  

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We have characterized a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) RING-H2-type protein, WSSV222, which is involved in ubiquitination. WSSV222 exhibits RING-H2-dependent E3 ligase activity in vitro in the presence of the specific conjugating enzyme UbcH6. Mutations in the RING-H2 domain abolished WSSV222-dependent ubiquitination, revealing the importance of this domain in WSSV222 function. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down analyses revealed that WSSV222 interacts with a shrimp tumor suppressor-like protei...

He, Fang; Fenner, Beau J.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Kwang, Jimmy

2006-01-01

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Crystal Structures of Major Envelope Proteins VP26 and VP28 from White Spot Syndrome Virus Shed Light on Their Evolutionary Relationship?  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen known to infect various crustaceans. It has bacilliform morphology with a tail-like appendage at one end. The envelope consists of four major proteins. Envelope structural proteins play a crucial role in viral infection and are believed to be the first molecules to interact with the host. Here, we report the localization and crystal structure of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from WSSV at resolutions of 2.2 and 2.0 Å, respectivel...

2007-01-01

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The DNA virus white spot syndrome virus uses an internal ribosome entry site for translation of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35.  

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Although shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus (?300 kbp), it expresses many polycistronic mRNAs that are likely to use internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements for translation. A polycistronic mRNA encodes the gene of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35, and here we use a dual-luciferase assay to demonstrate that this protein is translated cap independently by an IRES element located in the 5' untranslated region of icp35. A deletion analysis of this region showed that IRES activity was due to stem-loops VII and VIII. A promoterless assay, a reverse transcription-PCR together with quantitative real-time PCR analysis, and a stable stem-loop insertion upstream of the Renilla luciferase open reading frame were used, respectively, to rule out the possibility that cryptic promoter activity, abnormal splicing, or read-through was contributing to the IRES activity. In addition, a Northern blot analysis was used to confirm that only a single bicistronic mRNA was expressed. The importance of ICP35 to viral replication was demonstrated in a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) interference knockdown experiment in which the mortality of the icp35 dsRNA group was significantly reduced. Tunicamycin was used to show that the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is required for icp35 IRES activity. We also found that the intercalating drug quinacrine significantly inhibited icp35 IRES activity in vitro and reduced the mortality rate and viral copy number in WSSV-challenged shrimp. Lastly, in Sf9 insect cells, we found that knockdown of the gene for the Spodoptera frugiperda 40S ribosomal protein RPS10 decreased icp35 IRES-regulated firefly luciferase activity but had no effect on cap-dependent translation. PMID:24089551

Kang, Shih-Ting; Wang, Han-Ching; Yang, Yi-Ting; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2013-12-01

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Simultaneous detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) by multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

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An assay using a single-tube, 1-step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was established for the simultaneous detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Three primer sets, 9195 F/9992 R, 94 F2/R2, and ITS F/28S R, were mixed at a ratio of 3:1:1 to amplify specific fragments of the TSV, WSSV, and Penaeus vannamei genome, respectively, in the RT-PCR reaction. Shrimp samples were experimentally infected with WSSV and TSV. PCR-amplified products detected in the nucleic acid extraction of shrimp pleopods produced 4 kinds of results. With no virus infection, 1 fragment of 892 base pairs (bp) was amplified from a ribosomal RNA gene by primer set ITS F/28S R as an internal control. In samples only infected by WSSV or TSV, 2 fragments could be seen: either from WSSV (530 bp) plus the internal control or TSV (231 bp) plus the internal control, respectively. In cases of co-infection with both viruses, all 3 amplified products were detected simultaneously. This study is the first report of Penaeus vannamei specimens co-infected with WSSV and TSV being detected using a PCR method via experimental infection. PMID:12152907

Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Shiau, Lin-John; Lee, Hsien-Hsiung; Chan, Peter W Y; Lin, Ching-Yu

2002-06-21

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Identification of RAPD-SCAR marker linked to white spot syndrome virus resistance in populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius.  

Science.gov (United States)

White spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. Despite several efforts, no such permanent remedy was yet developed. Selective breeding using DNA markers would be a cost-effective strategy for long-term solution of this problem. In the present investigation, out of 30 random primers, only one primer produced a statistically significant (P < 0.01) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker of 502 bp, which provided a good discrimination between disease resistant and disease susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon from three geographical locations along the East coast of India. Because RAPD markers are dominant, a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed by cloning and sequencing of 502 bp RAPD fragment, which generates a single 457 bp DNA fragment after PCR amplification only in the disease resistant shrimps. Challenge experiment was also conducted to validate this 457 bp SCAR marker, and the results suggested that the WSSV loads were 2.25 × 10(3) fold higher in disease susceptible than that in disease resistant shrimps using real-time PCR. Therefore, this 457 bp DNA SCAR marker will be very valuable towards the development of disease-free shrimp aquaculture industry. PMID:23952572

Dutta, S; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, K; Chakrabarty, U; Mallik, A; Mandal, N

2014-05-01

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Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon  

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Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

Hemtanon, P.

2005-02-01

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Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate  

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Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

Patricia Braunig

2011-04-01

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Susceptibility of juvenile European lobster Homarus gammarus to shrimp products infected with high and low doses of white spot syndrome virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen known to affect the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in warm waters, WSSV is also able to infect, cause disease in and kill a wide range of other decapod crustaceans, including lobsters, from temperate regions. In 2005, the European Union imported US$500 million worth of raw frozen or cooked frozen commodity products, much of which originated in regions positive for white spot disease (WSD). The presence of WSSV within the UK food market was verified by means of nested PCR performed on samples collected from a small-scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp. Passage trials using inoculum derived from commodity shrimp from supermarkets and delivered by injection to specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei led to rapid mortality and pathognomonic signs of WSD in the shrimp, demonstrating that WSSV present within commodity shrimp was viable. We exposed a representative European decapod crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus, to a single feeding of WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp, and to positive control material (L. vannamei infected with a high dose of WSSV). These trials demonstrated that lobsters fed positive control (high dose) frozen raw products succumbed to WSD and displayed pathognomonic signs associated with the disease as determined by means of histology and transmission electron microscopy. Lobsters fed WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp (low dose) did not succumb to WSD (no mortality or pathognomonic signs of WSD) but demonstrated a low level or latent infection via PCR. This study confirms susceptibility of H. gammarus to WSSV via single feedings of previously frozen raw shrimp products obtained directly from supermarkets. PMID:23186704

Bateman, K S; Munro, J; Uglow, B; Small, H J; Stentiford, G D

2012-08-27

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KLONING DAN SEQUENCING KERANGKA BACA TERBUKA VP26 DAN VP28 VIRUS WSSV SEBAGAI KANDIDAT VAKSIN UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BINTIK PUTIH (WHITE SPOT DISEASE) PADA UDANG WINDU (PENAEUS MONODON)  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) merupakan virus patogen yang paling mematikan bagi udang windu (Peneaus monodon) dan telah menimbulkan kerugian ekonomi yang sangat besar serta mengancam perkembangan industri budidaya udang di dunia termasuk di Indonesia. Genom WSSV telah ditentukan urutan nukleotidanya secara lengkap. Berbagai upaya telah digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah infeksi wssv, antara lain penerapan biosecurity, penerapan good aquaculture practices serta menebar benur udang yang berl...

Hilal Anshary; Triyanto; Gunarto Latama; Sriwulan

2012-01-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

Mohammad M. Monwar

2013-07-01

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Transcriptional upregulation of fortilin in shrimp, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus fed diets containing recombinant VP28, an antigenic protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV  

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Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is considered as one of the serious viral pathogens ofshrimp. There are several preventive measures that have been developed to curb the devastating effectsof this virus in shrimp aquaculture. Juvenile shrimps, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus were fed withcommercial feeds that were mixed with recombinant VP28, a structural protein antigen of WSSV for aperiod of 14 days. The immune response of the shrimp during oral administration of the medicated feedwas determined by expression analysis of fortilin, a gene that is involved in the antiviral response. Therewas a significant increase in the level of expression of fortilin both in the gut and the gills in the fedgroup during the duration of feeding. The level of expression gradually decreased in the fed group,whereby at the 7th and 14th day after the last day of feeding with medicated feeds, no significantdifferences were observed between the fed and control groups in the expression at the gills and gut,respectively.

Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

2013-07-01

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Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.  

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The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding. PMID:24509436

Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

2014-05-01

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Crystal Structures of Major Envelope Proteins VP26 and VP28 from White Spot Syndrome Virus Shed Light on Their Evolutionary Relationship?  

Science.gov (United States)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen known to infect various crustaceans. It has bacilliform morphology with a tail-like appendage at one end. The envelope consists of four major proteins. Envelope structural proteins play a crucial role in viral infection and are believed to be the first molecules to interact with the host. Here, we report the localization and crystal structure of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from WSSV at resolutions of 2.2 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These two proteins alone account for approximately 60% of the envelope, and their structures represent the first two structural envelope proteins of WSSV. Structural comparisons among VP26, VP28, and other viral proteins reveal an evolutionary relationship between WSSV envelope proteins and structural proteins from other viruses. Both proteins adopt ?-barrel architecture with a protruding N-terminal region. We have investigated the localization of VP26 and VP28 using immunoelectron microscopy. This study suggests that VP26 and VP28 are located on the outer surface of the virus and are observed as a surface protrusion in the WSSV envelope, and this is the first convincing observation for VP26. Based on our studies combined with the literature, we speculate that the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of VP26 and VP28 may anchor on the viral envelope membrane, making the core ?-barrel protrude outside the envelope, possibly to interact with the host receptor or to fuse with the host cell membrane for effective transfer of the viral infection. Furthermore, it is tempting to extend this host interaction mode to other structural viral proteins of similar structures. Our finding has the potential to extend further toward drug and vaccine development against WSSV.

Tang, Xuhua; Wu, Jinlu; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy Leong

2007-01-01

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Two new anti-apoptotic proteins of white spot syndrome virus that bind to an effector caspase (PmCasp) of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon.  

Science.gov (United States)

White spot syndrome virus proteins WSSV134 and WSSV322 have been shown to bind with the p20 domain (residues 55-214) of Penaeus monodon caspase (PmCasp) protein through yeast two-hybrid screening. Binding was confirmed for the p20 domain and the full-length caspase by co-immunoprecipitation. WSSV134 is also known as the WSSV structural protein VP36A, but no function or conserved domains have been ascribed to WSSV322. Discovery of the caspase binding activity of these two proteins led to an investigation of their possible anti-apoptotic roles. Full-length PmCasp was confirmed to be an effector caspase by inducing apoptosis in transfected Sf-9 cells as assessed by DAPI staining. Using the same cell model, comparison of cells co-transfected with PmCasp and either WSSV134 or WSSV322 revealed that both of the binding proteins had anti-apoptotic activity. However, using the same Sf-9 protocol with anti-apoptosis protein-1 (AAP-1; also called WSSV449) previously shown to bind and inactivate a different effector caspase from P. monodon (Pm caspase) did not block apoptosis induced by PmCasp. The results revealed diversity in effector caspases and their viral protein inhibitors in P. monodon. PMID:24607895

Lertwimol, Tareerat; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan; Phongdara, Amornrat; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Flegel, Timothy W

2014-05-01

55

Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).  

Science.gov (United States)

Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication. PMID:24881625

Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan

2014-10-01

56

The shrimp IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway regulates antimicrobial peptide expression and may be subverted by white spot syndrome virus to facilitate viral gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The I?B kinases IKK? and IKK? and the IKK-related kinases TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IKK? are the master regulators of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Although this pathway has been extensively studied in mammals, less attention has been paid in crustaceans, which have significant economic value. Here, we report the cloning and functional studies of two IKK homologs, LvIKK? and LvIKK?, from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LvIKK? and LvIKK? mRNAs are widely expressed in different tissues and are responsive to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, LvIKK? but not LvIKK? activates the promoters of NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), such as the Penaeidins (PENs). In HEK 293T cells, both LvIKK? and LvIKK? activate an NF-?B reporter. The silencing of LvIKK? or LvIKK? using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) decreases the expression of L. vannamei AMPs, including PENs, lysozyme and crustins. Intriguingly, LvIKK?- or LvIKK?-silenced L. vannamei are resistant to WSSV infection. We hypothesized that successful infection with WSSV requires the activation of the IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway to modulate viral gene expression. We constructed luciferase reporters for 147 WSSV genes. By screening, we found that the WSV051, WSV059, WSV069, WSV083, WSV090, WSV107, WSV244, WSV303, WSV371 and WSV445 promoters can be activated by LvIKK? or LvIKK? in Drosophila S2 cells. Taken together, our results reveal that LvIKK? and LvIKK? may participate in the regulation of shrimp AMPs and that WSSV may subvert the L. vannamei IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway to facilitate viral gene expression. PMID:23954949

Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Liu, Bo-Du; Huang, Xian-De; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-09-01

57

White Spot Syndrome Virus Proteins and Differentially Expressed Host Proteins Identified in Shrimp Epithelium by Shotgun Proteomics and Cleavable Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Shrimp subcuticular epithelial cells are the initial and major targets of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Proteomic studies of WSSV-infected subcuticular epithelium of Penaeus monodon were performed through two approaches, namely, subcellular fractionation coupled with shotgun proteomics to identify viral and host proteins and a quantitative time course proteomic analysis using cleavable isotope-coded affinity tags (cICATs) to identify differentially expressed cellular proteins. Peptides were analyzed by offline coupling of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry. We identified 27, 20, and 4 WSSV proteins from cytosolic, nuclear, and membrane fractions, respectively. Twenty-eight unique WSSV proteins with high confidence (total ion confidence interval percentage [CI%], >95%) were observed, 11 of which are reported here for the first time, and 3 of these novel proteins were shown to be viral nonstructural proteins by Western blotting analysis. A first shrimp protein data set containing 1,999 peptides (ion score, ?20) and 429 proteins (total ion score CI%, >95%) was constructed via shotgun proteomics. We also identified 10 down-regulated proteins and 2 up-regulated proteins from the shrimp epithelial lysate via cICAT analysis. This is the first comprehensive study of WSSV-infected epithelia by proteomics. The 11 novel viral proteins represent the latest addition to our knowledge of the WSSV proteome. Three proteomic data sets consisting of WSSV proteins, epithelial cellular proteins, and differentially expressed cellular proteins generated in the course of WSSV infection provide a new resource for further study of WSSV-shrimp interactions.

Wu, Jinlu; Lin, Qingsong; Lim, Teck Kwang; Liu, Tiefei; Hew, Choy-Leong

2007-01-01

58

White spots in the pupil (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... occasion, the pupil of the eye may appear white. This is never a normal condition and requires ... an ophthalmologist. The causes of a cloudy or white cornea are different than those of a white ...

59

Sustainable control of white spot disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems. Chemicals such as formaldehyde, sodium percarbonate and sodium chloride have been applied to control infections with this parasite. However, information on the influence of concentration, length of treatment period and temperature, on the survival of theronts and tomonts, has been lacking. The tolerance of the free-living theront stage towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate in solution was investigated at two temperature levels (11-12 and 21-22 °C). The theronts were exposed to the two substances in concentrations of 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/l. The survival of theronts was examined in a four-well setup. Each well contained 5-12 theronts in 150 µl aqueous solution. Tolerance towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate was tested simultaneously, together with two pure water negative controls. At each concentration and temperature (11-12 and 21-22 °C) the experiment was repeated 4-9 times. The numbers of live theronts were counted every 15 minutes using a stereo-microscope (8-100� magnification). Lysed and/or immobilised theronts with no movement of cilia were considered dead. For both substances a negative relationship was seen between the survival of theronts and length of treatment, temperature and concentration of chemical. Using formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate, all theronts were dead within 15 minutes at a concentration of 64 mg/l at 21-22 °C. At the same temperature, using 8 mg/l, this was achieved within 150 minutes using formaldehyde and 135 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At the low temperature (11-12 °C) using 64 mg/l, all theronts were dead within 45 minutes using formaldehyde and 30 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At 8 mg/l all theronts died within 300 minutes when treating with formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate. Dose-response experiments on tomonts showed that this parasite stage was much more tolerant towards both chemicals. Filtration experiments on tomont containing water were conducted. Mesh sizes of 500, 300, 160 and 80 µm were used. A mesh size of 80 µm was demonstrated to filter out 100 % of the tomonts. The abiotic factors temperature, chemical and concentration all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis.

Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

60

Distribution of White Spots after Debanding in Orthodontic Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of problem: Fixed orthodontic appliances can interfere with removing bacterial plaques from dental surfaces which can ultimately lead to white spot formation.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantity of white spots and areas of decalcification following fixed orthodontic treatment.Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients undergoing or scheduled for fixed orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of fifty volunteers before the initiation of therapy and group B included fifty patients at the end of their treatment. In group A, the buccal surfaces of the first molars in each quadrant were examined for the presence of enamel decalcifications. After removing the orthodontic bands in group B, the buccal surfaces of the first molars in each quadrant were examined for white spots. Gender, oral hygiene level, plaque index, type of cement and duration of treatment were recorded for all patients. Binomial logistic regression, chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analysis.Results: The number of white spots in group A was 28 (14% which was significantly lower than group B with 83 (41.5% decalcified lesions (P<0.01. Oral hygiene and duration of treatment had a significant effect on the occurrence of white spots (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results showed that patients with orthodontic bands are at higher risk for white spot formation and good oral hygiene demonstrates a protective effect on their reduction. Both professional and daily oral hygiene measures can decrease thecariogenicity of bacterial plaques in these patients.

F. Arbabzadeh Zavareh

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Mutations in MITF and PAX3 cause "splashed white" and other white spotting phenotypes in horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The "splashed white" pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

Hauswirth, Regula; Haase, Bianca; Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

2012-01-01

62

Prevention of white spot enamel formation during orthodontic treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthodontic therapy is a much needed and desired treatment of dental service. However, when patient oral hygiene performance is inadequate, undesirable white spot enamel lesions can appear. If unchecked, they may progress to frank caries. The various etiological factors are discussed and preventive strategies are proposed to combat such lesions. This information will help specialists and general dentists alike to better predict, diagnose, and prevent these lesions while providing active orthodontic treatment. PMID:10202496

Jordan, C N

1998-01-01

63

Ileocolonic aganglionosis in white progeny of overo spotted horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The congenital absence of myenteric ganglia in the terminal portion of the ileum, cecum, and entire colon of white foals with overo spotted parents was reported. Males as well as females were affected. The foals were generally normal at birth but did not defecate. Signs of colic were noticed between 5 and 24 hours after birth, with death occurring at 23 to 132 hours. PMID:7056678

Hultgren, B D

1982-02-01

64

White spots on the mucosal surface of the duodenum in dogs with lymphocytic plasmacytic enteritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Distended lacteals, described as expanded white villi in duodenum, are strongly indicative of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. In the present study, we evaluated the significance of white spots present in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with lymphocytic plasmacytic enteritis (LPE). Fifty dogs with LPE were included in this study, and white spots were detected in the duodenal mucosa in 22 dogs during endoscopy. Hypoproteinemia was more frequent in dogs with white spots than in dogs without spo...

2011-01-01

65

White spotting in the domestic cat (Felis catus) maps near KIT on feline chromosome B1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five feline-derived microsatellite markers were genotyped in a large pedigree of cats that segregates for ventral white spotting. Both KIT and EDNRB cause similar white spotting phenotypes in other species. Thus, three of the five microsatellite markers chosen were on feline chromosome B1 in close proximity to KIT; the other two markers were on feline chromosome A1 near EDNRB. Pairwise linkage analysis supported linkage of the white spotting with the three chromosome B1 markers but not with t...

Cooper, Mp; Fretwell, N.; Bailey, Sj; Lyons, La

2006-01-01

66

Effects of various toothpastes on remineralization of white spot lesions  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of fluoridated, casein phosphopeptide.amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP)-containing, and functionalized ?-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP)-containing toothpastes on remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) by using Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF-D) Biluminator™ 2. Methods Forty-eight premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons from 12 patients, with artificially induced WSLs were randomly and equally assigned to four treatment groups: fluoride (1,000 ppm), CPP-ACP, fTCP (with sodium fluoride), and control (deionized water) groups. Specimens were treated twice daily for 2 weeks and stored in saliva solution (1:1 mixture of artificial and human stimulated saliva) otherwise. QLF-D Biluminator™ 2 was used to measure changes in fluorescence, indicating alterations in the mineral contents of the WSLs, immediately before and after the 2 weeks of treatment. Results Fluorescence greatly increased in the fTCP and CPP-ACP groups compared with the fluoride and control groups, which did not show significant differences. Conclusions fTCP- and CPP-ACP-containing toothpastes seem to be more effective in reducing WSLs than 1,000-ppm fluoride-containing toothpastes.

Jo, Su-Yeon; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Kim, Sang-Cheol

2014-01-01

67

The influence of VAR processes and parameters on white spot formation in Alloy 718  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Significant progress has occurred lately regarding the classification, characterization, and formation of white spots during vacuum arc remelting (VAR). White spots have been generally split into three categories: discrete white spots, which are believed to be associated with undissolved material which has fallen in from the shelf, crown, or torus regions; dendritic white spots, usually associated with dendrite clusters having fallen from the electrode; and solidification white spots, believed to be caused by local perturbations in the solidifications conditions. Characteristics and proposed formation mechanisms of white spots are reviewed and discussed in context of physical processes occurring during VAR, such as fluid flow and arc behavior. Where possible, their formation mechanisms will be considered with respect to specific operating parameters. In order to more fully understand the formation of solidification white spots, an experimental program has been begun to characterize the solidification stability of Alloy 718 and variants with respect to changes in growth rate and thermal environment. A description of the experimental program and preliminary results are included.

Damkroger, B.K.; Kelley, J.B.; Schlienger, M.E.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.; Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.

1994-05-01

68

[Some biologic characteristics of two tomato spotted wilt virus isolates].  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological properties of two tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) isolates from the tomatoes, grown on plantations of the Crimean tobacco-plant experimental stations have been investigated. These isolates were slightly differentiated by thermal inactivation point, by terms of virus storage in juice and by dilution end point. As a result the growth of the induced resistance effective with respect to TMV was observed in tobacco-plants of Immunny-580 and N. sanderae varieties affected by TSWV. PMID:16396117

Shepelevych, V V

2005-01-01

69

Transmission of cucumber leaf spot virus by Olpidium radicale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of zoospores of four cultures of Olpidium radicale and one of O. brassicae to transmit viruses acquired in vitro from dilute virus solutions was compared. Transmission was demonstrated by infectivity and serological assays of the roots of cucumber seedlings 6 days after inoculation. A bulk culture of O. radicale, from cucumber plant roots collected near Nantes, France, a single-sporangial culture derived from it, and a single-sporangial culture from melon plant roots collected near Woodland, California, U.S.A., transmitted cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) and the cucumber fruit streak strain of CLSV (CLSV-FS). A bulk culture of O. radicale from melon plant roots collected at Montfavet, France, did not transmit CLSV or CLSV-FS. All four cultures transmitted cucumber necrosis and melon necrotic spot viruses, used as positive controls, but they did not transmit cucumber soil-borne, squash necrosis, petunia asteroid mosaic or tobacco necrosis viruses. In each of the trials a single-sporangial culture of O. brassicae from lettuce plant grown in California transmitted only tobacco necrosis virus. PMID:1765774

Campbell, R N; Lecoq, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Sim, S T

1991-12-01

70

The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

Sanchez-Lavega, A.

2011-12-01

71

Phylogenetic and Recombination Analysis of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV...

2013-01-01

72

A de novo mutation in KIT causes white spotting in a subpopulation of German Shepherd dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although variation in the KIT gene is a common cause of white spotting among domesticated animals, KIT has not been implicated in the diverse white spotting observed in the dog. Here, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in KIT recapitulates the coat color phenotypes observed in other species. A spontaneous white spotting observed in a pedigree of German Shepherd dogs was mapped by linkage analysis to a single locus on CFA13 containing KIT (pairwise LOD = 15). DNA sequence analysis identified a novel 1-bp insertion in the second exon that co-segregated with the phenotype. The expected frameshift and resulting premature stop codons predicted a severely truncated c-Kit receptor with presumably abolished activity. No dogs homozygous for the mutation were recovered from multiple intercrosses (P = 0.01), suggesting the mutation is recessively embryonic lethal. These observations are consistent with the effects of null alleles of KIT in other species. PMID:23134432

Wong, A K; Ruhe, A L; Robertson, K R; Loew, E R; Williams, D C; Neff, M W

2013-06-01

73

White-spot disease of Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus *  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) in culture farms using an artificial warming system in Zhejiang, China, often show typical signs of white-spot disease such as white spots on their bodies, skin lesions, anorexia and eventually death. The sick turtles were mostly 5~80 g in weight. A suspected fungal pathogen was isolated from the sick turtles and verified as Paecilomyces lilacinus by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of its ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Detailed m...

Li, Xiao-liang; Zhang, Chu-long; Fang, Wei-huan; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

74

Impeded thrips transmission of defective tomato spotted wilt virus isolates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two defective RNA-containing isolates (Pe-1 and 16-2) and an envelope-deficient (env(^–)) isolate of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) were tested for their transmissibility by Frankliniella occidentalis. The Pe-1 isolate contained a truncated L RNA segment that barely interfered with symptom expression and replication of the wild-type (wt) L RNA segment. This isolate was transmitted with an efficiency of 51°a value comparable to that found for wt TSWV (54Ž Isolate 16-2, which contained a ...

Nagata, T.; Inoue-nagata, A. K.; Prins, M.; Goldbach, R.; Peters, D.

2000-01-01

75

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus – One of the Most Destructive Plant Viruses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has one of the largest host ranges among plant viruses and is widespread in all climates. TSWV is responsible for numerous epidemics in many parts of the world in different crops, mainly vegetables, tobacco and ornamentals. Its highly polyphagous nature, effectiveness of virus transmission by the thrips as its vectors, rapidity with which new variants arise, as well as difficulties in controlling the vectors make TSWV one of the most dangerous plant viruses. The ability of this virus to cause such severe losses on a broad range of crops, as well as its intriguing biological and molecular characteristics place TSWV amongst the most extensively studied plant viruses in the world at present. This paper provides a general overview of TSWV, encompassing all the major aspects of its biology and current knowledge on host range, symptomatology, molecular biology, vectorrelationship, control and diagnosis.

Branka Krsti?

2008-01-01

76

Release of 7-Year-Old Underplanted White Pine Using Hexazinone Applied with a Spot Gun.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexazinone, Velpar-L, applied at rates of 1.0, 1.5, and 1.75 ml per spot, controlled competing hardwoods around 7-year-old underplanted white pine. Growth response was more pronounced when hexazinone was applied to release individual pines than when the e...

G. W. Wendel J. N. Kochenderfer

1987-01-01

77

Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates from Taiwan and India with impatiens necrotic spot virus and different tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tospovirus isolates from tomato and watermelon in Taiwan and from peanut in India reacted neither with antibodies to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), nor with antibodies to impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), in ELISA and in electroblot immunoassays. Additionally, all three tospovirus isolates had an N protein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa as compared to 29 kDa for the N protein to TSWV and INSV. The observed physicochemical and serological differences suggest the generation of a new, third species in the genus tospovirus for which we propose the name groundnut bud necrosis virus. PMID:7686004

Adam, G; Yeh, S D; Reddy, D V; Green, S K

1993-01-01

78

Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service an...

Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano; Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz; Orlando Saliba; Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

2009-01-01

79

Rotational period of WD 1953-011- a magnetic white dwarf with a star-spot  

Science.gov (United States)

WD 1953-011 is an isolated, cool (7920 +/- 200K) magnetic white dwarf (MWD) with a low average field strength (~70kG), and a higher than average mass (~0.74Msolar). Spectroscopic observations taken by Maxted et al. showed variations of equivalent width in the Balmer lines, unusual in a low-field white dwarf. Here we present V-band photometry of WD 1953-011 taken at seven epochs over a total of 22 months. All of the data sets show a sinusoidal variation of approximately 2 per cent peak-to-peak amplitude. We propose that these variations are due to a star-spot on the MWD, analogous to a sunspot, which is affecting the temperature at the surface, and therefore its photometric magnitude. The variations have a best-fitting period over the entire 22 months of 1.4418 d, which we interpret as the rotational period of the white dwarf.

Brinkworth, C. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Burleigh, M. R.; Good, S. A.

2005-02-01

80

Role of the envelope glycoproteins in the infection cycle of tomato spotted wilt virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms the type member of the genus Tospovirus , which today harbors more than twelve different species. TSWV is able to infect an enormous variety of different plants, to which it often causes devastating effects, resulting in severe economical losses. Among the plant viruses, TSWV and the other tospoviruses form a distinct group. Taxonomically, they surprisingly do not belong to a plant virus family, but to a virus family which further consists of animal-infe...

Kikkert, M.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2) on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL). The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old) children with 45 active WSL in anterior permanent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated ...

Jainara Maria Soares Ferreira; Ana Karla Ramalho Aragão; Adriana Dias Batista Rosa; Fábio Correia Sampaio; Valdenice Aparecida De Menezes

2009-01-01

82

Primeiro relato do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) em Campanula medium L. no Brasil / First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infecting Campanula medium in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas de campânula (Campanula medium) exibindo mosaico e necrose foliar e anéis em flores foram coletadas em uma estufa comercial de flores na região de Atibaia, SP. Suspeitando de possível etiologia viral, amostras de tecido lesionado foram analisadas por ensaios de transmissão mecânica, microsco [...] pia eletrônica e sorologia. Todos os resultados apontaram para a presença do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) como o responsável pelos sintomas. Esse é o primeiro relato deste patógeno em campânula no Brasil. Abstract in english Plants of bellflower (Campanula medium) exhibiting symptoms of mosaic, leaf necrosis and flower ring spot were found in a commercial crop in a greenhouse in Atibaia, São Paulo State. Electron microscopy, serology and biological assays indicated the presence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). This [...] is the first report of this pathogen in bellflower plants in Brazil.

Ricardo, Gioria; Kátia Regiane, Brunelli; Romulo Fujito, Kobori; Márcia Maria Rabelo Guimarães, Kobori; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima.

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Primeiro relato do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV em Campanula medium L. no Brasil First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV infecting Campanula medium in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Plantas de campânula (Campanula medium exibindo mosaico e necrose foliar e anéis em flores foram coletadas em uma estufa comercial de flores na região de Atibaia, SP. Suspeitando de possível etiologia viral, amostras de tecido lesionado foram analisadas por ensaios de transmissão mecânica, microscopia eletrônica e sorologia. Todos os resultados apontaram para a presença do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV como o responsável pelos sintomas. Esse é o primeiro relato deste patógeno em campânula no Brasil.Plants of bellflower (Campanula medium exhibiting symptoms of mosaic, leaf necrosis and flower ring spot were found in a commercial crop in a greenhouse in Atibaia, São Paulo State. Electron microscopy, serology and biological assays indicated the presence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV. This is the first report of this pathogen in bellflower plants in Brazil.

Ricardo Gioria

2010-06-01

84

Effects of Microabrasion on non Active White Spots in Primary Teeth  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the enamel micromorphology with non active white spot lesions after the application of two different compounds used in microabrasion technique. Method: Thirty primary molars with non active white spot lesions in approximal surfaces were selected. Samples were randomly divided into three groups. G1 (n=10: control, untreated. G2 (n=10: compound (35% phosphoric acid and pumice mixed - 1:1 was applied on stain enamel. G3 (n=10: compound Opalustre, a slurry containing 6.6% HCl (hydrochloric acid and silicon carbide microparticles was applied. After this, all specimens were dehydrated, mounted on metal stubs, coated with gold and examined under scanning electron microscope (Jeol, JSM - 6100. Results: Eletronmicrographs analysis showed that the G1 samples (control, without treatment had a smooth surface with the presence of pumice residue. G2 samples (phosphoric acid and pumice presented rugous enamel surface with areas of enamel prisms demineralization. In G3 samples (Opalustre it were observed the formation of scratchs and grooves, beyond the presence of compound residue. Conclusion: The application of different types of compounds led to the formation of different aspects in micromorphology of primary teeth enamel.

Carolina Júdica RAMOS

2006-08-01

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Cytopathological characteristics of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates  

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Full Text Available The electron microscopy study revealed that four examined virus isolates in the cells of the infected host plant produced different inclusions depending on the virus isolate and the time of passaging by mechanical transmission. Numerous virus particle inclusions as well as viroplasm and filamentous inclusions typical for TSWV were present in the plant cells infected with TSWV isolate (PPR. This isolate was kept in N. rustica by 4 mechanical transmissions. A similar virus isolate but maintained for 2 years by mechanical transmission in Nicotiana plants (TI produced virus particle inclusions as well as amorphous inclusions typical for defective isolates. In plant cells infected with the same isolate but maintained by mechanical transmission one year longer (T2 no virus particle inclusions were produced. In the amorphous inclusions produced by this isolate virus particles were seen, but they were not surrounded by additional membrane. The isolate G induced only amorphous inclusions dispersed within the cytoplasm of infected cells. No virus particles were seen in the amorphous inclusions. The mechanical transmission of TSWV isolates in N. rustica plants reduced the number of virus particles present in the cytoplasm. The defectivenes of the isolate cause also the appearance of a new type of inclusion - the amorphous inclusions.

Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald

1998-06-01

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Influenza A viruses in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos).  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of many wild waterbird species in the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIV) remains unclear. We report the first isolation of AIV from American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos; Pelecaniformes) in North America. Two H13N9 AIVs were isolated from hatchling birds in breeding colonies in Minnesota, USA, during 2007 and 2008. Based on molecular sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes, the 2008 virus was genetically related to AIVs previously isolated from gulls and shorebirds in North America. The 2007 isolate was most related to AIVs from Eurasian gulls and North American ducks, reflecting both global movement of these viruses and reassortment between viruses associated with duck and gull reservoirs. PMID:20966281

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A; Poulson, Rebecca; Goekjian, Virginia; Di Matteo, Jon J; Wilcox, Benjamin; Stallknecht, David E

2010-10-01

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Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, [...] the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service and other information. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization) and ADA (American Dental Association). The data were processed and analyzed with the Epi-info software program, version 3.2, and Microsoft Excel. Fisher's exact test (p

Tiano, Ana Valéria Pagliari; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba.

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Characterization of Tomato yellow spot virus, a novel tomato-infecting begomovirus in Brazil Caracterização do Tomato yellow spot virus, um novo begomovírus isolado de tomateiro no Brasil  

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The objective of this work was the biological and molecular characterization of a begomovirus detected in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, named TGV-[Bi2], by determining its host range, complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other begomoviruses. Biological characterization consisted of a host range study using either sap inoculation or particle bombardment as inoculation methods. The yellow spot virus can infect plants in Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae, in...

Renata Faier Calegario; Sávio de Siqueira Ferreira; Eduardo Chumbinho de Andrade; Francisco Murilo Zerbini

2007-01-01

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Current technology and techniques in re-mineralization of white spot lesions: A systematic review  

Science.gov (United States)

White Spot lesions are a common iatrogenic occurrence on patients who are treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. There is a dynamic chemical interaction between enamel and saliva at the tooth surface that allow a lesion to have phase changes involving demineralization of enamel and reminerlization. This is due to calcium and phosphate dissolved in saliva that is deposited onto the tooth surface or removed depending on the surrounding pH. Caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is gaining popularity in dentistry as a way to increase the available level of calcium and phosphate in plaque and saliva to improve the chemical gradient so that if favors reminerlization. The aim of our investigation is to search the available current literature and formulate a recommendation for use of CPP-ACP in orthodontics. Publications from the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Searches from August 2010 to April 1st 2012 were performed under the terms "MI Paste OR Recaldent OR caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate OR CPP-ACP or tooth mousse". The searches yielded 155 articles, These were reviewed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles with inappropriate study design or no outcome measures at both baseline and end point were also excluded. 13 articles were deemed of relevance with a high quality study design and were included in this study for evaluation. The current literature suggests a preventative treatment regimen in which MI Paste Plus is used. It should be delivered once daily prior to bed after oral hygiene for 3 minutes in a fluoride tray, throughout orthodontic treatment. It should be recommended for high risk patients determined by poor oral hygiene, as seen by the inability to remove plaque from teeth and appliances. This protocol may prevent or assist in the remineralization of enamel white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

Podray, Susan S.

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Novel variants in the KIT and PAX3 genes in horses with white-spotted coat colour phenotypes.  

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Variants in the EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 genes are known to cause white spotting phenotypes in horses, which can range from the common white markings up to completely white horses. In this study, we investigated these candidate genes in 169 horses with white spotting phenotypes not explained by the previously described variants. We identified a novel missense variant, PAX3:p.Pro32Arg, in Appaloosa horses with a splashed white phenotype in addition to their leopard complex spotting patterns. We also found three novel variants in the KIT gene. The splice site variant c.1346+1G>A occurred in a Swiss Warmblood horse with a pronounced depigmentation phenotype. The missense variant p.Tyr441Cys was present in several part-bred Arabians with sabino-like depigmentation phenotypes. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that the common and widely distributed KIT:p.Arg682His variant has a very subtle white-increasing effect, which is much less pronounced than the effect of the other described KIT variants. We termed the new KIT variants W18-W20 to provide a simple and unambiguous nomenclature for future genetic testing applications. PMID:23659293

Hauswirth, Regula; Jude, Rony; Haase, Bianca; Bellone, Rebecca R; Archer, Sheila; Holl, Heather; Brooks, Samantha A; Tozaki, Teruaki; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

2013-12-01

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Expression and Characterization of a Soluble Form of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoprotein GN  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, is an economically important plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV is transmitted to plants via thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which transmit the virus in a persistent propagative manner. The envelope glycoproteins, GN and GC, are critical for the infection of thrips, but they are not required for the initial infection of plants. Thus, it is assumed that the envelope glycoproteins play ...

Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.; German, Thomas L.

2004-01-01

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The route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency  

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The route of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the body of its vectors, Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied during their development. First instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected Datura stramonium plants for 24 h. The rate of transmission by adults was determined in inoculation access feeding test on Emilia sonchifolia leaf disks. Thrips tissues were analysed for infection at 24 h inte...

Kritzman, A.; Gera, A.; Raccah, B.; Lent, J. W. M.; Peters, D.

2002-01-01

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Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA from dried plasma spots collected on filter paper.  

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To assess dried plasma spots (DPSs) as a source of material for virus quantification, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels were quantified in matched DPS and liquid plasma samples from 73 infected patients, including 5 neonates and 4 adult patients with acute HIV-1 infection. Quantifications were performed by commercially available assays (NASBA [nucleic acid sequence-based amplification] or Amplicor, or both). There was a strong correlation between HIV-1 RNA levels in plasm...

Cassol, S.; Gill, M. J.; Pilon, R.; Cormier, M.; Voigt, R. F.; Willoughby, B.; Forbes, J.

1997-01-01

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Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to those caused by TSWV were observed on sweet honey leaf (Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, [synonym Eupatorium rebaudianum Bertoni], family Asteraceae) plants in an experimental field in the prefec...

2007-01-01

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Rotational period of WD1953-011 - a magnetic white dwarf with a star spot  

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WD1953-011 is an isolated, cool (7920 +/- 200K, Bergeron, Legget & Ruiz, 2001) magnetic white dwarf (MWD) with a low average field strength (~70kG, Maxted et al. 2000) and a higher than average mass (~0.74 M_sun, Bergeron et al. 2001). Spectroscopic observations taken by Maxted et al. (2000) showed variations of equivalent width in the Balmer lines, unusual in a low field white dwarf. Here we present V band photometry of WD1953-011 taken at 7 epochs over a total of 22 months. All of the datasets show a sinusoidal variation of approximately 2% peak-to-peak amplitude. We propose that these variations are due to a star spot on the MWD, analogous to a sunspot, which is affecting the temperature at the surface, and therefore its photometric magnitude. The variations have a best-fit period over the entire 22 months of 1.4418 days, which we interpret as the rotational period of the WD.

Brinkworth, C S; Morales-Rueda, L; Maxted, P F L; Burleigh, M R; Good, S A

2004-01-01

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Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed ?-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and ?-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 alimentados con ?-1,3 glucano vitamina E y ?-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca  

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Full Text Available The effect of dietary ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with ?-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and ?-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and ?-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with ?-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with ?-?-glucan and ?-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, or ?-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.Se evaluó el efecto de ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y ?-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g en contenedores de fibra de vidrio de 60 L y se alimentaron diariamente durante 23 días con ?-1,3-glucano (0,1%, vitamina E (0,01%, y ?-caroteno (0,01% y posteriormente se inocularon con WSSV. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD y catalasa (CAT en hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 y 48 h después de la infección. Los grupos de camarones alimentados con los tratamientos incrementaron la actividad SOD en el hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 12 y 24 h después de la infección, respectivamente. Los juveniles tratados con vitamina E y ?-1,3-glucano mantuvieron un incremento en la actividad SOD desde las 12 a 48 h postinfección. Los camarones alimentados con ?-caroteno incrementaron la actividad de SOD antes de la infección con WSSV y los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y vitamina E incrementaron la actividad CAT también antes de la infección. La actividad CAT en músculo se incrementó respecto al grupo control, con todos los grupos de camarones tratados desde 1 hasta 6 h posteriores a la inoculación con WSSV. La actividad antioxidante más alta se registró en los camarones alimentados con vitamina E. Los juveniles alimentados con vitamina E y posteriormente inoculados con WSSV, registraron 100% de mortalidad a las 72 h, pero los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y ?-caroteno resistieron la infección hasta las 144 h. Los resultados de Antioxidant response in F. californiensis fed with dietary supplements and infected with WSSV este estudio mostraron la capacidad de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus californiensis alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E o ?-caroteno, de incrementar la respuesta antioxidante antes y durante una infección viral.

Rosario Pacheco

2011-11-01

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Esthetic improvement of white spot lesions and non-pitted fluorosis using resin infiltration technique: series of four clinical cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

White opacities have always been a major concern of esthetics for patients and can have varying etiology. In general, white discolorations of enamel might be due to dental fluorosis, early caries (white spot lesions), developmental defects etc. Conventional treatment options available for such opacities include non-invasive and invasive approaches. Recently, a new "micro-invasive" technique has been introduced as an alternative therapeutic approach that improves such opacities esthetically, in a single sitting, is painless and exhibits no complications. This case series illustrates the use of resin infiltration to treat fluorosis stains and WSLs, exhibiting significant improvement in esthetics. PMID:24739922

Gugnani, Neeraj; Pandit, I K; Goyal, Virinder; Gugnani, Shalini; Sharma, Jyoti; Dogra, Shikha

2014-01-01

98

Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (SWP), caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), was first observed in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern U.S., but F. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on peanut, and is considered to be the more important vector. Several non-crop sources of potential primary vectors and TSWV inoculum have been identified, but their relative importance has not been determined. The peanut growing season in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is from April through November, and 'volunteer' peanut plants can be present for much of the remainder of the year. Therefore peanut itself has huge potential for perpetuating both vector and virus. Symptoms are often evident within a few days of seedling emergence, and disease progress is often rapid within the first 50-60 days after planting. Based on destructive sampling and assays for TSWV, there is often a high incidence of asymptomatic infections even in peanut genotypes that produce few and mild symptoms of infection in the field. Severity of SWP epidemics fluctuates significantly from year to year. The variability has not been fully explained, but lower incidences have been associated with years categorized as "La Niña" in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Planting date can have a large effect on disease incidence within a location. This may be linked to the thrips reproductive cycle and environmental effects on the plant and plant-thrips-virus interactions. Row pattern, plant population, and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide can also affect epidemics of SWP. Considerable progress has been made in developing cultivars with natural field resistance to TSWV. Use of cultivars with moderate field resistance combined with other suppressive measures has been very successful for managing spotted wilt disease. Several new cultivars with higher levels of field resistance can improve control and allow more flexibility in the integrated management programme. Although effects of these factors on epidemics of SWP have been documented, mechanisms responsible for disease suppression by most factors have not been fully elucidated. PMID:21620508

Culbreath, A K; Srinivasan, R

2011-08-01

99

Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala  

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Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as “mancha de chocolate” (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased t...

Batuman, O.; Kuo, Y. -w; Palmieri, M.; Rojas, M. R.; Gilbertson, R. L.

2010-01-01

100

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7. PMID:18766791

Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A mutation 'hot spot' in the Schmallenberg virus M segment  

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In the autumn of 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified by metagenomic analysis in Germany. SBV has since been detected in ruminants all over Europe, and investigations on phylogenetic relationships, clinical signs and epidemiology have been conducted. However, until now, only comparative sequence analysis of SBV genome segments with other species of the Simbu serogroup have been performed, and detailed data on the S and M segments, rel...

2013-01-01

102

The effect of fractional CO2 laser irradiation on remineralization of enamel white spot lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the combined effect of fractional CO2 laser irradiation and fluoride on treatment of enamel caries. Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned into four groups and then stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot lesions. Tooth color was determined at baseline (T1) and after demineralization (T2). Afterwards, the teeth in group 1 remained untreated (control), while group 2 was exposed to an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min. In groups 3 and 4, a fractional CO2 laser was applied (10 mJ, 200 Hz, 10 s) either before (group 3) or through (group 4) the APF gel. The teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva for 90 days while subjected to daily fluoride mouthrinse and weekly brushing. Color examinations were repeated after topical fluoride application (T3) and 90 days later (T4). Finally, the teeth were sectioned, and microhardness was measured at the enamel surface and at 30 and 60 ? from the surface. In both lased groups, the color change between T1 and T4 stages (?E T1-T4) was significantly lower than those of the other groups (p?fluoride application (group 3) caused a significant increase in surface microhardness compared to APF alone and control groups (p?fluoride therapy is suggested for recovering the color and rehardening of demineralized enamel. PMID:23519913

Poosti, Maryam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Horieh; Najjaran, Hoda

2014-07-01

103

On the formation of white-spot defects in a superalloy VAR ingot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the production of nickel-based superalloys for the aerospace industry, strict control of the macrostructure of the product is necessary to avoid the appearance of potentially fatal defects. Our study focuses on the prevention of ''white spots'' in the alloy IN 718. These defects, which are small volumes of a few millimeters of characteristic length, are depleted in niobium. They are known to result from the fall of metal fragments in the liquid pool during VAR processing. According to their history in the liquid metal, these fragments could not being remelted before being trapped in the mushy zone and then give rise to defects. A model calculates the heat transfer in such a precursor to simulate its melting during his stay in the bath. The validation of the predicted melting kinetics requires a series of immersive experiences of synthetic defects in a metal bath. The model and experiments have demonstrated the initial solidification of a layer of metal around the precursor. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Grignard, Jean Francois; Soller, Aude; Jourdan, Julien; Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Jardy, Alain [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198), Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex (France)

2011-07-15

104

A novel exo-cellulase from white spotted longhorn beetle (Anoplophora malasiaca).  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood feeding insects depends heavily on the secretion of a combination of cellulases, mainly endoglucanases and other glucanases such as exoglucanases and xylanases, for efficient digestion of the cellulosic materials. To date, although a high number of endoglucanases have been found in xytophagous insects, little is known about exoglucanases encoded in the genome of these insects. Here we report the identification and isolation of an exoglucanase, designated as AmCel-5B, from the white spotted longhorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca. The optimal condition of enzymatic activity was found to be 50 °C and pH 4.0. Interestingly, this enzyme is not only exhibited exo-?-glucanase activity, but also with obvious endo-?-glucanase activity. Furthermore, this enzyme is unique in that, although it recognizes Avicel, evidenced as an exo-?-glucanase, it cannot recognize oligosaccharides smaller than cellohexaose. This may explain why longhorn beetle can well digest hard "living" wood, which contains primarily rigid long fibers. Although it is known that metal ions can enhance the activity of some cellulases, we further demonstrated that reducing agent could work synergistically with metal ions for significant activity enhancement of AmCel-5B. The discovery and investigation of an insect exoglucanase should lead to a greater understanding of the mechanism for efficient digestion of cellulosic materials by wood feeding insects, as well as facilitate their potential applications in the production of bioenergy and biomaterials from lignocellulosic biomass in the future. PMID:22617190

Chang, Chia-Jung; Wu, Carol P; Lu, Shang-Chieh; Chao, Ann-Lin; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May; Chao, Yu-Chan

2012-09-01

105

Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial  

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Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2 on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL. The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old children with 45 active WSL in anterior permanent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated twice: baseline and on week 4. Maximum lesion dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival were measured in millimeters and classified in four grades of size. WSL were also assessed regarding lesion activity by one calibrated examiner. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used (P 0.01. It was concluded that after 4 applications the two varnish formulations tested produced similar clinical effects, indicating the reduction and the control of carious activity in most WSL.

Jainara Maria Soares Ferreira

2009-12-01

106

Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2) on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL). The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old) children with 45 active WSL in anterior perma [...] nent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated twice: baseline and on week 4. Maximum lesion dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival) were measured in millimeters and classified in four grades of size. WSL were also assessed regarding lesion activity by one calibrated examiner. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used (P 0.01). It was concluded that after 4 applications the two varnish formulations tested produced similar clinical effects, indicating the reduction and the control of carious activity in most WSL.

Jainara Maria Soares, Ferreira; Ana Karla Ramalho, Aragão; Adriana Dias Batista, Rosa; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Valdenice Aparecida de, Menezes.

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Tomato chlorotic spot virus in hydroponically-grown lettuce in São Paulo State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available In the regions of Campinas and Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil, hidroponically grown crops of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Verônica, which showed virus-like symptoms were examined by electron microscope, biological, serological and molecular tests. Pleomorphic, enveloped particles (80-100 nm in diameter were always detected in these samples. Experimentally inoculated host plants, including lettuce, reacted with tospoviruses-induced symptoms. Some differences were observed in Gomphrena globosa, which reacted by showing local lesions and systemic mosaic. Two isolates of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV were identified by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The sequencing and alignment of the RT-PCR coat protein amplified fragments have indicated a high degree of homology with the TCSV sequences stored in the GenBank. This is the first report of losses due to a virus from the genus Tospovirus in commercial hydroponic lettuce crops in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies are needed for better understanding the spread of the virus in hydroponic crops, since Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is reported to spread through the nutritive solution.

Colariccio Addolorata

2004-01-01

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Viral genetic determinants for thrips transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted exclusively by thrips in nature. A reassortment-based viral genetic system was used to map transmissibility by thrips to the medium (M) RNA of TSWV. To locate determinants of thrips transmission in the M RNA, 30 single-lesion isolates (SLIs) were generated from a single TSWV isolate that was inefficiently transmitted by thrips. Three of the 30 SLIs were transmitted by thrips, and 27 were not. Sequence analysis of the M RNA, thrips transmissibili...

Sin, Sang-hoon; Mcnulty, Brian C.; Kennedy, George G.; Moyer, James W.

2005-01-01

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Dynamics of Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot from high-resolution Cassini ISS observations  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 5th 2010 a storm erupted in Saturn’s North Temperate latitudes which were experiencing early spring season. The storm quickly developed to a planet-wide disturbance of the Great White Spot type. The ISS instrument onboard Cassini acquired its first images of the storm on 23th December 2010 and performed repeated observations with a variety of spatial resolutions over the nearly 10 months period the storm continued active. Here we present an analysis of two of the image sequences with better spatial resolution of the mature storm when it was fully developed and very active. We used an image correlation algorithm to measure the cloud motions obtained from images separated 20 minutes and obtained 16,000 wind tracers in a domain of 60 degrees longitude per 20 degrees in latitude. Intense zonal and meridional motions accompanied the storm and reached values of 120 m/s in particular regions of the active storm. The storm released a chain of anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices at planetocentric latitudes of 36° and 32° respectively. The short time difference between the images results in estimated wind uncertainties of 15 m/s that did not allow to perform a complete analysis of the turbulence and kinetic spectrum of the motions. We identify locations of the updrafts and link those with the morphology in different observing filters. The global behaviour of the storm was examined in images separated by 10 hours confirming the intensity of the winds and the global behaviour of the vortices. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.

2012-10-01

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Pepper necrotic spot virus, a new tospovirus infecting solanaceous crops in Peru.  

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Two virus isolates, T1 and T2, causing necrotic spots on leaves and stems of pepper and tomato, respectively, were isolated in the La Joya valley, Arequipa, Peru, in 2010. These two isolates were inoculated to differential hosts for tospoviruses and showed differential fitness: T1 induced necrotic local lesions in Vigna unguiculata, whereas T2 produced only chlorotic spots. The complete nucleotide sequence of the small (S) RNA from T2 and 1863 bp of the S RNA from T1 were determined. The deduced N protein sequence showed high amino acid identity (97%) between the isolates, indicating that the T1 and T2 are isolates of the same virus. Sequence comparisons indicated that the amino acid sequence of the N protein shared 53.49-87.98% identity with known American tospoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of both the NSs and N proteins revealed that this new tospovirus belongs to the American group. We conclude that this tospovirus should be considered a member of a new species. The name Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV) is proposed. PMID:22218966

Torres, Roger; Larenas, Javiera; Fribourg, Cesar; Romero, Javier

2012-04-01

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Evaluation of ‘white-spotted kidneys’ associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows  

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Full Text Available The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3% showed focal to multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18 and blood (n = 24 samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the LipL32 gene. Leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was detected in 19 (79.2% out of 24 kidneys, as well as 7 (29.2% blood and 10 (55.5% urine samples of cows with white spots in their kidneys. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and a few plasma cells in the renal interstitial tissues. In addition, 14 apparently normal kidneys and associated urine and blood samples were similarly examined by PCR but did not provide any positive results. In this study, high detection of leptospirosis in kidneys with interstitial nephritis suggests that Leptospira spp. are associated with white spotted kidneys. The present findings indicate that white spotted kidneys can be due to leptospirosis in this region in southwestern Iran, which indicates an increased risk of zoonotic disease. The data show that LipL32-based primers are useful for PCR-based diagnosis of leptospirosis.

Shahrzad Azizi

2012-11-01

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Evaluation of 'white-spotted kidneys' associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys) can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3%) showed focal to [...] multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18) and blood (n = 24) samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the LipL32 gene. Leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 19 (79.2%) out of 24 kidneys, as well as 7 (29.2%) blood and 10 (55.5%) urine samples of cows with white spots in their kidneys. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and a few plasma cells in the renal interstitial tissues. In addition, 14 apparently normal kidneys and associated urine and blood samples were similarly examined by PCR but did not provide any positive results. In this study, high detection of leptospirosis in kidneys with interstitial nephritis suggests that Leptospira spp. are associated with white spotted kidneys. The present findings indicate that white spotted kidneys can be due to leptospirosis in this region in southwestern Iran, which indicates an increased risk of zoonotic disease. The data show that LipL32-based primers are useful for PCR-based diagnosis of leptospirosis.

Azizi, Shahrzad; Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Hajimirzaei, Mohammad R.; Varnamkhasti, Mohssen Gholami; Sadeghian, Hossein; Oryan, Ahmad.

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Fontes de resistência em tomateiro aos begomovírus bissegmentados Tomato yellow spot virus e Tomato severe rugose virus Sources of resistance in tomato to bipartite begomoviruses Tomato yellow spot virus and Tomato severe rugose virus  

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Full Text Available Os begomovírus causam doenças de grande importância econômica em diversas culturas, principalmente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Juntamente com outras famílias de vírus, os begomovírus têm causado grande prejuízo para os produtores de tomate in natura e para processamento industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de 11 genótipos resistentes ao Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV frente à infecção pelos begomovírus Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV e Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV em condições de casa-vegetação. A inoculação das plantas foi realizada via biobalística no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. A infecção viral confirmou-se pelo desenvolvimento dos sintomas e pela técnica de hibridização dot blot. Selecionaram-se como promissores os genótipos STY2, STY5, STY6 e L7, por não apresentarem sintomas e por terem concentrações virais muito baixas para os dois vírus. O espectro de resistência dos genes Ty-1 e Ty-2 não resultaram efetivos ante as espécies virais empregadas no estudo. As linhagens TY52, H24 e CLN2116B, portadoras destes genes, foram suscetíveis aos vírus ToYSV e ToSRV.Begomoviruses cause diseases of major economic importance in many crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Together with other families of viruses, the begomoviruses cause great damage for producers of fresh and processed tomatoes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of 11 resistant genotypes to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV when infected by the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were inoculated by biobalistic method when displaying two true leaves. Viral infection was confirmed by visual observation of symptoms and by dot blot hybridization. Genotypes STY2, STY5, STY6 and L7 were selected as promising due to the absence of symptoms and very low viral concentration for both viruses. The resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-2 were not effective against the viral species used in the study. The lines TY52, H24 and CLN2116B, carrying these genes, exhibited a susceptible behavior.

Francisco D Hurtado

2012-12-01

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Fontes de resistência em tomateiro aos begomovírus bissegmentados Tomato yellow spot virus e Tomato severe rugose virus / Sources of resistance in tomato to bipartite begomoviruses Tomato yellow spot virus and Tomato severe rugose virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os begomovírus causam doenças de grande importância econômica em diversas culturas, principalmente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Juntamente com outras famílias de vírus, os begomovírus têm causado grande prejuízo para os produtores de tomate in natura e para processamento industrial. O objeti [...] vo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de 11 genótipos resistentes ao Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) frente à infecção pelos begomovírus Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) e Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) em condições de casa-vegetação. A inoculação das plantas foi realizada via biobalística no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. A infecção viral confirmou-se pelo desenvolvimento dos sintomas e pela técnica de hibridização dot blot. Selecionaram-se como promissores os genótipos STY2, STY5, STY6 e L7, por não apresentarem sintomas e por terem concentrações virais muito baixas para os dois vírus. O espectro de resistência dos genes Ty-1 e Ty-2 não resultaram efetivos ante as espécies virais empregadas no estudo. As linhagens TY52, H24 e CLN2116B, portadoras destes genes, foram suscetíveis aos vírus ToYSV e ToSRV. Abstract in english Begomoviruses cause diseases of major economic importance in many crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Together with other families of viruses, the begomoviruses cause great damage for producers of fresh and processed tomatoes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavi [...] or of 11 resistant genotypes to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) when infected by the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were inoculated by biobalistic method when displaying two true leaves. Viral infection was confirmed by visual observation of symptoms and by dot blot hybridization. Genotypes STY2, STY5, STY6 and L7 were selected as promising due to the absence of symptoms and very low viral concentration for both viruses. The resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-2 were not effective against the viral species used in the study. The lines TY52, H24 and CLN2116B, carrying these genes, exhibited a susceptible behavior.

Francisco D, Hurtado; Marta A, Gil; Yamila M, Zubiaur; Jorge G, Aguilera; César Augusto D, Xavier; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini Junior; Derly Jose H da, Silva.

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Detección del iris yellow spot virus en el cultivo de cebolla en Zacatecas, México / Iris yellow spot virus detection in the onion cultivation of Zacatecas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El virus de la mancha amarilla del iris (IYSV) es la enfermedad viral de mayor importancia para los cultivos de ajo y cebolla en Zacatecas, México. A finales de mayo de 2010 se encontraron lesiones amarillentas en forma de diamante en hojas y tallo floral de plantas de cebolla en parcelas comerciale [...] s, localizados en los municipios de Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. y Enrique Estrada pertenecientes al estado de Zacatecas. La prueba DAS-ELISA mostró resultados positivos para este virus en las muestras procedentes de diferentes municipios. Thrips tabaci el único vector conocido del IYSV se encontró en las parcelas comerciales muestreadas, aunque la presencia de Frankliniella occidentalis también fue reconocida en una parcela comercial de cebolla, cuyas muestras resultaron positivas a IYSV. No se encontró diferencia entre la altura, número de hojas, peso y diámetro de bulbo de plantas sin lesiones y aquellas con diferente número de lesiones de IYSV. Abstract in english The yellow spot virus Iris (IYSV) is the most important viral disease for garlic and onion crops in Zacatecas, Mexico. In late May 2010, yellow lesions were found in diamond-shaped leaves and flower stem of onion plants in commercial fields located in the municipalities of Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain [...] Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. and Enrique Estrada from the State of Zacatecas. The DAS-ELISA test was positive for the virus in samples from different municipalities. Thrips tabaci the only known vector of IYSV was found in sampled commercial parcels, although, the presence of Frankliniella occidentalis was also recognized in a commercial plot of onions, whose samples were positive for IYSV too. No difference was found between height, leaf number, bulb weight or diameter of the plants without lesions and those with different numbers of IYSV lesions.

Velásquez-Valle, Rodolfo; Reveles-Hernández, Manuel.

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The use of SD-OCT in the differential diagnosis of dots, spots and other white retinal lesions  

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Elena Zaharova1, Jerome Sherman1-31State University of New York's State College of Optometry, University Eye Center, New York, NY, USA; 2SUNY Eye Institute, New York, NY, USA; 3New York Eye Institute and Laser Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To demonstrate the utility of a retinal imaging technique using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for creating a B-scan layer-by-layer analysis to aid in the differential diagnosis of various retinal dots, spots, and other white ...

2011-01-01

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Evaluation of thrips resistance in pepper to control Tomato spotted wilt virus infection  

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The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of thrips ( F. occidentalis ) resistance in pepper ( Capsicum ) on the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Results demonstrate that the rate of primary TSWV-infection is effectively limited in a thrips-resistant (TR) pepper crop compared to a thrips-susceptible (TS) crop, and that this is based on a decreased preference of thrips for TR plants. Secondary TSWV-infections were effectively restricted in the TR pepper crop and this is ...

Maris, P. C.

2004-01-01

118

Factors Affecting the Formation, Severity and Location of White Spot Lesions during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances  

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ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the formation, severity and location of white spot lesions in patients completing fixed appliance therapy. Material and Methods A total of 45 patients (19 males and 26 females, mean age 15.81 years, standard deviation 2.89 years) attending consecutively Aberdeen Dental Hospital (ADH) between January and June 2013 to have their fixed appliances removed were given a questionnaire to elicit information regarding their dental care and diet. They were then examined clinically as well as their pre-treatment photographs to record treatment data and white spot lesion (WSL) location and severity using a modified version of Universal Visual Scale for Smooth Surfaces (UniViSS Smooth). Absolute risk (AR) and risk ratios (RR) were also calculated. Results The incidence of at least one WSL observed in patients was 42%, with males displaying a higher incidence than females. The highest incidence of WSLs was recorded on the maxillary canines and lateral incisors, and on the maxillary and mandibular premolars and first molars. The gingival areas of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were the most affected surfaces. Significant (P appliance therapy. Various contributing risk factors were identified with the greatest risk posed by a poor oral hygiene.

2014-01-01

119

Soybean chlorotic spot virus, a novel begomovirus infecting soybean in Brazil.  

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A novel soybean-infecting begomovirus from Brazil was identified in Jaíba, in the state of Minas Gerais, and molecularly characterized. By using rolling-circle amplification-based cloning of viral DNAs, three DNA-A variants and a cognate DNA-B were isolated from infected samples. The DNA variants share more than 98 % sequence identity but have less than 89 % identity to other reported begomovirus, the limit for demarcation of new species. In a phylogenetic analysis, both DNA-A and DNA-B clustered with other Brazilian begomoviruses. Infectious cloned DNA-A and DNA-B components induced distinct symptoms in Solanaceae and Fabaceae species by biolistic inoculation. In soybean, the virus induced mild symptoms, i.e., chlorotic spots on the leaves, from which the name soybean chlorotic spot virus (SoCSV) was proposed. The most severe symptoms were displayed by common beans, which exhibited leaf distortion, blistering, interveinal chlorosis, mosaic and golden mosaic. The possibility that SoCSV may become a threat to bean production in Brazil is discussed. PMID:23053525

Coco, Daniela; Calil, Iara P; Brustolini, Otavio J B; Santos, Anesia A; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

2013-02-01

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Serological relationship between Melon yellow spot virus and Watermelon silver mottle virus and differential detection of the two viruses in cucurbits.  

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Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), a tentative member of the genus Tospovirus, is considered a distinct serotype due to the lack of a serological relationship with other tospoviruses in its nucleocapsid protein (NP). Recently, a virus isolate collected from diseased watermelon in central Taiwan (MYSV-TW) was found to react with a rabbit antiserum (RAs) prepared against the NP of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), and a monoclonal antibody (MAb) prepared against the common epitope of the NSs proteins of WSMoV-serogroup tospoviruses, but not with the WSMoV NP-specific MAb, in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. In this investigation, both RAs and MAb against MYSV-TW NP were produced. Results of serological tests revealed that the RAs to MYSV-TW NP reacted with the homologous antigen and the crude antigens of members of the WSMoV serogroup, including members of the formal species WSMoV and Peanut bud necrosis virus, and members of three tentative species, Watermelon bud necrosis virus, Capsicum chlorosis virus and Calla lily chlorotic spot virus. The MAb to MYSV-TW NP reacted only with the homologous antigen and the other geographic isolates of MYSV from Japan (JP) and Thailand (TH). Our results of reciprocal tests indicate that the NP and the NSs protein of MYSV are serologically related to those of WSMoV-serogroup tospoviruses. Furthermore, we show that both the MYSV NP MAb and the WSMoV NP MAb are reliable tools for identification of MYSV and WSMoV from single or mixed infection in field surveys, as verified using species-specific primers in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. PMID:20480192

Chen, Tsung-Chi; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Li, Ju-Ting; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Kang, Ya-Chi; Chang, Chia-Peng; Huang, Li-Hsin; Peng, Jui-Chu; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Role of Oxalis corniculata L. as plant virus reservoir with special regard to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-RB strain occurrence in rock-wool cultivation in Hungary  

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Full Text Available The creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata L. in Central Europe occurs mainly in anthropogenic areas, where it grows in parks and landfill sites or in protected cultivation sites like greenhouses and nurseries. In Hungary O. corniculata has been spreading since the 19th century. In glass- and greenhouses it is the only weed species that was able to settle and flourish on hydroponic rock-wool and coconut fibre growing media. Among virus pathogens of forced tomato (LYPES and paprika crops (CPSAN in Hungary the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV has become an important one, severely affecting the plants and on occasions causing 100% yield losses. The spread of the virus was largely assisted by its effective vector the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Initially the control of the disease was based on the control of the thrips, later, virus-resistant varieties were introduced. This however proved insufficient to fight the disease as it was discovered, quite recently, that in certain white pepper (CPSAN varieties the virus was able to break up the resistance. According to data of the year 2012, those varieties that were considered resistant, showed up to 50% virus infection. Considering the wide spread of O. corniculata and increasing occurrence of the resistance-breaking TSWV isolates, surveys in greenhouses were conducted to examine whether the weed could serve as reservoir for TSWV. Samples were collected of the virus infected crop plants and O. corniculata growing in the same coconut fibre cubes. The samples were examined using test-plants, serological and RT-PCR methods. In result it was found that the symptoms were indeed caused by resistance-breaking TSWV isolates. However, no virus was found in the suspected O. corniculata samples. Therefore it was concluded that in this particular case the O. corniculata cannot be considered reservoir for the virus, in the hydroponic culture.

Hodi, Anna Maria

2014-02-01

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Development of a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay for detection of Impatiens necrotic spot virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) is an important plant virus that can cause severe disease in various ornamental and agricultural crops. Several species of thrips transmit INSV, of which the western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) is the most important. In this study, primers and TaqMan probes based on INSV non-structural protein gene sequences were designed, and a technique was developed for detecting INSV using fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. The reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity for the RT-PCR were evaluated; and the RT-PCR method was developed to detect INSV in the host plants and western flower thrips. A standard curve constructed by a series of diluted plasmid DNA gave a good linear relationship between Ct value and concentration of plasmid DNA, a low coefficient of variation and good reproducibility. The detection method not only measured quantitatively the concentration of INSV in plant hosts and western flower thrips, but also measured accurately low concentrations of the virus. The measurable concentration fell to as low as 10? copies/?l, while RT-PCR could detect only 10² copies/?l. The method had high specificity and could distinguish INSV from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), both from the same genus of viruses. This is the first report of the same method being used to detect INSV in both plant hosts and western flower thrips, and should be helpful in studies of INSV epidemiology. PMID:23466630

Chen, Xuejiao; Xu, Xiaogang; Li, Yongzhong; Liu, Yating

2013-05-01

123

Resistência de cultivares e linhagens de tomateiro a Tomato chlorotic spot virus e a Potato virus Y Resistance of tomato lines and cultivars to Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Potato virus Y  

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Full Text Available Linhagens avançadas do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum do IAC foram avaliadas em condições de campo em Campinas (SP para resistência a tospovírus e a potyvírus, nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, respectivamente. No primeiro ano, a única espécie de tospovírus que ocorreu na área experimental foi Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. As sete linhagens do grupo IAC exibiram baixa porcentagem de plantas sintomáticas em duas avaliações, com médias abaixo de 28%; as cultivares testadas mostraram-se altamente suscetíveis, com médias acima de 85%, à exceção de 'Franco', que apresentou cerca de 55% de infecção. No segundo experimento, conduzido em 2003/2004, dez linhagens do grupo IAC foram comparadas com cinco cultivares de polinização aberta e híbridos F1, além do acesso LA-444-1 de L. peruvianum. Nesse experimento, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos, verificou-se ocorrência generalizada de Potato virus Y (PVY. Foi determinado o percentual de plantas com sintomas e avaliada a intensidade dos sintomas mediante uso de escala de notas. Com base nos dois critérios, verificou-se que LA-444-1 apresenta alta resistência a PVY, que 'Tyrade' exibe comportamento intermediário, enquanto todos os demais genótipos demonstram alta suscetibilidade ao vírus. O comportamento dos genótipos avaliados neste trabalho mostra a necessidade de se considerar, nos programas de melhoramento do tomateiro, a introgressão de fatores de resistência não só a vírus de importância atual nas regiões produtoras, como geminivírus, mas também a outros vírus potencialmente nocivos à cultura, como tospovírus e potyvírus.Advanced breeding lines from the IAC tomato breeding program and several tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars and F1 hybrids were screened for tospovirus and potyvirus resistance under field conditions, at Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. During the first season, only Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV was detected in plants of the experimental area. On both evaluations, all seven lines (IAC group were resistant to TCSV, with under 28% of infected plants. The tomato cultivars and hybrids were highly susceptible, with greater than 85% of infected plants, except for 'Franco', with 55% of infected plants. During the 2003/2004 growing season, the number of IAC lines evaluated was raised from seven to ten, and they were compared to five cultivars/F1 hybrids and to L. peruvianum LA-444-1. On this experiment, only Potato virus Y (PVY was detected in plants. Evaluations were carried out using a symptom intensity scale and ELISA. Considering both criteria, it was verified that only LA-444-1 displayed high resistance to PVY. In addition, 'Tyrade' displayed an intermediate behavior while all other lines, cultivars and hybrids behaved as susceptible to this potyvirus. These results highlight the need of introgressing resistance to multiple viruses in tomato breeding programs, taking into consideration the economical importance and relative incidence of each virus in different geographical regions and natural variations on incidence from year to year.

André L. Lourenção

2005-12-01

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Resistência de cultivares e linhagens de tomateiro a Tomato chlorotic spot virus e a Potato virus Y / Resistance of tomato lines and cultivars to Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Potato virus Y  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Linhagens avançadas do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum) do IAC foram avaliadas em condições de campo em Campinas (SP) para resistência a tospovírus e a potyvírus, nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, respectivamente. No primeiro ano, a única espécie de tospovírus [...] que ocorreu na área experimental foi Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV). As sete linhagens do grupo IAC exibiram baixa porcentagem de plantas sintomáticas em duas avaliações, com médias abaixo de 28%; as cultivares testadas mostraram-se altamente suscetíveis, com médias acima de 85%, à exceção de 'Franco', que apresentou cerca de 55% de infecção. No segundo experimento, conduzido em 2003/2004, dez linhagens do grupo IAC foram comparadas com cinco cultivares de polinização aberta e híbridos F1, além do acesso LA-444-1 de L. peruvianum. Nesse experimento, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos, verificou-se ocorrência generalizada de Potato virus Y (PVY). Foi determinado o percentual de plantas com sintomas e avaliada a intensidade dos sintomas mediante uso de escala de notas. Com base nos dois critérios, verificou-se que LA-444-1 apresenta alta resistência a PVY, que 'Tyrade' exibe comportamento intermediário, enquanto todos os demais genótipos demonstram alta suscetibilidade ao vírus. O comportamento dos genótipos avaliados neste trabalho mostra a necessidade de se considerar, nos programas de melhoramento do tomateiro, a introgressão de fatores de resistência não só a vírus de importância atual nas regiões produtoras, como geminivírus, mas também a outros vírus potencialmente nocivos à cultura, como tospovírus e potyvírus. Abstract in english Advanced breeding lines from the IAC tomato breeding program and several tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars and F1 hybrids were screened for tospovirus and potyvirus resistance under field conditions, at Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. D [...] uring the first season, only Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was detected in plants of the experimental area. On both evaluations, all seven lines (IAC group) were resistant to TCSV, with under 28% of infected plants. The tomato cultivars and hybrids were highly susceptible, with greater than 85% of infected plants, except for 'Franco', with 55% of infected plants. During the 2003/2004 growing season, the number of IAC lines evaluated was raised from seven to ten, and they were compared to five cultivars/F1 hybrids and to L. peruvianum LA-444-1. On this experiment, only Potato virus Y (PVY) was detected in plants. Evaluations were carried out using a symptom intensity scale and ELISA. Considering both criteria, it was verified that only LA-444-1 displayed high resistance to PVY. In addition, 'Tyrade' displayed an intermediate behavior while all other lines, cultivars and hybrids behaved as susceptible to this potyvirus. These results highlight the need of introgressing resistance to multiple viruses in tomato breeding programs, taking into consideration the economical importance and relative incidence of each virus in different geographical regions and natural variations on incidence from year to year.

André L., Lourenção; Walter J., Siqueira; Arlete M. T., Melo; Silvia R.L., Palazzo; Paulo C.T., Melo; Addolorata, Colariccio.

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Genotyping of rubella virus RNA in sera and dried blood spots collected during routine surveillance and in archival sera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information on the molecular epidemiology of rubella has been valuable in supporting efforts to control and eliminate rubella in several countries. The preferred samples for virus isolation or RNA detection, such as throat swabs, are often not available making it difficult to obtain a robust database of rubella virus sequences. A method for obtaining rubella virus genotypes from more commonly collected samples such as sera or dried blood spots using real-time RT-PCR to screen samples followed by nested set amplification is described. Rubella genotypes were obtained from dried blood spots and recent and archival sera collections. Eighteen percent of the RNAs extracted from the archival sera were real-time RT-PCR positive, and 44% of these RNAs were amplified successfully by nested RT-PCR and sequenced. Implementation of this technique could provide another tool to improve global rubella molecular surveillance. PMID:23201287

Zheng, Qi; Abernathy, Emily S; Sun, Hong; Zhu, Zhen; de Filippis, Ana; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Ahmed, Hinda; Morris-Glasgow, Victoria; Quist-Therson, Margaret; Icenogle, Joseph P

2013-02-01

126

Virus-Thrips-Plant Interactions of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Proceedings of a USDA Workshop. Held in Beltsville, Maryland on April 18-19, 1990.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the rapid developments in tomato spotted wilt virus research, and the large number of unanswered questions that should be studied cooperatively, the Florist and Nursery Crops has conducted a two-day workshop specifically focused on pathogen-vec...

H. T. Hsu R. H. Lawson

1991-01-01

127

Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as "mancha de chocolate" (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissue to Nicotiana benthamiana and, when graft-transmitted to tomato, this agent induced chocolate spot symptoms. This virus-like agent also was sap-transmitted to Datura stramonium and Nicotiana glutinosa, but not to a range of non-solanaceous indicator plants. Icosahedral virions approximately 28-30 nm in diameter were purified from symptomatic N. benthamiana plants. When rub-inoculated onto leaves of N. benthamiana plants, these virions induced symptoms indistinguishable from those in N. benthamiana plants infected with the sap-transmissible virus associated with chocolate spot disease. Tomatoes inoculated with sap or grafted with shoots from N. benthamiana plants infected with purified virions developed typical chocolate spot symptoms, consistent with this virus being the causal agent of the disease. Analysis of nucleic acids associated with purified virions of the chocolate-spot-associated virus, revealed a genome composed of two single-stranded RNAs of approximately 7.5 and approximately 5.1 kb. Sequence analysis of these RNAs revealed a genome organization similar to recently described torradoviruses, a new group of picorna-like viruses causing necrosis-associated diseases of tomatoes in Europe [tomato torrado virus (ToTV)] and Mexico [tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) and tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV)]. Thus, the approximately 7.5 kb and approximately 5.1 kb RNAs of the chocolate-spot-associated virus corresponded to the torradovirus RNA1 and RNA2, respectively; however, sequence comparisons revealed 64-83% identities with RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of ToTV, ToANV and ToMarV. Together, these results indicate that the chocolate-spot-associated virus is a member of a distinct torradovirus species and, thus, another member of the recently established genus Torradovirus in the family Secoviridae. The name tomato chocolate spot virus is proposed. PMID:20376682

Batuman, O; Kuo, Y-W; Palmieri, M; Rojas, M R; Gilbertson, R L

2010-06-01

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Proteomic analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis and differentially expressed proteins in response to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a persistent propagative manner. Despite the extensive replication of TSWV in midgut and salivary glands, there is little to no pathogenic effect on F. occidentalis. We hypothesize that the first-instar larva (L1) of F. occidentalis mounts a response to TSWV that protects it from pathogenic effects caused by virus infection and replication in various insect tissues. A partial thrips transcriptome was generated using 454-Titanium sequencing of cDNA generated from F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV. Using these sequences, the L1 thrips proteome that resolved on a two-dimensional gel was characterized. Forty-seven percent of the resolved protein spots were identified using the thrips transcriptome. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of virus titer in L1 thrips revealed a significant increase in the normalized abundance of TSWV nucleocapsid RNA from 2 to 21 h after a 3-h acquisition access period on virus-infected plant tissue, indicative of infection and accumulation of virus. We compared the proteomes of infected and noninfected L1s to identify proteins that display differential abundances in response to virus. Using four biological replicates, 26 spots containing 37 proteins were significantly altered in response to TSWV. Gene ontology assignments for 32 of these proteins revealed biological roles associated with the infection cycle of other plant- and animal-infecting viruses and antiviral defense responses. Our findings support the hypothesis that L1 thrips display a complex reaction to TSWV infection and provide new insights toward unraveling the molecular basis of this interaction. PMID:22696645

Badillo-Vargas, I E; Rotenberg, D; Schneweis, D J; Hiromasa, Y; Tomich, J M; Whitfield, A E

2012-08-01

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Peroral immunization of adult white mice with the Skalica strain from the tick-borne encephalitis virus complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult white mice immunized perorally with the infectious Skalica strain from the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus complex did not show any clinical symptoms of illness. 56% of experimental animals immunized with two doses of the Skalica virus (the titer of virus was 6 x 10(10) LD50) were protected against the challenge with the Hypr strain of TBE virus. All mice immunized with the Skalica virus and having haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies higher than 1:80 survived the challenge with the given dose of virulent TBE virus. No differences in the immunogenicity and protectivity were observed in experimental animals infected with infectious Skalica virus by oesophageal probe, or by drinking virus-containing medium. A higher protective activity against the virulent Hypr virus was observed in adult white mice immunized subcutaneously with the Skalica virus. PMID:1364023

Elecková, E; Gresíková, M

1992-10-01

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HEPATITIS B VIRUS DNA CAN BE AMPLIFIED DIRECTLY FROM DRIED BLOOD SPOT ON FILTER PAPER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infections represent a major public health problem because of the ability of HBV to cause a chronic carrier state. Even though chronic carriers remain largely asymptomatic, a large number of these individuals subsequently develop cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinomas. Dried Blood Spot (DBS samples are a simple and inexpensive sampling method, especially useful for blood collection in resource poor settings with limited access to diagnostic facilities. The main advantage of DBS samples over routine blood samples is that only a small quantity of blood, is required. They are easy to obtain, stable and can be transported to a reference laboratory at minimal cost. This study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBS samples for direct amplification of HBV DNA bypassing nucleic acid extraction. Results obtained from DBS samples were compared from those from plasma by routine molecular technique and also with those from whole blood. On the whole results for DBS, whole blood and plasma samples for HBV-DNA semi quantitative PCR monitoring, demonstrated very good agreement. This study also represents the first report in Egypt to evaluate the use of DBS to direct amplification of HBV-DNA and concluded that the use of DBS for direct amplification of HBV DNA without nucleic acid extraction was reliable, specific, sensitive, cheap and appropriate method to monitor the HBV infected patients."

Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini

2012-01-01

131

Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants. PMID:20626283

Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

2010-08-01

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Tsw gene-based resistance is triggered by a functional RNA silencing suppressor protein of the Tomato spotted wilt virus  

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As a result of contradictory reports, the avirulence (Avr) determinant that triggers Tsw gene-based resistance in Capsicum annuum against the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is still unresolved. Here, the N and NSs genes of resistance-inducing (RI) and resistance-breaking (RB) isolates were cloned and transiently expressed in resistant Capsicum plants to determine the identity of the Avr protein. It was shown that the NSsRI protein triggered a hypersensitive response (HR) in Tsw-containing C...

Ronde, D.; Butterbach, P. B. E.; Lohuis, H.; Hedil, M.; Lent, J. W. M.; Kormelink, R. J. M.

2013-01-01

133

Role of kit-ligand in proliferation and suppression of apoptosis in mast cells: basis for radiosensitivity of white spotting and steel mutant mice  

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The receptor tyrosine kinase Kit and its cognate ligand KL/steel factor are encoded at the white spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci of the mouse, respectively. Mutations at both the W and the Sl loci affect hematopoiesis including the stem cell hierarchy, erythropoiesis, and mast cells, as well as gametogenesis and melanogenesis. In addition, mutant mice display an increased sensitivity to lethal doses of irradiation. The role of KL/c-kit in cell proliferation and survival under conditions of g...

1994-01-01

134

Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari produced 20 offspring, with an unknown father. Part of the poisonous sting was removed from each fish and DNA was extracted from the epidermis for paternity research using eight microsatellite markers of which four were from another species Aetobatus flagellum. This non-invasive sampling technique can be applied on all members of Myliobatiformes. PMID:23464564

Janse, M; Kappe, A L; Van Kuijk, B L M

2013-03-01

135

Field evaluation of tomato hybrids engineered with Tomato spotted wilt virus sequences for virus resistance, agronomic performance and pollen-mediated transgene flow  

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Tomato hybrids obtained from homozygous progeny of line 30-4, engineered for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance, were tested under field conditions in two locations with their corresponding nontransgenic hybrids. No transgenic hybrid became infected, but 33 to 50% of plants of each nontransgenic hybrid became infected with a severe reduction of marketable fruit production. The transgenic hybrids conformed to the standard agronomic characteristics of the corresponding nontransgenic on...

Tavella, Luciana

2005-01-01

136

Characterization of Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus, A Novel Trichovirus Isolated from Stone Fruit Trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT A trichovirus closely related to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was detected in symptomatic apricot and Japanese plum from Italy. The Sus2 isolate of this agent cross-reacted with anti-ACLSV polyclonal reagents but was not detected by broad-specificity anti- ACLSV monoclonal antibodies. It had particles with typical trichovirus morphology but, contrary to ACLSV, was unable to infect Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. The sequence of its genome (7,494 nucleotides [nt], missing only approximately 30 to 40 nt of the 5' terminal sequence) and the partial sequence of another isolate were determined. The new virus has a genomic organization similar to that of ACLSV, with three open reading frames coding for a replication-associated protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), a movement protein, and a capsid protein, respectively. However, it had only approximately 65 to 67% nucleotide identity with sequenced isolates of ACLSV. The differences in serology, host range, genome sequence, and phylogenetic reconstructions for all viral proteins support the idea that this agent should be considered a new virus, for which the name Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV) is proposed. APCLSV shows substantial sequence variability and has been recovered from various Prunus sources coming from seven countries, an indication that it is likely to have a wide geographical distribution. PMID:18943045

Liberti, D; Marais, A; Svanella-Dumas, L; Dulucq, M J; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Rodoni, B; Candresse, T

2005-04-01

137

Genome structure of cucumber leaf spot virus: sequence analysis suggests it belongs to a distinct species within the Tombusviridae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) has been determined and the sizes and locations of predicted viral proteins deduced. The genome consists of 4432 nucleotides and contains five long ORFs. The 5' proximal ORF encodes a 25 kDa product that terminates in an amber codon which may be readthrough to produce an 84 kDa protein (ORF 2). ORF 3 codes for the 41 kDa coat protein (CP). ORFs 4 and 5 are completely overlapping at the 3' terminus and code for 27 and 17 kDa products, respectively. The CLSV genome structure is similar to that of tombusviruses and nearly identical to pothos latent virus (PoLV), a newly proposed, atypical, member of the Tombusviridae. It is proposed that CLSV and PoLV be considered strains of a new tombusvirus species. Amino acid sequence comparisons of the CLSV CP and the CPs of several small spherical plant viruses suggest that CLSV is most closely related to melon necrotic spot carmovirus (MNSV), red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus (RCNMV) and cucumber necrosis tombusvirus (CNV). These viruses, like CLSV, are transmitted by the soil inhabiting fungus, Olpidium bornovanus. PMID:9453144

Miller, J S; Damude, H; Robbins, M A; Reade, R D; Rochon, D M

1997-11-01

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Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. PMID:24685241

Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

2014-06-01

139

Postsynaptic Alpha 2-Adrenoceptors Mediate Melanosome Aggregation in Melanophores of the White-Spotted Rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature of neuro-melanophore junction in the white-spotted rabbit fish Siganus cancliculatus. In vitro experiments using split fin preparation indicated that melanophores of S. cancliculatus are highly responsive to potassium ions and adrenergic agonists. Potassium ions and the adrenergic agonists induced prompt melanosome aggregation that could be competitively blocked by yohimbine (alpha-2 specific adrenergic antagonist and phentolamine (non-specific alpha adrenergic antagonist. The melanophore responses to repeated potassium stimulation (up to 20 stimuli did not show any sign of fatigue. However, statistically significant enhancement was observed in responses to potassium that followed the first five stimulations. Adrenergic agonists acted in a time and concentration-dependent manner and their relative potency had the following rank order: clonidine (alpha-2 specific agonist > norepinephrine (non-specific adrenergic agonist > phenylephrine (alpha-1 specific agonist > methoxamine (alpha-1-specific agonist. Yohimbine exerted a more potent inhibiting effect on norepinephrine induced melanosome aggregation compared to phentolamine. Prazosine (alpha-1 specific antagonist had no effect on such aggregation. Chemically denervated melanophores displayed hypersensitivity to alpha-adrenergic agonists but were refractive to potassium ion stimulation. The refractivity of denervated melanophores to potassium indicates the effect of potassium ion is not direct on melanophores but it is rather through depolarization effect of potassium on the neuro-melanophore peripheral sympathetic fibers and hence release of norepinephrine. In denervated melanophores, similar to intact melanophores, only phentolamine and yohimbine but not prazosine, significantly inhibited melanosome aggregation effect of norepinephrine, indicating that norepinephrine effect is through postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The present data demonstrate that the nature of melanophore innervation in this teleost is adrenergic and neuro-melanophore signals mediating melanosome aggregation are transmitted through alpha-2 postsynaptic adrenoceptors.

M.H. Amiri

2009-01-01

140

Complete Genome Sequence of Avian Tembusu-Related Virus Strain WR Isolated from White Kaiya Ducks in Fujian, China  

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Avian tembusu-related virus, which was first identified in China, is an emerging virus causing serious economic loss to the Chinese poultry industry. We report here the complete genome sequences of avian tembusu-related virus strain WR, isolated from a White Kaiya duck with disease characterized by an abrupt decrease in egg laying with ovarian hemorrhage, which will help in further understanding the molecular and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenesis of avian tembusu-related virus, th...

Wan, Chunhe; Huang, Yu; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Cheng, Longfei; Chen, Hongmei

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Tomato spotted wilt virus: agente causal de la marchitez del Miguelito (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) en el Estado de Morelos, México / Tomato spotted wilt virus: causal agent of wilt in "Miguelito" (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) in Morelos, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se observaron síntomas de moteado, manchas necróticas anulares, enanismo y marchitez severa en plantas de miguelito (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) (Fam: Compositae) cultivadas en viveros comerciales del Estado de Morelos, México. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la etiología de e [...] sta enfermedad. Se identificó al virus marchitez manchada del tomate (Tomato spotted wilt virus. TSWV) como el agente causal de la enfermedad del miguelito con base en los ensayos de transmisión mecánica en plantas indicadoras y de patogenicidad en plántulas sanas de Z. elegans, cultivadas desde semilla en el invernadero. En las plantas el virus causó los síntomas de moteado, manchas necróticas en forma de anillos concéntricos, enanismo y marchitez, idénticos a los observados en plantas de miguelito cultivados en condiciones de campo. Se detectó por serología (DAS-ELISA) sólo al TSWV en plantas de miguelito con síntomas de marchitez procedentes de viveros comerciales del Estado de Morelos, en las plantas indicadoras usadas para separar al virus y en las plantas de miguelito producidas desde semilla inoculadas con el aislamiento puro de TSWV en el invernadero. La identidad taxonómica del TSWV se confirmó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de la RT-PCR. Las secuencias obtenidas del TSWV de muestras de campo de miguelito (número de acceso EF067862) y del mismo virus separado de N. rustica (número de acceso EF067863) mostraron una homología en el fragmento amplificado del gen de la proteína de la cápside del TSWV del 100% entre ellas y del 93% con las existentes en la base de datos de lNCBI/GenBank de aislamientos del TSWV ampliamente distribuidos en el mundo. Este trabajo es el primer reporte de la presencia del TSWV en Z. elegans en México y se describen dos métodos moleculares para diagnosticar e identificar este virus. Abstract in english Mottle symptoms, necrotic ring spots, dwarfism, and severe wilt were observed on "miguelito" (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) (Fam: Comositae) plants cultivated in commercial nurseries in the State of Morelos, México. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the etiology of the disease. Tomato spott [...] ed wilt virus (TSWV) was identified as the causal agent of the disease in miguelito by mechanical transmission tests on indicator plants and pathogenicity tests on healthy Z. elegans seedlings cultivated from seed in a greenhouse. On these plants the virus caused mottled symptoms, necrotic spots in the form of concentric rings, dwarfism and wilt, identical to those observed in miguelito plants cultivated in field conditions. Through serology (DAS-ELISA) only TSWV was detected in miguelito plants with wilt symptoms from commercial nurseries in the State of Morelos, in indicator plants used to separate the virus, and in miguelito plants produced from seed and inoculated with a pure isolate of TSWV in the greenhouse. Taxonomical identity of TSWV was confirmed by direct sequencing of the RT-PCR products. The TSWV sequences obtained from field samples of miguelito (access number EF067862) and the same virus separated from N. rustica (access number EF067863) showed 100% homology in the amplified fragment of the capsid protein gene of TSWV, while with the samples of TSWV isolates widely distributed over the world existing in the INCBI/GeneBank there was 93% homology. This paper is the first report of the presence of TSWV in Z. elegans in México, and two molecular methods for diagnosing and identifying this virus are described.

Morales-Díaz, Ma. Valeria; Alcacio-Rangel, Salomé; De La Torre-Almaraz, Rodolfo.

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Evaluation of peanut genotypes for resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus by mechanical and thrips inoculation Avaliação de genótipos de amendoim em relação à resistência ao Tomato spotted wilt virus por meio de inoculação mecânica e por tripes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the reactions of three peanut breeding lines (IC-10, IC-34, and ICGV 86388) to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) by mechanical and thrips inoculation, under greenhouse conditions, and compare them to the reactions of cultivars SunOleic, Georgia Green, and the breeding line C11-2-39. TSWV infection by mechanical inoculation was visually assessed using an index ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (apical death). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used ...

Luciana Cordeiro do Nascimento; Viboon Pensuk; Nivânia Pereira da Costa; Francisco Miguel de Assis Filho; Gilvan Pio-Ribeiro; Carl Michael Deom; John Sherwood

2006-01-01

143

Specific insect-virus interactions are responsible for variation in competency of different Thrips tabaci isolines to transmit different Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local adaptation between sympatric host and parasite populations driven by vector genetics appears to be a factor that influences dynamics of disease epidemics and evolution of insect-vectored viruses. Although T. tabaci is the primary vector of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in some areas of the world, it is not an important vector of this economically important plant virus in many areas where it occurs. Previous studies suggest that genetic variation of thrips populations, virus isolates, or both are important factors underlying the localized importance of this species as a vector of TSWV. This study was undertaken to quantify variation in transmissibility of TSWV isolates by T. tabaci, in the ability of T. tabaci to transmit isolates of TSWV, and to examine the possibility that genetic interactions and local adaptation contribute to the localized nature of this species as a vector of TSWV. Isofemale lines of Thrips tabaci from multiple locations were tested for their ability to transmit multiple TSWV isolates collected at the same and different locations as the thrips. Results revealed that the probability of an isofemale line transmitting TSWV varied among virus isolates, and the probability of an isolate being transmitted varied among isofemale lines. These results indicate that the interaction of T. tabaci and TSWV isolate genetic determinants underlie successful transmission of TSWV by T. tabaci. Further analysis revealed sympatric vector-virus pairing resulted in higher transmission than allopatric pairing, which suggests that local adaptation is occurring between T. tabaci and TSWV isolates. PMID:23358707

Jacobson, Alana L; Kennedy, George G

2013-01-01

144

Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus  

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Abstract Background African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF) that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs we...

Karalyan Zaven; Zakaryan Hovakim; Arzumanyan Hranush; Sargsyan Khachik; Voskanyan Henrik; Hakobyan Lina; Abroyan Liana; Avetisyan Aida; Karalova Elena

2012-01-01

145

Differential Expression of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs in Infected Commercial and Experimental Host Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. Principal Findings Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s) RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1) higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. Significance Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsiRNAs in antiviral defense and viral pathogenicity.

Mitter, Neena; Koundal, Vikas; Williams, Sarah; Pappu, Hanu

2013-01-01

146

BONE STRENGTH (ossis tibiae) OF NATIVE PIGS Z?OTNICKA SPOTTED BREED AND CROSSBREDS OF POLISH LARGE WHITE AND PoLISH LANDRACE PIGS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to compare the bone strength traits in two groups of pigs different in terms of genetic value, fast growth capability and meat deposition in the body. The study covered 33 fatteners of the Z?otnicka Spotted breed (Z?P) and 20 crossbreds F1 (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace). Tibial bones were obtained following slaughter and evaluated in terms of properties and geometry, as well as bending and compressive strength. Mineral composition of the bone tissue was...

Kapelan?ski, Wojciech; Topolin?ski, Tomasz; SALOMEA GRAJEWSKA; MARIA BOCIAN; Jankowiak, Hanna

2012-01-01

147

Characterization of Imjin Virus, a Newly Isolated Hantavirus from the Ussuri White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura lasiura)?  

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Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothe...

Song, Jin-won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N.; Song, Ki-joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-chul; O Guinn, Monica L.; Chong, Sung-tae; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard

2009-01-01

148

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas  

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Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture–resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture in The Netherlands in four consecutive winters. We ask what factors are re...

Kleijn, D.; Munster, V. J.; Ebbinge, B. S.; Jonkers, D. A.; Mu?skens, G. J. D. M.; Randen, Y.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

2010-01-01

149

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture-resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture in The Netherlands in four consecutive winters. We ask what factors are rela...

Kleijn, D.; Munster, V. J.; Ebbinge, B. S.; Jonkers, D. A.; Mu?skens, G. J. D. M.; Randen, Y.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

2010-01-01

150

Effect of infection by chlorotic spot virus on 14CO2 fixation in leaves of groundnut Arachis hypogea L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photosynthetic incorporation of 14CO2 into leaves of groundnut infected by chlorotic spot virus (GCSV) was slightly more at stages 2 and 5 less at stage 4 as compared to control. 14C incorporation into the alcohol soluble fraction of infected leaves followed the same trend as total 14CO2 fixation but in the alcohol-insoluble fraction the same was less at all the sampled stages. 14C in the alcohol-soluble fraction of fed leaves of both types (stage 5) decreased with time along with simultaneous increase in alcohol-insoluble fraction. The proportion of 14C incorporated into organic acids, amino acids and sugars was same in both the samples at stage 2, greater into organic and amino acids and less into sugars at stages 4 and 5, and at 12 and 24 hr time periods of stage 5 of virus infected leaves when compared to healthy ones. 14C incorporated into total sugars and organic acids of infected leaves followed that of total 14C fixation, and varied in individual sugars and organic acids. 14C in sugars of both type of leaves decreased with time and with simultaneous increase in organic and amino acids. 14C incorporated into virus infected leaf proteins was more when compared to healthy leaves. (auth.)

1980-08-01

151

Nucleotide sequence of melon yellow spot virus M RNA segment and characterization of non-viral sequences in subgenomic RNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleotide sequence of melon yellow spot virus (MYSV) M RNA segment was determined. The M RNA segment contains one open reading frame (ORF) encoding 308 amino acids (aa) in the sense orientation and another ORF encoding 1,127 aa in the complementary orientation, which were homologous to the NSm protein and G1/G2 glycoprotein precursor (Gp) protein, respectively. Amino acid sequences identities with the other tospovirus suggested that MYSV is closely related to groundnut bud necrosis virus and watermelon silver mottle virus. To analyze subgenomic RNA of the M RNA segment, RNA transcripts corresponding to the NSm and Gp genes were specifically amplified, and the nucleotide sequence of the 5' terminal region was determined. Sequence analysis of the NSm and Gp transcripts showed that they had a non-viral sequence 12-18 and 10-18 nucleotides long, respectively. Although these sequences varied considerably, in more than half of the cases, a cytosine residue was observed at the 3' end of the non-viral leader sequence, which suggests that the viral transcriptase prefers certain cap-donor sequences harboring a 3'CA dinucleotide. PMID:16132174

Okuda, M; Kato, K; Hanada, K; Iwanami, T

2006-01-01

152

Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance  

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Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were clon...

Ma Hao; Song Congfeng; Borth Wayne; Sether Diane; Melzer Michael; Hu John

2011-01-01

153

Surveillance for West Nile virus in American white pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006-2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5x higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful. PMID:20202414

Johnson, Gregory; Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

2010-03-01

154

Thrips tabaci population genetic structure and polyploidy in relation to competency as a vector of tomato spotted wilt virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of population-level genetic differences can help explain variation among populations of insect vectors in their role in the epidemiology of specific viruses. Variation in competency to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that exists among populations of Thrips tabaci has been associated with the presence of cryptic species that exhibit different modes of reproduction and host ranges. However, recent findings suggest that vector competency of T. tabaci at any given location depends on the thrips and virus populations that are present. This study characterizes the population genetic structure of T. tabaci collected from four locations in North Carolina and examines the relationship between population genetic structure and variation in TSWV transmission by T. tabaci. Mitochondrial COI sequence analysis revealed the presence of two genetically distinct groups with one characterized by thelytokous, parthenogenetic reproduction and the other by arrhenotokous, sexual reproduction. Using a set of 11 microsatellite markers that we developed to investigate T. tabaci population genetic structure, we identified 17 clonal groups and found significant genetic structuring among the four NC populations that corresponded to the geographic locations where the populations were collected. Application of microsatellite markers also led to the discovery of polyploidy in this species. All four populations contained tetraploid individuals, and three contained both diploid and tetraploid individuals. Analysis of variation in transmission ofTSWV among isofemale lines initiated with individuals used in this study revealed that 'clone assignment,' 'virus isolate' and their interaction significantly influenced vector competency. These results highlight the importance of interactions between specific T. tabaci clonal types and specific TSWV isolates underlying transmission of TSWV by T. tabaci. PMID:23365671

Jacobson, Alana L; Booth, Warren; Vargo, Edward L; Kennedy, George G

2013-01-01

155

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Benefits a Non-Vector Arthropod, Tetranychus Urticae, by Modulating Different Plant Responses in Tomato  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between plant viruses and non-vector arthropod herbivores is poorly understood. However, there is accumulating evidence that plant viruses can impact fitness of non-vector herbivores. In this study, we used oligonucleotide microarrays, phytohormone, and total free amino acid analyses to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and a non-vector arthropod, twospotted spider mite (Tetranychusurticae), on tomato plants, Solanumlycopersicum. Twospotted spider mites showed increased preference for and fecundity on TSWV-infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants. Transcriptome profiles of TSWV-infected plants indicated significant up-regulation of salicylic acid (SA)-related genes, but no apparent down-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA)-related genes which could potentially confer induced resistance against TSM. This suggests that there was no antagonistic crosstalk between the signaling pathways to influence the interaction between TSWV and spider mites. In fact, SA- and JA-related genes were up-regulated when plants were challenged with both TSWV and the herbivore. TSWV infection resulted in down-regulation of cell wall-related genes and photosynthesis-associated genes, which may contribute to host plant susceptibility. There was a three-fold increase in total free amino acid content in virus-infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants. Total free amino acid content is critical for arthropod nutrition and may, in part, explain the apparent positive indirect effect of TSWV on spider mites. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanism(s) of increased host suitability of TSWV-infected plants to non-vector herbivores is complex and likely involves several plant biochemical processes.

Nachappa, Punya; Margolies, David C.; Nechols, James R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Rotenberg, Dorith

2013-01-01

156

Evaluation of peanut genotypes for resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus by mechanical and thrips inoculation / Avaliação de genótipos de amendoim em relação à resistência ao Tomato spotted wilt virus por meio de inoculação mecânica e por tripes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as reações das linhagens de amendoim IC-10, IC-34 e ICGV 86388 quanto à resistência ao Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), por meio de inoculação mecânica e por tripes, em casa de vegetação, e compará-las às reações das cultivares SunOleic, Georgia Green e da linh [...] agem C11-2-39. A infecção de TSWV após inoculação mecânica foi visualmente avaliada, utilizando-se escala de notas que variam de zero (sem sintomas) a quatro (morte apical). A análise pelo teste ELISA confirmou a infecção de TSWV em ambos os tipos de inoculação. As linhagens IC-10, IC-34, ICGV 86388 e C11-2-39 foram mais resistentes do que as cultivares SunOleic e Georgia Green, com base nos resultados da inoculação mecânica. Em relação à inoculação por tripes, apenas IC-34 e ICGV 86388 foram infectadas por TSWV, conforme demonstrado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa (RT-PCR), embora nenhum sintoma de infecção tenha sido observado. As linhagens IC-10, IC-34 e ICGV 86388 mostram maior resistência ao vírus, quando comparadas à Georgia Green, considerada padrão de resistência ao TSWV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the reactions of three peanut breeding lines (IC-10, IC-34, and ICGV 86388) to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) by mechanical and thrips inoculation, under greenhouse conditions, and compare them to the reactions of cultivars SunOleic, Georgia Green, and th [...] e breeding line C11-2-39. TSWV infection by mechanical inoculation was visually assessed using an index ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (apical death). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to confirm TSWV infection from both mechanical and thrips inoculations. IC-10, IC-34, ICGV 86388, and C11-2-39 were more resistant than the cultivars SunOleic and Georgia Green based on mechanical inoculation. Upon thrips inoculation only IC-34 and ICGV-86388 were infected by TSWV, as demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), although no symptoms of infection were observed. The peanut breeding lines IC-10, IC-34, and ICGV 86388 show higher level of resistance to TSWV than cultivar Georgia Green considered a standard for TSWV resistance.

Luciana Cordeiro do, Nascimento; Viboon, Pensuk; Nivânia Pereira da, Costa; Francisco Miguel de, Assis Filho; Gilvan, Pio-Ribeiro; Carl Michael, Deom; John, Sherwood.

157

Evaluation of peanut genotypes for resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus by mechanical and thrips inoculation Avaliação de genótipos de amendoim em relação à resistência ao Tomato spotted wilt virus por meio de inoculação mecânica e por tripes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the reactions of three peanut breeding lines (IC-10, IC-34, and ICGV 86388 to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV by mechanical and thrips inoculation, under greenhouse conditions, and compare them to the reactions of cultivars SunOleic, Georgia Green, and the breeding line C11-2-39. TSWV infection by mechanical inoculation was visually assessed using an index ranging from 0 (no symptoms to 4 (apical death. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to confirm TSWV infection from both mechanical and thrips inoculations. IC-10, IC-34, ICGV 86388, and C11-2-39 were more resistant than the cultivars SunOleic and Georgia Green based on mechanical inoculation. Upon thrips inoculation only IC-34 and ICGV-86388 were infected by TSWV, as demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, although no symptoms of infection were observed. The peanut breeding lines IC-10, IC-34, and ICGV 86388 show higher level of resistance to TSWV than cultivar Georgia Green considered a standard for TSWV resistance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as reações das linhagens de amendoim IC-10, IC-34 e ICGV 86388 quanto à resistência ao Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, por meio de inoculação mecânica e por tripes, em casa de vegetação, e compará-las às reações das cultivares SunOleic, Georgia Green e da linhagem C11-2-39. A infecção de TSWV após inoculação mecânica foi visualmente avaliada, utilizando-se escala de notas que variam de zero (sem sintomas a quatro (morte apical. A análise pelo teste ELISA confirmou a infecção de TSWV em ambos os tipos de inoculação. As linhagens IC-10, IC-34, ICGV 86388 e C11-2-39 foram mais resistentes do que as cultivares SunOleic e Georgia Green, com base nos resultados da inoculação mecânica. Em relação à inoculação por tripes, apenas IC-34 e ICGV 86388 foram infectadas por TSWV, conforme demonstrado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa (RT-PCR, embora nenhum sintoma de infecção tenha sido observado. As linhagens IC-10, IC-34 e ICGV 86388 mostram maior resistência ao vírus, quando comparadas à Georgia Green, considerada padrão de resistência ao TSWV.

Luciana Cordeiro do Nascimento

2006-06-01

158

Evolution and structure of Tomato spotted wilt virus populations: evidence of extensive reassortment and insights into emergence processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) genetic diversity was evaluated by sequencing parts of the three RNA genome segments of 224 isolates, mostly from pepper and tomato crops in southern Europe. Eighty-three per cent of the isolates showed consistent clustering into three clades, corresponding to their geographical origin, Spain, France or the USA, for the three RNA segments. In contrast, the remaining 17% of isolates did not belong to the same clade for the three RNA segments and were shown to be reassortants. Among them, eight different reassortment patterns were observed. Further phylogenetic analyses provided insights into the dynamic processes of the worldwide resurgence of TSWV that, since the 1980s, has followed the worldwide dispersal of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) tospovirus vector. For two clades composed essentially of Old World (OW) isolates, tree topology suggested a local re-emergence of indigenous TSWV populations following F. occidentalis introductions, while it could not be excluded that the ancestors of two other OW clades were introduced from North America contemporarily with F. occidentalis. Finally, estimation of the selection intensity that has affected the evolution of the NSs and nucleocapsid proteins encoded by RNA S of TSWV suggests that the former could be involved in the breakdown of resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in pepper. PMID:21169211

Tentchev, Diana; Verdin, Eric; Marchal, Cécile; Jacquet, Monique; Aguilar, Juan M; Moury, Benoît

2011-04-01

159

Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators. PMID:21175073

Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas

2010-11-01

160

The nucleoprotein of Tomato spotted wilt virus as protein tag for easy purification and enhanced production of recombinant proteins in plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Upon infection, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) that consist of nucleoprotein (N) and viral RNA. These aggregates result from the homopolymerization of the N protein, and are highly stable in plant cells. These properties feature the N protein as a potentially useful protein fusion partner. To evaluate this potential, the N protein was fused to the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP), either at the amino or carboxy terminus, and expresse...

Lacorte, C. C.; Ribeiro, S. G.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R. W.; Prins, M. W.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Probing Behaviour of thrips. Behavioural study on the feeding of Western flower thrips related to Tomato spotted wilt virus transmission and host plant susceptibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis , feeds in a piercing sucking manner and is a worldwide pest on many ornamental and vegetable crops. Thrips can feed on different parts of the plant; leaves, stems, flowers and fruits. On leaves thrips can ingest the cell contents of epidermal, mesophyll, and parenchymal cells, but their mouthparts cannot reach the vascular tissue. Western flower thrips can also transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) during probing. My research has shown th...

Kindt, F.

2004-01-01

162

Nevirapine Resistance in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Positive Infants Determined Using Dried Blood Spots Stored for Up to Six Years at Room Temperature?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dried blood spots that had been stored ambiently for 3 to 6 years lost approximately 1 log10 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA, but the majority could still be genotyped for resistance. Nevirapine resistance was found in 7/16 (43.5%) HIV-1-positive HIVNET 024 infants at 4 to 6 weeks, but no resistance was found at other time points.

Nelson, Julie A. E.; Loftis, Amy M.; Kamwendo, Deborah; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Taha, Taha E.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Fiscus, Susan A.

2009-01-01

163

Evaluation of Epstein-Barr virus-specific immunologic response in solid organ transplant recipients with an enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ?-herpes virus, responsible for infectious mononucleosis in immunocompetent hosts. Cellular immunity appears rapidly during EBV primary infection, keeping it silent despite long-life persistence in B lymphocytes. Defects of the EBV-specific cellular immunity are supposed to be the basis of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders, promoted by high levels of immunosuppression. We retrospectively reviewed 197 solid organ transplant recipients to investigate EBV-specific lymphocyte responsiveness using Enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot assay (EliSpot), which assesses the EBV-specific interferon (IFN)-? producing peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and kinetics of EBV infection/reactivation post-transplantation using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on whole blood. Overall, 102 of the 197 patients (51.8%) showed EBV responsiveness at the EBV-EliSpot assay: 68 (66.6%) showed a persistently positive EBV response in 3 or more determinations and 34 (33.3%) had transient episodes of nonresponsiveness. Ninety-five (48.2%) patients were persistently EBV nonresponders. EBV-DNAemia data were available for 58 patients: 27.6% presented at least one episode of EBV-DNA occurrence. No differences were found in EBV-EliSpot response stratification between the groups of patients who experienced episodes of EBV reactivation and those without EBV-DNAemia. However, EBV DNAemia peak values tended to be higher in the first year post-transplantation in the group of patients with a persistent positive EBV-specific immune response. EBV viral load quantitation in blood and EliSpot EBV-specific immune response determination may represent a powerful tool for monitoring solid organ transplant recipients, guiding immunosuppression modulation in patients with active EBV replication. PMID:24034040

Rittà, M; Costa, C; Sinesi, F; Sidoti, F; Di Nauta, A; Mantovani, S; Piceghello, A; Simeone, S; Ricci, D; Boffini, M; Solidoro, P; Baldi, S; Segoloni, G P; Cavallo, R

2013-09-01

164

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

GuohuiZhou

2013-09-01

165

A new host, Simulium argyreatum Meig., for the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of blackflies in Czechoslovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) from the midgut of blackfly larvae is recorded from a population of Simulium argyreatum in Czechoslovakia. A 7.7% infection of 2766 sampled larvae was manifested by white spots in their body. 85% of the white-spotted larvae were infected with CPV when sampled in June. In August 9% of 1377 larvae had white spots but only 10.6% of them were with CPV. Out of 823 collected pupae, only 3 imperfect pupae had the virus in apparent form. Other infections producing white spots in larvae were due to the microsporidia Plistophora multispora, P. simulii, P. debaisieuxi, Thelohania fibrata, the fungus Coelomycidium simulii and the mermithids. PMID:369963

Weiser, J

1978-01-01

166

Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis / Seleção de reprodutores de camarão livres da síndrome da mancha-branca e da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar reprodutores de Litopenaeus vannamei sobreviventes de um surto do vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV), adaptados às condições locais e diagnosticados negativamente para WSSV e para o vírus da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética (IHHNV), e ava [...] liar se esta extratégia é uma alternativa viável para produção em Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados fenotipicamente 800 machos e 800 fêmeas, de um viveiro. Análises de nested-PCR de 487 fêmeas e de 231 machos, sexualmente maduros, mostraram que 63% das fêmeas e 55% dos machos estavam infectados com IHHNV. Os animais livres de IHHNV foram testados para WSSV, e os considerados duplo negativos destinados à reprodução. As pós-larvas produzidas foram estocadas em nove berçários, para análise. Das 45 amostras, com 50 pós-larvas cada, apenas duas foram positivas para IHHNV e nenhuma para WSSV. Os lotes de pós-larvas diagnosticadas livres de vírus por nested-PCR foram encaminhados para seis fazendas. Foi realizada análise comparativa em viveiros de engorda, entre pós-larvas locais e pós-larvas do Nordeste do Brasil. Também foram analisados caranguejos (Chasmagnathus granulata), siris (Callinectes sapidus) e lebres do mar (Aplysia brasiliana), que são possíveis vetores dos vírus. A média de sobrevivência foi de 55% para as pós-larvas locais e de 23,4% para as pós-larvas do Nordeste. As lebres do mar apresentaram prevalência de 50% e os caranguejos de 67% de WSSV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and to evaluate if this strat [...] egy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata), blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana), which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

Mello Junior, Carlos Cesar de; Delsol, Gael Yvan Leclercq; Motte, Emmerik; Escobar, Virna Alexia Cedeño; Rey, Pedro Filipe; Martins, Mauricio Laterça; Arana, Luis Alejandro Vinatea; Mello, Giovanni Lemos de; Farias, Alvaro Pestana de; Arguello, Xavier Antonio Serrano; Maridueña, John Erick Montaño.

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Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis Seleção de reprodutores de camarão livres da síndrome da mancha-branca e da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar reprodutores de Litopenaeus vannamei sobreviventes de um surto do vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV, adaptados às condições locais e diagnosticados negativamente para WSSV e para o vírus da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética (IHHNV, e avaliar se esta extratégia é uma alternativa viável para produção em Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados fenotipicamente 800 machos e 800 fêmeas, de um viveiro. Análises de nested-PCR de 487 fêmeas e de 231 machos, sexualmente maduros, mostraram que 63% das fêmeas e 55% dos machos estavam infectados com IHHNV. Os animais livres de IHHNV foram testados para WSSV, e os considerados duplo negativos destinados à reprodução. As pós-larvas produzidas foram estocadas em nove berçários, para análise. Das 45 amostras, com 50 pós-larvas cada, apenas duas foram positivas para IHHNV e nenhuma para WSSV. Os lotes de pós-larvas diagnosticadas livres de vírus por nested-PCR foram encaminhados para seis fazendas. Foi realizada análise comparativa em viveiros de engorda, entre pós-larvas locais e pós-larvas do Nordeste do Brasil. Também foram analisados caranguejos (Chasmagnathus granulata, siris (Callinectes sapidus e lebres do mar (Aplysia brasiliana, que são possíveis vetores dos vírus. A média de sobrevivência foi de 55% para as pós-larvas locais e de 23,4% para as pós-larvas do Nordeste. As lebres do mar apresentaram prevalência de 50% e os caranguejos de 67% de WSSV.

Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

2011-05-01

168

Seasonal dynamics of thrips (Thrips tabaci) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) transmitters of iris yellow spot virus: a serious viral pathogen of onion bulb and seed crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is an important economic constraint to the production of bulb and seed onion crops in the United States and many other parts of the world. Because the virus is exclusively spread by thrips, the ability to rapidly detect the virus in thrips vectors would facilitate studies on the role of thrips in virus epidemiology, and thus formulation of better vector management strategies. Using a polyclonal antiserum produced against the recombinant, Escherichia coli-expressed nonstructural protein coded by the small (S) RNA of IYSV, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detecting IYSV in individual as well as groups of adult thrips. The approach enabled estimating the proportion of potential thrips transmitters in a large number of field-collected thrips collected from field-grown onion plants. Availability of a practical and inexpensive test to identify viruliferous thrips would be useful in epidemiological studies to better understand the role of thrips vectors in outbreaks of this economically important virus of onion. PMID:24665687

Bag, Sudeep; Rondon, Silvia I; Druffel, Keri L; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

2014-02-01

169

Genetic variation analysis of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus coat protein reveals a new phylogenetic type and two recombinants in China.  

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In this study, we generated sequences of the apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) coat protein (CP) gene. Genetic variation and phylogenetic analyses were carried out on these sequences along with others reported previously. ACLSV populations clustered into four types: in three of the four types, combinations of three amino acids at positions of 40, 75 and 79 were conserved. The fourth phylogenetic type, newly identified here, was characterized by co-variation of Ser(40)-Tyr(75)-Ser(79). Statistically significant genetic differentiation and infrequent gene flow were detected among the four types. Two natural recombinants were detected for the first time among ACLSV isolates/genotypes from China. PMID:24318575

Chen, Shanyi; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Ting; Hao, Lu; Guo, Liyun; Fan, Zaifeng; Li, Shifang; Zhou, Tao

2014-06-01

170

Genetic organisation of iris yellow spot virus MRNA: implications for functional homology between the Gc glycoproteins of tospoviruses and animal-infecting bunyaviruses  

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Summary. The complete nucleotide sequence (4838 nucleotides) of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) M RNA indicates, typical for tospoviruses, the presence of two genes in ambisense arrangement. The vRNA ORF codes for the potential cell-to-cell movement (NSm) protein (34.8 kDa) and the vcRNA ORF for the viral glycoprotein (G1/G2) precursor (128.6 kDa). Multiple sequence alignment of the NSm and G1/G2 precursor proteins of IYSV with those of other tospoviruses, showed highest homologies to Peanut bu...

2002-01-01

171

Survival of avirulent thermostable Newcastle disease virus (strain I-2) in raw, baked, oiled, and cooked white rice at ambient temperatures  

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Raw white rice has not been considered a good carrier for oral vaccination, probably because of its antiviral activity. Methods are required to overcome antiviral activity in raw white rice. This study was carried out to determine the effects of various treatments of raw white rice on the survival of strain I-2 of Newcastle disease virus. These included cooking and baking the rice or mixing the rice with vegetable oil prior to coating with vaccine virus. The vaccine-coated rice was then store...

Wambura, Philemon Nyangi; Meers, Joanne; Spradbrow, Peter

2007-01-01

172

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

173

Study of Experimental Vaccination in White Pekin Duck (Anas platyrhynchos Against Newcastle Disease: Investigation of the State of Virus Carrier  

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Full Text Available This study aimed the characterization of the importance of vaccination against Newcastle disease in white Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, and investigated the state of carrier of the virus in this species. There were used 120 Pekin ducks, distributed at random into 4 groups, vaccinated or not. At 60 days of age, all groups were challenged with a pathogenic virus (NDV suspension, EID50 = 108,15/0,1mL. Cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected after 6, 14, 20 and 30 days post-challenge for viral isolation in SPF embryonated eggs. White Pekin duck of all the groups did not demonstrate symptoms of the Newcastle disease. They were refractory to the clinical disease with the NDV. In Pekin ducks from control group, the viral isolation was obtained from 20 up to 30 days after challenge. It was demonstrated therefore the state of carrier of NDV of the Pekin duck. In ducks from vaccinated groups, the viral isolation was null. It was also demonstrated therefore the importance of the vaccination in the suppression of the state of carrier of the NDV in white Pekin ducks.

Marcia Nishizawa

2006-01-01

174

Second generation peanut genotypes resistant to thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt virus exhibit tolerance rather than true resistance and differentially affect thrips fitness.  

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Spotted wilt disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a major constraint to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern United States. Reducing yield losses to TSWV has heavily relied on planting genotypes that reduce the incidence of spotted wilt disease. However, mechanisms conferring resistance to TSWV have not been identified in these genotypes. Furthermore, no information is available on how these genotypes influence thrips fitness. In this study, we investigated the effects of newly released peanut genotypes (Georganic, GA-06G, Tifguard, and NC94022) with field resistance to TSWV and a susceptible genotype (Georgia Green) on tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), fitness, and TSWV incidence. Thrips-mediated transmission resulted in TSWV infection in both TSWV-resistant and susceptible genotypes and they exhibited typical TSWV symptoms. However, some resistant genotypes had reduced viral loads (fewer TSWV N-gene copies) than the susceptible genotype. F. fusca larvae acquired TSWV from resistant and susceptible genotypes indicating that resistant genotypes also can serve as inoculum sources. Unlike resistant genotypes in other crops that produce local lesions (hypersensitive reaction) upon TSWV infection, widespread symptom development was noticed in peanut genotypes. Results indicated that the observed field resistance in peanut genotypes could be because of tolerance. Further, fitness studies revealed some, but not substantial, differences in thrips adult emergence rates and developmental time between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Thrips head capsule length and width were not different when reared on different genotypes. PMID:23786043

Shrestha, Anita; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G

2013-04-01

175

Genetic organisation of Iris yellow spot virus M RNA: indications for functional homology between the G(C) glycoproteins of tospoviruses and animal-infecting bunyaviruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete nucleotide sequence (4838 nucleotides) of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) M RNA indicates, typical for tospoviruses, the presence of two genes in ambisense arrangement. The vRNA ORF codes for the potential cell-to-cell movement (NSm) protein (34.8 kDa) and the vcRNA ORF for the viral glycoprotein (G1/G2) precursor (128.6 kDa). Multiple sequence alignment of the NSm and G1/G2 precursor proteins of IYSV with those of other tospoviruses, showed highest homologies to Peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMV). The potential cell-to-cell movement protein of tospoviruses is highly conserved (40-70% identity), with the exception of the first 60 N terminal amino acids, a domain that clearly diverged. For the G1 and G2 viral glycoproteins, blast searches revealed a significant homology between the C-terminally located tospoviral G1 (G(C)) protein with the counterpart of the animal-infecting bunyaviruses, suggesting a functional homology for these proteins. PMID:12491100

Cortez, I; Aires, A; Pereira, A-M; Goldbach, R; Peters, D; Kormelink, R

2002-12-01

176

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA  

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Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

Aneliya BORISOVA

2005-08-01

177

Prevalence and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in the white-tailed deer population in Indiana.  

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Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the economically important diseases of cattle. For many years, different types of vaccines have been commercially available, yet this disease is hard to control in high-density population areas. Detection and isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from any potential reservoir is vital, especially when considering virus eradication from a herd or locale. One potential source is wild ruminants. Ear notches and lymph nodes were collected from the wild population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during deer hunting season in Indiana and tested for BVDV with a commercial BVD antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two samples out of 745 collected samples were positive, and subsequently cp and ncp BVDV was isolated from 1 ear notch and 1 lymph node. These isolates were genotyped as type 1a and 1b based on sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated region (UTR). The results of the present study indicate that the prevalence of BVDV in the white-tailed deer population of Indiana is about 0.3%. Wild ruminants infected with BVDV should be taken into consideration during an eradication program of BVDV from the livestock population. PMID:18182513

Pogranichniy, Roman M; Raizman, Eran; Thacker, H Leon; Stevenson, Gregory W

2008-01-01

178

Host plant resistance against tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its impact on susceptibility to the virus, virus population genetics, and vector feeding behavior and survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely affects peanut production in the southeastern United States. Breeding efforts over the last three decades resulted in the release of numerous peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV. The degree of field resistance in these genotypes has steadily increased over time, with recently released genotypes exhibiting a higher degree of field resistance than older genotypes. However, most new genotypes have never been evaluated in the greenhouse or laboratory against TSWV or thrips, and the mechanism of resistance is unknown. In this study, TSWV-resistant and -susceptible genotypes were subjected to TSWV mechanical inoculation. The incidence of TSWV infection was 71.7 to 87.2%. Estimation of TSWV nucleocapsid (N) gene copies did not reveal significant differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Parsimony and principal component analyses of N gene nucleotide sequences revealed inconsistent differences between virus isolates collected from resistant and susceptible genotypes and between old (collected in 1998) and new (2010) isolates. Amino acid sequence analyses indicated consistent differences between old and new isolates. In addition, we found evidence for overabundance of nonsynonymous substitutions. However, there was no evidence for positive selection. Purifying selection, population expansion, and differentiation seem to have influenced the TSWV populations temporally rather than positive selection induced by host resistance. Choice and no-choice tests indicated that resistant and susceptible genotypes differentially affected thrips feeding and survival. Thrips feeding and survival were suppressed on some resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes. These findings reveal how TSWV resistance in peanut could influence evolution, epidemiology, and management of TSWV. PMID:24025049

Sundaraj, Sivamani; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

2014-02-01

179

Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

2013-09-01

180

Detection, discrimination and absolute quantitation of Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates using real time RT-PCR with TaqMan(®)MGB probes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) procedure using a general primer set and three TaqMan(®)MGB probes was developed for general and genotype-specific detection and quantitation of the genomic M segment of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Standard curves using RNA transcripts homologous to the three probes allowed reproducible quantitative assays with a wide dynamic range (10(3)-10(10) TSWV M segment RNA copies/ng of total RNA) and high sensitivity. This protocol was assayed with a battery of TSWV isolates, covering the range of the present known genetic variation, in single and/or mix infections in three plant hosts, as well as in the thrips vector Frankliniella occidentalis. This quantitative detection assay will be a valuable tool for molecular biology and epidemiology studies, diagnosis and disease control. PMID:21635923

Debreczeni, D E; Ruiz-Ruiz, S; Aramburu, J; López, C; Belliure, B; Galipienso, L; Soler, S; Rubio, L

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Resistencia genética de híbridos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) Al virus del bronceado (TSWV) / Genetic resistance of tomato hybrids (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación se realizó en el invernadero y laboratorio de la Fundación PROINPA en Cochabamba - Bolivia en el 2012. El objetivo fue evaluar la resistencia y suscep-tibilidad de plantas a los virus Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV y Groundnut ringspot [...] virus - GRSV en 10 híbridos de tomate mediante evaluación feno-típica y del patrón molecular (marcador SCAR Sw- 421), que distingue los homocigotos y hete-rocigotos resistentes del susceptible. Los resul-tados mostraron que el marcador SW-421 se co-localizó con el gen Sw-5 de resistencia a TSWV. Se observó la presencia de la banda de resistencia (R) para TSWV a 940 bp en las variedades PROINPA 2 (Aguaí) y PROINPA 9 (Bonita) en estado homocigoto dominante (Sw-5/Sw-5). Las variedades PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka), y PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera), mostraron la banda resistencia (H) a TSWV a 900-940 bp en estado heterocigoto (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Solamente la variedad PROINPA 7 (Redonda), el padre 71 89S LACHING SW-5 y la variedad Shannon mostraron el gen de suscep-tibilidad (S) al TSWV a 900 bp en estado homo-cigoto recesivo (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). Los análisis de severidad y de DAS-ELISA fueron confirmados con el análisis molecular. Abstract in english This research was conducted at the PROINPA Foundation’s greenhouse and laboratory in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2012. Its objective was to evaluate the resistance and susceptibility to Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV and Groundnut ringspot virus - GRSV in 10 tomato [...] hybrids. Phenotypic and molecular pattern (SCAR marker SW-421) evaluations were performed in order to differentiate homozygous and heterozygous resistant from susceptible plants. Results showed that molecular marker Sw421 is co -located with the TSWV-resistance Sw-5 gene. A TSWV-resistance band (R) was observed at 940 bp and showed the homozygous presence of the Sw-5 allele (Sw-5/Sw-5) in PROINPA 2 (Aguai) and PROINPA 9 (Bonita) varieties. PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka) and PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera) varieties, showed a TSWV resistance band (H) at 900-940 bp in the heterozygous state (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Only PROINPA 7 (Redonda), the male parent 71 LACHING 89S Sw-5 and the variety Shannon showed TSWV susceptibility gene (S) at 900 bp in the homozygous-recessive state (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). The results of the severity analysis and of DAS-ELISA were confirmed by the molecular analysis.

Julio, Gabriel; Daniel, Sanabria; Silene, Veramendi; Giovanna, Plata; Ada, Angulo; Mario, Crespo.

182

Tomato chlorotic spot virus in hydroponically-grown lettuce in São Paulo State, Brazil Detecção do Tomato chlorotic spot virus associado a alface em cultivo hidropônico no Estado de São Paulo  

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In the regions of Campinas and Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil, hidroponically grown crops of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cv. Verônica, which showed virus-like symptoms were examined by electron microscope, biological, serological and molecular tests. Pleomorphic, enveloped particles (80-100 nm in diameter) were always detected in these samples. Experimentally inoculated host plants, including lettuce, reacted with tospoviruses-induced symptoms. Some differences were observed in Gomphrena globosa, ...

Addolorata Colariccio; Marcelo Eiras; Chaves, Alexandre L. R.; Ricardo Harakava; Chagas, Ce?sar M.

2004-01-01

183

P3N-PIPO of Clover yellow vein virus exacerbates symptoms in pea infected with white clover mosaic virus and is implicated in viral synergism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed infection of pea (Pisum sativum) with Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) and White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) led to more severe disease symptoms (a phenomenon called viral synergism). Similar to the mixed ClYVV/WClMV infection, a WClMV-based vector encoding P3N-PIPO of ClYVV exacerbated the disease symptoms. Infection with the WClMV vector encoding ClYVV HC-Pro (a suppressor of RNA silencing involved in potyviral synergisms), also resulted in more severe symptoms, although to a lesser extent than infection with the vector encoding P3N-PIPO. Viral genomic RNA accumulated soon after inoculation (at 2 and 4 days) at higher levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding HC-Pro but at lower levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding P3N-PIPO than in peas infected with WClMV encoding GFP. Our results suggest that ClYVV P3N-PIPO is involved in the synergism between ClYVV and WClMV during pea infection through an unknown mechanism different from suppression of RNA silencing. PMID:24418553

Hisa, Yusuke; Suzuki, Haruka; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Nakahara, Kenji S; Uyeda, Ichiro

2014-01-20

184

Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genomic analysis of integration will be important in evaluating the safety of human gene therapy with retroviral vectors. Here, we investigated MLV vector integration sites in human T-cells, since they are amenable to gene transfer studies, and have been used therapeutically in clinical trials. We mapped 340 MLV vector integration sites in the infected human T-cell clones we established. The data showed that MLV preferred integration near the transcription start sites (±5 kb), near CpG islands (±1 kb), and within the first intron of RefSeq genes. We also identified MLV integration hot spots that contained three or more integrations within a 100 kb region. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA-levels of T-cell clones that contained MLV integrations near transcription start sites or introns were dysregulated compared to the uninfected cells. These studies help define the profile of MLV integration in T-cells and the risks associated with MLV-based gene therapy

2006-07-07

185

Reflective mulch and acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments relative to thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus incidence in tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt (TSW) virus typically relies on tactics that either reduce the thrips vector numbers or change the plant's response to the virus to reduce economic loss. We attempted to quantify the interaction between two such tactics, reflective mulch and the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard), respectively, on a TSW-susceptible tomato hybrid. A split plot experiment was conducted in 2009 and 2010 where main-plots were three types of plastic mulch (two metalized reflective vs. black) and subplots consisted of a range of plant defense activator applications. TSW pressure varied over year with 80% of untreated plants having TSW in 2009 where as thrips and marketable yield in either year. In 2009, the seasonal average of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) populations and incidence of TSW were significantly lower and yield significantly higher on both reflective mulches than on black mulch. Seasonal averages of thrips and fruit yield differed significantly among treatments of acibenzolar-S-methyl. However, there was a significant acibenzolar-S-methyl by mulch interaction relative to TSW incidence. In 2009, a minimum of acibenzolar-S-methyl at transplant plus foliar treatments at 10 and 20 d after transplant was required to significantly reduce TSW incidence compared with untreated plants before harvest. Under lower TSW pressure in 2010, average TSW incidence was significantly less in all plots treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl treated plots compared with the check. Acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments functioned better with the thrips reducing tactic, ultraviolet-reflective mulch. We propose that acibenzolar-S-methyl is less effective than metalized reflective mulch in reducing the incidence of TSW in tomato. PMID:22928310

Riley, D G; Joseph, S V; Srinivasan, R

2012-08-01

186

Bier spots in two children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bier spots are a distinct pattern of vascular mottling. Most reported cases are in young adults, with the youngest case in the literature at age 15 years. We report two children, ages 11 and 12 years, with Bier spots. Patient 1 was an 11-year-old boy who presented with white spots on the dorsal aspect of his hands. Patient 2 was a 12-year-old girl who presented with similar spots on the dorsal aspect of her left forearm and left hand. In both patients, the spots were visible when extremities were placed in a dependent position and disappeared with elevation of the extremity. Both patients were otherwise healthy. PMID:21385208

Tunca, Mustafa; Caliskan, Ercan; Erbil, Hakan; Akar, Ahmet

2011-01-01

187

Genetic diversity of Imjin virus in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea, 2004-2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, Imjin virus (MJNV), a genetically distinct hantavirus, was isolated from lung tissues of the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea. To clarify the genetic diversity of MJNV, partial M- and L-segment sequences were amplified from lung tissues of 12 of 37 (32.4%) anti-MJNV IgG antibody-positive Ussuri white-toothed shrews captured between 2004 and 2010. A 531-nucleotide region of the M segment (coordinates 2,255 to...

Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Baek, Luck Ju; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Heung-chul; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-won

2011-01-01

188

Mutational analysis of two highly conserved motifs in the silencing suppressor encoded by tomato spotted wilt virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tospoviruses cause serious economic losses to a wide range of field and horticultural crops on a global scale. The NSs gene encoded by tospoviruses acts as a suppressor of host plant defense. We identified amino acid motifs that are conserved in all of the NSs proteins of tospoviruses for which the sequence is known. Using tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as a model, the role of these motifs in suppressor activity of NSs was investigated. Using site-directed point mutations in two conserved motifs, glycine, lysine and valine/threonine (GKV/T) at positions 181-183 and tyrosine and leucine (YL) at positions 412-413, and an assay to measure the reversal of gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana line 16c, we show that substitutions (K182 to A, and L413 to A) in these motifs abolished suppressor activity of the NSs protein, indicating that these two motifs are essential for the RNAi suppressor function of tospoviruses. PMID:24363189

Zhai, Ying; Bag, Sudeep; Mitter, Neena; Turina, Massimo; Pappu, Hanu R

2014-06-01

189

Complete nucleotide sequences of the genomes of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (Z1 and Z3) collected from peach in Henan Province, China, were determined. The genomes of both Z1 and Z3 were found to contain three open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis showed that genomic sequences of Z1 and Z3 isolates shared 67.4%-82.9% and 67.2%-82.6% identity, respectively, with the other eight isolates of ACLSV that have been reported previously. Based on the putative amino acid sequences of the products of the three ORFs, Z1 and Z3 isolates showed the greatest identity to isolate PBM1 (GenBank accession number AJ243438) from plum and the least identity with isolate Ta Tao5 (GenBank Accession Number: EU223295) from peach. Considering the low level of sequence identity between Z1/Z3 isolate and Ta Tao5 isolate, two types of ACLSV may exist in peach. PMID:22278708

Niu, Feiqing; Pan, Song; Wu, Zujian; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Shifang

2012-04-01

190

Dried blood spots collected on filter paper: an international resource for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Type-1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper provides a powerful approach for the development of large-scale, population-based screening programs. DBS methods are particularly valuable in developing countries and isolated rural regions where resources are limited. Large numbers of field [...] specimens can be economically collected and shipped to centralized reference laboratories for genetic and (or) serological analysis. Alternatively, the dried blood can be stored and used as an archival resource to rapidly establish the frequency and distribution of newly recognized mutations, confirm patient identity or track the origins and emergence of newly identified pathogens. In this report, we describe how PCR-based technologies are beginning to interface with international screening programmes for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In particular, we review recent progress using DBS specimens to resolve the HIV-1 infection status of neonates, monitor the genetic evolution of HIV-1 during early infancy and establish a sentinel surveillance system for the systematic monitoring of HIV-1 genetic variation in Asia.

Cassol, Sharon A; Read, Stanley; Weniger, Bruce G; Gomez, Perry; Lapointe, Normand; Chin-Yih, Ou; Babu, P George.

191

Dried Blood Spots versus Sera for Detection of Rubella Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG in Samples Collected during a Rubella Outbreak in Peru?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most persons with rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM)- or IgG-positive sera tested positive (98% [n = 178] and 99% [n = 221], respectively) using paired filter paper dried blood spot (DBS) samples, provided that DBS indeterminate results were called positive. For persons with IgM- or IgG-negative sera, 97% and 98%, respectively, were negative using DBS.

Helfand, Rita F.; Cabezas, Cesar; Abernathy, Emily; Castillo-solorzano, Carlos; Ortiz, Ana Cecilia; Sun, Hong; Osores, Fernando; Oliveira, Lucia; Whittembury, Alvaro; Charles, Myrna; Andrus, Jon; Icenogle, Joe

2007-01-01

192

Dried blood spots versus sera for detection of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG in samples collected during a rubella outbreak in Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most persons with rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM)- or IgG-positive sera tested positive (98% [n = 178] and 99% [n = 221], respectively) using paired filter paper dried blood spot (DBS) samples, provided that DBS indeterminate results were called positive. For persons with IgM- or IgG-negative sera, 97% and 98%, respectively, were negative using DBS. PMID:17881506

Helfand, Rita F; Cabezas, Cesar; Abernathy, Emily; Castillo-Solorzano, Carlos; Ortiz, Ana Cecilia; Sun, Hong; Osores, Fernando; Oliveira, Lucia; Whittembury, Alvaro; Charles, Myrna; Andrus, Jon; Icenogle, Joe

2007-11-01

193

Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Karen Sumire Kubo; Paulo de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de Alcântara; Alessandra de Jesus Boari; Renata Takassugi Gomes; Juliana Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Gilberto José de Morais; Renato Barbosa Salaroli

2008-01-01

194

Distribution of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) antigens in nervous and non-nervous organs of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during the course of an experimental challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) antigens was examined by immunohistochemistry in the nervous and non-nervous organs of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during the course of an intramuscular infection. Histological changes resulting from the infection were evaluated from 3 days to 2 months post-infection. The specific antibody response was also studied 2 months post-challenge. Viral proteins were present throughout the experimental period ...

Lopez-jimena, Benjamin; Garcia-rosado, Esther; Thompson, Kim Dawn; Adams, Alexandra; Infante, Carlos; Borrego, Juan Jose; Alonso, Maria Del Carmen

2012-01-01

195

Analysis of Pleiotropism at the Dominant White-Spotting (W) Locus of the House Mouse: A Description of Ten New W Alleles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Characterization of the pleiotropic effects of ten new putative W locus mutations, nine co-isogenic and one highly congenic with the C57BL/6J strain, reveals a wide variety of influences upon pigmentation, blood formation and gametogenesis. None of the putative alleles, each of which is closely linked to Ph, a gene 0.1 cM from W, gave evidence of complementation with W39, a new allele previously shown to be allelic to Wv. All W*/W39 genotypes resulted in black-eyed-white anemics with reduced ...

Geissler, Edwin N.; Mcfarland, Eleanor C.; Russell, Elizabeth S.

1981-01-01

196

Complete Genome Sequence of a Natural Recombinant H9N2 Influenza Virus Isolated from a White-Fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) in South Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2007, we isolated a natural recombinant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from the fecal droppings of a white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) in South Korea. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genome sequence showed that polymerase acidic (PA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes belonged to the Eurasian lineage AIV, but polymerase basic 2 (PB2), PB1, hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M), and nonstructural (NS) genes belonged to the North-American lineage AIV. These data are benefi...

Lee, Dong-hun; Park, Jae-keun; Yuk, Seong-su; Erdene-ochir, Tseren-ochir; Kwon, Jung-hoon; Lee, Joong-bok; Park, Seung-yong; Choi, In-soo; Song, Chang-seon

2013-01-01

197

Role of insecticides in reducing thrips injury to plants and incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in Virginia market-type peanut.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV), transmitted by many thrips species, is a devastating pathogen of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. TSWV has become a serious problem in the Virginia/Carolina peanut-growing region of the United States. During 2002, TSWV was present in 47% of the North Carolina hectarage and caused a 5% yield reduction in Virginia. Factors influencing levels of TSWV in runner market-type peanut cultivars, which are primarily grown in Alabama, Flordia, Georgia, and Texas, have been integrated into an advisory to help those peanut growers reduce losses. An advisory based on the southeast runner market-type version is currently under development for virginia market-type peanut cultivars that are grown primarily in the Virginia/ Carolina region. A version based on preliminary field experiments was released in 2003. One factor used in both advisories relates to insecticide use to reduce the vector populations and disease incidence. This research elucidated the influence of insecticides on thrips populations, thrips plant injury, incidence of TSWV, and pod yield in virginia market-type peanut. Eight field trials from 2003 to 2005 were conducted at two locations. In-furrow application of aldicarb and phorate resulted in significant levels of thrips control, significant reductions in thrips injury to seedlings, reduced incidence of TSWV, and significant increases in pod yield. Foliar application of acephate after aldicarb or phorate applied in the seed furrow further reduced thrips plant injury and incidence of TSWV and improved yield. These findings will be used to improve the current virginia market-type TSWV advisory. PMID:17849876

Herbert, D Ames; Malone, S; Aref, S; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Royals, B M; Johnson, P D

2007-08-01

198

Seroepidemiology of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon and use of the SPOT test to identify herds with PI calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine viral diarrhoea, caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most important diseases of cattle world wide causing poor reproductive performance in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. In addition it causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections, the impact of which is uncertain, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where animals are exposed to a much wider range and higher intensity of infections compared to Europe. There are no previous estimates of the seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle in Cameroon. This paper describes the serological screening for antibodies to BVDV and antigen of BVDV in a cattle population in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon in 2000. The estimates of herd-level and within herd seroprevalences adjusted for test imperfections were 92% and 30% respectively and 16.5% of herds were classed as having a persistently infected calf (PI) in the herd within the last year based on the "spot" test approach. There was evidence of clustering of herds with PI calves across the north and west of the Region which corresponds with the higher cattle density areas and of self-clearance of infection from herds. A multivariable model was developed for the risk of having a PI calf in the herd; proximity to antelope, owning a goat, mixing with > 10 other herds at grazing and the catchment area of the veterinary centre the herd was registered at were all significant risk factors. Very little is known about BVDV in sub-Saharan Africa and these high seroprevalences suggest that there is a large problem which may be having both direct impacts on fertility and neonate mortality and morbidity and also indirect effects through immunosuppression and susceptibility to other infections. Understanding and accounting for BVDV should be an important component of epidemiological studies of other diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21754993

Handel, Ian G; Willoughby, Kim; Land, Fiona; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Morgan, Kenton L; Tanya, Vincent N; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC

2011-01-01

199

Winter weeds as inoculum sources of tomato spotted wilt virus and as reservoirs for its vector, Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in farmscapes of Georgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a broad host range including crops and weeds. In Georgia, TSWV is known to consistently affect peanut, tomato, pepper, and tobacco production. These crops are grown from March through November. In the crop-free period, weeds are presumed to serve as a green bridge for thrips and TSWV. Previous studies have identified several winter weeds as TSWV and thrips hosts. However, their ability to influence TSWV transmission in crops is still not completely understood. To further understand these interactions, population dynamics of two prevalent vectors, viz., Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on selected winter weeds were monitored from October through April in four counties from 2004 to 2008. Peak populations were typically recorded in March. F. fusca and F. occidentalis adults were found on winter weeds and their percentages ranged from 0 to 68% in comparison with other adults. Immatures outnumbered all adults. Microcosm experiments indicated that the selected winter weeds differentially supported F. fusca reproduction and development. The time required to complete one generation (adult to adult) ranged from 11 to 16 d. Adult recovery ranged from 0.97 to 2.2 per female released. In addition, transmission assays revealed that thrips efficiently transmitted TSWV from peanut to weeds, the incidence of infection ranged from 10 to 55%. Back transmission assays with thrips from TSWV-infected weeds resulted in up to 75% TSWV infection in peanut. These whole-plant transmission and back transmission assays provide the basis for TSWV persistence in farmscapes year round. PMID:24612539

Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Shrestha, Anita; Culbreath, Albert

2014-04-01

200

Collaboration Spotting  

CERN Document Server

Collaboration Spotting is a software package under development at CERN in collaboration with EC-JRC that combines advanced mining and semantics techniques with interactive socio-metric diagrams (sociograms) to assist users in understanding the publication and patent landscapes at the technology forefront.

Agocs, A; Le Goff, J-M; Skogstad, E; Tanev, H; Van der Goot, E

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TS WV), weeds and thrip vectors in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the Andean region of Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), malezas y vectores de trips en el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) en la región andina de Cundinamarca (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presencia y distribución de TSWV, arvenses y los trips vectores en las principales zonas productoras de tomate en la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca (provincias de Oriente, Sumapaz y Ubaté), se confirmó mediante la técnica DAS ELISA , se evaluó la presencia del virus TSWV en tejido [...] de tomate, arvenses y trips asociados. Se observaron incidencias altas en diferentes provincias de la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca. La incidencia viral alcanzó promedios de 23,3% en el Sumapaz, el 19,4% en Oriente y el 4% en Ubaté. Los síntomas característicos observados correspondieron a manchas de color café y anillos concéntricos en el área foliar, tallos y frutos, bronceado, manchas en flor y marchitez en hojas, tallos y flores. Las especies de trips con mayor presencia fueron Frankliniella occidentalis, seguida de Thrips palmi y Thrips tabaci. Se determinó el importante papel de las arvenses como fuente de inóculo y reservorio de vectores en las especies Emilia sonchifolia y Amaranthus dubius Abstract in english The presence and distribution of the TSWV, weeds and thrip vectors in major tomato producing areas in the Andean department of Cundinamarca (Oriente, Sumapaz and Ubate provinces) were assessed with the DAS ELISA technique, evaluating the presence of the TSWV in tomato tissue, associated thrips and w [...] eeds. High incidences were observed in different provinces of the Andean department of Cundinamarca. The average viral incidence reached 23.3% in Sumapaz, 19.4% in Oriente and 4% in Ubate. The symptoms observed were: brown spots and concentric rings in the leaf area, stems and fruits; browning and spotting in the flower; and wilting in the leaves, stems and flowers. The thrip species with the highest presence were Frankliniella occidentalis, followed by Thrips palmi and Thrips tabaci. We determined the important role of weeds as inoculum sources and vector reservoirs for the species Emilia sonchifolia and Amaranthus dubius

Everth E, Ebratt R; Rocio, Acosta A; Olga Y, Martínez B; Omar, Guerrero G; Walther, Turizo A.

202

Import risk analysis: A case study of white shrimp in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the culture industry of black tiger shrimp in Thailand has encountered several problems causing unsuccessful shrimp culture over decades, a new non-indigenous marine species, i.e. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei was imported into Thailand as an alternation. However, imported white shrimp may carry some infectious agents which pose serious threats on aquatic species native to Thailand. Therefore, in the present study the import risk analysis (IRA was conducted to identify any hazard and estimate the risk presented by importation of white shrimp. The process involves the risk analysis steps of hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment and risk management. The risks associated with individual diseases and disease agents of white shrimp have been evaluated. Risk assessment conducted using risk evaluation matrix indicated high risk of Taura syndrome virus (TSV, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in imported white shrimp. The iterative process of risk management leads to a set of acceptable measures or strategies for each identified hazard for which the unrestricted risk is considered higher than appropriate level of protection. These measures or strategies will reduce risk to a level that is considered acceptable. Where measures or strategies that reduce the risk associated with a particular hazard to an acceptable level cannot be identified, permission to import the relevant commodity will be denied. The measures implemented in the control of white shrimp imports constitute quarantine and health certificate issued by exporting countries.

Supamattaya, K.

2005-02-01

203

The two envelope membrane glycoproteins of Tomato spotted wilt virus show differences in lectin-binding properties and sensitivities to glycosidases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Genus: Tospovirus, Family: Bunyaviridae) is a major constraint to the production of several different crops of agronomic and horticultural importance worldwide. The amino acid sequence of the two envelope membrane glycoproteins, designated as GN (N-terminal) and GC (C-terminal), of TSWV contain several tripeptide sequences, Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, suggesting that the proteins are N-glycosylated. In this study, the lectin-binding properties of the viral glycoproteins and their sensitivities to glycosidases were examined to obtain information on the nature of potential oligosaccharide moieties present on GN and GC. The viral proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and probed by affinoblotting using a battery of biotinylated lectins with specificity to different oligosaccharide structures. GC showed strong binding with five mannose-binding lectins, four N-acetyllactosamine-binding lectins and one fucose-binding lectin. GN was resolved into two molecular masses and only the slow migrating form showed binding, albeit to a lesser extent than GC, with three of the five mannose-binding lectins. The N-acetyllactosamine- and fucose-specific lectins did not bind to either molecular mass form of GN. None of the galactose-, N-acetylgalactosamine-, or sialic acid-binding lectins tested showed binding specificity to GC or GN. Treatment of the denatured virions with endoglycosidase H and peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) resulted in a significant decrease in the binding of GC to high mannose- and N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectins. However, no such differences in lectin binding were apparent with GN. These results indicate the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides of high mannose- and complex-type on GC and possibly high mannose-type on GN. Differences in the extent of binding of the two envelope glycoproteins to different lectins suggest that GC is likely to be more heavily N-glycosylated than GN. No evidence was observed for the presence of O-linked oligosaccharides on GN or GC

2004-02-05

204

A comparison of ectoparasite prevalence and occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus / Una comparación de la prevalencia de ectoparásitos y ocurrencia de virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en el merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se examinaron 784 individuos del merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus para su análisis virológico y parasitológico para establecer el efecto de la intensidad media de ectoparásitos sobre la ocurrencia del virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en peces del Mar Negro. El homogenizado de órganos in [...] ternos (riñón, bazo e hígado) fue inoculado con células BF-2. Las células que mostraron efecto citopático (CPE) fueron probadas con ELISA para determinar la especie de virus. Las intensidades y prevalencia promedio de los ectoparásitos (Trichodina spp. y Gyrodactylus alviga) fueron determinadas sobre las branquias de los mismos peces. Los peces infectados con VHSV presentaron intensidades similares de Trichodina spp. (10,0 ± 1,8) a aquellos libres de VHSV (7,2 ± 1,0). Las intensidades medias de Gyrodactylus alviga fueron similares en los peces infectados con VHSV (1,8 ± 0,1) que en aquellos no infectados (3,3 ± 0,2). Estos resultados indican que los ectoparásitos no son los únicos responsables de la ocurrencia observada de VHSV. Otros factores, como el estrés del desove, fluctuaciones imprevistas en los parámetros de la calidad del agua por sí solo, o aditivamente con los ectoparásitos, pueden ser responsables de la ocurrencia de VHSV en el merlán. Abstract in english Seven hundred and eighty-four whiting (Merlangius merlangus euxinus) were individually sampled for virological and parasitological examination to assess the effect of ectoparasite mean intensity on the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting in the Black Sea. The pooled h [...] omogenates of internal organs (kidney, spleen and liver) were inoculated onto BF_2 cells. The cells exhibiting cytopathic effect (CPE) were tested with ELISA to determine the virus species. The mean intensities and prevalence of ectoparasites (Trichodina spp. and Gyrodactylus alviga) were also determined on the gills of the same fish. The whiting infected with VHSV contained similar counts of Trichodina spp. (10.0 ± 1.8) than VHSV-free whiting (7.2 ± 1.0). The mean intensities of Gyrodactylus alviga were similar on the VHSV infected (1.8 ± 0.1) than uninfected fish (3.3 ± 0.2). The results indicate that ectoparasites were not alone responsible for the observed occurrence of VHSV. Other factors, such as spawning stress, sudden fluctuations in water quality parameters alone or additively to ectoparasites may be responsible for the occurrence of VHSV in whiting.

Hamdi, Ogut; Nejmettin, Cavus.

205

Analysis of the populations genetic variability of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), virus vector of the rice white leaf  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a monophagous insect of the rice and virus vector of the white leaf (RHBV). It is distributed in America Central, El Caribe, part of the America del Sur and in Costa Rica it is in all the producing zones of rice. The genetic variability was analyzed by means of RAPD-PCR of individuals from three populations of Costa Rica: Parrita, Guanacaste (Liberia) y San Carlos (Santa Clara), that they are found separated geographically. The technique consisted of amplifying regions at random of the genome of these insects utilizing five primers. A total of 72 polymorphic bands were obtained, that upon being analyzed statistically by means of the multivariate analysis program of numerical taxonomy could show a clear genetic distancing among said populations. The genetic distance observed in the molecular analysis can be explained for the climatic and/or geographical isolation of the populations or by the incident of Wolbachia, riquettsia that induces cytoplasmic sterility in insects. These symbionts are transmitted of generation in generation, of the mother to their offspring and they cause reproductive alterations as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. The presence of Wolbachia was determined by means of transmission electronic microscopy being observed in the greasy and muscular weave of the abdomen of T. orizicolus. Rickettsias present pleomorphic morphology and form small groups, that are characterized for the presence of electrondense material semidetached to the cell wall with an interior electronlucent. Its size in transverse cuts ranged between 520 nm of length X 470 nm of width. In addition, its presence was detected by means of the amplification by PCR of the genomic DNA of the insects; a specific primer for the DNA ribosomal 16S of Wolbachia was utilized for it. A 86% of insects of the San Carlos population were positive, a 96% was determined for Guanacaste, a 37% for Parrita and a 100% for Colombia. Individual insects originating from populations of T. orizicolus of the zones of Parrita and Guanacaste, maintained in greenhouse, they were crossed among them in the greenhouse. Of the crossing infected males with uninfected females progeny was not obtained, what it seems to indicate that is cytoplasmic incompatibility unidirectional. Also, a reduction or a drastic absence of offspring was observed in those crossings where both insects were infected, what could be explained by the incidence of more than a race of the bacterium (bidirectional mutual incompatibility). This last phenomenon could be a head in part of the genetic isolation observed among populations of T. orizicolus originating from different localities. (author)

2006-01-01

206

Efficacy of CMX001 as a Post Exposure Antiviral in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting New Zealand White rabbits from mortality following intradermal infection with rabbitpox virus as a model for smallpox, monkeypox and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Here we extend these studies by exploring different dosing regimens and performing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies. In addition, because rabbitpox virus can be transmitted via naturally generated aerosols (animal to animal transmission, we report on studies to test the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting rabbits from lethal rabbitpox virus disease when infection occurs by animal to animal transmission. In all cases, CMX001 treatment was initiated at the onset of observable lesions in the ears to model the use of CMX001 as a treatment for symptomatic smallpox. The results demonstrate that CMX001 is an effective treatment for symptomatic rabbitpox virus infection. The rabbitpox model has key similarities to human smallpox including an incubation period, generalized systemic disease, the occurrence of lesions which may be used as a trigger for initiating therapy, and natural animal to animal spread, making it an appropriate model.

Scott Foster

2011-01-01

207

Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae  

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Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

2008-02-01

208

Evidence for Lettuce big-vein associated virus as the causal agent of a syndrome of necrotic rings and spots in lettuce  

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Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV, genus Varicosavirus) was shown to be responsible for characteristic necrotic symptoms observed in combination with big-vein symptoms in lettuce breeding lines when tested for their susceptibility to lettuce big-vein disease (BVD) using viruliferous Olpidium virulentus spores in a nutrient film technique (NFT) system. Lettuce plants showing BVD are generally infected by two viruses: Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MiLBVV, genus Ophiovirus) and LBVaV....

Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A. M.; Bekkum, P. J.; Vlugt, R. A. A.

2012-01-01

209

A possible dominant white gene in Jersey cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract A white heifer ("Snow" was born in 1991 from coloured registered Jersey parents. She produced six calves sired by coloured Jersey bulls: three white bull calves, two white heifer calves, and one coloured bull calf. One of the white bull calves was mated with 40 Hereford × Friesian yearling heifers (white face, predominantly black body with some white patches. The 38 resulting calves included 16 white and 22 coloured calves. Twelve of the 16 white calves were heifers and four were bulls. Red or black spotting was recorded on some white calves. The results are consistent with an autosomal dominant mutant causing the white phenotype. The mutation appears to have arisen spontaneously in Snow, then passing to her white progeny and white grand-progeny. The white individuals varied from entirely white in a few cases, to most having some residual small areas of red or black pigmentation in patterns not typical of other reported white spotting patterns of cattle.

Sponenberg D Phillip

2001-01-01

210

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-02-12

211

WSSV ie1 promoter is more efficient than CMV promoter to express H5 hemagglutinin from influenza virus in baculovirus as a chicken vaccine  

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Abstract Background The worldwide outbreak of influenza A (H5N1) viruses among poultry species and humans highlighted the need to develop efficacious and safe vaccines based on efficient and scaleable production. Results White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early promoter one (ie1) was shown to be a stronger promoter for gene expression in insect cells compared with Cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV) promoter in luciferase assays. In an attempt to impro...

2008-01-01

212

Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate  

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In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the produ...

2011-01-01

213

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... American carrier of Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted ...

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Barreras de maíz en una estrategia de manejo integral para controlar epidemias del virus mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) / Corn barriers in an integrated management strategy to control epidemics of papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las epidemias ocasionadas por el virus de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) se han logrado retrasar mediante un sistema de manejo integral (MIP), aunque no se ha medido la efectividad individual de algunos componentes. Para ello se evaluó el establecimiento de barreras de maíz [...] (Zea mays L.) en el control del PRSV-P en Veracruz, México. El MIP incluyó la protección del vivero con malla de polipropileno, 2743 plantas ha-1, la erradicación de plantas enfermas, la fertilización mineral y el control de arvenses. Los tratamientos fueron: manejo integral con barreras de maíz (MIP), manejo integral sin barreras (MIZ) y manejo regional (MR, 1600 plantas ha-1, con insecticidas, sin barreras ni eliminación de plantas enfermas). El modelo logístico explicó adecuadamente la incidencia en MIP, MIZ y MIR, y la severidad en MIZ (R²=0.92 a 0.97); el exponencial y Gompertz explicaron la severidad (R²=0.92 y 0.98) en el MIP y MR. La mayor tasa epidémica se observó en el MR (0.054), mientras que el MIP la redujo en 42 % (0.031). Las barreras indujeron menor incidencia y severidad promedio (Yp-MIP= 18.4 y 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ= 23.4 y 11.7 %) y fnal (Yf-MIP= 81.0 y 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ= 94.11 y 43.0 %). La severidad máxima a 238 d después del trasplante (ddt) se observó en MR (69.0 %) y la menor en MIP (35.7 %). La ausencia de barreras incrementó las epidemias; en MR la máxima incidencia (100 %) y severidad (60 %) ocurrió 175 ddt, mientras que en MIP 238 ddt (incidencia 80 %, severidad 35 %). Las barreras mejoraron la sanidad del MIP en 14.0 % (Yf-MIP = 81.0 % Abstract in english Te epidemics caused by papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) have been delayed by an integral management system (MIP), although the individual efectiveness of some components has not been measured. Te establishment of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers was evaluated in the control of PRSV-P in [...] Veracruz, Mexico. Te MIP included the protection of the nursery with polypropylene mesh, 2743 plants ha-1, eradication of diseased plants, mineral fertilization and weed control. Treatments were: integral management with corn barriers (MIP), integral management without barriers (MIZ) and regional management (MR, 1600 plants ha-1, using insecticides, without barriers and elimination of diseased plants). Te logistic model adequately explained the incidence in MIP, MIZ and MR, and severity (R²=0.92 to 0.97) in MIZ; the exponential and Gompertz models explained severity (R²= 0.92 and 0.98) in MIP and MR. Te highest epidemic rate was observed in MR (0.054), while MIP reduced it by 42 % (0.031). Barriers induced lower incidence and mean severity (Yp -MIP = 18.4 and 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ = 23.4 and 11.7 %) and final (Yf-MIP = 81.0 and 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ = 94.11 and 43.0 %). Maximum severity at 238 d after transplant (dat) was observed in MR (69.0 %) and the lowest in MIP (35.7 %). Te absence of barriers increased the epidemics; in MR the maximum incidence (100 %) and severity (60 %) occurred 175 dat, while in MIP, 238 dat (incidence 80 %, severity 35 %). Barriers improved papaya health under MIP by 14 % (Yf-MIP =81.0 %

Elías, Hernández-Castro; J. Antonio, Villanueva-Jiménez; J. Antonio, Mora-Aguilera; Cristian, Nava-Díaz.

215

Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Blue-gray spots, commonly referred to as Mongolian spots, are large flat lesions that are usually found on the lower back or buttocks of infants at birth. They can occasionally be found on the legs ... The color of blue-gray spots ranges from deep brown to slate gray or ...

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Gastro-intestinal handling of water and solutes in three species of elasmobranch fish, the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate Raja eglanteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports aspects of GI tract physiology in the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate, Raja eglanteria. Plasma and stomach fluid osmolality and solute values were comparable between species, and stomach pH was low in all species (2.2 to 3.4) suggesting these elasmobranchs may maintain a consistently low stomach pH. Intestinal osmolality, pH and ion values were comparable between species, however, some differences in ion values were observed. In particular Ca(2+) (19.67+/-3.65mM) and Mg(2+) (43.99+/-5.11mM) were high in L. erinacea and Mg(2+) was high (130.0+/-39.8mM) in C. palgiosum which may be an indication of drinking. Furthermore, intestinal fluid HCO(3)(-) values were low (8.19+/-2.42 and 8.63+/-1.48mM) in both skates but very high in C. plagiosum (73.3+/-16.3mM) suggesting ingested seawater may be processed by species-specific mechanisms. Urea values from the intestine to the colon dropped precipitously in all species, with the greatest decrease seen in C. plagiosum (426.0+/-8.1 to 0mM). This led to the examination of the molecular expression of both a urea transporter and a Rhesus like ammonia transporter in the intestine, rectal gland and kidney in L. erinacea. Both these transporters were expressed in all tissues; however, expression levels of the Rhesus like ammonia transporter were orders of magnitude higher than the urea transporter in the same tissue. Intestinal flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were, for the most part, in an inward direction with the notable exception of urea. Colon flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were all in an outward direction, although absolute rates were considerably lower than the intestine, suggestive of a much tighter epithelia. Results are discussed in the context of the potential role of the GI tract in salt and water, and nitrogen, homeostasis in elasmobranchs. PMID:19782760

Anderson, W Gary; Dasiewicz, Patricia J; Liban, Suadi; Ryan, Calen; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Weihrauch, Dirk

2010-04-01

217

Café-au-lait spots in schoolchildren.  

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This paper reports a study of café-au-lait spots of a minimum diameter of 1 cm in 732 white schoolchildren. Three groups were identified, according to the number of café-au-lait spots on each child: (1) those with none (74%), (2) those with fewer than 5 (25%), and (3) those with at least 5 (5 children, 2 considered to be normal, and 3 siblings each presumed to have neurofibromatosis, one having died from leukaemia). Excluding the last group, the number of café-au-lait spots in the sample w...

Burwell, R. G.; James, N. J.; Johnston, D. I.

1982-01-01

218

Red Spot Movie  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

219

Genetic diversity of Imjin virus in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura in the Republic of Korea, 2004-2010  

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Full Text Available Abstract Recently, Imjin virus (MJNV, a genetically distinct hantavirus, was isolated from lung tissues of the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea. To clarify the genetic diversity of MJNV, partial M- and L-segment sequences were amplified from lung tissues of 12 of 37 (32.4% anti-MJNV IgG antibody-positive Ussuri white-toothed shrews captured between 2004 and 2010. A 531-nucleotide region of the M segment (coordinates 2,255 to 2,785 revealed that the 12 MJNV strains differed by 0-12.2% and 0-2.3% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. A similar degree of nucleotide (0.2-11.9% and amino acid (0-3.8% difference was found in a 632-nucleotide length of the L segment (coordinates 962 to 1,593 of nine MJNV strains. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the partial M and L segments of MJNV strains generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed geographic-specific clustering, akin to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses.

Klein Terry A

2011-02-01

220

Impact of West Nile virus and other mortality factors on American white pelicans at breeding colonies in the northern plains of North America  

Science.gov (United States)

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial-nesting birds and their breeding sites are concentrated in a few small areas, making this species especially vulnerable to factors that can influence productivity, such as disease, disturbance, predation, weather events and loss of nesting habitat. Nearly half of the American white pelican population breeds at four colonies in the northern plains: Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Dakota, Bitter Lake (Waubay NWR) in South Dakota, Medicine Lake NWR in Montana, and Marsh Lake in Minnesota. Thus, sustained productivity at these colonies is crucial to the health of the entire species. During the latter half of the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons, unusually high mortality of pelican chicks was observed at these colonies. West Nile virus (WNv) was identified as one source of these losses. In 2004-2007 we monitored three major colonies in the northern plains to assess mortality of chicks during the late breeding season. We documented severe weather events, disturbance, and WNv as factors contributing to chick mortality. Before WNv arrived in the region in 2002, chick mortality after mid-July was ???4%, and then jumped to as high as 44% in the years since WNv arrived. WNv kills older chicks that are no longer vulnerable to other common mortality factors (e.g., severe weather, gull predation) and typically would have survived to fledge; thus WNv appears to be an additive mortality factor. Persistence of lower productivity at American white pelican colonies in the northern plains might reduce the adult breeding population of this species in the region.

Sovada, M. A.; Pietz, P. J.; Converse, K. A.; Tommy, King, D.; Hofmeister, E. K.; Scherr, P.; Ip, H. S.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Association of dual viral infection with mortality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in culture ponds in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei has been introduced recently for culture practice in India. Though SPF stocks are imported for larval production and thereafter culture practice, these are prone to infection with the existing viruses in the environment. Here we report mortality of L.vannamei in several farms in India with minimum biosecurity. The shrimp were harvested early within 50-72 days of culture due to the onset of disease and consequent mortality. As per the analysis carried out, the shrimp were infected with two virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). About 80 % of the samples collected had either or both of the viruses. A majority of these samples (60 %) had dual infection with WSSV and IHHNV. Infection of shrimp with WSSV and IHHNV could be detected both by PCR and histopathology. Some of the samples had either exclusively WSSV infection or IHHNV infection and were also harvested before the completion of the required culture period. All the samples analyzed were negative for taura syndrome virus, yellow head virus and infectious myonecrosis virus. While it is difficult to point out the exact etiological agent as the cause of mortality, strict biosecurity measures are advisable for the continuity of L. vannamei culture in India. PMID:24426311

Otta, S K; Arulraj, R; Ezhil Praveena, P; Manivel, R; Panigrahi, A; Bhuvaneswari, T; Ravichandran, P; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

2014-01-01

222

Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and died due to infection. The mortality of affected species associated with a causative agent was confirmed in most species, except the mud crab and freshwater prawn (Marcrobrachium rosenbergii. However, viral particles can be still detected in surviving animals 10 days after infection. The results of this study will be a helpful tool employed in establishing measures on disease control and reduction of risk with the importation of white shrimp broodstock.

Supamattaya, K.

2005-02-01

223

Detection of Low Levels of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) May Be Critical for Early Diagnosis of Pediatric HIV Infection by Use of Dried Blood Spots?  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared a DNA-based assay with a total nucleic acid-based assay for early detection of infant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The codetection of DNA and RNA did not result in an overall higher sensitivity compared to that of DNA alone. Discordant results were associated with low levels of HIV DNA, indicating that the sample amount may be critical.

Walter, Jan; Kuhn, Louise; Semrau, Katherine; Decker, Don W.; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M.; Bulterys, Marc; Ou, Chin-Yih; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

2009-01-01

224

Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options  

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Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV including the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. The plants for planting pathway is considered the most important one and rated as likely, with medium uncertainty. TSWV, reported in many Member States, has one of the widest host range for plant viruses and has three widely distributed thrips vector species in the risk assessment area. For countries falling under the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII legislation, the probability of establishment is rated as very likely, with low uncertainty. For Finland and Sweden, protected zone under the 2000/29/EC Annex IB legislation, the probability of establishment is rated unlikely to moderately likely. Spread can occur through the activity of thrips vectors and through trade of infected hosts. The probability of spread in Member States under Annex IIAII provisions is evaluated as likely, with low uncertainty. In Finland and Sweden, spread is rated as unlikely to moderately likely, with medium uncertainty. Since TSWV may cause both yield and quality losses in a wide range of hosts, a major impact is predictable in the absence of appropriate control measures, with medium uncertainty. The risk reduction options evaluated by the Panel are those addressing either the sanitary status of the propagation material (including the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII and Annex IB, statutory certification system and the use of voluntary industry standards or those addressing the control of TSWV epidemic development through actions directed at the virus or at its vectors (including cultural methods to reduce crop infestation and chemical or biological control of thrips vectors. Limitations of the current measures and the potential consequences of repealing the current legislation are discussed.

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

2012-12-01

225

Detection of low levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be critical for early diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection by use of dried blood spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared a DNA-based assay with a total nucleic acid-based assay for early detection of infant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The codetection of DNA and RNA did not result in an overall higher sensitivity compared to that of DNA alone. Discordant results were associated with low levels of HIV DNA, indicating that the sample amount may be critical. PMID:19625479

Walter, Jan; Kuhn, Louise; Semrau, Katherine; Decker, Don W; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M; Bulterys, Marc; Ou, Chin-Yih; Aldrovandi, Grace M

2009-09-01

226

Hot Sauce Hot Spots  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners model hot spot island formation, orientation and progression with condiments. Learners squirt a thick condiment sauce on a coarsely woven fabric to model how volcanic island hot spots form.

Muller, Eric

2007-01-01

227

Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/?g of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/?g in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/?g in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/?g in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

2011-11-01

228

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or any other foreign material in the body. White blood cells make antibodies. White blood cells are a type of blood cell ... attaching to the invading virus, antibodies cause other white blood cells to attack the virus and destroy ...

229

Anticuerpos contra el virus de estomatitis vesicular en Huanganas (Tayassu Pecari) en Madre de Dios, Perú / Antibodies against vesicular estomatitis virus in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu Pecari) in Madre de Dios, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra los serotipos New Jersey (NJ) e Indiana subtipo 1 (IND-1) del virus Estomatitis Vesicular (VEV) en huanganas (Tayassu pecari) de vida libre de las localidades de Boca de Manu (n=30), Concesión para la C [...] onservación Los Amigos (n=10) y La Reserva Nacional Tambopata/Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (n=48) en el departamento de Madre de Dios. La presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEV fue determinado mediante la prueba de neutralización viral en las 88 muestras de suero de huanganas machos y hembras adultos de apariencia normal. El 53.4% (47/88) y 18.2% (16/88) de las muestras fue positiva a anticuerpos contra los serotipos IND-1 y NJ, respectivamente, en tanto que el 29.5 y el 2.3% de las muestras tuvieron anticuerpos neutralizantes igual o mayor a 1:32 contra los serotipos IND-1 y NJ, respectivamente. No hubo asociación significativa entre las variables presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEV y lugar de procedencia de las muestras. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against New Jersey (NJ) and Indiana subtype 1 (IND-1) Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in free-living white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in three localities of Madre de Dios, Peru. The presence of antibodies against VSV by virus n [...] eutralization test was determined in 88 serum samples of adult male and females in apparent good health condition. Results showed that 53.4% (47/88) and 18.2% (16/88) of samples were positive to antibodies against serotypes IND-1 and NJ respectively, whereas 55.3 and 12.6% of the serum samples had neutralizing antibodies titers equal or greater than 1:32 against serotype IND-1 and NJ respectively. There was a no significant association between seropositivity of VSV and source of samples.

Carruitero H, Susan; Rivera G, Hermelinda; Ramírez V, Mercy; More B, Juan; Zúñiga H, Alfonso; Romero S, Mónica.

230

[The "lethal white foal" syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

The lethal white foal syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis) was diagnosed by history, clinical signs and pathological findings in a female foal, born in March 1992, that was an offspring of two overo-spotted paint horses. The syndrome is a congenital innervation defect of the gastrointestinal tract. A literature review of this condition, relatively unknown in Germany, is given. PMID:8048034

Blendinger, C; Müller, G; Bostedt, H

1994-06-01

231

The partial sequence of RNA 1 of the ophiovirus Ranunculus white mottle virus indicates its relationship to rhabdoviruses and provides candidate primers for an ophiovirus-specific RT-PCR test.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4018 nucleotide sequence was obtained for RNA 1 of Ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), genus Ophiovirus, representing an incomplete ORF of 1339 aa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed significant similarities with RNA polymerases of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae and a conserved domain of 685 aa, corresponding to the RdRp domain of those in the order Mononegavirales. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Ophiovirus is not related to the genus Tenuivirus or the family Bunyaviridae, with which it has been linked, and probably deserves a special taxonomic position, within a new family. A pair of degenerate primers was designed from a consensus sequence obtained from a relatively conserved region in the RNA 1 of two members of the genus, Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) and RWMV. The primers, used in RT-PCR experiments, amplified a 136 bp DNA fragment from all the three recognized members of the genus, i.e. CPsV, RWMV and Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) and from two tentative ophioviruses from lettuce and freesia. The amplified DNAs were sequenced and compared with the corresponding sequences of CPsV and RWMV and phylogenetic relationships were evaluated. Assays using extracts from plants infected by viruses belonging to the genera Tospovirus, Tenuivirus, Rhabdovirus and Varicosavirus indicated that the primers are genus-specific. PMID:12756613

Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Costantini, A; Milne, R G

2003-06-01

232

Percussion Initiated Spotting Charge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In accordance with this invention, a solid propellant rocket motor is provided with a motor closure head and with a percussion initiated spotting charge mounted on the motor closure head. The percussion initiated spotting charge includes a body made of a ...

R. E. Betts

1983-01-01

233

Microarray Spot Synthesizer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Microarray Spot Synthesizer, developed at Davidson College, is an electronic resource that permits faculty to generate simulated DNA microarray data for use in their teaching. The Spot Synthesizer is not intended to produce real data; its purpose is to enable teachers to help students improve their ability to work efficiently with experimental data by giving them practice with known outcomes.

A. Malcolm Campbell (Davidson College;Martin Genomics Program- Biology); William T. Hatfield (Davidson College;Biology Department); Laurie J. Heyer (Davidson College;Mathematics); Verna Miller Case (University of Miami ;)

2010-05-28

234

The Earth's Hot Spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

1985-01-01

235

Cherry Red Spot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cherry red spot macula is caused usually by transient vascular lesions or mostly permanent metabolic disturbances. Although pediatricians encounter generally cherry red spot caused by metabolic disorders, one should not forget those caused by vascular lesions, as these are mostly curable.

SMA Sajjadieh

1990-09-01

236

Still from Red Spot Movie  

Science.gov (United States)

This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

237

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and tries to prevent future ones. Virus Cell Antibodies are special chemicals the body uses to defend ... material in the body. White blood cells make antibodies. White blood cells are a type of blood ...

238

Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies Anatomy of leaf lesions caused by Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis in different host species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB, o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV. O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N, mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV, mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV, representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso.The botanical genus Clerodendrum belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes several ornamental species. Necrotic and chlorotic spots on leaves of bleeding heart were observed for the first time in a residential garden from Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, associated with an infestation by the flat mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Tissue section analysis of the leaf lesions under transmission electron microscope showed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type, indicating that the symptoms were caused by a Brevipalpus-transmitted virus (BTV, named Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV. This virus was shown to be transmitted mechanically and by B. phoenicis to several plant species. In order to complete ClCSV characterization, anatomical changes in the leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected leaves were evaluated. Histological sections of healthy, control leaves and leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected plants of C. x speciosum, Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus and Annona muricata were analyzed. ClCSV infection resulted in similar tissue alterations caused by other BTV as Citrus Leprosies Virus Cytoplasmic (CiLV-C and Nuclear (CiLV-N, Coffee Ringspot Virus (CoRSV, Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus (SvRSV and Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV. Such symptoms consisted of hypertrophy and hyperplasia frequently followed by necrosis in palisade and spongy parenchyma tissues.

Renata Takassugui Gomes

2010-12-01

239

Mononucleosis spot test  

Science.gov (United States)

Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

240

BotSpot  

Science.gov (United States)

BotSpot, provided by BotSpot Inc., is a large meta-resource for robot and intelligent agent software sites and information. Users can enter via a search or browse gateway to annotated links to bot sites in fourteen subjects including commerce bots, government bots, search bots, and update bots. There is also a bot of the week, an explanation of bots, and annotated pointers to relevant articles, conferences, FAQ's, and journals. A great deal of thought and careful planning is evident in this well designed site.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The distribution of hot spots  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical analyses are compared for two published hot spot data sets, one minimal set of 42 and another larger set of 117, using three different approaches. First, the earths surface is divided into 16 equal-area fractions and the observed distribution of hot spots among them is analyzed using chi-square tests. Second, cumulative distributions about the principal axes of the hot spot inertia tensor are used to describe hot spot distribution. Finally, a hot spot density function is constructed for each of the two hot spot data sets. The methods all indicate that hot spots have a nonuniform distribution, even when statistical fluctuations are considered. To the first order, hot spots are concentrated on one half of of the earth's surface area; within that portion, the distribution is consistent with a uniform distribution. The observed hot spot densities for neither data set are explained solely by plate speed.

Stefanick, M.; Jurdy, D. M.

1984-01-01

242

Spot simulation applications handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book describes an earth-orbiting remote sensing satellite called SPOT which offers digital data of 10 m resolution, bridging the gap between Landsat TM data and high-altitude aerial photogrpahy. It is one of the first civilian satellites to use electro-optical sensors based on CCD line array technology.

1985-01-01

243

Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding). New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*), N. Gossey Domin, N. [...] Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**), S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (*) This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (**) One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

A. S., Costa; R., Forster.

244

Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding. New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*, N. Gossey Domin, N. Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**, S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (* This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (** One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

A. S. Costa

1942-02-01

245

Spot the Block: Tween Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

... of! Spot the Block on Frozen Veggies and Pizza Chill out in the freezer section and Spot The Block! Compare frozen vegetables, including ones with and without sauce, and go for the one with the lowest ...

246

Spotting a fake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

2006-06-01

247

LMJ focal spot simulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) requires an optical smoothing technique in order to avoid plasma instabilities and self-focusing. The Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD) has been chosen for LMJ because it is the best technique in view of the laser performances. We have modeled and simulated all the LMJ chain with the Miro code and we present with an optimal CPP (Continuous Phase Plate) the size and shape of quad focal spot with longitudinal smoothing. We obtain an elliptical shape of 640 x 1280 ?m2 with 98.3 % enclosed energy, the I0 being equal to ?3.1 1015 W/cm2 (where I0 is the maximum intensity at the flat top of the focal spot). (authors)

1999-09-12

248

Spot- Zombie Filtering System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

Arathy Rajagopal

2014-06-01

249

Detection of shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has caused a slowly progressive disease with cumulative mortalities of up to 70% or more in cultured Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in Northeast Brazil and Indonesia. Rapid detection of viruses by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of genomic material with high specificity and sensitivity can be applied for diagnosis, monitoring and control of diseases in shrimp aquaculture. Using an IMNV template, successful detection was achieved after a 60-min RT-LAMP reaction using biotin-labeled primers followed by 5min hybridization with an FITC-labeled DNA probe and 5min assay using a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD). Thus, the combined system of RT-LAMP and LFD required a total assay interval of less than 75min, excluding the RNA extraction time. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of other commonly used methods for nested RT-PCR detection of IMNV. In addition to reducing amplicon detection time when compared to electrophoresis, LFD confirmed amplicon identity by hybridization and eliminated the need to handle carcinogenic ethidium bromide. The RT-LAMP-LFD method gave negative test results with nucleic acid extracts from normal shrimp and from shrimp infected with other viruses including infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), a hepatopancreatic parvovirus from P. monodon (PmDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), Taura syndrome virus (TSV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and gill associated virus (GAV). PMID:19022295

Puthawibool, Teeranart; Senapin, Saengchan; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Flegel, Timothy W

2009-03-01

250

White Rock  

Science.gov (United States)

(Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can't see . . . things like information about what kinds of minerals make up the landforms. Mars scientists once thought, for instance, that these unusual features might be vast hills of salt, the dried up remains of a long-ago, evaporated lake. Not so, said an instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, which revealed that the bright material is probably made up of volcanic ash or windblown dust instead. And talk about a cyclical 'ashes to ashes, dust to dust' story! Particles of this material fell and fell until they built up quite a sedimentary deposit, which was then only eroded away again by the wind over time, leaving the spiky terrain seen today. It looks white, but its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the surrounding material is so dark. Of course, good eyesight always helps in understanding. A camera on Mars Global Surveyor with close-up capabilities revealed that sand dunes are responsible for the smudgy dark material in the bright sediment and around it. But that's not all. The THEMIS camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that took this image reveals that this ashy or dusty deposit once covered a much larger area than it does today. Look yourself for two small dots of white material on the floor of a small crater nearby (center right in this image). They preserve a record that this bright deposit once reached much farther. Since so little of it remains, you can figure that the material probably isn't very hard, and simply blows away. One thing's for sure. No one looking at this image could ever think that Mars is a boring place. With all of its bright and dark contrasts, this picture would be perfect for anyone who loves Ansel Adams and his black-and-white photography.

2002-01-01

251

Dark Spots and Fans  

Science.gov (United States)

As winter turns to spring at the south polar ice cap of Mars, the rising sun reveals dark spots and fans emerging from the cold polar night. Using visual images (left) and temperature data (right) from the Thermal Emission Imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, scientists have built a new model for the origin of the dark markings. Scientists propose the markings come from dark sand and dust strewn by high-speed jets of carbon-dioxide gas. These erupt from under a layer of carbon-dioxide ice that forms each Martian winter.

2006-01-01

252

Drifting hot spots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inclusive reactions N + A ? N' + anything, where N is a light nucleus or an elementary particle and A nucleus, are analyzed in terms of a drifting hot spot. The model describes the spacetime evolution of the excited system in the preequilibrium stage. An approximate, simple, analytical formula for emission in the forward hemisphere is derived, which describes the angular and energy distribution, as well as the target mass dependence of electron, proton and 16O induced reactions in the energy range of a few hundred MeV. We find satisfactory agreement with data. (orig.)

1982-08-16

253

White Pelican  

Science.gov (United States)

The American white pelican is still considered endangered in Alberta, Canada, where the population is increasing but fewer than half of the 20 known historic nesting islands are still in use. The site provides information on this magnificent bird: habitat, general biological data, risk factors, and management. External links to Canadian parks, nonprofit groups, and other species profiles also included.

254

Properties of Arc Cathode Spots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arc cathode spots operating by formation of surface-microplasmas are reviewed for discharges in vacuum and in gases. New experimental studies using advanced optical methods (image converter cameras and laser absorption techniques) reveal that the spot is composed of fragments with a size below 10µm. In vacuum these are highly mobile, for copper on a urne scale < 50 ns. The motion and the rapid sequences of extinctions and re-ignitions determine the behavior of the whole spot. Cu-spots in vac...

Ju?ttner, B.

1997-01-01

255

Spotting effect in microarray experiments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect because it most probably arises during steps in the array printing procedure. Conclusions The spotting effect is not appropriately corrected by current normalization methods, even by those addressing spatial variability. Importantly, the spotting effect may alter differential and clustering analysis.

Mary-Huard Tristan

2004-05-01

256

Monitoreo de Tagosodes Orizicolus M. e incidencia del virus de la hoja blanca "VHB" en el cultivo de arroz en calabozo, estado guárico, Venezuela / Monitoring of sogata Tagosodes Orizicolus M. and incidence of white leaf virus "WLV" in rice in calabozo, guárico, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la información sobre la incidencia del virus de la hoja blanca (VHB) y poblaciones del insecto sogata, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir) 1926, ejecutada en 10 parcelas comerciales del sistema de riego río Guárico (S.R.R.G.), el cual se dividió en tres (3) sectores durante la época de sequía en [...] tre los años 2003 y 2007. Se presenta la información del VHB en 3 parcelas en las épocas de sequía y lluvias. El objetivo del trabajo fue: Evaluar la incidencia en plantas de arroz del VHB y las poblaciones del insecto vector de la enfermedad en siembras comerciales del S.R.R.G. El porcentaje de plantas afectadas por el virus de la hoja blanca alcanzo niveles muy bajos, comprendidos entre 0,56% y 1,08% y las poblaciones del insecto resultaron en promedio de 3,90 individuos por pase doble de malla Abstract in english The incidence of white leaf virus (WLV) and insect population density of sogata, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir) 1926, was studied in 10 commercial plots of rice located in the Rio Guárico Irrigation System (RG.I.S). The area under the study was divided into three (3) sections during the dry season from [...] 2003 to 2007. The incidence of WLV also was registered in three commercial plots of rice, both in the dry and rainy season. The objective of this study was the evaluation of WLV effect on rice plants as well as the effect of sogata population density as a vector of the disease in commercial plantings (R.G.I.S). The percentage of plants affected by the virus was very low, ranging between 0.56% and 1.08%, and the insect population density of sogata averaged 3.90 individuals per insect net (double pass)

Luis E, Vivas C; Dilcia, Astudillo; Judith, Poleo.

257

Ryan White Program  

Science.gov (United States)

... HIV/AIDS The Ryan White Program The Ryan White Program Mar 05, 2013 The Ryan White Program, ... of HIV data, among other changes. 8 Ryan White Program Clients HRSA estimates that more than half ...

258

Vanishing White Matter Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that it is a ... information about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White ...

259

Advances in spot curing technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

1999-08-24

260

Saturn's Hot Spot  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the sharpest image of Saturn's temperature emissions taken from the ground; it is a mosaic of 35 individual exposures made at the W.M. Keck I Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii on Feb. 4, 2004. The images to create this mosaic were taken with infrared radiation. The mosaic was taken at a wavelength near 17.65 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. The prominent hot spot at the bottom of the image is right at Saturn's south pole. The warming of the southern hemisphere was expected, as Saturn was just past southern summer solstice, but the abrupt changes in temperature with latitude were not expected. The tropospheric temperature increases toward the pole abruptly near 70 degrees latitude from 88 to 89 Kelvin (-301 to -299 degrees Fahrenheit) and then to 91 Kelvin (-296 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole. Ring particles are not at a uniform temperature everywhere in their orbit around Saturn. The ring particles are orbiting clockwise in this image. Particles are coldest just after having cooled down in Saturn's shadow (lower left). As they orbit Saturn, the particles increase in temperature up to a maximum (lower right) just before passing behind Saturn again in shadow. A small section of the ring image is missing because of incomplete mosaic coverage during the observing sequence.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology  

Science.gov (United States)

... group, 2000 through 2010. Average annual incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever by age-group, 2000 through ... a new category called Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis (including Rocky Mountain spotted fever). This change was made to ...

262

Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed to investigate whether knockdown of Rab7 in L. vannamei by dsRNA-PmRab7 could inhibit replication of TSV. RNA interference (RNAi) technology using dsRNA targeting the LvRab7 gene was used to silence the mRNA expression of LvRab7. The silencing of the LvRab7 gene inhibited TSV replication dramatically when compared to groups receiving dsRNA-GFP or NaCl. This is the first demonstration that dsRNA targeting the endogenous shrimp gene LvRab7 strongly reduces TSV replication. It provides further evidence that LvRab7 is involved in the endosomal trafficking pathway of viruses infecting penaeid shrimp. PMID:21347841

Ongvarrasopone, Chalermporn; Saejia, Pipop; Chanasakulniyom, Mayuree; Panyim, Sakol

2011-07-01

263

Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of lymphocystis disease virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). A set of five specific primers, two inner and two outer primers and a loop primer, were designed on the basis of the major capsid protein gene of LCDV. The reaction time and temperatures were optimized for 60 min at 63 degrees C, respectively. LAMP amplification products were detected by a ladder-like appearance on agarose gel electrophoresis or a naked-eye inspection of a color change in the reaction tube by addition of SYBR Green I. The assay was specific for LCDV, and there was no cross-reactivity with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or six other Iridoviridae viruses (epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; tiger frog virus, TFV; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; soft-shelled turtle iridovirus, STIV; infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, ISKNV; red sea bream iridovirus, RSIV). The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 15 fg, which was similar to that of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 10-fold higher than the conventional PCR. The LAMP assay was evaluated using 109 clinical samples, and the results indicated the suitability and simplicity of the test as a rapid, field diagnostic tool for detection of LCDV. The LCDV LAMP assay has potential for early diagnosis of LCDV infection. PMID:19891986

Li, Qiong; Yue, Zhiqin; Liu, Hong; Liang, Chengzhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhao, Yuran; Chen, Xiao; Xiao, Xizhi; Chen, Changfu

2010-02-01

264

Laue spots and radiographic mottling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extent of the contribution of Laue spots to the mottled appearance of radiographs have been estimated using a recrystallized austenitic stainless steel weld specimen. The mottling is frequently observed in practice on radiographs of both weldments and castings. Experimental results show that the extent of the contribution from Laue spots is unimportant and that the mottling appears preferentially for specimens in the as-cast condition. (author)

1981-01-01

265

Programmable Positioner For Spot Welding  

Science.gov (United States)

Welding station mechanized by installing preset indexing system and gear drive. Mechanism includes a low-cost, versatile, single-axis motion control and motor drive to provide fully-automatic weld sequencing and spot-to-spot spacing. Welding station relieves operator of some difficult, tedious tasks and increases both productivity and quality of welds. Results in welds of higher quality and greater accuracy, fewer weld defects, and faster welding operation.

Roden, William A.

1989-01-01

266

Hot spots in fiber pinches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented on the behavior of ''bright spots'' in carbon and deuterium fiber Z-pinches using the MAGPIE generator at the I MA current level. The experimental diagnosis was carried out using optical and X-ray framing and streak images, along with Schlieren and shadowgraphy laser probing. After a short (?4 ns) duration formation phase, these bright spots exhibit highly dynamic behavior. Bifurcation of the bright spots gives rise to rapid axial motion at 1-3x105 m/sec. The post-bifurcation bright spots persist for up to 40 ns. The important features of bright spot evolution can be reproduced using a 2-D MHD code incorporating LTE ionization dynamics and cold start conditions. Construction of ''artificial'' diagnostic images from the simulation data allows direct comparison to experiment. From the close agreement between experiment and 2-D simulation we infer that the observed bright spot behavior can be explained entirely in terms of the non-linear evolution of the m=0 instability

1997-05-05

267

Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus.

2010-01-01

268

On the origin of delta spots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with H? filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

1983-11-01

269

Immune responses induced by a BacMam virus expressing the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-replicating baculovirus-mediated gene transfer into mammalian cells has been developed as a vaccine strategy against a number of diseases in several animal models. In the present study, the BacMam vector, a baculovirus pseudotyped with the glycoprotein from vesicular stomatitis virus, was used as a recombinant vector to express classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein under the control of the immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter from shrimp white spot syndrome virus. The E2 gene was efficiently expressed in both insect and mammalian cells. Intramuscular injection of mice with the recombinant baculovirus resulted in the production of high-titers of CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Specific lymphoproliferative responses to CSFV stimulation were detected in the splenocytes of the immunized mice as demonstrated by CFSE staining assay and WST-8 assay. This study demonstrates that the BacMam virus vector can efficiently express the E2 protein and effectively induce immune responses against CSFV. This is a first step in the demonstration that the pseudotyped baculovirus-delivered CSFV E2 gene can be a potential non-replicating vaccine against CSFV infections. PMID:19589357

Li, Miao; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Hui; Li, Na; Sun, Yuan; Liang, Bing-Bing; Qiu, Hua-Ji

2009-08-15

270

Impact Modeling of Spot Welds  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance spot welds in most current finite element crash models are characterized as a rigid link at the location of the weld which transfers the load but is not designed to fail. Newer weld elements in the popular finite element analysis codes include the option of incorporating a failure criteria for the weld element. As many automotive companies move towards the use of high-strength steels, the dynamic behavior of the spot welds will become increasingly important and the failure of any welds should be incorporated during the simulation. The failure criteria will be influenced by mesh size, weld element properties, weld element type, surrounding material properties, strain rate, and weld placement. The influence of some of these parameters using current spot weld modeling techniques will be discussed along with recommendations for future work in this area.

Yancey, Robert N.

2004-06-01

271

Impact modeling of spot welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resistance spot welds in most current finite element crash models are characterized as a rigid link at the location of the weld which transfers the load but is not designed to fail. Newer weld elements in the popular finite element analysis codes include the option of incorporating a failure criteria for the weld element. As many automotive companies move towards the use of high-strength steels, the dynamic behavior of the spot welds will become increasingly important and the failure of any welds should be incorporated during the simulation. The failure criteria will be influenced by mesh size, weld element properties, weld element type, surrounding material properties, strain rate, and weld placement. The influence of some of these parameters using current spot weld modeling techniques will be discussed along with recommendations for future work in this area

2004-06-10

272

White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

2013-02-01

273

Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

274

Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

2010-06-01

275

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Panama  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburu?, Mari?a Gabriela; Sa?ez-llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E.

2007-01-01

276

Heartland Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

277

A yellow head virus gene probe: nucleotide sequence and application for in situ hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A portion of the genome of yellow head virus (YHV) of penaeid shrimp was cloned and the cDNA fragment (1161 bp) was designated clone 3-27. The fragment was labeled with digoxigenin and hybridized in situ to tissue sections of YHV-infected Penaeus vannamei. Positively reacting tissues included those of the lymphoid organ, cuticular epithelium, and gills. In addition, connective tissue of hepatopancreas, heart, antennal gland, hematopoietic organ, nerve tract, midgut cecum and muscle reacted to the probe. The probe was highly specific since it hybridized only to tissues from YHV-infected shrimp. It did not react to those of uninfected shrimp or shrimp infected with WSSV (white spot syndrome virus), IHHNV (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), or TSV (Taura syndrome virus). The clone was sequenced, and primers were synthesized for rapid detection of YHV in hemolymph using RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). The strand that constituted the viral sequence in the cDNA was also determined via RT-PCR and in situ hybridization with a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) probe. PMID:10228874

Tang, K F; Lightner, D V

1999-02-26

278

Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

2011-12-01

279

Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

eleonora nistor

2013-05-01

280

Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots  

CERN Document Server

In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads) and ...

eleonora nistor

2013-01-01

282

A Drosophila wing spot test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

1986-01-01

283

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

284

Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two lar...

Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gre?han, Ge?rard; Onofri, Fabrice

2007-01-01

285

Lightning Hot Spots in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada, this Web site is devoted to lightning phenomena. Occurring 2.7 million times a year in Canada, visitors can find maps of Hot Spots and of current Lightning Activity over Canada. Educators and students can obtain lots of materials dealing with lightning properties, occurrences, and destructive capabilities. The site provides information on lightning activity differences among various geographic regions in Canada. Families can benefit from the high-quality and thorough, Lightning Safety Tips.

286

Design of Spot Welding Robot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Welding robot has played an extremely important role in the welding production of high-quality, high-efficiency. The paper designed the hardware structure and software of spot welding robot. The hardware design mainly includes the major modules of arm and base; the hardware design includes two parts: manual mode and automatic mode. Manual mode is generally used for the robot system installation, commissioning and troubleshooting, and the major modules are controlled by the start of the cor...

Zelun Li; Zhicheng Huang; Youjun Huang

2013-01-01

287

Spot-to-Beam Procedure  

CERN Multimedia

We describe the interactive "STB" (spot_to_beam) MATHEMATICA procedure for a) approximating the spot image at the screen as ellipse, b) getting five parameters of the elliptic beam (two diameters, center coordinates, and orientation angle). The basic idea is to "map" the reference holes at screen onto the X-Y plane normal to the beam direction (Z-axis). All distortions of the image, e.g., due to camera-screen disposition can be, in principle, taken into account,assuming that the hole positions at screen and the orientation of the screen are known. With the non-linear LMS fitting, the "curved-coordinate-system" of the holes at image is transferred to the Cartesian coordinate system at XY-plane. Then the fitting ellipse is found in this latter system, by solving the system of N linear equations for 5 unknown parameters of beam ellipse, where N>5 is a number of reference points on edge of spot image. The examples of the real measurements at various screens will be demonstrated. The accuracy of beam diameters is ...

Seidov, Zakir F; Yahalom, Asher

2004-01-01

288

Spot-to-beam procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full Text:We describe the interactive spot-to-beam Mathematical procedure for a) approximating the spot image at the screen (and beam at screen position) as an ellipse, b) getting five parameters of the elliptic beam (two diameters, center coordinates, and orientation angle). The basic idea is to ''map'' the reference holes at the diagnostic screen onto the XY plane normal to the beam propagation direction (Z-axis). All distortions of the image, e.g., due to camera-screen disposition can be, in principle, taken into account. With the non-linear LSM fitting, the ''curved'' coordinate system of the holes at image is transferred to the Cartesian ''Laboratory'' coordinate system (C.S.) at XY plane. Then the fitting ellipse is found in the C.S., by solving the system'of N linear equations for 5 unknown parameters of beam ellipse, where N>5 is a number of the sample points on edge (boundary) of the spot image. Examples of the real measurements in the Israeli Electrostatic Accelerator FEL (EAFEL) are demonstrated. The accuracy of the beam diameter values is ? 5 mm depending on picture quality and the operator's experience (and patience). The procedure is to be used in routine measurements of EAFEL to improve the electron beam transport

2004-12-01

289

Three-dimensional cold spot volume rendering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-dimensional volume rendering enhances the perception of radiopharmaceutical distribution within organs. Formerly, a maximum activity projection method was developed for hot spot rendering, which increases the contrast between hot spots and normal tissue. This method can only render cold spots at organ edges; a decrease in uptake within organs is not displayed. In this contribution, it is shown that the projection technique developed for hot spot imaging also can be used for cold spot rendering after suitable transformation of the tomographic data format. (orig.)

1993-11-01

290

Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

Ladislav Kola?ík

2012-01-01

291

Location and distribution of virus antigen in the central nervous system of mice persistently infected with Theiler's virus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study has shown that virus can be readily detected by immunofluorescent staining in the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL mice persistently infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). Considering the low CNS virus content, large amounts of virus antigen were found in the white matter, the site of demyelinating lesions. Virus antigen was detected in all animals killed after post-infection (PI) Day 21, a time which can be considered as the beginning of the persi...

Sethi, P.; Lipton, H. L.

1983-01-01

292

Taura syndrome virus from Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass mortality occurred among Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea in 2004. In an earlier study, we reported white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) as a causative agent of mass mortality of P. monodon shrimp in Korea (Moon et al. 2003; Dis Aquat Org 53:11-13). However, in the present study, we detected Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the moribund 2004 P. vannamei shrimp by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, during our regular screening for the TSV in stocks of P. vannamei imported from Hawaii, USA, we also detected TSV by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid protein VP1 of 2 Korean isolates were 99% identical to each other and 96 to 99% identical to those of TSVs isolated from the Americas, Taiwan, and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 2 Korean isolates were closely related to TSV types from Thailand. This is the first report on the detection of TSV during an epizootic among cultured P. vannamei in Korea, and our results suggests the possibility that TSV has been introduced via the imported stock of P. vannamei. PMID:16875405

Do, Jeong Wan; Cha, Seung Ju; Lee, Nam Sil; Kim, Yi Cheong; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Jae Dong; Park, Jeong Woo

2006-06-12

293

Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by ?-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by ?-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

1999-06-01

294

Confronting White Privilege  

Science.gov (United States)

Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

Swalwell, Katy

2012-01-01

295

White on whiteness: becoming radicalized about race.  

Science.gov (United States)

Race difference and whiteness--key elements in the construction of my cultural identity - became a focus of my reflective practice that began over 5 years ago. This article reflects critically on the production of white identity from my social location as a white nurse. My attention focused on two aspects of whiteness: the social location from which I live and learn, and the hegemonic but unmarked discourse that informs the knowledge I read and create as a researcher. My white identity is characterized by four features: the absent presence of whiteness; the need for an oppositional identity; the entitlement of choice and subjectivity; and the denial of a dominant position and relation to the racialized Other. Exploring these features is critically important at this juncture in global and professional history because of the persistence of neoliberalism and the popularity of culturalist approaches to diversity. Examining the process of my radicalization about race simultaneously calls attention to the historiography of ideas about whiteness and race difference and the institutionalization of beliefs and practices about race difference that continuously reproduce racialized identities and inform collective nursing practice and research. PMID:17518827

Gustafson, Diana L

2007-06-01

296

Recombinant expression of the coat protein of Botrytis virus X and development of an immunofluorescence detection method to study its intracellular distribution in Botrytis cinerea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Botrytis cinerea is infected by many mycoviruses with varying phenotypical effects on the fungal host, including Botrytis virus X (BVX), a mycovirus that has been found in several B. cinerea isolates worldwide with no obvious effects on growth. Here we present results from serological and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) studies using antiserum raised against the coat protein of BVX expressed in Escherichia coli fused to maltose-binding protein. Due to the high yield of recombinant protein it was possible to raise antibodies that recognized BVX particles. An indirect ELISA, using BVX antibodies, detected BVX in partially purified virus preparations from fungal isolates containing BVX alone and in mixed infection with Botrytis virus F. The BVX antiserum also proved suitable for IFM studies. Intensely fluorescing spots (presumed to be virus aggregates) were found to be localized in hyphal cell compartments and spores of natural and experimentally infected B. cinerea isolates using IFM. Immunofluorescently labelled sections through fungal tissue, as well as fixed mycelia grown on glass slides, showed aggregations of virions closely associated with fungal cell membranes and walls, next to septal pores, and in hyphal tips. Also, calcofluor white staining of mature cell walls of virus-transfected Botrytis clones revealed numerous cell wall areas with increased amounts of chitin/glycoproteins. Our results indicate that some BVX aggregates are closely associated with the fungal cell wall and raise the question of whether mycoviruses may be able to move through the wall and therefore not be totally dependent on intracellular routes of transmission. PMID:22855784

Boine, Barbara; Kingston, Richard L; Pearson, Michael N

2012-11-01

297

The geometric relationship between hot spots and seamounts: implications for Pacific hot spots  

Science.gov (United States)

Hot spots and the seamounts produced by them provide both geometric and temporal evidence for changes in absolute plate motion. The main limitation in using hot-spot-produced seamounts in plate tectonic reconstructions arises from the multiple sources of error and ambiguity that plague radiometric age estimates. In particular, unless the hot spot has maintained a steady and voluminous flux rate over long periods of time, the exact location of a hot spot (which represents the zero age origin along the hot spot trail) is poorly known. Here, we discuss a unique geometric relationship between a hot spot and the seamounts produced by it that we recently have discovered, i.e. hot-spot-produced seamounts have seafloor crustal flow lines that intersect at the hot spot location. Furthermore, we obtain images of cumulative volcano amplitudes (CVA) by convolving seamount shapes with their flow lines; hot spots correspond to clear local maxima in this image and the amplitudes are proportional to cumulative hot spot flux. This technique, dubbed `hot-spotting', allows us to determine hot spot locations based only on a set of seamount locations; no age information is required. We use the hot-spotting technique to examine the Pacific plate hot spots in general and the Bowie and Cobb hot spots in the Gulf of Alaska, in particular. We find that the Hawaii, Louisville, Caroline, Cobb, and Bowie hot spots have clear representations in the CVA images, Rurutu and/or Rarotonga are close to a large CVA high, while the other French Polynesian hot spots in general exhibit a much more subdued and blurred expression. We also conclude that the Cobb hot-spot plume may have been entrained by the Juan de Fuca Ridge about 2 Ma ago, or, alternatively, is in a waning phase and cannot penetrate Juan de Fuca plate lithosphere. The Bowie hot spot appears to have encountered the ridge more recently.

Wessel, Paul; Kroenke, Loren W.

1998-05-01

298

Control of aphid-vectored and thrips-borne virus spread in lily, tulip, iris and dahlia by sprays of mineral oil, polydimethylsiloxane and pyrethroid insecticide in the field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study control of spread by insect vectors of non-persistent Lily symptomless virus and Lily mottle virus in lily, Tulip breaking virus in tulip, Iris mild mosaic virus, Narcissus latent virus and Iris severe mosaic virus in bulbous iris, and semi-persistent Dahlia mosaic virus and persistent Tomato spotted wilt virus in dahlia has been evaluated with weekly sprays of mineral oil, beta-pinene emulsion, polydimethylsiloxane emulsions and pyrethroid insecticide. In lily, beta-pinene in '...

2001-01-01

299

Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses. PMID:22682170

Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

2012-01-01

300

Of spiders and elongated spots  

Science.gov (United States)

We present simulation results for various aspects of the 39m E-ELT AO systems. First, we look at the impact of a thick (more than one sub-aperture) spider on Laser Tomography AO performance. Then, what happens when elongated Laser Guide Star spots in the wavefront sensor are truncated, in a Multi-Conjugate AO system. Several sodium layer profiles are investigated. We also look at the performance of an LTAO system for a far infrared system. Finally, different reconstructors (Frim3D, Kaczmarz) are compared in an MCAO system.

Le Louarn, Miska; Béchet, Clémentine; Tallon, Michel

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Load forecasting under spot pricing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Time varying tariffs such as spot pricing give rise to changes in load magnitude as well as effect a redistribution of load with respect to time. Mathematical models are proposed, centred on the concepts, cross-time price elasticity matrix, decomposition of the price and time correlations of load, forecasting of consumer price anticipation and forecasting natural load variation. These elements are interacted against the system power production cost database for short run demand forecasting. Sophisticated approaches such as this will replace established forecasting methods wherever short run time variable tariffs are adopted.

David, A.K.

1988-09-01

302

Symbol Spotting in Digital Libraries  

CERN Multimedia

The specific problem of symbol recognition in graphical documents requires additional techniques to those developed for character recognition. The most well-known obstacle is the so-called Sayre paradox: correct recognition requires good segmentation, yet improvement in segmentation is achieved using information provided by the recognition process. This dilemma can be avoided by techniques that identify sets of regions containing useful information. Such symbol-spotting methods allow the detection of symbols in maps or technical drawings without having to fully segment or fully recognize the e

Rusinol, Marcal

2010-01-01

303

Design of Spot Welding Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Welding robot has played an extremely important role in the welding production of high-quality, high-efficiency. The paper designed the hardware structure and software of spot welding robot. The hardware design mainly includes the major modules of arm and base; the hardware design includes two parts: manual mode and automatic mode. Manual mode is generally used for the robot system installation, commissioning and troubleshooting, and the major modules are controlled by the start of the corresponding button; automatic mode is mainly used for production stage. The welding robot uses PLC for controlling; the system runs faster and has a short production cycle.

Zelun Li

2013-11-01

304

??????: Measles virus  

Full Text Available Viruses Paramyxovirinae Measles virus Cell-associated subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (synon s (scientific name) NCBI 11234 Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus (synonym) NCBI 11234 measles virus MV (synon beola virus (synonym) NCBI 11234 subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus (synonym) NCBI 11234 subacute sclerosing pan

305

Pome Fruit Viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field surveys and laboratory tests were carried out to assess the sanitary status of pome fruit trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Field surveys were carried out in 10 orchards, two nurseries and one varietal collectione during 2005-2006. A total of 65 apple and 51 pear cultivars were tested for the presence of the four most important pome fruit viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV. The most frequent viruses of apple were ACLSV (72% and ASPV (69%, whereas for pear those were ASGV (69% and ACLSV (64%. Biological indexing was more reliable than ELISA for virus detection. Multiplex RT-PCR results of 20 randomly selected apple cultivars were in line with biological indexing.This is the first report of the presence of ACLSV, ASPV, ASGV and ApMV in Bosnia and Herzegovina in pome fruits.

Biljana Loli?

2007-01-01

306

First record of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in the USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A tospovirus was identified in tomato plants from two counties in Florida by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of portions of the S, M and L genomic segments. The predicted amino-acid sequences of the N protein of PCR products from four plant samples were >96% identical to those of TCSV. Partial nucleic acid sequences of the L and M RNA were >97% identical to those reported for TCSV isolates. Extracts from field samples infected test plants and produced symptoms similar to those report...

Aurora Londoño; Heather Capobianco; Shouan Zhang; Polston, Jane E.

2012-01-01

307

Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

2006-01-01

308

Oil futures and spot markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

1992-01-01

309

Solar 'hot spots' are still hot  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

Bai, Taeil

1990-01-01

310

Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, potato virus Y (PVY, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, tobacco each virus (TEV and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV.The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were investigated for 4 years (2002-2005. During this period many different tobacco growing localities in Vojvodina and central Serbia were monitored and samples showing virus symptoms were collected. The collected samples were tested by DAS ELISA using polyclonal antisera, specific for the detection of PVY, TSWV, TMV, CMV, AMV and TRSV.The results obtained for the tobacco virus distribution during these four years of investigation proved the presence of four economically important viruses in our country, whose frequencies varied from year to year. In 2002, 2003 and 2004, the most frequent was TSWV(86.84%; 79% and 49.56%, respectively, while in 2005 PVY was prevalent (56.16%. All viruses detected in the samples tested were present in single or mixed infections. A corellation was established between the field symptoms on tobacco and the virus causal agents.The results obtained showed that TSWV and PVY were the most important tobacco viruses in our country, so that further research of tobacco virus diseases should be directed towards their more detailed characterization.

Nataša Duduk

2006-01-01

311

Extensive Mongolian Spots with Autosomal Dominant Inheritance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Mongolian spots are benign skin markings at birth which fade and disappear as the child grows. Often persistent extensive Mongolian spots are associated with inborn error of metabolism. We report thirteen people of the single family manifested with extensive Mongolian spots showing autosomal dominant inheritance.Case Presentation: A one day old female child, product of second degree consanguineous marriage, born by normal vaginal delivery with history of meconium stained amniotic ...

Yc, Beeregowda; Naveen Kumar,; Yc, Manjunatha

2012-01-01

312

Hot spot and trench volcano separations  

Science.gov (United States)

It is suggested that the distribution of separations between trench volcanos located along subduction zones reflects the depth of partial melting, and that the separation distribution for hot spot volcanoes near spreading centers provides a measure of the depth of mantle convection cells. It is further proposed that the lateral dimensions of mantle convection cells are also represented by the hot-spot separations (rather than by ridge-trench distances) and that a break in the distribution of hot spot separations at 3000 km is evidence for both whole mantle convection and a deep thermal plume origin of hot spots.

Lingenfelter, R. E.; Schubert, G.

1974-01-01

313

Multi-spot porous silicon chip prepared from asymmetric electrochemical etching for human immunoglobin G sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multi-spot porous silicon (MSPS)-based optical biosensor was developed to specify the biomolecules. MSPS chip was generated by an electrochemical etching of silicon wafer using an asymmetric electrode configuration in aqueous ethanolic HF solution and constituted with nine arrayed porous silicon. MSPS prepared from anisotropic etching conditions displayed the Fabry-Pérot fringe patterns which varied spatially across the porous silicon (PS). Each spot displayed different reflection resonances and different pore characteristics as a function of the lateral distance from the Pt counter electrode. The sensor system consists of the 3 x 3 spot array of porous silicon modified with Protein A. The system was probed with various fragments of an aqueous Human Immunoglobin G (Ig G) analyte. The sensor operated by measurement of the reflection patterns in the white light reflection spectrum of MSPS. Molecular binding and specificity was detected as a shift in wavelength of these Fabry-Pérot fringe patterns. PMID:22103124

Um, Sungyong; Cho, Bomin; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Sohn, Honglae

2011-08-01

314

Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie  

Science.gov (United States)

This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

315

The Brightest Spot on Titan  

Science.gov (United States)

The location on Titan that is brightest when viewed in reflected light is near 80oW ˜ 25oS. During Cassini's T4 pass over this area on 2005 March 31, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument discovered that this area is also particularly bright when compared to Xanadu at 5 ?m. We combined data obtained from Cassini's VIMS, ISS, and RADAR instruments along with ground-based Keck AO data to ascertain the nature of the spot. We are able to rule out anomalous photometric behavior, clouds, high temperature, and high elevation as likely explanations for the area's high reflectivity. RADAR radiometry of the area implies an icy composition, while VIMS detection of high 5-?m flux implies less ice. We conclude that the area is probably icy but covered by a veneer of highly reflective material, either as a surface layer or low-level ground fog, either of which may be associated with volcanic activity.

Barnes, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Sotin, C.; Turtle, E. P.; McEwen, A. W.; Lorenz, R. D.; Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Clark, R.; Griffith, C.; Perry, J.; Fussner, S.; Barbara, J.; West, R.; Elachi, C.; Antonin, B.; Roe, H. G.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Yves; Matson, D. L.; McCord, T. B.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sicardy, B.

2005-08-01

316

Physical white chaos generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Physical chaos is a fascinating prospect for high-speed data security by serving as a masking carrier or a key source, but suffers from a colored spectrum that divulges system's intrinsic oscillations and degrades randomness. Here, we demonstrate that physical chaos with a white spectrum can be achieved by the optical heterodyning of two delayed-feedback lasers. A white chaotic spectrum with 1-dB fluctuation in a band of 11 GHz is experimentally obtained. The white chaos als...

Wang, Anbang; Wang, Yuncai; Wang, Bingjie; Li, Lei; Zhang, Mingjiang; Zhang, Wendong

2014-01-01

317

Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Morogoro virus, although a large proportion shows specific antibodies.

Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy

2009-01-01

318

Proteomic differences between white and brown adipocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a series of protein levels from several protein pathways have been shown to differ between white (WA) and brown (BA) adipocytes, proteomic work on this subject with the exception of mitochondrial protein differences is limited. It was, therefore, the aim of the study to compare WA with BA soluble protein levels. Proteins were extracted from WA and BA and the soluble fraction was run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Quantification of spot volume was carried out and protein spots, statistically different between groups (P pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, isocitrate dehydrogenase subunit alpha, electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alpha and immunoglobulin-binding protein 1, were increased in BA based on a gel-based proteomic method and differential expression was verified by immunoblotting. These individual proteins were represented by one spot each and sequence coverages were between 28 and 65%. A network generated based on these results indicated a link to ubiquitination. Differential protein levels between WA and BA allow interpretation of previous work on adipocyte biochemistry and form the basis for future studies with genetic or pharmacological inhibition of these proteins accompanied by work on phenotype and adipocyte function. PMID:24390458

Chen, Wei-Qiang; Li, Lin; Lubec, Gert

2014-04-01

319

Robust design of spot welds in automotive structures: A decision-making methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Automotive structures include thousands of spot welds whose design must allow the assembled vehicle to satisfy a wide variety of performance constraints including static, dynamic and crash criteria. The objective of a standard optimization strategy is to reduce the number of spot welds as much as possible while satisfying all the design objectives. However, a classical optimization of the spot weld distribution using an exhaustive search approach is simply not feasible due to the very high order of the design space and the subsequently prohibitive calculation costs. Moreover, even if this calculation could be done, the result would not necessarily be very informative with respect to the design robustness to manufacturing uncertainties (location of welds and defective welds) and to the degradation of spot welds due to fatigue effects over the lifetime of the vehicle. In this paper, a decision-making methodology is presented which allows some aspects of the robustness issues to be integrated into the spot weld design process. The starting point is a given distribution of spot welds on the structure, which is based on both engineering know-how and preliminary critical numerical results, in particular criteria such as crash behavior. An over-populated spot weld distribution is then built in order to satisfy the remaining design criteria, such as static torsion angle and modal behavior. Then, an efficient optimization procedure based on energy considerations is used to eliminate redundant spot welds while preserving as far as possible the nominal structural behavior. The resulting sub-optimal solution is then used to provide a decision indicator for defining effective quality control procedures (e.g. visual post-assembly inspection of a small number of critical spot welds) as well as designing redundancy into critical zones. The final part of the paper is related to comparing the robustness of competing designs. Some decision-making indicators are presented to help the analyst to plan robust resistance spot welds designs along with quality controls in order to insure a specified level of structural performance. All examples are presented on a full body-in-white structure (one million dofs and thousands spot welds).

Ouisse, M.; Cogan, S.

2010-05-01

320

Hot Spot Removal System: System description  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

Walker, H; Homann, S G

2009-03-12

322

Modelling of the Resistance Spot Welding Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A literature survey on modelling of the resistance spot welding process has been carried out and some of the more interesting models on this subject have been reviewed in this work. The underlying physics has been studied and a brief explanation of Heat transfer, electrokinetics and metallurgy in a resistance spot welding context have been presented.\

Govik, Alexander

2009-01-01

323

Occupational asthma due to spot-welding.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of occupational asthma from fumes due to spot-welding is described. The hazards from resistance welding have been considered minimal as compared to other types of welding. This paper illustrates the possible hazards of occupational asthma among welders including those doing spot-welding. It also illustrates the difficulties encountered in identifying the specific causative agent in such cases. PMID:2259956

Lee, H S; Chia, S E; Yap, J C; Wang, Y T; Lee, C S

1990-10-01

324

HotSpot Software Test Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Software Test Plan (STP) describes the procedures used to verify and validate that the HotSpot Health Physics Codes meet the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot conducting consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendation 2 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

Walker, H; Homann, S G

2009-03-12

325

Turbulent Spots in Plane Poiseuille Flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plume Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a data base obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The...

D. S. Henningson J. Kim

1992-01-01

326

Element spots in HgMn stars  

CERN Document Server

A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade now the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are known to be distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Temporal evolution of these elemental spots have been reported in a few HgMn stars, first secular evolution of the mercury spots in alpha And, and recently also a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the affected elements. In this paper I review what is known of elemental spots in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

Korhonen, Heidi

2013-01-01

327

Hot spots in a network of functional sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is of significant interest to understand how proteins interact, which holds the key phenomenon in biological functions. Using dynamic fluctuations in high frequency modes, we show that the Gaussian Network Model (GNM) predicts hot spot residues with success rates ranging between S 8-58%, C 84-95%, P 5-19% and A 81-92% on unbound structures and S 8-51%, C 97-99%, P 14-50%, A 94-97% on complex structures for sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy, respectively. High specificity and accuracy rates with a single property on unbound protein structures suggest that hot spots are predefined in the dynamics of unbound structures and forming the binding core of interfaces, whereas the prediction of other functional residues with similar dynamic behavior explains the lower precision values. The latter is demonstrated with the case studies; ubiquitin, hen egg-white lysozyme and M2 proton channel. The dynamic fluctuations suggest a pseudo network of residues with high frequency fluctuations, which could be plausible for the mechanism of biological interactions and allosteric regulation. PMID:24023934

Ozbek, Pemra; Soner, Seren; Haliloglu, Turkan

2013-01-01

328

Carbon in white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of obtaining a considerable carbon enhancement in nova envelopes to account for the occurrence of fast novae is examined in detail. No mechanism seems completely satisfactory from the point of view of stellar evolution and white dwarf structure, even considering evidence from single white dwarf observations

1980-05-15

329

Sailing to White Boat  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

2004-01-01

330

Detection of infectious myonecrosis virus using monoclonal antibody specific to N and C fragments of the capsid protein expressed heterologously.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene encoding the capsid protein in ORF1 of the genome of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) (GenBank AY570982) was amplified into three parts named CP-N (nucleotides 2248-3045), CP-I (nucleotides 3046-3954) and CP-C (nucleotides 3955-4953). The CP-N fragment was inserted into expression vector pTYB1 while CP-I and CP-C were each inserted into expression vector pGEX-6P-1 for transformation of BL21 E. coli strain. After induction, intein-CP-N (84 kDa), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-CP-I (60 kDa) and GST-CP-C (62 kDa) fusion proteins were produced. They were separated by SDS-PAGE and electroeluted before immunization of Swiss mice for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Two MAbs specific to CP-N and one MAb specific to CP-C were selected for use for detection of natural IMNV infections in Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. There was no cross-reaction with shrimp tissues or common shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), Taura syndrome virus (TSV), Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV), Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) and Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV). The detection sensitivities of the MAbs were approximately 6 fmol/spot of purified recombinant intein-CP-N protein and 8 fmol/spot of GST-CP-C as determined by dot blotting. A combination of all three MAbs resulted in a twofold increase in sensitivity over use of any single MAb. However, this sensitivity was approximately 10 times lower than that of one-step RT-PCR using the same sample. Immunohistochemical analysis using MAbs specific to CP-N and CP-C in IMNV-infected shrimp revealed intense staining patterns in muscles, the lymphoid organ, gills, the heart, hemocytes and connective tissue. PMID:21029750

Kunanopparat, Areerat; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Senapin, Saengchan; Longyant, Siwaporn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Flegel, Timothy W; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2011-01-01

331

Geo Spots and Vortex Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the convection currents of the mantle-lithosphere system with terrestrial dynamics has represented one of the main themes of tectonophysics for over a century, in addition to the relationships interwoven with crust dynamics. Likewise, the relevant debate has animated the scientific community for more than a century, as recalled by the work of Kreighauger (1902), Ampferer (1906), Schwinner (1919), Holmes (1928), Griggs (1932), Pekeris (1935), Kraus (1951), Hess (1962). Though never directly observed, the convection currents in the mantle manifest their effects in the Earth's crust in various ways, such as the flow of heat in the oceans and continents, and magnetic anomalies. These are the result of effects caused by ferromagnetic materials dragged upwards by convection movements, as demonstrated by the laboratory simulations carried out by Glatzmaier and Olson (2005). With respect to the initial simplified and theoretical modelling of the first authors of the last century, the studies by Bercovici, Schubert and Glatzmaier (1989) and those of Glatzmaier and Olson (2005) revealed a complex three-dimensional model of the dynamics of convection processes in the mantle, even if it is not yet clear to what extent this mechanism actually reflects reality. The differences in temperature in the Earth's inner shells causes convection movements that can manifest both on a large scale with laminar flows and plumes, and on a small scale with turbulent flows concentrated in limited areas of the globe. The trajectories in a vortex, also proposed by Gurevich (2012), generated by complex motions in the mantle-lithosphere system, are driven by the Coriolis Effect. The combination of these mechanisms together with the Coriolis force creates, on the whole, ascending helical motions with a similar effect to that of an atmospheric cyclone interacting with the lithospheric shell. In this study it is believed that the ascending whirling movements (Vortex Theory), when limited to particular regions, may have created in the past and perhaps still do to this day torsions in localized spots of the Earth's crust (Geo Spots), which over time have conditioned the distribution of tectonic stresses on the surface of the Earth at a regional scale.

Straser, Valentino

2014-05-01

332

The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to determine the underlying genes involved in coat color determination in the dog, e.g., in the Labrador Retriever, but none to date have addressed black versus liver in the Dalmatian. Results A genome scan was conducted in a multi-generational kindred of Dalmatians segregating black and liver spot color. Linkage analysis was performed using a total of 113 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the kindred. Linkage was found between spot color and a single microsatellite marker, FH2319 (LOD = 12.5 on chromosome 11. Conclusion The TYRP1 (Brown locus is located at position 50.1 Mb on chromosome 11, which is approximately 0.4 Mb from marker FH2319. Given the recent characterization of TYRP1 genetic variations in the dog and the linkage evidence reported here, TYRP1 is likely responsible for the spot color variation of black versus liver seen in the Dalmatian.

Strain George M

2005-07-01

333

Probabilistic modelling of the high-pressure arc cathode spot displacement dynamic  

CERN Document Server

A probabilistic modelling approach for the study of the cathode spot displacement dynamic in high-pressure arc systems is developed in an attempt to interpret the observed voltage fluctuations. The general framework of the model allows to define simple, probabilistic displacement rules, the so-called cathode spot dynamic rules, for various possible surface states (un-arced metal, arced, contaminated) and to study the resulting dynamic of the cathode spot displacements over one or several arc passages. The displacements of the type-A cathode spot (macro-spot) in a magnetically rotating arc using concentric electrodes made up of either clean or contaminated metal surfaces is considered. Experimental observations for this system revealed a 1/f sup - sup t sup i sup l sup d sup e sup 1 signature in the frequency power spectrum (FPS) of the arc voltage for anchoring arc conditions on the cathode (e.g. clean metal surface), while it shows a 'white noise' signature for conditions favouring a smooth movement (e.g. ox...

Coulombe, S

2003-01-01

334

WSSV ie1 promoter is more efficient than CMV promoter to express H5 hemagglutinin from influenza virus in baculovirus as a chicken vaccine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The worldwide outbreak of influenza A (H5N1 viruses among poultry species and humans highlighted the need to develop efficacious and safe vaccines based on efficient and scaleable production. Results White spot syndrome virus (WSSV immediate-early promoter one (ie1 was shown to be a stronger promoter for gene expression in insect cells compared with Cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV promoter in luciferase assays. In an attempt to improve expression efficiency, a recombinant baculovirus was constructed expressing hemagglutinin (HA of H5N1 influenza virus under the control of WSSV ie1 promoter. HA expression in SF9 cells increased significantly with baculovirus under WSSV ie1 promoter, compared with CMV promoter based on HA contents and hemagglutination activity. Further, immunization with baculovirus under WSSV ie1 promoter in chickens elicited higher level anti-HA antibodies compared to CMV promoter, as indicated in hemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. By immunohistochemistry, strong HA antigen expression was observed in different chicken organs with vaccination of WSSV ie1 promoter controlled baculovirus, confirming higher efficiency in HA expression by WSSV ie1 promoter. Conclusion The production of H5 HA by baculovirus was enhanced with WSSV ie1 promoter, especially compared with CMV promoter. This contributed to effective elicitation of HA-specific antibody in vaccinated chickens. This study provides an alternative choice for baculovirus based vaccine production.

Yu Li

2008-12-01

335

Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after plant...

Taiwo Moni A; Kareem Kehinde T; Nsa Imade Y; Hughes Jackies, D. A.

2007-01-01

336

A Theory of a Spot  

CERN Document Server

We present a simple model of inflation that can produce arbitrarily large spherical underdense or overdense regions embedded in a standard Lambda cold dark matter paradigm, which we refer to as bubbles. We analyze the effect such bubbles would have on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). For super-horizon sized bubble in the vicinity of the last scattering surface, a signal is imprinted onto CMB via a combination of Sach-Wolfe and an early integrated Sach-Wolfe (ISW) effects. Smaller, sub-horizon sized bubbles at lower redshifts (during matter domination and later) can imprint secondary anisotropies on the CMB via Rees-Sciama, late-time ISW and Ostriker-Vishniac effects. Our model, and arguably most similar inflationary models, produce bubbles which are over/underdense in potential: in density such bubbles are characterized by having a distinct wall with the interior staying at the cosmic mean density. We show that such models can, with only moderate fine tuning, explain the \\emph{cold spot}, a non-Gaussian...

Afshordi, Niayesh; Wang, Yi

2010-01-01

337

Pregnancy Complications: Bleeding and Spotting from the Vagina  

Science.gov (United States)

... Bleeding and spotting from the vagina during pregnancy Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... dashboard . Bleeding and spotting from the vagina during pregnancy Bleeding and spotting from the vagina during pregnancy ...

338

Modelling turbulent spots in swept boundary layers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A linear perturbation method can capture the important flow features within a turbulent spot. • The horseshoe vortex in the perturbed velocity field is the dominant flow feature. • Sweep leads to skewing of the turbulent spot and calmed region. • The effects of pressure gradient are generally reduced by sweep. -- Abstract: A computational technique is presented for determining the fully 3-d viscid unsteady perturbation to a non-developing laminar swept boundary layer. For zero pressure gradient, unswept boundary layers, the perturbation method reveals a strongly three dimensional flow within the turbulent spot and its associated calmed region which is very similar to that observed in experiments and full DNS calculations. The perturbation method cannot predict turbulent motion but nevertheless provides a simple yet accurate means of studying and understanding the development of turbulent spot geometry. The most influential flow feature is the horseshoe vortex observed in the fluctuation velocity field, which is responsible for delivering the fluid found in the calmed region between its trailing legs. The upwards flow around the outer periphery of the vortex is also responsible for delivering low momentum fluid to the spot, but additional high momentum fluid also enters the spot from its rear through the downward sweeping motion of fluid between the vortex legs. The effect of an adverse streamwise pressure gradient is to increase the size of the spot and calmed region whereas a favourable pressure gradient has the opposite effect. When sweep is introduced to the boundary layer the spot is skewed for all non-zero pressure gradients, but the changes in size of the spot and calmed region due to pressure gradient are reduced. For favourable pressure gradients the skew increases monotonically with sweep, but this is not the case for adverse pressure gradients where the effect of sweep is more complex

2014-02-01

339

Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H...

Les?njak, A.; Tus?ek, J.

2002-01-01

340

SPOT communication and data handling concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The SPOT system comprises an orbital platform with payload and a ground-based system consisting of a telemetry data image processing facility and a control facility. The platform incorporates a service module containing power supply, attitude and orbit control, and data management. A solar array generates power for the satellite, and a propulsion module containing tanks and thrusters is employed for maneuvering. The first of the SPOT payloads will be dedicated to earth observation and will comprise two high resolution visible range radiometers and their associated data processing and telemetry equipment. These radiometers employ CCD focal plane detectors. Attention is given to SPOT reconfiguration and fault tolerance concepts.

Arnaud, M.; Ruffie, J. P.

 
 
 
 
341

Expression and silencing of Selenoprotein M (SelM) from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effect on peroxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide concentration in gills and hepatopancreas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenoprotein M (SelM), is a selenocysteine containing protein with redox activity involved in the antioxidant response. In the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, SelM expression in gills is induced transiently during viral infection by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). We report that SelM expression was detected in healthy shrimp L. vannamei in gills, muscle, hepatopancreas and pleopods, with more abundance in the hepatopancreas and gills. SelM transcripts were silenced by intramuscular injection with double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). In gills and hepatopancreas, all shrimp injected with long dsRNAs had lower SelM transcripts levels compared with controls. Peroxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide concentration were measured to detect effects on antioxidants. Peroxidase activity decreased upon silencing of SelM in gills, but no significant effect was detected in hepatopancreas. In contrast, total cell hydrogen peroxide concentration did not change in gills and hepatopancreas of silenced shrimp. Non-heme peroxidases are new players in the oxidative stress system that need to be addressed in detail, as well as selenium as a critical micronutrient for the antioxidant and innate immune systems in crustaceans. PMID:19883782

García-Triana, Antonio; Gómez-Jiménez, Silvia; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; López-Zavala, Alonso; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

2010-02-01

342

Epidemiology of apple leaf spot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apple leaf spot (ALS caused by Colletotrichum spp. is a major disease of apple (Malus domestica in Southern Brazil. The epidemiology of this disease was studied in experiments carried out in the counties of Passo Fundo and Vacaria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, from February 1998 to October 2000. The disease was found in all the six apple orchards sampled in the growing seasons of 1997/98 and 1998/99. The fungus isolates associated with ALS fit the characteristics of C. gloeosporioides (75%, C. acutatum (8%, and Colletotrichum sp. (17%. The pathogen overwintered in dormant buds and twigs but not in dropped leaves or fruit mummies. Two sprays of copper oxychloride (at 0.3% reduced the fungus initial inoculum by 65-84.6% in buds and 85.6-93.7% in twigs, but had no effect on the early season progress of the disease. Disease severity increased proportionally to elevation of temperature from 14 to 26-28 °C. At 34 °C, however, infection was completely inhibited. The duration of leaf wetness required for infection ranged from two hours at 30 °C to 32 h at 16 °C. The relationship of temperature (T and leaf wetness (W to disease severity (Y was represented by the model equation Y = 0.00145[((T-131.78((34.01-T 1.09] * 25/[1+14 exp(-0.137W], R² = 0.73 and P < 0.0001. Currently, this information is being used to manage the disease and to validate a forecast system for ALS.

CRUSIUS LUCIANO U.

2002-01-01

343

Genome Areas with High Gene Density and CpG Island Neighborhood Strongly Attract Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus for Integration and Favor the Formation of Hot Spots? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are members of the gammaretrovirus genus and display integration preferences around transcription start sites, a finding which is similar to the preferences of the murine leukemia virus (MLV). Our new genome-wide analysis of the integration profile of a recombinant PERV (PERV A/C), enabled us to examine more than 1,900 integration sites and identify 224 integration hot spots. Investigation of the possible genome features involved in hot-spot formation re...

Moalic, Y.; Fe?lix, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Jestin, A.; Blanchard, Y.

2009-01-01

344

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Protect My Family From Ticks? Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Bug Bites and Stings What to Do ... and Woods Safety Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Lyme Disease Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted ...

345

Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

346

Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

2002-01-01

347

ENVIRONMENTAL TOURIST SPOTS OF CHINCHOLI TALUKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visiting Environmental spots is the most popular tourist industry in today's World. It gives mental pleasure and good health. It consists of biological and non-biological factors1.

Basavaraj Annappa

2014-05-01

348

Researchers Spot Potential New Culprit Behind Alzheimer's  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. Researchers Spot Potential New Culprit Behind Alzheimer's Abnormal levels of certain protein are more common ... 2014) Wednesday, July 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Alzheimer's Disease WEDNESDAY, July 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Although ...

349

Entrance time functions for flat spot maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We classify the dynamics of (orientation-preserving) flat spot maps on the circle, and derive explicit expressions for the function counting the first entrance time into the flat spot. Metric properties of first entrance time functions for the standard flat spot family are analysed in detail, via a computation of conditional expectation with respect to the orbit partition. This facilitates investigation of the median of the entrance time function, proving the surprising result that its first entrance time is constrained to equal either 1, 2, 4, 5 or 12, provided the rotation number of the flat spot map does not equal the exceptional values 0, ±2/7, ±3/10, ±1/3, ±3/8

2010-06-01

350

White dwarfs - fossil stars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure and properties of white dwarfs are analyzed. The physical structure of white dwarf interiors is balanced by a quantum-mechanical effect known as electron degeneracy pressure. Besides preventing gravitational collapse, the degenerate electrons also control the thermal structure of the stars. The transport of energy in the interior and near the surface of the stars is discussed. The surface composition of the white dwarfs is examined. It is observed that the surface of the stars contains only one element; 80 percent of the stars contain only H and the remaining stars contain He. It is determined that the intense gravity of the stars leads to a layering arrangement of material within the star. The origin and evolution of white dwarfs, in particular their crystal stage, are described.

Kawaler, S.D.; Winget, D.E.

1987-08-01

351

Pollack Crater's White Rock  

Science.gov (United States)

This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point. First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides. In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust. CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also has a higher spatial resolution that enables CRISM to see smaller exposures of these minerals, if they occur. If White Rock is an evaporative lacustrine or lake deposit, CRISM has the best chance of detecting telltale mineralogical signatures. The images above reveal what CRISM found. The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic of Pollack Crater taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). White Rock actually appears dark in the THEMIS mosaic due to a low daytime temperature, because its light color leads to less heating by the Sun. The middle-left image is an infrared, false color image that reveals White Rock's reddish hue. The middle-right image shows the signatures of different minerals that are present. CRISM found that White Rock is composed of accumulated dust perhaps with some fine-grained olivine (an igneous mineral), surrounded by basaltic sand containing olivine and dark-colored pyroxene. The lower two images were constructed by draping CRISM images over topography and exaggerating the vertical scale to better illustrate White Rock's topography. White Rock still appears not to contain evaporite, but instead to be composed of accumulated dust and sand. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

2008-01-01

352

Single chip white LEDs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operation principles of the various single chip luminescence conversion (LUCO) white LEDs, that can be realized with blue or ultraviolet (UV) LED chips, are briefly reviewed. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the so far almost unexplored case of UV pumped tricolor LUCO white LEDs, In{sub x}Ga{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}N single quantum well LED layer sequences were grown by MOCVD and processed into near-UV LED pump chips. Europium doped oxide and sulfide phosphors emitting in the blue, the green and the red spectral range were used for UV to visible conversion. With white blends prepared from these phosphors, housed white LEDs with high color quality were realized. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Kaufmann, U.; Kunzer, M.; Koehler, K.; Obloh, H.; Pletschen, W.; Schlotter, P.; Wagner, J. [Fraunhofer IAF, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Ellens, A. [OSRAM GmbH, Hellabrunnerstrasse 1, 81536 Muenchen (Germany); Rossner, W.; Kobusch, M. [Siemens AG, Otto Hahn Ring 6, 81730 Muenchen (Germany)

2002-08-16

353

Carpenter in White Room  

Science.gov (United States)

Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'

1962-01-01

354

White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

2008-01-01

355

The White Dwarf in EM Cygni: Beyond The Veil  

CERN Document Server

We present a spectral analysis of the FUSE spectra of EM Cygni, a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of 4 individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases phi ~ 0.65 and phi ~ 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases phi =0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximual, using the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40,000K, rotating at 100km/s. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temper...

Godon, P; Barrett, P E; Linnell, A P

2009-01-01

356

‘No Blue’ White LED  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explored the feasibility of making a white LED light source by color mixing method without using the blue color. This ‘no blue’ white LED has potential applications in photolithography room illumination, medical treatment and biophotonics research. A no-blue LED was designed, and the prototype was fabricated. The spectral power distribution of both the LED bulb and the yellow fluorescent tube was measured. Based on that, colorimetric values were calculated and compared on terms...

Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul Michael; Friis, Dan

2010-01-01

357

The hot spot of vegetation canopies  

Science.gov (United States)

A conventional radiometer is used to identify the hot spot (the peak in reflected radiation in the retrosolar direction) of vegetation. A multiwavelength-band radiometer collected radiances on fully grown dense wheat and maize canopies on several clear sunny days. It is noted that the hot spot is difficult to detect in the near IR wavelengths because the shadows are much darker. In general, the retrosolar brightness is found to be higher for smaller sun polar angles than for larger angles.

Myneni, Ranga B.; Kanemasu, Edward T.

1988-01-01

358

Mathematical models of oversaturated protein spots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two-dimensional electrophoresis is used for protein separation in a special gel according isoelectric point and molecular mass, and remains one of most progressive technologies for protein analysis. As a result, gels are digitized and their images are process with software. The dynamic diapason of intensities of protein spots is very wide, thus software tools become too sensitive to various artefacts inevitable present in gel images. Often matching with reference or modelling of protein spot ...

Matuzevic?ius, D.; Serackis, A.; Navakauskas, D.

2007-01-01

359

Concentrator hot-spot testing, phase 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of a study to determine the hot-spot susceptibility of concentrator cells, to provide a hot-spot qualification test for concentrator modules, and to provide guidelines for reducing hot-spot susceptibility are presented. Hot-spot heating occurs in a photovoltaic module when the short-circuit current of a cell is lower than the string operating current forcing the cell into reverse bias with a concurrent power dissipation. Although the basis for the concentrator module hot-spot qualification test is the test developed for flat-plate modules, issues, such as providing cell illumination, introduce additional complexities into the testing procedure. The same general guidelines apply for protecting concentrator modules from hot-spot stressing as apply to flat-plate modules. Therefore, recommendations are made on the number of bypass diodes required per given number of series cells per module or source circuit. In addition, a new method for determining the cell temperature in the laboratory or in the field is discussed.

Gonzalez, C. C.

1987-01-01

360

MR imaging of white matter lesions in AIDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autopsy reports have shown white-matter abnormalities from infection of the brain by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors observed abnormal signal on T2-weighted images in the white matter of approximately one third of all AIDS patients. Of 50 patients with white-matter lesions, approximately two thirds had no clinical or biopsy evidence of cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, PML, or lymphoma. Several patients were shown at autopsy to have isolated evidence of HIV encephalitis. The authors conclude that white-matter lesions are common in AIDS and are frequently caused by infection with HIV. Some MR findings may be helpful in characterizing these lesions, but the various etiologies are often indistinguishable

1987-12-04

 
 
 
 
361

Spots, spot-cycles, and magnetic fields of late-type dwarfs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current state of observational knowledge concerning spots, spot-cycles and surface magnetic fields on active late-type dwarfs is reviewed. The discussion centers primarily on the physical characteristics of starspots on BY Dra-type stars, including spot sizes, temperatures, structural morphology, migratory motions, and activity cycles. The discussion will also include some references to similar spot phenomena on the RS CVn stars. Observational evidence for surface magnetic fields on these stars, and on chromospherically-active G and K dwarfs, is also reviewed.

Vogt, S.S. (California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Lick Observatory)

1983-01-01

362

Overo lethal white foal syndrome: equine model of aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease).  

Science.gov (United States)

The lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS) is a congenital abnormality of overo spotted horses which is a model for human aganglionic megacolon or Hirschsprung disease. Foals with LWFS have an all white, or nearly all white, coat. They also present clinically with an intestinal obstruction that proves fatal within the first few days of life. The LWFS involves both melanocytes and intestinal ganglion cells, and appears to result from a genetic defect involving neural crest cells. This report describes pathologic studies of two recent cases of LWFS. Two different hypothetical models of inheritance of LWFS are presented and discussed. PMID:2363434

McCabe, L; Griffin, L D; Kinzer, A; Chandler, M; Beckwith, J B; McCabe, E R

1990-07-01

363

White holes and their thermodynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Black and white holes are to be expected from the theory of general relativity. Now, the existence of black holes is commonly agreed but the existence of white holes is arguable. This paper discusses the thermodynamics of white holes. We point out that a white hole can follow the generalized second law of thermodynamics when it satisfies some conditions.

Gui Yuanxing

1987-07-01

364

Genetic characterization of Blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus, a novel RNA virus with unique genetic features.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberries in several south-eastern states in the USA. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centres on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves. Double-stranded RNA was extracted from symptomatic leaves suggesting the presence of virus(es) possibly involved in the disease. Sequencing revealed the presence of a novel RNA virus with a ~14 kb genome divided into four RNA segments. Sequence analyses showed that the virus, for which we propose the name Blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus (BNRBV), possesses protein domains conserved across RNA viruses in the alpha-virus-like supergroup. Phylogenetic inferences using different genes placed BNRBV in a clade that includes the Bromoviridae, the genus Cilevirus (CiLV) and the recently characterized Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV). Despite the strong genetic relationships found among BNRBV, Cilevirus and HGSV, the genome of BNRBV contains three features that distinguish it significantly from its closest relatives: (i) the presence of two helicase domains with different evolutionary pathways, (ii) the existence of three conserved nucleotide stretches located at the 3' non-coding regions of each RNA segment and (iii) the conservation of terminal nucleotide motifs across each segment. Furthermore, CiLV and HGSV possess poly(A)-tailed bipartite and tripartite genomes, respectively, whereas BNRBV has a quadra-partite genome lacking a poly(A) tail. Based on these genetic features a new genus is proposed for the classification of BNRBV. PMID:23486668

Quito-Avila, Diego F; Brannen, Philip M; Cline, William O; Harmon, Philip F; Martin, Robert R

2013-06-01

365

Congenital intestinal aganglionosis in white foals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A congenital and probably hereditary neurological defect has been identified in the intestinal tract of six foals produced from the breeding of overo (a type of spotting pattern) horses. The foals had white hair and pink skin with the exception of occasional pigmented foci about the muzzle, ventral abdomen, and hindquarters. The foals appeared normal at birth, but within a few hours developed symptoms of colic. At necropsy, the only significant finding was a narrow, pale segment of large intestine. This abnormality either was confined to the small colon and rectum or involved the entire colon and rectum. Microscopically, myenteric and submucosal neuronal plexuses were absent throughout the large intestine and extensive portions of the small intestine. The only other significant finding was the lack of melanin in the skin. PMID:6849219

Vonderfecht, S L; Bowling, A T; Cohen, M

1983-01-01

366

Rapid and sensitive detection of Taura syndrome virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay is a novel method of gene amplification that amplifies nucleic acid with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity, which can be applied for disease diagnosis in shrimp aquaculture. The method is performed under isothermal conditions with a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences of the target. In this study, using the RT-LAMP method, a protocol for detecting Taura syndrome virus which is a causative agent of Penaeus vannamei was developed. Time and temperature conditions for detection of TSV were optimized for 60min at 63 degrees C. The nucleic acids of other shrimp pathogens (yellow head virus; YHV and white spot syndrome; WSSV) were not amplified by this RT-LAMP system. The detection of TSV using RT-LAMP was 10 times more sensitive than the RT-PCR but less sensitive than nested RT-PCR. However this system was more convenient, rapid, and does not require sophisticated PCR machine. PMID:17643501

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jareonram, Wansadaj; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Flegel, T W

2007-12-01

367

Are hot-spots occluded from water?  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein-protein interactions are the basis of many biological processes and are governed by focused regions with high binding affinities, the warm- and hot-spots. It was proposed that these regions are surrounded by areas with higher packing density leading to solvent exclusion around them - "the O-ring theory." This important inference still lacks sufficient demonstration. We have used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the validity of the O-ring theory in the context of the conformational flexibility of the proteins, which is critical for function, in general, and for interaction with water, in particular. The MD results were analyzed for a variety of solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) features, radial distribution functions (RDFs), protein-water distances, and water residence times. The measurement of the average solvent-accessible surface area features for the warm- and hot-spots and the null-spots, as well as data for corresponding RDFs, identify distinct properties for these two sets of residues. Warm- and hot-spots are found to be occluded from the solvent. However, it has to be borne in mind that water-mediated interactions have significant power to construct an extensive and strongly bonded interface. We observed that warm- and hot-spots tend to form hydrogen bond (H-bond) networks with water molecules that have an occupancy around 90%. This study provides strong evidence in support of the O-ring theory and the results show that hot-spots are indeed protected from the bulk solvent. Nevertheless, the warm- and hot-spots still make water-mediated contacts, which are also important for protein-protein binding. PMID:23384183

Moreira, Irina Sousa; Ramos, Rui Miguel; Martins, Joao Miguel; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João

2014-01-01

368

Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

1980-09-01

369

Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cacao swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed.

Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi

1980-09-01

370

Reciprocal Antibody and Complement Responses of Two Chicken Breeds to Vaccine Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Infectious Bronchitis Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular challenge at 10 times the normal vaccination dose. Complement titres in non-vaccinated birds were significantly higher in WLH birds compared to RIR birds. The lentogenic viral infection resulted in ...

2006-01-01

371

Reciprocal antibody and complement responses of two chicken breeds to vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular challenge at 10 times the normal vaccination dose. Complement titres in non-vaccinated birds were significantly higher in WLH birds compared to RIR birds. The lentogenic viral infection resulted in ...

2006-01-01

372

Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus L* Amino Acid Position 93 Is Important for Virus Persistence and Virus-Induced Demyelination?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induce a persistent central nervous system infection associated with an inflammatory white matter demyelinating disease. TO subgroup strains synthesize an 18-kDa protein, L*, out of frame with the polyprotein from an initiation codon 13 nucleotides downstream from the polyprotein's AUG codon. We previously generated a mutant virus from our infectious DA full-length clone that has a change of ...

Stavrou, Spyridon; Baida, Gleb; Viktorova, Ekaterina; Ghadge, Ghanashyam; Agol, Vadim I.; Roos, Raymond P.

2010-01-01

373

Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV, Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, Potato Virus Y (PVY, Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV, Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV and Potato Virus X(PVX. This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test with specific monoclonal antibodies.Serological results proved the presence of four tobacco viruses (TMV, CMV, PVY and AMV, while TSWV, TRSV and PVX were not found in the tested samples of tobacco crops in Montenegro. The results also showed that TMV and CMV were the most frequent (44.6% and 41.5% of tested samples, respectively followed by PVY (15.4% and the least frequent AMV (3.1%. Most samples were infected with one of the examined viruses. In the PVY population found in Montenegro, its necrotic strain (PVYN was absolutely predominant.The results indicated the significance of TMV and CMV concerning tobacco viral infections in Montenegro, as well as a necessity of their detailed characterization at biological and molecular level.

Jelena Zindovi?

2007-01-01

374

Extensive Mongolian Spots with Autosomal Dominant Inheritance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Mongolian spots are benign skin markings at birth which fade and disappear as the child grows. Often persistent extensive Mongolian spots are associated with inborn error of metabolism. We report thirteen people of the single family manifested with extensive Mongolian spots showing autosomal dominant inheritance.Case Presentation: A one day old female child, product of second degree consanguineous marriage, born by normal vaginal delivery with history of meconium stained amniotic fluid and birth asphyxia. On examination the child showed extensive bluish discoloration of the body involving trunk and extremities in both anterior and posterior aspects associated with bluish discoloration of the tongue. A detailed family history revealed most of the family members manifested with extensive bluish discoloration of the body soon after birth which faded in the first few years of life and completely disappeared by puberty. Thus it was diagnosed to be extensive Mongolian spots with an autosomal dominant inheritance.Conclusion: Knowledge about the natural history of extensive Mongolian spots, their inheritance and association with certain metabolic diseases mainly IEM and Mucopolysaccharidosis aids in the diagnosis and in order to improve the patient’s prognosis.

Beeregowda YC

2012-06-01

375

CORTICAL REPRESENTATION OF SPACE AROUND THE BLIND SPOT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The neural mechanism that mediates perceptual filling-in of the blind spot is still under discussion. One hypothesis proposes that the cortical representation of the blind spot is activated only under conditions that elicit perceptual filling-in, and requires congruent stimulation on both sides of the blind spot. Alternatively, the passive remapping hypothesis proposes that inputs from regions surrounding the blind spot infiltrate the representation of the blind spot in cortex. This theory pr...

Awater, Holger; Kerlin, Jess R.; Evans, Karla K.; Tong, Frank

2005-01-01

376

Snow White Trenches  

Science.gov (United States)

This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 25th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 24 (June 19, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left) and 'Snow White 2' (right). The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. 'Snow White' is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

377

White dwarf pulsations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DA white dwarfs are those which show only the Stark-broadened lines of hydrogen in their spectra. They comprise about 80% of the total white dwarf population. A subset of the DA dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti stars, form a highly homogeneous class of nonradially pulsating variable stars. In this paper we shall review the observations from which both the physical properties of the stars and the characteristics of the pulsations have been derived. Data obtained since the last review of these variables (Robinson 1979) is stressed, as these data are forcing a somewhat revised understanding of the ZZ Ceti stars and their relationship to investigations of white dwarfs and to pulsating variable stars, in general. (orig.)

1980-01-01

378

[The differentiation of viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis complex by means of RNA-DNA hybridization].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleic acid spot hybridization with cloned cDNA of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, strain Sofjin, was used to differentiate strains of TBE and other flaviviruses. The cDNA probe reacted with strains of TBE and flaviviruses of TBE subgroup with the exception of Powassan virus. The probe did not react with viruses of Japanese encephalitis and Gendue subgroups. The viruses of TBE subgroup and some strains of TBE virus were differentiated from TBE strain Sofjin by thermal stability of RNA-DNA hybrids. Negishi and Louping ill viruses were found to be most closely related to TBE strain Sofjin among viruses of the TBE subgroup. PMID:1713371

Shamanin, V A; Pletnev, A G; Rubin, S G; Zlobin, V I

1991-01-01

379

PCV2 on the spot-A new method for the detection of single porcine circovirus type 2 secreting cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A porcine circovirus type 2 SPOT (PCV2-SPOT) assay was established to enumerate virus-secreting lymphocytes obtained from naturally infected pigs. The assay is based on the same principle as general ELISPOT assays but instead of detecting cytokine or immunoglobulin secretion, PCV2 particles are immobilized and detected as filter spots. The method was used to evaluate the influence of various cell activators on the PCV2 secretion in vitro and was also applied to study the PCV2 secretion by lymphocytes obtained from pigs in healthy herds and in a herd afflicted by postweaning multisystemic wasting disease (PMWS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from a pig with severe PMWS produced PCV2-SPOTs spontaneously whereas PBMCs obtained from pigs infected subclinically only generated PCV2-SPOTs upon in vitro stimulation. The PCV2 secretion potential was related to the PCV2 DNA content in the PBMCs as determined by two PCV2 real-time PCR assays, developed to differentiate between Swedish PCV2 genogroups 1 (PCV2a) and 3 (PCV2b). Besides the current application these qPCRs could simplify future epidemiological studies and allow genogroup detection/quantitation in dual infection experiments and similar studies. The developed PCV2-SPOT assay offers a semi-quantitative approach to evaluate the potential of PCV2-infected porcine cells to release PCV2 viral particles as well as a system to evaluate the ability of different cell types or compounds to affect PCV2 replication and secretion. PMID:24269204

Fossum, Caroline; Hjertner, Bernt; Lövgren, Tanja; Fuxler, Lisbeth; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Wallgren, Per

2014-02-01

380

Genetic Evidence for a Tacaribe Serocomplex Virus, Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

We isolated arenavirus RNA from white-toothed woodrats (Neotoma leucodon) captured in a region of Mexico in which woodrats are food for humans. Analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data indicated that the woodrats were infected with a novel Tacaribe serocomplex virus, proposed name Real de Catorce virus.

Inizan, Catherine C.; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Barragan-Gomez, Artemio; Bradley, Robert D.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Note: Resistance spot welding using a microgripper  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in thin-film nanostructures as building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is increasing. Resistance spot welding (RSW) on a nano or micro scale can play a significant role; similar to that of its macro counterpart for forming connections in device assembly processes. This Note presents a novel micron scale RSW technique using a microgripper as mobile spot welding electrodes to assemble ultra-thin film nanostructures. As an example, assembly of three-dimensional helical nanobelt (HNB) based device was successfully demonstrated using the proposed system. The spot-welding process was fully monitored by the built-in capacitive micro force sensor of the microgripper. Experiments show that RSW, using the microgripper, provides a stable electrical contact with sufficient mechanical strength for the construction of devices such as HNB based devices demonstrated here.

Hwang, G.; Podrzaj, P.; Hashimoto, H.

2013-10-01

382

On turbulent spots in plane Poiseuille flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plume Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a data base obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The flow inside the turbulent area has a strong resemblance to that found in the fully developed turbulent channel. Suitably defined mean and rms fluctuations as well as the internal shear layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area, the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The breakdown process of the oblique waves is reminiscent of the secondary instability observed during transition to turbulence in channel and boundary layer flows. Other detailed characteristics associated with the Poiseuille spot are presented and are compared with experimental results.

Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John

1992-01-01

383

How the Universe got its Spots  

CERN Document Server

The universe displays a three-dimensional pattern of hot and cold spots in the radiation remnant from the big bang. The global geometry of the universe can be revealed in the spatial distribution of these spots. In a topologically compact universe, distinctive patterns are especially prominent in spatial correlations of the radiation temperature. Whereas these patterns are usually washed out in statistical averages, we propose a scheme which uses the universe's spots to observe global geometry in a manner analogous to the use of multiple images of a gravitationally lensed quasar to study the geometry of the lens. To demonstrate how the geometry of space forms patterns in observations of the microwave sky, we develop a simple real-space approximation to estimate temperature correlations for any set of cosmological parameters and any global geometry. We present correlated spheres which clearly show geometric pattern formation for compact flat universes as well as for the compact negatively curved space introduc...

Levin, J; De Gasperis, G; Silk, J; Barrow, John D; Levin, Janna; Scannapieco, Evan; Gasperis, Giancarlo de; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.

1998-01-01

384

Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin ? (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin ?1, ?3, ?5, ?6, ?7, and ?8, and another L. vannamei integrin ? (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin ? dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin ? after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin ? plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. PMID:23376419

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

2013-06-01

385

Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a nonlocal equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

Nichols III, A L

2004-05-10

386

Repairing Of Resistance Spot Welding Solenoid Valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repairing of resistance spot welding solenoid valve on Technical Implementation Unit -Technical Workshop - Nuclear Safety Technology Development Center (UPT-BK- P2TKN) has been done. This resistance spot welding is rarely used and maintained. Then the solenoid valve seal has been broken and the machine could not operated. Caused by the budget constraint, then those rubber seals replaced temporary by chair support rubber with some modification on its shape. The result is the machine could run well for the time being but unfortunately the reliability of rubber seal needed to be tested furthermore

2000-07-05

387

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Juvenile Spot  

Science.gov (United States)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop estuarine habitat models for juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guideline for juvenile spot model applications and techniques for estimating model variables are described.

Stickney, Robert R.; Cuenco, Michael L.

1982-01-01

388

Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

J. Nouza

2009-12-01

389

An Invertebrate Warburg Effect: A Shrimp Virus Achieves Successful Replication by Altering the Host Metabolome via the PI3K-Akt-mTOR Pathway  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we used a systems biology approach to investigate changes in the proteome and metabolome of shrimp hemocytes infected by the invertebrate virus WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) at the viral genome replication stage (12 hpi) and the late stage (24 hpi). At 12 hpi, but not at 24 hpi, there was significant up-regulation of the markers of several metabolic pathways associated with the vertebrate Warburg effect (or aerobic glycolysis), including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, nucleotide biosynthesis, glutaminolysis and amino acid biosynthesis. We show that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was of central importance in triggering this WSSV-induced Warburg effect. Although dsRNA silencing of the mTORC1 activator Rheb had only a relatively minor impact on WSSV replication, in vivo chemical inhibition of Akt, mTORC1 and mTORC2 suppressed the WSSV-induced Warburg effect and reduced both WSSV gene expression and viral genome replication. When the Warburg effect was suppressed by pretreatment with the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, even the subsequent up-regulation of the TCA cycle was insufficient to satisfy the virus's requirements for energy and macromolecular precursors. The WSSV-induced Warburg effect therefore appears to be essential for successful viral replication.

Su, Mei-An; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Chen, I-Tung; Lee, Der-Yen; Hsieh, Yun-Chieh; Li, Chun-Yuan; Ng, Tze Hann; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lin, Shu-Yu; Huang, Shiao-Wei; Chiang, Yi-An; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Chang, Geen-Dong