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1

THE WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV) LOAD IN Dendronereis spp.  

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The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the causative agent of White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD), is a major shrimp pathogen in Indonesia. Dendronereis spp. is a ubiquitous Polychaetes and natural food of shrimp raised in brackishwater pond in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to determine the occurrence of WSSV and the viral load in Dendronereis spp. obtained from the shrimp pond. Dendronereis spp. was obtained with PVC (10 cm in diameter) from a traditional shrimp pond in Semarang...

Desrina; Sarjito; Alfabetian Harjuno Condro Haditomo; Diana Chilmawati

2012-01-01

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White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation  

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The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

2014-09-01

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THE WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV LOAD IN Dendronereis spp.  

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Full Text Available The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative agent of White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD, is a major shrimp pathogen in Indonesia. Dendronereis spp. is a ubiquitous Polychaetes and natural food of shrimp raised in brackishwater pond in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to determine the occurrence of WSSV and the viral load in Dendronereis spp. obtained from the shrimp pond. Dendronereis spp. was obtained with PVC (10 cm in diameter from a traditional shrimp pond in Semarang vicinity. As acomparison, healthy looking Penaeus monodon was also obtained from the same pond. The occurrence of WSSV in Dendronereis spp. was determined with 1-step and nested PCR using primer for WSSV major envelope protein, VP 28. The viral load was counted with 1-step Real Time PCR. The WSSV was detected in Dendronereis spp. with 1-step and nested PCR. The point prevalence of WSSV infection in Dendronereis spp. is 90 %. The viral load ranged from 0 to 1.9 x 104 copy of DNA/µg total DNA. The viral load in Dendronereis is comparable with that of naturally infected and at carrier state P.monodon from the same pond. This is the first report of WSSV load in naturally infected Dendronereis spp.

Desrina

2012-06-01

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Genetic variation among isolates of White spot syndrome virus.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), member of a new virus family called Nimaviridae, is a major scourge in worldwide shrimp cultivation. Geographical isolates of WSSV identified so far are very similar in morphology and proteome, and show little difference in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. We have mapped the genomic differences between three completely sequenced WSSV isolates, originating from Thailand (WSSV-TH), China (WSSV-CN) and Taiwan (WSSV-TW). Alignment of the genomic sequences of these geographical isolates revealed an overall nucleotide identity of 99.32%. The major difference among the three isolates is a deletion of approximately 13 kb (WSSV-TH) and 1 kb (WSSV-CN), present in the same genomic region, relative to WSSV-TW. A second difference involves a genetically variable region of about 750 bp. All other variations >2 bp between the three isolates are located in repeat regions along the genome. Except for the homologous regions ( hr1, hr3, hr8 and hr9), these variable repeat regions are almost exclusively located in ORFs, of which the genomic repeat regions in ORF75, ORF94 and ORF125 can be used for PCR based classification of WSSV isolates in epidemiological studies. Furthermore, the comparison identified highly invariable genomic loci, which may be used for reliable monitoring of WSSV infections and for shrimp health certification. PMID:15045557

Marks, H; Goldbach, R W; Vlak, J M; van Hulten, M C W

2004-04-01

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Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp  

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White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, ¿variable region ORF14/15¿ and ¿variable region ORF23/24¿. Here, we characterize a WSSV isolate originating from shrimp collected in Thailand in 1996 (TH-96-II). This isolate contains the largest WSSV genome (312 kb) identified so far, mainly because of...

Marks, H.; Duijse, J. J. A.; Zuidema, D.; Hulten, M. C. W.; Vlak, J. M.

2005-01-01

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Genomic instability of prawn white spot bacilliform virus (WSBV) and its association to virus virulence.  

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Prawn White Spot Bacilliform Virus (WSBV) is a major pathogen that causes prawn diseases. In this study, we examined the sequence of WSBV genome DNA in the shrimp Penaeus japonicus, P. vannamei, P. Monodon, P. chinensis and Metapenaeus ensis through successive PCR amplification of the DNA fragments in the whole WSBV genome. We found a sequence deletion hotspot in the WSBV genome that is 305107 bp in length. The sizes of the deleted fragments were 4.6, 4.8 or 8.1 kbp depending on the species of prawn. Since the mortality of shrimp infected by the intact WSBV was always significantly higher than that of shrimp infected by DNA fragment-deleted WSBV, we suggest that this deletion be somehow linked to the virulence of the virus itself. This result may lead to the discovery of the molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of WSBV in shrimps. PMID:12457981

Lan, Yongsheng; Lu, Wei; Xu, Xun

2002-12-01

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Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent  

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Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV ch...

Sritunyalucksana Kallaya; Krittanai Chartchai; Udompetcharaporn Attasit; Mangkalanan Seksan; Somboonna Naraporn; Tw, Flegel

2010-01-01

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Designing and Introduce a Diagnostic Kit for Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Cultured Penaeus indicus in Iran  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is designing a diagnostic kit for white spot syndrome virus. We designed 2 series of primers for diagnosis of viral VP24 gene and also primers as internal controls which amplify part of genome in both positive and negative samples. DNA of shrimps were extracted and PCR amplification carried out. In this research, a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps designed and tested using 32 shrimp samples which were dubious to have this disease. White spot virus were found in 23 samples and the other 9 were negative. For extra confirmation, the PCR product was sequenced and deposited to GenBank. We designed a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps and tested successfully.

A.M. Saberi

2008-01-01

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Comparative proteomic profiles of the hepatopancreas in Fenneropenaeus chinensis response to white spot syndrome virus.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infects all shrimp species and is the greatest detriment to shrimp culture. To better understand the mechanism of molecular responses to WSSV infection in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used. Differentially expressed proteins in the hepatopancreas of control and WSSV-injected Chinese white shrimp between (6, 12 and 24 h post-injection) were screened. Quantitative intensity analysis and mass spectrometry revealed that 54 spots of 47 proteins were significantly up-regulated, including some immune-related proteins, such as Toll receptor precursor, Leu-rich repeat protein, peroxinectin and serine proteinase-like protein. Fourteen spots of 13 proteins, such as heat shock protein, ATP synthase sub-unit beta and thrombospondin, were down-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Protein expression patterns of the infected shrimp were drastically altered by WSSV infection. Some of the altered proteins were further investigated at the mRNA level using semi-quantitative reverse transcript PCR. These data may provide some information about shrimp proteins that participate in the WSSV infection process. PMID:20580833

Chai, Ying-Mei; Yu, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Zhu, Qian; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-09-01

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Penaeus monodon Thioredoxin Restores the DNA Binding Activity of Oxidized White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1  

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Aims: In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results: In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that Trx bound to WSSV IE1 when the transfected cells were subjected to oxidative stress. A pull-down assay with Trx mutants show...

Huang, Jiun-yan; Liu, Wang-jing; Wang, Han-ching; Lee, Der-yen; Leu, Jiann-horng; Wang, Hao-ching; Tsai, Mong-hsun; Kang, Shih-ting; Chen, I-tung; Kou, Guang-hsiung; Chang, Geen-dong; Lo, Chu-fang

2012-01-01

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Pupil - white spots  

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White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black. ... Sometimes, the pupil of the eye may appear white, or the normal red reflex may appear to ...

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DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of around 300 kb and it replicates in the nucleus of the host cells. The machinery of how the viral DNA is packaged has been remained unclear. VP15, a highly basic protein, is one of the major capsid proteins found in the virus. Previously, it was shown to be a DNA binding protein and was hypothesized to participate in the viral DNA packaging process. Using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging, we show that the viral DNA is associated with a (or more) capsid proteins. The organized viral DNA qualitatively resembles the conformations of VP15 induced DNA condensates in vitro. Furthermore, single-DNA manipulation experiments revealed that VP15 is able to condense single DNA against forces of a few pico Newtons. Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA.

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Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle.  

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We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a "vital factor" and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. Importance: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus "hijacks" host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2014-07-01

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Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.  

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Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. ); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. PMID:24716813

Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

2014-04-10

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Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa

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[Removal efficiency of the white spot syndrome virus in the membrane bioreactors].  

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White spot syndrome virus removal was performed in three submerged membrane bioreactors with the different membrane pore sizes. Samples were sampled from the influent, effluent and supernatant fluid in each MBR and were detected by a Taqman-based real-time PCR technology. When these MBRs with a pore of 0.45 microm, 0.22 microm, and 0.1 microm were treated the virus of WSSV isolated from the phosphorous buffer saline, the removal rate of WSSV could be achieved 0.6 lg, 1.18 lg, and 5.5 lg, respectively. The removal rate of the membrane module with a pore size of 0.45 microm was lowest than those of the other membrane modules. When the MBRs with the different pore sizes were treated the domestic aquaculture wastewater containing the WSSV, the removal efficiency of WSSV in the MBRs with a pore size of 0.22, 0.45 microm was increasing while the filtration resistance increased. It was revealed that the biofilm accumulating on the surface of the membrane made a major contribution to WSSV removal. No significant difference on the removal efficiency of WSSV was found (p > 0.05) in the MBRs on hour 12, the membrane with a pore size of 0.45 microm demonstrated an almost complete removal of WSSV (up to 5.35 lg). PMID:18649522

Pan, Zhong-Cheng; Zhao, Fang-Bo; He, Jian-Guo; Weng, Shao-Ping; Wen, Qin

2008-03-01

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Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single-challenge and serial challenge results, and on previous published work showing that S. serrata is relatively unaffected by WSSV infection, we propose that susceptibility to white spot disease in the genus Scylla is species-dependent and may also be dose-history dependent. In practical terms for shrimp farmers, it means that S. olivacea and S. paramamosain may pose less threat as WSSV carriers than S. serrata. For crab farmers, our results suggest that rearing of S. serrata would be a better choice than S. paramamosain or S. olivacea in terms of avoiding losses from seasonal outbreaks of white spot disease.

Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

2010-11-01

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Preparation of transgenic Dunaliella salina for immunization against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish.  

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Although a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) subunit vaccine could significantly enhance the immune response and benefit the shrimp host, its practical application is currently not feasible because of drawbacks in existing expression systems. We generated a transgenic Dunaliella salina (D. salina) strain by introducing the WSSV VP28 gene to produce a novel oral WSSV subunit vaccine. Following transformation of D. salina, VP28 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and western blot analysis. The RT-PCR results indicated that the VP28 gene was successfully expressed in D. salina cells. The presence of recombinant VP28 proteins with natural bioactivity was confirmed by western blot analysis and ELISA. Animal vaccination experiments indicated that transgenic D. salina can induce protection against WSSV by oral delivery in crayfish. Our findings indicate that the VP28 gene can be successfully expressed in transgenic D. salina and can be applied as an oral vaccine to protect crayfish against WSSV. We have demonstrated that it is feasible to produce an oral vaccine using D. salina, and thereby provide a new method for controlling other viral diseases in crustaceans. PMID:24081826

Feng, Shuying; Feng, Wenpo; Zhao, Ling; Gu, Huihui; Li, Qinghua; Shi, Ke; Guo, Sanxing; Zhang, Nannan

2014-03-01

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Localization studies of two white spot syndrome virus structural proteins VP51 and VP76  

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Full Text Available Abstract VP51 and VP76 are two structural proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. However, there is some controversy about their localization in the virion at present. In this study, we employ multiple approaches to reevaluate the location of VP51 and VP76. Firstly, we found VP51 and VP76 presence in viral nucleocapsids fraction by Western blotting. Secondly, after the high-salt treatment of nucleocapsids, VP51 and VP76 were still exclusively present in viral capsids by Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy, suggesting two proteins are structural components of the viral capsid. To gather more evidence, we developed a method based on immunofluorescence flow cytometry. The results revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity of the viral capsids group was significantly higher than that of intact virions group after incubation with anti-VP51 or anti-VP76 serum and fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated secondary antibody. All these results indicate that VP51 and VP76 are both capsid proteins of WSSV.

Yang Feng

2006-09-01

20

Proteomic analysis of the major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins of white spot syndrome virus.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the tissues of infected Procambarus clarkii (crayfish) isolates. Pure WSSV preparations were subjected to Triton X-100 treatment to separate into the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions, which were subsequently separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins were identified by either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry or defined antibody. A total of 30 structural proteins of WSSV were identified in this study; 22 of these were detected in the envelope fraction, 7 in the nucleocapsid fraction, and 1 in both the envelope and the nucleocapsid fractions. With the aid of specific antibodies, the localizations of eight proteins were further studied. The analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed that none of the WSSV structural proteins was glycosylated and that VP28 and VP19 were threonine phosphorylated. In addition, far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that VP28 interacted with both VP26 and VP24. In summary, the data obtained in this study should provide an important reference for future molecular studies of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:16928742

Xie, Xixian; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Proteomic Analysis of the Major Envelope and Nucleocapsid Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus?  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the tissues of infected Procambarus clarkii (crayfish) isolates. Pure WSSV preparations were subjected to Triton X-100 treatment to separate into the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions, which were subsequently separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins were identified by either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry or defined antibody. A total of 30 structural proteins of WSSV were identified in this study; 22 of these were detected in the envelope fraction, 7 in the nucleocapsid fraction, and 1 in both the envelope and the nucleocapsid fractions. With the aid of specific antibodies, the localizations of eight proteins were further studied. The analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed that none of the WSSV structural proteins was glycosylated and that VP28 and VP19 were threonine phosphorylated. In addition, far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that VP28 interacted with both VP26 and VP24. In summary, the data obtained in this study should provide an important reference for future molecular studies of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:16928742

Xie, Xixian; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

2006-01-01

22

An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India  

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A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxyg...

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

2012-01-01

23

Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.  

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Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-10-01

24

Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".  

Science.gov (United States)

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2015-02-01

25

Sensitivitas Berbagai Stadia Kepiting Bakau (Scylla paramamosain Estampador terhadap White Spot Syndrome Virus  

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Full Text Available Mud crab is the most commercial crabs which are highly sold because oftheir delicious taste and high protein content. In nature, the capture intensity of this crab is very high so the population would decrease rapidly. For this reason people start to breed it. At the moment breeding of mud crab still have a lot of problems. One of those is the lower survival rate of larva stage due to the diseases. The objective of this research was to observe the sensitivity of mud crab from various stages to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV. The research was conducted in Pathology laboratory, Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali, January to April 2004. This experiment was run using three stages they were zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet stage. The treatment of this research were: for zoea-1 and zoea-3 stage, i.e. treatment (A the larvae were bathed for 2 hours in stock WSSV suspension, in which the solution was diluted for 150 times; treatment (B the larvae were bathed for 2 hours in stock WSSV suspension, in which the solution was diluted for 15000 times; C as control, without WSSV. For crablet stage the WSSV infection was done by feeding them with tiger shrimp which infected by WSSV. ANOVA used to analyze the different effect of infection treatment, i.e. diluted 150x, 15000x, and control to survival rate, then continue DMRT test in 5% level. T test used to compare two treatments i.e. infection treatment with feed and without infection. PCR method used to detect WSSV of infection in zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet stages. The results showed that for zoea-1 and zoea-3 stage, increasing concentration virus showed significant difference respect, showed by decreasing of survival rate. In crablet stage the WSSV infection by feeding can decrease survival rate. In proving the dead of mud crab zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet were due to the infection of WSSV, the PCR method was used. The result showed that look PCR product was revenged in the cell with size of band were as expractise. According to this result can be concluded that zoea-1, zoea-3, and crablet stages of tested mud crab were sensitive to WSSV infection.

ZAFRAN

2005-05-01

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PmRab7 Is a VP28-Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Shrimp  

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Our aim was to isolate and characterize white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-binding proteins from shrimp. After a blot of shrimp hemocyte membrane proteins was overlaid with a recombinant WSSV envelope protein (rVP28), the reactive bands on the blot were detected using anti-VP28 antibody. Among three membrane-associated molecules identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, there was a 25-kDa protein that bound to both rVP28 and WSSV. Since it had a primary structure with high h...

Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Wannapapho, Wanphen; Lo, Chu Fang; Flegel, Timothy W.

2006-01-01

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Role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide against Vibrio penaeicida and white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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Crustins are important AMP that has been identified in crustaceans. In this study, the role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide (MjCRS) was examined in vivo by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Tissue expression analysis revealed that MjCRS transcripts are expressed in different tissues tested with the highest expression observed in hemocytes. Treatment with double-stranded RNA specific to MjCRS led to a significant reduction of MjCRS transcripts within the hemocytes. When MjCRS was silenced and subsequently infected with Vibrio penaeicida final mortality was significantly higher compared with PBS and dsGFP treated groups. On the other hand, final mortalities of MjCRS silenced and PBS injected groups were not significantly different after infection with white spot virus, however, both are significantly higher compared with dsGFP treated group. V. penaeicida infection significantly decreased MjCRS expression at 3, 6, 12 and 24h followed by significant increase at 48 h post-infection. On the contrary, white spot infection significantly increased MjCRS expression at 6 and 12h and decreased at 48 h post-infection. dsRNA treatment alone decreased total hemocyte counts (THCs) and subsequent V. penaeicida or white spot virus infection further decreased THCs. VP28 gene expression was both similarly increased in PBS injected group and MjCRS silenced group at 24 and 48 h-post infection. Results suggest that MjCRS is involved in antibacterial defense and might not have critical function against viral infection. PMID:24929027

Hipolito, Sheryll Grospe; Shitara, Aiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

2014-10-01

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Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. PMID:25189688

Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

2014-11-01

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Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesignificance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

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The endemic region and infection regimes of the White Spot Syndrome virus (WSSV in shrimp farms in northwestern México  

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Full Text Available Shrimp farming with a value annually of US$711 million approximately, is one of the most important primary activities in Mexico. However, shrimp farming has had to face various problems that have limited their development, within which the mortality caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV is the most important. To have scientific elements to focus on preventive health management actions is necessary to know, among other factors, aspects of the epidemiologyof white spot disease (WSD. Therefore this study focused on delimiting the endemic region for WSD and its temporal regimes of infection and discusses possible risk factors related to outbreaks of the disease in shrimp farms of northwestern Mexico. We analyzed information from the databases of the State Committees of Aquaculture Health of Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit, as well as data of Integrated Program on Shrimp Aquaculture Health (PISA 2007-2008 and the Strategic Alliance Network Aquaculture Industry Innovation (AERI-2008. Data analysis showed that, for the shrimp production cycles of 2007-2008, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was endemic to the region of Tuxpan, Nayarit in the south and to Agiabampo, Sonora in the north. Spring outbreaks of WSD in the fishfarms had a spatiotemporal distribution, indicating three infections regimes: (1 March-April in the southern shrimpfarming region (Local Aquaculture Health Boards [LAHBs] of Mazatlan, El Rosario, Escuinapa, Tecuala, and Tuxpan; 2 April-May in the central region (LAHBs of Navolato Norte, Navolato Sur, and El dorado; and (3 May-June in the northern region (LAHBs of Agiabampo-Sonora, Ahome, Guasave Norte and Sur. The WSD were consistent between 2007 and 2008, with slight variations among some LAHBs, with respect to the onset or presence of spring WSD outbreaks. It shows the association of infection regimes throughout the region endemic with the location of Mazatlan,Pescadero and Farallon oceanographic basins according to the increasing differential temperature within them, which may be a determinant factor for the presence of WSD outbreaks.

Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal

2012-09-01

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Assessment of the roles of copepod Apocyclops royi and bivalve mollusk Meretrix lusoria in white spot syndrome virus transmission.  

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Here, we investigate the roles of copepods and bivalve mollusks in the transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which is the causative pathogen of an acute, contagious disease that causes severe mortalities in cultured shrimp. Copepods are common components in seawater ponds and are often eaten as live food by shrimp post-larvae. WSSV has been detected in these animals, but it is unknown whether this was due to contamination or infection. Meanwhile, the bivalve mollusk Meretrix lusoria is often used as live food for brooders, and in Taiwan, this hard clam is sometimes co-cultured with shrimp in farming ponds. However, mollusks' ability to accumulate, or allow the replication of, shrimp viruses has not previously been studied. In this study, WSSV, the copepod Apocyclops royi and bivalve mollusk M. lusoria were experimentally challenged with WSSV and then assayed for both the presence of the virus and for viral gene expression. Results showed that the WSSV genome could be detected and that the viral loads were increased in a time-dependent manner after challenge both in A. royi and M. lusoria. Reverse transcriptase PCR monitoring of WSSV gene expression showed that WSSV could replicate in A. royi but not in M. lusoria, which suggested that WSSV, while could infect A. royi, was only accumulated in M. lusoria. A bioassay further showed that the WSSV accumulated in M. lusoria could be transmitted to Litopenaeus vannamei and cause severe infection. PMID:21279409

Chang, Yun-Shiang; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Liu, Wang-Jing; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2011-10-01

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Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrome virus.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate 'vaccines', WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism. PMID:24782450

Kulkarni, Amod D; Kiron, Viswanath; Rombout, Jan H W M; Brinchmann, Monica F; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu S; Singh, Bright I S

2014-07-01

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Risk factors associated with white spot syndrome virus infection in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system.  

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White spot disease (WSD) is a pandemic disease caused by a virus commonly known as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Several risk factors for WSD outbreaks have been suggested. However, there have been very few studies to identify risk factors for WSD outbreaks in culture systems. This paper presents and discusses the risk factors for WSSV infection identified during a longitudinal observational study conducted in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system. A total of 158 variables were measured comprising location, features of the pond, management practices, pond bottom quality, shrimp health and other animals in the pond. At the end of the study period WSSV was detected in 15 of the 24 ponds followed through the production cycle (62.5%). One hundred and thirty-nine variables were used in univariate analyses. All the variables with a p-value shrimp of a smaller average size 1 mo after stocking tended to be positive for WSSV at the end of the production cycle. Average weight at 1 mo was also highlighted in multivariate analyses when considered as either a risk factor or an outcome. Other risk factors identified in univariate analyses were earlier date of stocking and use of commercial feed. A number of variables also appeared to be associated with a reduced risk of WSSV at harvest including the presence of dead post larvae in the batch sampled at stocking, presence of Hemigrapsus spp. crabs during the first month of production, feeding vitamin premix or legumes, presence of high numbers of shrimp with bacterial infection and the presence of larger mud crabs or gobies at harvest. No associations were detected with WSSV at harvest and stocking density, presence, or number or weight of wild shrimp in the pond. The multivariate model to identify outcomes associated with WSSV infection highlighted the presence of high mortality as the main variable explaining the data. The results obtained from this study are discussed in the context of WSD control and areas requiring further investigation are suggested. PMID:11797910

Corsin, F; Turnbull, J F; Hao, N V; Mohan, C V; Phi, T T; Phuoc, L H; Tinh, N T; Morgan, K L

2001-10-29

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An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India  

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A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8?mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

2012-01-01

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An investigation into occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus outbreak in traditional paddy cum prawn fields in India.  

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A yearlong (September 2009-August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K M; Mohamed Hatha, A A

2012-01-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh  

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Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamin...

Monwar, Mohammad M.; Chowdhury, Mohammad Z. R.; Das, Nani G.; Alam, Mohammed S.; Hoque, Mohammad E.; Islam, Mohammad R.

2013-01-01

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PCR detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV from farmed Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in selected sites of the Philippines  

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Full Text Available Great losses caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV in shrimp culture have beenattributed to poor screening procedures in farms and the lack of sufficient access to specific pathogenfree brood stock. Thus, early detection of the virus is considered the best option for shrimp farmers. Thestudy, thus, assessed viral incidence in the Philippines and partially sequenced and characterized thePhilippine WSSV isolate with regards to other isolates in GenBank. Developed primers for PCR can detecttarget genes from 0.4 pg of DNA extract from shrimp samples. PCR detection revealed that 6.67 %(1/15 of market samples from Zambales are infected with WSSV. Shrimp samples from a local shop anda public market in General Santos City showed 46.67% (7/15 and 20% (3/15 WSSV-positive samplesrespectively. Shrimp sources from Capiz and Batangas, however, showed negative detection for WSV. Nosignificant difference in the number of infected samples from the sampling sites was found. Combineddetections reveal that the Philippines has a low infection rate of 14.67%. The study has partiallysequenced and characterized Philippine isolate. During the sampling period, most shrimps in GeneralSantos City were WSSV-positive by PCR detection.

Mary Beth B. Maningas

2011-10-01

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PmRab7 Is a VP28-Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Shrimp  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to isolate and characterize white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-binding proteins from shrimp. After a blot of shrimp hemocyte membrane proteins was overlaid with a recombinant WSSV envelope protein (rVP28), the reactive bands on the blot were detected using anti-VP28 antibody. Among three membrane-associated molecules identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, there was a 25-kDa protein that bound to both rVP28 and WSSV. Since it had a primary structure with high homology to the small GTP-binding protein Rab7, we named it Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7). The full-length PmRab7 cDNA was obtained, and results from a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay confirmed specific binding to rVP28. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed PmRab7 expression in many tissues, and real-time PCR analysis revealed that expression was constitutive. Binding of PmRab7 to rVP28 or WSSV occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was inhibited by anti-Rab7 antibody. In an in vivo neutralization assay, the number of dead shrimp after challenge with WSSV plus PmRab7 (15%) or WSSV plus anti-Rab7 antibody (5%) was significantly lower than after challenge with WSSV alone (95%). In contrast to the WSSV-injected group, shrimp injected with WSSV plus PmRab7 or WSSV plus anti-Rab7 showed no WSSV-type histopathology. We conclude that PmRab7 is involved in WSSV infection in shrimp. This is the first study to identify a shrimp protein that binds directly to a major viral envelope protein of WSSV. PMID:17041224

Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Wannapapho, Wanphen; Lo, Chu Fang; Flegel, Timothy W.

2006-01-01

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Transcriptome analysis of hemocytes and hepatopancreas in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, challenged with white spot syndrome virus  

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Full Text Available Red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is used for the innate immune defense of crustaceans due to its convenience for laboratory culture and study. To know more about the transcriptome of the crayfish, we constructed and sequenced a cDNA library from a mixture of hemocytes and hepatopancreas from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected crayfish. By random sequencing, we obtained 9115 high-quality expressed sequence tags with a mean length of 370 bp, representing 3033 unigenes. Most of the unigenes are first reports for the red swamp crayfish. Besides the metabolic genes, many genes that may be involved in the innate immune system of the crayfish are also obtained from the library, such as antimicrobial peptides, pattern recognition receptors, proteases and protease inhibitors, signal transduction proteins, apoptosis-, antioxidant-, and RNA interference-related proteins. We chose ten immune-related genes to analyze their expression pattern by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR from the hemocytes of normal and WSSV-challenged crayfish. Seven of them, including anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, astacidin, crustin 1, H3 histone family 3A, serine/threonine protein kinase, TGF beta-inducible nuclear protein, and tar RNA binding protein, were upregulated after WSSV injection, but the mRNA expression levels of crustin 2, a lectin, and a digestive cysteine protease decreased after WSSV infection. Our results showed that the transcriptome analysis provides a useful resource for identification of immune related genes and understanding the immune responses of the crayfish.

X-Z Shi

2010-04-01

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Passive protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using specific antibody from egg yolk of chickens immunized with inactivated virus or a WSSV-DNA vaccine.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality and large economic losses in cultured shrimp. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. In this study, hens were immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28/VP19/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, which used CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund's adjuvant as adjuvant, respectively. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from hens immunized with inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine was obtained, purified and used for protection of Metapenaeus ensis shrimp against WSSV. The data showed that the antibody response of the hens immunized with the DNA vaccine was improved by CpG ODNs as adjuvant, but was still inferior to inactivated WSSV in both sera and egg yolks. Using specific IgY from hens immunized with inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine to neutralize WSSV, the challenged shrimp showed 73.3% and 33.3% survival, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that passive immunization strategy with IgY will be a valuable method against WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:18805492

Lu, Yanan; Liu, Junjun; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhen, Yuhong; Xue, Hongyu; You, Jiansong; Xu, Yongping

2008-11-01

 
 
 
 
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First report on White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV infection in white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae under semi intensive culture condition in India  

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Full Text Available Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly inAndrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Continuous success of shrimp culture was affected by mass mortalities ofcultured shrimp in 1994. Thereafter disease infection on survival and production of shrimps get itsimportance in culture. The present study is the first report on WSSV (white spot syndrome virusinfection in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in India. WSSV infection was observed on 70thdays of culture due to cross contamination of white spot infected shrimp from the neighboring farmbecause of birds. Due to this infection within two days the mortality ratio has gone up to 25% in pond 1and 12% in pond 2. So this present study strongly recommends to every shrimp farmers to go for birdfencing & crab fencing to avoid horizontal contamination, before stocking the good quality seed, thenthey will have the risk free WSSV culture.

Gunalan Balakrishnan

2011-07-01

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Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to reduce the protein and carbohydrate levels significantly (P < 0.01) from the control diet fed groups. Moreover these diets help to decrease the coagulation time of maximum 61% from control groups and improve the total haemocyte count of maximum 51.82 × 10(5) cells ml(-1) in D4 diet fed F. indicus. Finally immunological parameters including prophenol oxidase (proPO) activity, intracellular superoxide anion production and intra-agar lysozyme activity was significantly (P ? 0.001) improved in the D-3 and D-4 fed F. indicus after WSSV challenge. PMID:25301717

Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

2014-12-01

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Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon  

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Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

Hemtanon, P.

2005-02-01

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Antiviral activity of bis(2-methylheptyl)phthalate isolated from Pongamia pinnata leaves against White Spot Syndrome Virus of Penaeus monodon Fabricius.  

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White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an extremely virulent, contagious, causative agent of the White spot syndrome of shrimp and causes high mortality and affects most of the commercially important cultured marine crustacean species globally. Oral administration of ethanolic extract and purified compound from the leaves of Pongamia pinnata, an indigenious Indian "medicinal plant" "has increased the survival of WSSV infected Penaeus monodon". Pelletized feed impregnated with ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. pinnata was fed to shrimp prior and after WSSV infection at 200 and 300 microg/g of body weight of shrimp/day. The survival rate for the WSSV-infected shrimp that were fed with 200 and 300 microg extract/g were 40% and 80%, respectively. The active WSSV antiviral compound 1 that was isolated from the leaves of P. pinnata was identified as bis(2-methylheptyl)phthalate. Thus, the present work revealed that oral administration of the crude and purified compound from the leaves of P. pinnata effectively inhibited WSSV pathogenesis and reduced the mortality of infected shrimp. PMID:17328984

Rameshthangam, P; Ramasamy, P

2007-06-01

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Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate  

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Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

Patricia Braunig

2011-04-01

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Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was [...] purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolated in Brazil.

Patricia, Braunig; Rafael Diego da, Rosa; Caroline Heidrich, Seibert; Mariana, Borsa; Patricia Hermes, Stoco; Edmundo Carlos, Grisard; Aguinaldo Roberto, Pinto.

2011-04-01

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In vivo titration of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei by intramuscular and oral routes.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a devastating pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. Standardized challenge procedures using a known amount of infectious virus would assist in evaluating strategies to reduce its impact. In this study, the shrimp infectious dose 50% endpoint (SID50 ml(-1)) of a Thai isolate of WSSV was determined by intramuscular inoculation (i.m.) in 60 and 135 d old specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, the lethal dose 50% endpoint (LD50 ml(-1)) was determined from the proportion of dead shrimp. The median virus infection titers in 60 and 135 d old juveniles were 10(6.8) and 10(6.5) SID50 ml(-1), respectively. These titers were not significantly different (p > or = 0.05). The titration of the WSSV stock by oral intubation in 80 d old juveniles resulted in approximately 10-fold reduction in virus titer compared to i.m. inoculation. This lower titer is probably the result of physical and chemical barriers in the digestive tract of shrimp that hinder WSSV infectivity. The titers determined by infection were identical to the titers determined by mortality in all experiments using both i.m. and oral routes at 120 h post inoculation (hpi), indicating that every infected shrimp died. The determination of WSSV titers for dilutions administered by i.m. and oral routes constitutes the first step towards the standardization of challenge procedures to evaluate strategies to reduce WSSV infection. PMID:16231643

Escobedo-Bonilla, C M; Wille, M; Sanz, V Alday; Sorgeloos, P; Pensaert, M B; Nauwynck, H J

2005-09-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

Mohammad M. Monwar

2013-07-01

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Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.  

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Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl?¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 ?g ml?¹ chloramphenicol, 100 ?g ml?¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml?¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals. PMID:20807537

Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

2010-11-01

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Detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp by means of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to an envelope protein (28 kDa).  

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The vp28 gene encoding an envelope protein (28 kDa) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was amplified from WSSV-infected tiger shrimp that originated from Malaysia. Recombinant VP28 protein (r-28) was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as an antigen for preparation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Three murine MAbs (6F6, 6H4 and 9C10) that were screened by r-28 antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were also able to recognize viral VP28 protein as well as r-28 on Western blot. Three non-overlapping epitopes of VP28 protein were determined using the MAbs in competitive ELISA; thus, an antigen-capture ELISA (Ac-ELISA) was developed by virtue of these MAbs. Ac-ELISA can differentiate WSSV-infected shrimp from uninfected shrimp and was further confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. Approximately 400 pg of purified WSSV sample and 20 pg of r-28 could be detected by Ac-ELISA, which is comparable in sensitivity to PCR assay but more sensitive than Western blot in the detection of purified virus. Hemolymph and tissue homogenate samples collected from a shrimp farm in Malaysia during December 2000 and July 2001 were also detected by Ac-ELISA and PCR with corroborating results. PMID:12093036

Liu, W; Wang, Y T; Tian, D S; Yin, Z C; Kwang, J

2002-04-24

51

PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ? 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ? 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication. PMID:24076066

Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-02-01

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Transcriptional upregulation of fortilin in shrimp, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus fed diets containing recombinant VP28, an antigenic protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV  

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Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is considered as one of the serious viral pathogens ofshrimp. There are several preventive measures that have been developed to curb the devastating effectsof this virus in shrimp aquaculture. Juvenile shrimps, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus were fed withcommercial feeds that were mixed with recombinant VP28, a structural protein antigen of WSSV for aperiod of 14 days. The immune response of the shrimp during oral administration of the medicated feedwas determined by expression analysis of fortilin, a gene that is involved in the antiviral response. Therewas a significant increase in the level of expression of fortilin both in the gut and the gills in the fedgroup during the duration of feeding. The level of expression gradually decreased in the fed group,whereby at the 7th and 14th day after the last day of feeding with medicated feeds, no significantdifferences were observed between the fed and control groups in the expression at the gills and gut,respectively.

Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

2013-07-01

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Development of primary cell cultures from mud crab, Scylla serrata, and their potential as an in vitro model for the replication of white spot syndrome virus.  

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Primary cell cultures were developed from haemocytes and testis of Scylla serrata. Haemocytes were collected from live animals and cultured in double-strength L-15 medium (2× L-15) prepared in crab saline, supplemented with 5% foetal bovine serum and antibiotic-antimycotic solution (penicillin 100 U/mL, streptomycin 100 ?g/mL and amphotericin B 0.25 ?g/mL) with osmolality adjusted to 894 mOsm/kg. The haemocytes adhered within 2 h after seeding and showed proliferation up to 72 h. The disaggregated testis tissue fragments were seeded in 3× L-15 supplemented with non-essential amino acid mixture, lipid concentrate and antibiotic-antimycotic solution, with osmolality adjusted to 1,035 mOsm/kg with crab saline. Cells from the testis could be subcultured and maintained up to 21 d as suspension culture. Different dilutions of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) inoculum (known virus copy number) prepared from infected Penaeus monodon were inoculated in the cultured cells, and the cytopathic effects like detachment, rounding of cells and clear areas of depleted cells were observed after 48 h in haemocyte cultures. However, WSSV-exposed testis cells did not show any obvious change until 72 h post-infection. WSSV was detected in both haemocyte and testis cultures at different time-points of infection by conventional and real-time PCR using WSSV-specific primers. The transcripts of WSSV were found to be much higher in haemocytes than in testis culture. The virus harvested from the cultured haemocytes after three passages could infect healthy P. monodon. The present study showed that mud crab haemocyte culture can support WSSV replication, and it can be used as an in vitro tool for WSSV replication. PMID:24357036

Deepika, A; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V

2014-05-01

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The promoter of the white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene WSSV108 is activated by the cellular KLF transcription factor.  

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A series of deletion and mutation assays of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early gene WSSV108 promoter showed that a Krüppel-like factor (KLF) binding site located from -504 to -495 (relative to the transcription start site) is important for the overall level of WSSV108 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays further showed that overexpressed recombinant Penaeus monodon KLF (rPmKLF) formed a specific protein-DNA complex with the (32)P-labeled KLF binding site of the WSSV108 promoter, and that higher levels of Litopenaeus vannamei KLF (LvKLF) were expressed in WSSV-infected shrimp. A transactivation assay indicated that the WSSV108 promoter was strongly activated by rPmKLF in a dose-dependent manner. Lastly, we found that specific silencing of LvKLF expression in vivo by dsRNA injection dramatically reduced both WSSV108 expression and WSSV replication. We conclude that shrimp KLF is important for WSSV genome replication and gene expression, and that it binds to the WSSV108 promoter to enhance the expression of this immediate-early gene. PMID:25445906

Liu, Wang-Jing; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chang, Li-Kwan; Chang, Yun-Shiang

2015-03-01

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Characterization of a novel envelope protein WSV010 of shrimp white spot syndrome virus and its interaction with a major viral structural protein VP24.  

Science.gov (United States)

White spot syndrome virus is one of the most serious viral pathogens causing huge mortality in shrimp farming. Here we report characterization of WSV010, a novel structural protein identified by our recent shotgun proteomics study. Its ORF contains 294 nucleotides encoding 97 amino acids. Transcription analysis using RT-PCR showed that wsv010 is a late gene. Localization analyses by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that WSV010 is a viral envelope protein. Furthermore, the pull-down assay revealed that WSV010 could interact with VP24, which is a major envelope protein. Since WSV010 lacks a transmembrane domain, these results suggest that WSV010 may anchor to the envelope through interaction with VP24. Previous studies indicated that VP24 could also interact with VP28 and VP26. Therefore, we propose that VP24 may act as a linker protein to associate these envelope proteins together to form a complex, which may play an important role in viral morphogenesis and viral infection. PMID:17400271

Chen, Jing; Li, Zhengjun; Hew, Choy-Leong

2007-07-20

56

Astakine LvAST binds to the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.  

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Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-?) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-? as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

2015-03-01

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Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Brazil using Negative Staining, Immunoelectron Microscopy and Immunocytochemistry Techniques Detección del Virus del Síndrome de Mancha Blanca en el Brasil Utilizando Inmunomicroscopía e Inmunomarcación con Partículas de Oro Coloidal  

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Full Text Available In this study thirty shrimp samples from commercial marine shrimp (L. vannamei farms of southern region of Brazil were obtained. Hepatopancreas and shell scrapings fragments collected in these animals were processed by transmission electron microscopy using negative staining (rapid preparation, immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles techniques. On the transmission electron microscopy a great number of white spot virus particles, ovoid or bacilliform-to-ellipsoid, measured 230-290 nm in length and 80-160 nm in diameter with intra-nuclear projections were visualized by the negative staining technique in 27 (90% out of 30 samples examined. Using immunoelectron microscopy technique, the anti-VP 664 serum agllutinated a large number of particles formed by antigen-antibody interaction. In the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody reaction was styrongly marked by the particles of colloidal gold over the virus. Notably, this is the first report, to our knowledge, describing use of these microscopy techniques to study Brazilian L. vannamei marine shrimp samples; moreover, this methodology also appears to be a viable complementary tool for diagnosing the presence of the white spot virus within shrimp tissues. Importantly, these are the first photoelectron micrographs of the WSSV in Brazil.Se obtuvieron para el estudio 30 muestras de camarones marinos comerciales (L. vannamei de las granjas de la región sur de Brasil. Fueron procesados fragmentos de hepatopáncreas y raspados internos del cefalotórax recogidos en estos animales por microscopía electrónica de transmisión con tinción negativa (preparación rápida, inmunomicroscopía y técnicas de inmunocitoquímica (inmunomarcación con partículas de oro coloidal. En la microscopía electrónica de transmisión de un gran número de partículas de virus de la mancha blanca, ovoide o elipsoidal a baciliformes, medían 230-290 nm de longitud y 80-160 nm de diámetro. En 27 (90% de las 30 muestras examinadas intra-nuclear proyecciones se visualizaron mediante la técnica de tinción negativa. Utilizando una técnica de inmunomicroscopía electrónica, el anti-suero VP 664 reunió a un gran número de partículas formadas por la interacción antígeno-anticuerpo. En la técnica de inmunocitoquímica, la reacción antígeno-anticuerpo fue fuertemente reforzada por las partículas de oro coloidal en los virus. En particular, en Brasil este es el primer informe, a nuestro entender, que describe el uso de estas técnicas de microscopía en muestras de camarón marino L. vanamei. Además, esta metodología también parece ser una herramienta complementaria viable para diagnosticar la presencia del virus de la mancha blanca en tejidos de camarón. Es importante destacar que estas son las primeras fotos en microscopia electrónica del WSSV obtenidas en Brasil.

M Hipolito

2012-06-01

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Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Brazil using Negative Staining, Immunoelectron Microscopy and Immunocytochemistry Techniques / Detección del Virus del Síndrome de Mancha Blanca en el Brasil Utilizando Inmunomicroscopía e Inmunomarcación con Partículas de Oro Coloidal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se obtuvieron para el estudio 30 muestras de camarones marinos comerciales (L. vannamei) de las granjas de la región sur de Brasil. Fueron procesados fragmentos de hepatopáncreas y raspados internos del cefalotórax recogidos en estos animales por microscopía electrónica de transmisión con tinción ne [...] gativa (preparación rápida), inmunomicroscopía y técnicas de inmunocitoquímica (inmunomarcación con partículas de oro coloidal). En la microscopía electrónica de transmisión de un gran número de partículas de virus de la mancha blanca, ovoide o elipsoidal a baciliformes, medían 230-290 nm de longitud y 80-160 nm de diámetro. En 27 (90%) de las 30 muestras examinadas intra-nuclear proyecciones se visualizaron mediante la técnica de tinción negativa. Utilizando una técnica de inmunomicroscopía electrónica, el anti-suero VP 664 reunió a un gran número de partículas formadas por la interacción antígeno-anticuerpo. En la técnica de inmunocitoquímica, la reacción antígeno-anticuerpo fue fuertemente reforzada por las partículas de oro coloidal en los virus. En particular, en Brasil este es el primer informe, a nuestro entender, que describe el uso de estas técnicas de microscopía en muestras de camarón marino L. vanamei. Además, esta metodología también parece ser una herramienta complementaria viable para diagnosticar la presencia del virus de la mancha blanca en tejidos de camarón. Es importante destacar que estas son las primeras fotos en microscopia electrónica del WSSV obtenidas en Brasil. Abstract in english In this study thirty shrimp samples from commercial marine shrimp (L. vannamei) farms of southern region of Brazil were obtained. Hepatopancreas and shell scrapings fragments collected in these animals were processed by transmission electron microscopy using negative staining (rapid preparation), im [...] munoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles) techniques. On the transmission electron microscopy a great number of white spot virus particles, ovoid or bacilliform-to-ellipsoid, measured 230-290 nm in length and 80-160 nm in diameter with intra-nuclear projections were visualized by the negative staining technique in 27 (90%) out of 30 samples examined. Using immunoelectron microscopy technique, the anti-VP 664 serum agllutinated a large number of particles formed by antigen-antibody interaction. In the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody reaction was styrongly marked by the particles of colloidal gold over the virus. Notably, this is the first report, to our knowledge, describing use of these microscopy techniques to study Brazilian L. vannamei marine shrimp samples; moreover, this methodology also appears to be a viable complementary tool for diagnosing the presence of the white spot virus within shrimp tissues. Importantly, these are the first photoelectron micrographs of the WSSV in Brazil.

M, Hipolito; M. H. B, Catroxo; A. M. C. R. P. F, Martins; N.A, Melo; E. M, Pituco; N.T.C, Galleti; M. J. T, Ranzani-Paiva; J.L.P, Mouriño; C.M, Ferreira.

2012-06-01

59

The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.  

Science.gov (United States)

By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15?kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P.?monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. PMID:25499032

Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

2015-04-01

60

Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.  

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Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. PMID:25462462

Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The protection of CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against White spot syndrome virus infection  

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Full Text Available The white spot syndrome is one of the most serious disease which has caused high mortalities and huge economic losses to shrimp culture. In the present study, the oral administrations with CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 (rVP28-yl as dietary supplement for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were conducted to evaluate their protective effects against WSSV. After feeding for 15 days, the cumulative mortality and the copy number of WSSV in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps were significantly lower when they were challenged by WSSV, compared with those in control shrimps (p < 0.05. The caspase-3 activity was suppressed in rVP28-yl feeding shrimps but ascended in CpG feeding shrimps after WSSV challenge. Besides, the PO activity in CpG feeding shrimps was significantly increased after feeding trial, and kept increasing post WSSV challenge (p < 0.05. While the increased NO production was observed both in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps after feeding trial and WSSV challenge. In addition, increased mRNA expression levels of STAT and Dicer were observed in CpG group post WSSV challenge. These results together indicated that oral feeding of CpG ODNs and rVP28-yl could enhance the innate non-specific immune responses especially antiviral immunity of shrimps in varying degrees, and increase their resistance against WSSV infection

Q Yi

2014-04-01

62

Neuroendocrine responses of a crustacean host to viral infection: effects of infection of white spot syndrome virus on the expression and release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.  

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The objectives of the present study were to characterize the changes in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) transcript and peptide levels in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a crustacean, Procambarus clarkii. After viral challenge, significant increase in virus load began at 24 h post injection (hpi) and the increase was much more substantial at 48 and 72 hpi. The hemolymph CHH levels rapidly increased after viral challenge; the increase started as early as 3 hpi and lasted for at least 2 d after the challenge. In contrast, the hemolymph glucose levels did not significantly changed over a 2 d period in the WSSV-infected animals. The CHH transcript and peptide levels in tissues were also determined. The CHH transcript levels in the eyestalk ganglia (the major site of CHH synthesis) of the virus-infected animals did not significantly change over a 2 d period and those in 2 extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia) significantly increased at 24 and 48 hpi. The CHH peptide levels in the eyestalk ganglia of the virus-infected animals significantly decreased at 24 and 48 hpi and those in the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia remained unchanged over a 2 d period. These data demonstrated a WSSV-induced increase in the release of CHH into hemolymph that is rapid in onset and lasting in duration. Changes in the CHH transcript and peptide levels implied that the WSSV-induced increase in hemolymph CHH levels primarily resulted from an enhanced release from the eyestalk ganglia, but the contribution of the 2 extra-eyestalk tissues to hemolymph pool of CHH increased as viral infection progressed. The combined patterns of change in the hemolymph glucose and CHH levels further suggest that the virus-enhanced CHH release would lead to higher glycolytic activity and elevated glucose mobilization presumably favorable for viral replication. PMID:23174320

Lin, Ling-Jiun; Chen, Yan-Jhou; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Lee, Chi-Ying

2013-02-01

63

White spots in the pupil (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... occasion, the pupil of the eye may appear white. This is never a normal condition and requires ... an ophthalmologist. The causes of a cloudy or white cornea are different than those of a white ...

64

Sustainable control of white spot disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems. Chemicals such as formaldehyde, sodium percarbonate and sodium chloride have been applied to control infections with this parasite. However, information on the influence of concentration, length of treatment period and temperature, on the survival of theronts and tomonts, has been lacking. The tolerance of the free-living theront stage towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate in solution was investigated at two temperature levels (11-12 and 21-22 °C). The theronts were exposed to the two substances in concentrations of 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/l. The survival of theronts was examined in a four-well setup. Each well contained 5-12 theronts in 150 µl aqueous solution. Tolerance towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate was tested simultaneously, together with two pure water negative controls. At each concentration and temperature (11-12 and 21-22 °C) the experiment was repeated 4-9 times. The numbers of live theronts were counted every 15 minutes using a stereo-microscope (8-100× magnification). Lysed and/or immobilised theronts with no movement of cilia were considered dead. For both substances a negative relationship was seen between the survival of theronts and length of treatment, temperature and concentration of chemical. Using formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate, all theronts were dead within 15 minutes at a concentration of 64 mg/l at 21-22 °C. At the same temperature, using 8 mg/l, this was achieved within 150 minutes using formaldehyde and 135 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At the low temperature (11-12 °C) using 64 mg/l, all theronts were dead within 45 minutes using formaldehyde and 30 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At 8 mg/l all theronts died within 300 minutes when treating with formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate. Dose-response experiments on tomonts showed that this parasite stage was much more tolerant towards both chemicals. Filtration experiments on tomont containing water were conducted. Mesh sizes of 500, 300, 160 and 80 µm were used. A mesh size of 80 µm was demonstrated to filter out 100 % of the tomonts. The abiotic factors temperature, chemical and concentration all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis.

Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

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Development of a rapid method for identifying carryover contamination of positive control DNA, using a chimeric positive control and restriction enzyme for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus by nested PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chimeric positive plasmids have been developed to minimize false-positive reactions caused by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) contamination. Here, we developed a rapid method for identifying false-positive results while detecting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by nested PCR, using chimeric positive plasmids. The results of PCRs using WSSV diagnostic primer sets showed PCR products of a similar size (WSSV 1st PCR product, 1,447 bp; WSSV 2nd PCR product, 941 bp) using WSSV chimeric plasmids or DNA from shrimp infected with WSSV. The PCR products were digested with DraI for 1 h at 37 °C. The digested chimeric DNA separated into two DNA bands; however, the WSSV-infected shrimp DNA did not separate. Thus, chimeric plasmid DNA may be used as positive control DNA instead of DNA from WSSV-infected shrimp, in order to prevent PCR contamination. Thus, the use of restriction enzyme digestion allowed us to rapidly distinguish between WSSV DNA and WSSV chimeric plasmid DNA. PMID:25320443

Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kwon, Se Ryun

2014-12-01

66

[White spot lesions and orthodontic treatment. Prevention and treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Decalcification of the enamel surface adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances, in the form of white spot lesions, is a common and frequent well-known side-effect of orthodontic treatment. Fixed appliances and the bonding materials increase the retention of biofilm and encourage the formation of white spot lesions. Management of these lesions begins with a good oral hygiene regime and needs to be associated with use of fluoride agents (fluoridated toothpaste, fluoride containing mouth rinse, gel, varnish, bonding materials, elastic ligature), CPP-ACP, antiseptics, LASER, tooth whitening, resin infiltration, micro-abrasion. The purpose of this review is to access the direct evidence regarding the prevention and management of white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment. PMID:25158746

Morrier, Jean-Jacques

2014-09-01

67

Distribution of White Spots after Debanding in Orthodontic Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of problem: Fixed orthodontic appliances can interfere with removing bacterial plaques from dental surfaces which can ultimately lead to white spot formation.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantity of white spots and areas of decalcification following fixed orthodontic treatment.Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients undergoing or scheduled for fixed orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of fifty volunteers before the initiation of therapy and group B included fifty patients at the end of their treatment. In group A, the buccal surfaces of the first molars in each quadrant were examined for the presence of enamel decalcifications. After removing the orthodontic bands in group B, the buccal surfaces of the first molars in each quadrant were examined for white spots. Gender, oral hygiene level, plaque index, type of cement and duration of treatment were recorded for all patients. Binomial logistic regression, chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analysis.Results: The number of white spots in group A was 28 (14% which was significantly lower than group B with 83 (41.5% decalcified lesions (P<0.01. Oral hygiene and duration of treatment had a significant effect on the occurrence of white spots (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results showed that patients with orthodontic bands are at higher risk for white spot formation and good oral hygiene demonstrates a protective effect on their reduction. Both professional and daily oral hygiene measures can decrease thecariogenicity of bacterial plaques in these patients.

F. Arbabzadeh Zavareh

2006-12-01

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Presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca em crustáceos decápodes silvestres em lagoas costeiras no Sul do Brasil / Presence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild decapods crustaceans in coastal lagoons in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca (em inglês WSSV) nas principais espécies de camarões, siris e caranguejos de cinco lagoas que recebem o efluente de fazendas afetadas pela enfermidade foi detectada por nested PCR, e inclusões virais nos camarões por histologia. Pela nested PCR encont [...] rou-se a presença de WSSV em 13 de 16 (81,2%) amostras de camarões da espécie Farfantepenaeus paulensis, em 13 de 14 (92,8%) de Litopenaeus schmitti, em uma de duas de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%), em 13 de 15 (86,6%) de siri da espécie Callinectes danae e em 11 de 12 (91,6%) de Callinectes sapidus, e não foi detectada no caranguejo Chasmagnathus granulata em 10 amostras. Inclusões características de WSSV foram observadas em três amostras histológicas de 50 (6,0%) no epitélio gástrico e cuticular e nas brânquias de dois exemplares de F. paulensis e um de L. schmitti. É o primeiro relato da presença de WSSV em camarões L. schmitti e no siri C. danae silvestres. As principais espécies de camarões e siris dos ambientes de entorno das fazendas foram contaminadas pelo WSSV, constituindo-se em vetores potenciais do vírus. Abstract in english The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the main species of shrimps, blue crabs, and burrowing crabs of five lagoons where shrimp farm effluents are discharged, was analyzed by nested PCR and the presence of virus inclusions in the shrimps was analyzed through histopathology. The nested [...] PCR analysis indicated the presence of WSSV in 13 of 16 (81.2%) samples of the shrimp species of Farfantepenaeus paulensis, in 13 of 14 (92.8%) of Litopenaeus schmitti, in one of two of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%), in 13 of 15 (86.6%) of blue crab species of Callinectes danae and in 11 of 12 (91.6%) of Callinectes sapidus and none was detected in the 10 samples of the burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata. The inclusion characteristics of WSSV were observed in three samples of 50 (6.0%) in the gastric and cuticular epithelium and in the gills of two specimens of F. paulensis and one of L. schmitti. The presence of WSSV in L. schmitti wild shrimp and in the C. danae blue crab is reported for the first time in the present work. The results indicate that the main species of shrimps and blue crabs of the environment surrounding the farms were infected by WSSV, and they may be considered potential vectors of the virus.

S.W., Costa; A.P.M., Fraga; A.S., Zamparetti; M.R.F., Marques; E.R., Andreatta.

2012-02-01

69

White spot lesions: prevention and management during the orthodontic treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The formation of white spot lesions, or enamel demineralization, around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which marks the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors and preventive methods of these orthodontics scars. Preventive programmes must be emphasized to all orthodontic patients. The responsibility of an orthodontist is to minimize the risk of the patient having decalcification as a consequence of orthodontic treatment by educating and motivating the patients for excellent oral hygiene practice. Prophylaxis with topical fluoride application should be implemented: high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels and varnishes during and after the orthodontic treatment, especially for patients at high risk of caries. Key words: white spot lesions, oral hygiene, topical fluorides. PMID:25532098

Zabokova-Bilbilova, E; Popovska, L; Kapusevska, B; Stefanovska, E

2014-01-01

70

White spots on the mucosal surface of the duodenum in dogs with lymphocytic plasmacytic enteritis  

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Distended lacteals, described as expanded white villi in duodenum, are strongly indicative of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. In the present study, we evaluated the significance of white spots present in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with lymphocytic plasmacytic enteritis (LPE). Fifty dogs with LPE were included in this study, and white spots were detected in the duodenal mucosa in 22 dogs during endoscopy. Hypoproteinemia was more frequent in dogs with white spots than in dogs without spo...

Garci?a-sancho, Mercedes; Sainz, A?ngel; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodri?guez, Antonio; Rodri?guez-franco, Fernando

2011-01-01

71

Analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus genome transcription  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type species of the genus Tospovirus within the Bunyaviridae, a family of segmented negative strand RNA viruses. Although much ground has been covered in the past two decades, many questions concerning the mechanism of replication and transcription of this important group of viruses have thus far remained unanswered. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of viral transcription and replication requires manipulable systems in which these processes can b...

Knippenberg, I. C.

2005-01-01

72

Endogenous retrovirus insertion in the KIT oncogene determines white and white spotting in domestic cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P < 0.0001) and white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. PMID:25085922

David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S; Nelson, George; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Connelly, Catherine J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryugo, David K

2014-10-01

73

Caries infiltration of noncavitated white spot lesions: A novel approach for immediate esthetic improvement  

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The earliest evidence of demineralization on the smooth enamel surface of a crown is a white spot lesion. The conventional treatment of these white spot lesions includes topical fluoride application, iamproving the oral hygiene, and use of remineralizing agents. The following article illustrates the use of a novel approach to treat smooth surface noncavitated white spot lesions microinvasively based on infiltration of enamel caries with low-viscosity light curing resins called infiltrants. Th...

Gugnani, Neeraj; Pandit, Inder K.; Gupta, Monika; Josan, Rohini

2012-01-01

74

Tomato spotted wilt virus: One of the most destructive plant viruses  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has one of the largest host ranges among plant viruses and is widespread in all climates. TSWV is responsible for numerous epidemics in many parts of the world in different crops, mainly vegetables, tobacco and ornamentals. Its highly polyphagous nature, effectiveness of virus transmission by the thrips as its vectors, rapidity with which new variants arise, as well as difficulties in controlling the vectors make TSWV one of the most dangerous plant viruses. T...

Branka Krsti?; Aleksandra Bulaji?; Ivana ?eki?; Janoš Berenji

2008-01-01

75

Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can be obtained by introgression of natural sources of resistance from wild relatives or by expressing viral sequences in transgenic tomato plants. We report high levels of resistance to TSWV obtained...

Haan, P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, M.

1996-01-01

76

Phylogenetic and Recombination Analysis of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV...

Lian, Sen; Lee, Jong-seung; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Kim, Mi-kyeong; Choi, Hong-soo; Kim, Kook-hyung

2013-01-01

77

White-spot lesions and gingivitis microbiotas in orthodontic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-spot lesions (WSL) associated with orthodontic appliances are a cosmetic problem and increase risk for cavities. We characterized the microbiota of WSL, accounting for confounding due to gingivitis. Participants were 60 children with fixed appliances, aged between 10 and 19 yrs, half with WSL. Plaque samples were assayed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray (HOMIM) and by PCR. Mean gingival index was positively associated with WSL (p = 0.018). Taxa associated with WSL by microarray included Granulicatella elegans (p = 0.01), Veillonellaceae sp. HOT 155 (p < 0.01), and Bifidobacterium Cluster 1 (p = 0.11), and by qPCR, Streptococcus mutans (p = 0.008) and Scardovia wiggsiae (p = 0.04) Taxa associated with gingivitis by microarray included: Gemella sanguinis (p = 0.002), Actinomyces sp. HOT 448 (p = 0.003), Prevotella cluster IV (p = 0.021), and Streptococcus sp. HOT 071/070 (p = 0.023); and levels of S. mutans (p = 0.02) and Bifidobacteriaceae (p = 0.012) by qPCR. Species' associations with WSL were minimally changed with adjustment for gingivitis level. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis yielded good discrimination between children with and those without WSL. Granulicatella, Veillonellaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, in addition to S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, were associated with the presence of WSL in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment. Many taxa showed a stronger association with gingivitis than with WSL. PMID:22837552

Tanner, A C R; Sonis, A L; Lif Holgerson, P; Starr, J R; Nunez, Y; Kressirer, C A; Paster, B J; Johansson, I

2012-09-01

78

EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

79

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus – One of the Most Destructive Plant Viruses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has one of the largest host ranges among plant viruses and is widespread in all climates. TSWV is responsible for numerous epidemics in many parts of the world in different crops, mainly vegetables, tobacco and ornamentals. Its highly polyphagous nature, effectiveness of virus transmission by the thrips as its vectors, rapidity with which new variants arise, as well as difficulties in controlling the vectors make TSWV one of the most dangerous plant viruses. The ability of this virus to cause such severe losses on a broad range of crops, as well as its intriguing biological and molecular characteristics place TSWV amongst the most extensively studied plant viruses in the world at present. This paper provides a general overview of TSWV, encompassing all the major aspects of its biology and current knowledge on host range, symptomatology, molecular biology, vectorrelationship, control and diagnosis.

Branka Krsti?

2008-01-01

80

[Microsatellite variation in white-spotted char Salvelinus leucomaenis from Sakhalin Oblast].  

Science.gov (United States)

A panel of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for the population genetic studies of white-spotted char Salvelinus leucomaenis. The four population samples examined consisted of 48 individuals each, and were collected in different geographical regions, including Sakhalin Island, Kunashir Island, and Iturup Island (two samples). The total number of different-sized alleles at different loci varied in the range of 2-31. In the population of white-spotted char subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure allelic diversity and expected heterozygosity indices were found to be lower than in wild populations of this species. The considerable genetic subdivision of different insular populations of white-spotted char observed was consistent with isolation by the distance model. PMID:25508907

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Toll-pathway in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) responds to white spot syndrome virus infection: evidence through molecular characterisation and expression profiles of MyD88, TRAF6 and TLR genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Toll-pathway plays key roles in regulating the innate immune response in invertebrates. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) are key molecules in this signalling pathway. To investigate the role of Toll-pathway in innate immune response of shrimp, Penaeus monodon, MyD88 (PmMyD88) and TRAF6 (PmTRAF6) were identified and characterised. PmMyD88 cDNA is 1716 bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp encoding a putative protein of 482 amino acids, with a death domain, a TIR domain and C-terminal extension domain. PmTRAF6 cDNA is 2563 bp long with an ORF of 1785 bp (594 amino acids) with an N-terminal RING-type zinc finger domain, two TRAF-type zinc finger domains, a coiled region and a MATH domain. In healthy shrimp, PmMyD88, PmTRAF6 and PmToll were detected in 15 tissues with the highest expression in midgut, eyestalk and lymphoid organ, respectively. Responses of these genes to WSSV in experimentally-infected P. monodon as well as in cultured haemocytes and also effect of poly I:C on the gene expression in vitro was investigated at six time-points in seven tissues. PmToll showed significant up-regulation at all time-points of infection in six tissues and until 24 h post-infection in vitro. However, poly I:C-induced haemocytes showed up-regulation of the gene until 48 h post-exposure. WSSV caused significant up-regulation of PmMyD88 in most of the tissues tested. The virus challenge as well as poly I:C induction in vitro also resulted in significant up-regulation of the gene. Up-regulated expression of PmTRAF6 was detected in haemocytes and lymphoid organ at late stage of infection. In vitro virus challenge showed significant up-regulation of PmTRAF6 at almost all time-points whereas no significant change in the expression was observed on poly I:C induction. The responses of these key genes, observed in the present study, suggest that Toll-pathway as a whole may play a crucial role in the immune response against viruses in shrimp. PMID:25266891

Deepika, A; Sreedharan, K; Paria, Anutosh; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V

2014-12-01

82

Role of the envelope glycoproteins in the infection cycle of tomato spotted wilt virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms the type member of the genus Tospovirus , which today harbors more than twelve different species. TSWV is able to infect an enormous variety of different plants, to which it often causes devastating effects, resulting in severe economical losses. Among the plant viruses, TSWV and the other tospoviruses form a distinct group. Taxonomically, they surprisingly do not belong to a plant virus family, but to a virus family which further consists of animal-infe...

Kikkert, M.

1999-01-01

83

Cytopathological changes in Schefflera actinophylla Harms. naturally infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV)  

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Plants of Schefflera actinophylla Harms. with stunted growth, chlorotic and necrotic spots and patterns, leaf epinasty and distortion are infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus classified as a member of genus Tospovirus. Studies with electron microscope revealed that in cells of S. actinophylla leaves there were no virus particle inclusions typical for tospovirus infection, but only single particles were present. The isolate of INSV was defective and t...

Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald; Maria Kami?ska

1998-01-01

84

Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein domains involved in tubule formation,movement and symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct demonstration of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) gene function has been slowed by the absence of a reliable reverse genetics system. A Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression system was previously used by us to demonstrate that the TSWV NSm protein is able to support cell-to-cell movemen...

85

Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein domains involved in tubule formation, movement and symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Absence of a reliable reverse genetics system for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has impeded direct demonstration of gene function. We previously used a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression system to demonstrate that the TSWV NSm protein is able to support cell-to-cell movement in the absen...

86

Direct detection of hepatitis B virus from dried blood spots by polymerase chain reaction amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of hepatitis B virus DNA in the sera of individuals is the most definitive marker of an active viral infection. We have used polymerase chain reaction detection of hepatitis B virus DNA directly on whole blood dried as a spot on filter paper. The method is rapid, specific, and sensitive and has the ability to detect as little as 10 virus particles by ethidium bromide staining of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified products. The method is cost-effective, and the stability of the spots makes the collection and transportation of potentially infectious blood safe. PMID:1500493

Gupta, B P; Jayasuryan, N; Jameel, S

1992-08-01

87

Cytopathological characteristics of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates  

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The electron microscopy study revealed that four examined virus isolates in the cells of the infected host plant produced different inclusions depending on the virus isolate and the time of passaging by mechanical transmission. Numerous virus particle inclusions as well as viroplasm and filamentous inclusions typical for TSWV were present in the plant cells infected with TSWV isolate (PPR). This isolate was kept in N. rustica by 4 mechanical transmissions. A similar virus isolate but...

Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald; Maria Kami?ska

1998-01-01

88

The sweet spot: defining virus-sialic acid interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viral infections are initiated by attachment of the virus to host cell surface receptors, including sialic acid-containing glycans. It is now possible to rapidly identify specific glycan receptors using glycan array screening, to define atomic-level structures of virus-glycan complexes and to alter the glycan-binding site to determine the function of glycan engagement in viral disease. This Review highlights general principles of virus-glycan interactions and provides specific examples of sialic acid binding by viruses with stalk-like attachment proteins, including influenza virus, reovirus, adenovirus and rotavirus. Understanding virus-glycan interactions is essential to combating viral infections and designing improved viral vectors for therapeutic applications. PMID:25263223

Stencel-Baerenwald, Jennifer E; Reiss, Kerstin; Reiter, Dirk M; Stehle, Thilo; Dermody, Terence S

2014-11-01

89

Cytopathological characteristics of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electron microscopy study revealed that four examined virus isolates in the cells of the infected host plant produced different inclusions depending on the virus isolate and the time of passaging by mechanical transmission. Numerous virus particle inclusions as well as viroplasm and filamentous inclusions typical for TSWV were present in the plant cells infected with TSWV isolate (PPR. This isolate was kept in N. rustica by 4 mechanical transmissions. A similar virus isolate but maintained for 2 years by mechanical transmission in Nicotiana plants (TI produced virus particle inclusions as well as amorphous inclusions typical for defective isolates. In plant cells infected with the same isolate but maintained by mechanical transmission one year longer (T2 no virus particle inclusions were produced. In the amorphous inclusions produced by this isolate virus particles were seen, but they were not surrounded by additional membrane. The isolate G induced only amorphous inclusions dispersed within the cytoplasm of infected cells. No virus particles were seen in the amorphous inclusions. The mechanical transmission of TSWV isolates in N. rustica plants reduced the number of virus particles present in the cytoplasm. The defectivenes of the isolate cause also the appearance of a new type of inclusion - the amorphous inclusions.

Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald

1998-06-01

90

Development of a Peanut Cultivar with Resistance to the Peanut Root-knot Nematode and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

The peanut root-knot nematode and tomato spotted wilt virus are pathogens of peanut that result in large yield losses in the southeastern United States. Peanut cultivars are available that have resistance to either the peanut root-knot nematode or tomato spotted wilt virus, however, no cultivars ar...

91

Development of a Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) risk evaluation methodology for a processing tomato region  

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A risk map for the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was elaborated for the main Portuguese processing tomato producing region, the "Ribatejo e Península de Setúbal" region, where periodically this virus causes severe losses. Forty nine tomato fields were monitored. Risk factors for TSWV infection were identified and quantified according to their relative importance in TSWV incidence. The risk factors considered for each field were: (1) presence of TSWV in the crop plants; (2) presence o...

Mateus, C.; Pequito, A.; Teixeira, S.; Godinho, M. C.; Figueiredo, E.; Amaro, F.; Lacasa, A.; Mexia, A.

2012-01-01

92

Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to those caused by TSWV were observed on sweet honey leaf (Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, [synonym Eupatorium rebaudianum Bertoni], family Asteraceae) plants in an experimental field in the prefec...

Chatzivassiliou, E. K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

2007-01-01

93

Analysis of the transcription initiation mechanism of tomato spotted wilt virus  

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Genome replication and transcription of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, genus Tospovirus ) follows in most aspects the general rules for negative strand RNA viruses with segmented genomes. One common feature is the occurrence of "cap snatching" during transcription initiation. During this process, capped leader sequences of suitable host mRNAs are recruited and cleaved to serve as primers for transcription.At the start of the research project described in this thesis, the occurrence of cap s...

Duijsings, D. M. J. M.

2001-01-01

94

Structure and expression of the tomato spotted wilt virus genome, a plant-infecting bunyavirus.  

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This thesis describes studies which are aimed at the elucidation of the genetic organisation and expression strategy of the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) RNA genome.Using specific cDNA clones, corresponding to all three genomic RNA segments, the synthesis of virus specific RNA species in systemically infected Nicotiana rustica plants was followed (Chapter 2). These analyses revealed the presence of low (steady state) levels of vc strands and accumulating amounts of v strands, and confirmed...

Kormelink, R. J. M.

1994-01-01

95

Detection of tomato spotted wilt virus using monoclonal antibodies and riboprobes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The immunoreactivity of a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was examined in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and dot immunobinding assays (DIBA) procedures. MAbs 6.12.15 and 2.9 were specific for the nucleocapsid protein of TSWV. The sensitivity of the two immunoassays was compared with that of a dot-blot hybridization technique using riboprobes (RNA transcripts) to TSWV M RNA. Using deproteinized plant extracts or purified virus preparations,...

Huguenot, C.; Dobbelsteen, G. J. P. M. Den; Haan, P.; Wagemakers, C. A. M.; Drost, G. A.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Peters, D.

1990-01-01

96

Characterization of Tomato yellow spot virus, a novel tomato-infecting begomovirus in Brazil Caracterização do Tomato yellow spot virus, um novo begomovírus isolado de tomateiro no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was the biological and molecular characterization of a begomovirus detected in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, named TGV-[Bi2], by determining its host range, complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other begomoviruses. Biological characterization consisted of a host range study using either sap inoculation or particle bombardment as inoculation methods. The yellow spot virus can infect plants in Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae, including economically importat crops as sweet pepper, and weeds as Datura stramonium and Nicotiana silvestris. For the molecular characterization, the full-length genome (DNA-A and DNA-B was amplified, cloned and completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that TGV-[Bi2] constitutes a novel begomovirus species named Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV, closely related to Sida mottle virus (SiMoV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização biológica e molecular de um begomovírus detectado em tomateiros em São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, denominado TGV-[Bi2]. A caracterização biológica consistiu em teste de gama de hospedeiros, realizado por meio de inoculação via extrato foliar tamponado ou bombardeamento de partículas. O isolado TGV-[Bi2] infecta plantas das famílias Solanaceae e Amaranthaceae, inclusive espécies economicamente importantes como o pimentão, e algumas plantas daninhas como Datura stramonium e Nicotiana silvestris. A caracterização molecular consistiu na clonagem e seqüenciamento de seu genoma completo (DNA-A e DNA-B. A comparação de seqüências e análise filogenética indicaram que o TGV-[Bi2] constitui uma nova espécie de begomovírus, denominada Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV, filogeneticamente relacionado ao Sida mottle virus (SiMoV.

Renata Faier Calegario

2007-09-01

97

Characterization of Tomato yellow spot virus, a novel tomato-infecting begomovirus in Brazil / Caracterização do Tomato yellow spot virus, um novo begomovírus isolado de tomateiro no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização biológica e molecular de um begomovírus detectado em tomateiros em São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, denominado TGV-[Bi2]. A caracterização biológica consistiu em teste de gama de hospedeiros, realizado por meio de inoculação via extrato foliar tampon [...] ado ou bombardeamento de partículas. O isolado TGV-[Bi2] infecta plantas das famílias Solanaceae e Amaranthaceae, inclusive espécies economicamente importantes como o pimentão, e algumas plantas daninhas como Datura stramonium e Nicotiana silvestris. A caracterização molecular consistiu na clonagem e seqüenciamento de seu genoma completo (DNA-A e DNA-B). A comparação de seqüências e análise filogenética indicaram que o TGV-[Bi2] constitui uma nova espécie de begomovírus, denominada Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV), filogeneticamente relacionado ao Sida mottle virus (SiMoV). Abstract in english The objective of this work was the biological and molecular characterization of a begomovirus detected in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, named TGV-[Bi2], by determining its host range, complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other begomoviruses. Biological chara [...] cterization consisted of a host range study using either sap inoculation or particle bombardment as inoculation methods. The yellow spot virus can infect plants in Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae, including economically importat crops as sweet pepper, and weeds as Datura stramonium and Nicotiana silvestris. For the molecular characterization, the full-length genome (DNA-A and DNA-B) was amplified, cloned and completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that TGV-[Bi2] constitutes a novel begomovirus species named Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV), closely related to Sida mottle virus (SiMoV).

Renata Faier, Calegario; Sávio de Siqueira, Ferreira; Eduardo Chumbinho de, Andrade; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini.

1335-13-01

98

First report of Pelargonium zonate spot virus from tomato in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) was first isolated from tomato in southern Italy in 1982, and later was also reported from Spain and France. Infected tomato plants showed stunting, malformation, yellow rings and line patterns on the leaves, and concentric chlorotic ringspots on the stems. In Ju...

99

Direct detection of hepatitis B virus from dried blood spots by polymerase chain reaction amplification.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of hepatitis B virus DNA in the sera of individuals is the most definitive marker of an active viral infection. We have used polymerase chain reaction detection of hepatitis B virus DNA directly on whole blood dried as a spot on filter paper. The method is rapid, specific, and sensitive and has the ability to detect as little as 10 virus particles by ethidium bromide staining of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified products. The method is cost-effective, and the stability of t...

Gupta, B. P.; Jayasuryan, N.; Jameel, S.

1992-01-01

100

Ice nucleation activity in Pantoea ananatis obtained from maize white spot lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize white spot lesions caused by Pantoea ananatis has contributed substantially to yield reduction of maize crops in many countries, including Brazil. The initial symptoms of the disease include water-soaked lesions on the leaves, which later become necrotic and straw-colored. Basic knowledge regarding the biology and the infection mechanisms of this pathogen is lacking. In this study, 15 P. ananatis isolates obtained from maize white spot lesions were examined for their ice nucleation activity (INA. The INAs of individual bacterial isolates was determined by tube nucleation tests. Bacterial isolates were grown on tryptic soy broth medium and an aliquot of 0.1 mL of culture was added to test tubes containing 1 mL of sterile distilled water. The tubes were packed in an ice bath, which had a temperature below –10°C, for approximately 2 min. Instantaneous formation of ice in the tube revealed a positive INA phenotype of the isolate. Only 9 of the 15 studied isolates showed the INA+ phenotype. Pathogenicity tests were performed using whole plants and detached leaves. Symptoms were reproduced in both tests, but only for the inoculations using INA+ isolates. Electron microscopy allowed visualization of protein vesicles under outer cell wall of isolates characterized as INA+.

Aline Vanessa Sauer

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Characterization of a detective form of tomato spotted wilt virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work described in this thesis was aimed at the elucidation of the nature of a defective form of TSWV which does not form complete particles during infection.Properties of TSWV and the existence of a defective form of this virus are described in Chapter 1. A survey of the literature on three different types of defective viruses with properties significant for the understanding of the defect in TSWV is given also in this chapter. The purposes of the study are presented at the end of this ch...

Verkleij, F. N.

1982-01-01

102

Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as “mancha de chocolate” (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased t...

Batuman, O.; Kuo, Y. -w; Palmieri, M.; Rojas, M. R.; Gilbertson, R. L.

2010-01-01

103

Controle químico da Cercosporiose, Mancha-Branca e dos Grãos Ardidos em milho / Chemical control of gray leaf spot, white spot and rot grain in maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de fungicida, no controle da Cercosporiose e da Mancha-Branca do milho, e suas consequências na produtividade de grãos e na incidência de grãos ardidos, além de estabelecer a relação existente entre a produtividade de grão [...] s e a severidade dessas doenças. Dois experimentos distintos (com Azoxystrobina + Cyproconazole e tratamento controle) foram conduzidos em três locais, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008. Utilizaram-se 12 híbridos comerciais de milho, que foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca, por meio de escala de notas, variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente susceptível). Estimou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). A aplicação de fungicida é eficiente no controle de doenças foliares e na redução da incidência de grãos ardidos, além de proporcionar 12% de aumento na produtividade de grãos, em relação à do tratamento controle. As doenças foliares Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca reduzem a produtividade de grãos de milho e essa redução é maior quando as doenças ocorrem mais precocemente. A Cercosporiose provoca maior redução na produtividade de grãos, quando comparada com a Mancha-Branca. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and rot grain, as well as to establish the relationship between grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cros [...] s hybrids were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot) were performed using scale-visual symptoms, with scores ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). In addition, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated. Fungicide application is effective in the control of maize leaf diseases, and the experiments without control of the diseases had grain yield lower than that of the experiments with control, with a reduction of 1.2 t.ha-1 (12.3%) on average. The fungicide application had a positive effect in the control of rot grains, with a reduction of 2.6% on average. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduce the maize grain yield and this reduction is greater when diseases occur earlier. Gray leaf spot causes a greater reduction in grain yield compared with white spot.

André Humberto, Brito; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade Rezende, Pereira; Marcio, Balestre.

2013-10-01

104

Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (SWP), caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), was first observed in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern U.S., but F. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on peanut, and is considered to be the more important vector. Several non-crop sources of potential primary vectors and TSWV inoculum have been identified, but their relative importance has not been determined. The peanut growing season in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is from April through November, and 'volunteer' peanut plants can be present for much of the remainder of the year. Therefore peanut itself has huge potential for perpetuating both vector and virus. Symptoms are often evident within a few days of seedling emergence, and disease progress is often rapid within the first 50-60 days after planting. Based on destructive sampling and assays for TSWV, there is often a high incidence of asymptomatic infections even in peanut genotypes that produce few and mild symptoms of infection in the field. Severity of SWP epidemics fluctuates significantly from year to year. The variability has not been fully explained, but lower incidences have been associated with years categorized as "La Niña" in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Planting date can have a large effect on disease incidence within a location. This may be linked to the thrips reproductive cycle and environmental effects on the plant and plant-thrips-virus interactions. Row pattern, plant population, and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide can also affect epidemics of SWP. Considerable progress has been made in developing cultivars with natural field resistance to TSWV. Use of cultivars with moderate field resistance combined with other suppressive measures has been very successful for managing spotted wilt disease. Several new cultivars with higher levels of field resistance can improve control and allow more flexibility in the integrated management programme. Although effects of these factors on epidemics of SWP have been documented, mechanisms responsible for disease suppression by most factors have not been fully elucidated. PMID:21620508

Culbreath, A K; Srinivasan, R

2011-08-01

105

Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both by mechanical infection and by the vector F. accidentalis. Moreover, evolved strains, here indicated as TSWV-RB-PI (Pepper, Italy), are not able to infect tomato plants carrying the Sw5 gene, confirming that distinct viral gene products control the outcome of infection in plants carrying Sw5 and Tsw. The simultaneous presence of evolved TSWV strains, showing the same biological characteristics (such as host range and symptomatology on different hosts) in two geographic areas of southern Italy, very far each other, let us hypothesize a unique focus of infection. Only subsequently, infected plants, through trade of plant material, have been diffused in locations so far apart. Further molecular studies are underway to assess the possible correlation between the different isolates in different geographical areas. PMID:25151838

Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

2013-01-01

106

A Simple Repeat Polymorphism in the MITF-M Promoter Is a Key Regulator of White Spotting in Dogs  

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The white spotting locus (S) in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor) gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S) to extreme white spotting (sw). We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the sw allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with wh...

Baranowska Ko?rberg, Izabella; Sundstro?m, Elisabeth; Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Gustafson, Ulla; Hedhammar, A?ke; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Seddon, Jennifer; So?derberg, Arne; Vila?, Carles; Zhang, Xiaolan; A?kesson, Mikael; Lindblad-toh, Kerstin; Andersson, Go?ran; Andersson, Leif

2014-01-01

107

Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste. The intervention period was 4 weeks and the endpoints were quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) on buccal surfaces of the upper incisors, cuspids and first premolars and visual scoring from digital photos. The attrition rate was 15%, mostly due to technical errors, and 327 lesions were included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p <0.05) regression of the WSL was disclosed in both study groups compared to baseline, but there was no difference between the groups. The mean area of the lesions decreased by 58% in the CPP-ACP group and 26% in the fluoride group (p = 0.06). The QLF findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced area of the lesions after 4 weeks as assessed by QLF. The improvement was however not superior to the "natural" regression following daily use of fluoride toothpaste.

Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten

2010-01-01

108

Current technology and techniques in re-mineralization of white spot lesions: A systematic review  

Science.gov (United States)

White Spot lesions are a common iatrogenic occurrence on patients who are treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. There is a dynamic chemical interaction between enamel and saliva at the tooth surface that allow a lesion to have phase changes involving demineralization of enamel and reminerlization. This is due to calcium and phosphate dissolved in saliva that is deposited onto the tooth surface or removed depending on the surrounding pH. Caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is gaining popularity in dentistry as a way to increase the available level of calcium and phosphate in plaque and saliva to improve the chemical gradient so that if favors reminerlization. The aim of our investigation is to search the available current literature and formulate a recommendation for use of CPP-ACP in orthodontics. Publications from the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Searches from August 2010 to April 1st 2012 were performed under the terms "MI Paste OR Recaldent OR caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate OR CPP-ACP or tooth mousse". The searches yielded 155 articles, These were reviewed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles with inappropriate study design or no outcome measures at both baseline and end point were also excluded. 13 articles were deemed of relevance with a high quality study design and were included in this study for evaluation. The current literature suggests a preventative treatment regimen in which MI Paste Plus is used. It should be delivered once daily prior to bed after oral hygiene for 3 minutes in a fluoride tray, throughout orthodontic treatment. It should be recommended for high risk patients determined by poor oral hygiene, as seen by the inability to remove plaque from teeth and appliances. This protocol may prevent or assist in the remineralization of enamel white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

Podray, Susan S.

109

Lightning activity in Saturn's Great White Spot of 2010/2011  

Science.gov (United States)

In this presentation we will summarize the main findings about Saturn's Great White Spot of 2010/2011 gained by analyzing data from the Cassini RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) instrument in combination with images from the Cassini cameras. Great White Spots (GWS) are planetary-scale disturbances in Saturn's atmosphere that usually happen once per Saturn year (29.5 Earth years). The last GWS of 2010/2011 occurred earlier than expected, and the Cassini RPWS instrument measured radio emissions caused by lightning discharges thereby identifying the GWS as a giant thunderstorm. Lightning radio emissions were measured for almost 9 months, from 5 December 2010 until 28 August 2011, with typical flash rates of more than 10 per second. Many images of the GWS were taken with the Cassini ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and by Earth-based telescopes which captured the storm's birth, evolution and demise. The GWS developed an elongated eastward tail due to Saturn's zonal winds, and this tail wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. RPWS data indicated that the storm's head was the main center of lightning activity, but the region of active thunderstorm cells also extented eastward into the tail. This was confirmed by the first optical observation of lightning flashes on Saturn's dayside located eastward of the head. The head region periodically spawned anticyclonic vortices, and the optical flashes appeared in the cyclonic gaps between them where the atmosphere looked clear down to the level of deep clouds. The largest anticyclonic vortex in the tail drifted with a rate that was 2 deg/day slower than the head. Hence, after about half a year one caught up with the other, and it came to a head-vortex collision in mid-June 2011. This led to a significant decrease of lightning and convective activity, which became intermittent and finally ended in late August 2011.

Fischer, Georg; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Pagaran, Joseph A.

2014-05-01

110

White Toenails  

Science.gov (United States)

... Ankle Conditions » White Toenails Text Size Print Bookmark White Toenails White toenails can develop for several reasons. Trauma, such ... trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot ...

111

Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7. PMID:18766791

Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

1983-01-01

112

Tomato chlorotic spot virus in hydroponically-grown lettuce in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the regions of Campinas and Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil, hidroponically grown crops of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Verônica, which showed virus-like symptoms were examined by electron microscope, biological, serological and molecular tests. Pleomorphic, enveloped particles (80-100 nm in diameter were always detected in these samples. Experimentally inoculated host plants, including lettuce, reacted with tospoviruses-induced symptoms. Some differences were observed in Gomphrena globosa, which reacted by showing local lesions and systemic mosaic. Two isolates of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV were identified by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The sequencing and alignment of the RT-PCR coat protein amplified fragments have indicated a high degree of homology with the TCSV sequences stored in the GenBank. This is the first report of losses due to a virus from the genus Tospovirus in commercial hydroponic lettuce crops in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies are needed for better understanding the spread of the virus in hydroponic crops, since Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is reported to spread through the nutritive solution.

Colariccio Addolorata

2004-01-01

113

Cytopathological changes in Schefflera actinophylla Harms. naturally infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants of Schefflera actinophylla Harms. with stunted growth, chlorotic and necrotic spots and patterns, leaf epinasty and distortion are infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus classified as a member of genus Tospovirus. Studies with electron microscope revealed that in cells of S. actinophylla leaves there were no virus particle inclusions typical for tospovirus infection, but only single particles were present. The isolate of INSV was defective and the amount of INSV particles was strongly reduced in Schefflera plants. Some inclusions (I type were composed of short branched cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and a dark substance forming characteristic bands. The II type represented inclusions that were usually ballshaped and composed of a dark substance resembling that of the I type, but not accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. The III type of inclusions was composed of dark, osmophilic masses. The inclusions present in the cells differ from those typical for tospovirus infection.

Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald

1998-12-01

114

Two spinefoot colour morphs: mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are synonyms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are two similar species that differ subtly in colouration and morphology. Three major mtDNA clades were identified for these species, but individuals were clustered by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) according to geography rather than morphology, suggesting that the colour morphs are interbreeding. PMID:22026611

Hsu, T-H; Adiputra, Y T; Burridge, C P; Gwo, J-C

2011-11-01

115

Evaluation of Dried Blood Spots for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Drug Resistance Testing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dried blood spots (DBS) are simpler to prepare, store, and transport than plasma or serum and may represent a good alternative for drug resistance genotyping, particularly in resource-limited settings. However, the utility of DBS for drug resistance testing is unknown. We investigated the efficiency of amplification of large human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol fragments (1,023 bp) from DBS stored at different temperatures, the type of amplified product(s) (RNA and/or DNA), and the...

Mcnulty, Amanda; Jennings, Cheryl; Bennett, Diane; Fitzgibbon, Joseph; Bremer, James W.; Ussery, Michael; Kalish, Marcia L.; Heneine, Walid; Garci?a-lerma, J. Gerardo

2007-01-01

116

Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in vegetables in Florida and the southeastern U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) are two emerging tospoviruses in Florida. In a survey of the southeastern U.S., GRSV and TCSV were frequently detected in solanaceous crops and weeds with tospovirus-like symptoms in south Florida, and occurred sympatrically with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and pepper in south Florida. TSWV was the only tospovirus detected in other survey locations, with the exceptions of GRSV from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in South Carolina and New York, both of which are first reports. Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were the only non-solanaceous GRSV and/or TCSV hosts identified in experimental host range studies. Little genetic diversity was observed in GRSV and TCSV sequences, likely due to the recent introductions of both viruses. All GRSV isolates characterized were reassortants with the TCSV M RNA. In laboratory transmission studies, Frankliniella schultzei was a more efficient vector of GRSV than F. occidentalis. TCSV was acquired more efficiently than GRSV by F. occidentalis but upon acquisition, transmission frequencies were similar. Further spread of GRSV and TCSV in the U.S. is possible and detection of mixed infections highlights the opportunity for additional reassortment of tospovirus genomic RNAs. PMID:25317844

Webster, Craig; Frantz, Galen; Reitz, Stuart; Funderburk, Joe; Mellinger, H Charles; McAvoy, Eugene; Turechek, William W; Marshall, Spencer Harrison; Tantiwanich, Yaowapa; McGrath, Margaret; Daughtrey, Margery; Adkins, Scott

2014-10-15

117

Rotational period of WD1953-011 - a magnetic white dwarf with a star spot  

CERN Document Server

WD1953-011 is an isolated, cool (7920 +/- 200K, Bergeron, Legget & Ruiz, 2001) magnetic white dwarf (MWD) with a low average field strength (~70kG, Maxted et al. 2000) and a higher than average mass (~0.74 M_sun, Bergeron et al. 2001). Spectroscopic observations taken by Maxted et al. (2000) showed variations of equivalent width in the Balmer lines, unusual in a low field white dwarf. Here we present V band photometry of WD1953-011 taken at 7 epochs over a total of 22 months. All of the datasets show a sinusoidal variation of approximately 2% peak-to-peak amplitude. We propose that these variations are due to a star spot on the MWD, analogous to a sunspot, which is affecting the temperature at the surface, and therefore its photometric magnitude. The variations have a best-fit period over the entire 22 months of 1.4418 days, which we interpret as the rotational period of the WD.

Brinkworth, C S; Morales-Rueda, L; Maxted, P F L; Burleigh, M R; Good, S A

2004-01-01

118

Fontes de resistência em tomateiro aos begomovírus bissegmentados Tomato yellow spot virus e Tomato severe rugose virus / Sources of resistance in tomato to bipartite begomoviruses Tomato yellow spot virus and Tomato severe rugose virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os begomovírus causam doenças de grande importância econômica em diversas culturas, principalmente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Juntamente com outras famílias de vírus, os begomovírus têm causado grande prejuízo para os produtores de tomate in natura e para processamento industrial. O objeti [...] vo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de 11 genótipos resistentes ao Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) frente à infecção pelos begomovírus Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) e Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) em condições de casa-vegetação. A inoculação das plantas foi realizada via biobalística no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. A infecção viral confirmou-se pelo desenvolvimento dos sintomas e pela técnica de hibridização dot blot. Selecionaram-se como promissores os genótipos STY2, STY5, STY6 e L7, por não apresentarem sintomas e por terem concentrações virais muito baixas para os dois vírus. O espectro de resistência dos genes Ty-1 e Ty-2 não resultaram efetivos ante as espécies virais empregadas no estudo. As linhagens TY52, H24 e CLN2116B, portadoras destes genes, foram suscetíveis aos vírus ToYSV e ToSRV. Abstract in english Begomoviruses cause diseases of major economic importance in many crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Together with other families of viruses, the begomoviruses cause great damage for producers of fresh and processed tomatoes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavi [...] or of 11 resistant genotypes to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) when infected by the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were inoculated by biobalistic method when displaying two true leaves. Viral infection was confirmed by visual observation of symptoms and by dot blot hybridization. Genotypes STY2, STY5, STY6 and L7 were selected as promising due to the absence of symptoms and very low viral concentration for both viruses. The resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-2 were not effective against the viral species used in the study. The lines TY52, H24 and CLN2116B, carrying these genes, exhibited a susceptible behavior.

Francisco D, Hurtado; Marta A, Gil; Yamila M, Zubiaur; Jorge G, Aguilera; César Augusto D, Xavier; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini Junior; Derly Jose H da, Silva.

2012-12-01

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Transmission of Iris yellow spot virus by Frankliniella fusca and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) affects onion production in the United States and worldwide. The presence of IYSV in Georgia was confirmed in 2003. Two important thrips species that transmit tospoviruses, the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Lindeman)) and the tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) are known to infest onion in Georgia. However, T. tabaci is the only confirmed vector of IYSV. Experiments were conducted to test the vector status of F. fusca in comparison with T. tabaci. F. fusca and T. tabaci larvae and adults reared on IYSV-infected hosts were tested with antiserum specific to the nonstructural protein of IYSV through an antigen coated plate ELISA. The detection rates for F. fusca larvae and adults were 4.5 and 5.1%, respectively, and for T. tabaci larvae and adults they were 20.0 and 24.0%, respectively, indicating that both F. fusca and T. tabaci can transmit IYSV. Further, transmission efficiencies of F. fusca and T. tabaci were evaluated by using an indicator host, lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum (Salisbury)). Both F. fusca and T. tabaci transmitted IYSV at 18.3 and 76.6%, respectively. Results confirmed that F. fusca also can transmit IYSV but at a lower efficiency than T. tabaci. To attest if low vector competency of our laboratory-reared F. fusca population affected its IYSV transmission capability, a Tomato spotted wilt virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) transmission experiment was conducted. F. fusca transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus at a competent rate (90%) suggesting that the transmission efficiency of a competent thrips vector can widely vary between two closely related viruses. PMID:22420253

Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Pappu, Hanu R; Diffie, Stan; Riley, David G; Gitaitis, Ron D

2012-02-01

120

Detección del iris yellow spot virus en el cultivo de cebolla en Zacatecas, México / Iris yellow spot virus detection in the onion cultivation of Zacatecas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El virus de la mancha amarilla del iris (IYSV) es la enfermedad viral de mayor importancia para los cultivos de ajo y cebolla en Zacatecas, México. A finales de mayo de 2010 se encontraron lesiones amarillentas en forma de diamante en hojas y tallo floral de plantas de cebolla en parcelas comerciale [...] s, localizados en los municipios de Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. y Enrique Estrada pertenecientes al estado de Zacatecas. La prueba DAS-ELISA mostró resultados positivos para este virus en las muestras procedentes de diferentes municipios. Thrips tabaci el único vector conocido del IYSV se encontró en las parcelas comerciales muestreadas, aunque la presencia de Frankliniella occidentalis también fue reconocida en una parcela comercial de cebolla, cuyas muestras resultaron positivas a IYSV. No se encontró diferencia entre la altura, número de hojas, peso y diámetro de bulbo de plantas sin lesiones y aquellas con diferente número de lesiones de IYSV. Abstract in english The yellow spot virus Iris (IYSV) is the most important viral disease for garlic and onion crops in Zacatecas, Mexico. In late May 2010, yellow lesions were found in diamond-shaped leaves and flower stem of onion plants in commercial fields located in the municipalities of Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain [...] Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. and Enrique Estrada from the State of Zacatecas. The DAS-ELISA test was positive for the virus in samples from different municipalities. Thrips tabaci the only known vector of IYSV was found in sampled commercial parcels, although, the presence of Frankliniella occidentalis was also recognized in a commercial plot of onions, whose samples were positive for IYSV too. No difference was found between height, leaf number, bulb weight or diameter of the plants without lesions and those with different numbers of IYSV lesions.

Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Manuel, Reveles-Hernández.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
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THE TUBULE-FORMING NSM PROTEIN FROM TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS COMPLEMENTS CELL-TO-CELL AND LONG-DISTANCE MOVEMENT OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS HYBRIDS  

Science.gov (United States)

A Florida isolate of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was able to complement cell-to-cell movement of a movement-defective Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector. To test for complementation of movement in the absence of other TSWV proteins, the open reading frame for the NSm protein was expressed from ...

122

Treatment of orthodontic white spot lesions with a remineralizing dentifrice applied by toothbrushing or mouth trays.  

Science.gov (United States)

This pilot study investigated the effect of a remineralizing fluoride dentifrice (Enamelon) on newly formed incipient carious lesions using two methods of application. Teenage orthodontic patients with obvious white spot lesions on their teeth were selected to begin treatment within 30 days after debanding. At baseline, the surface enamel of the test teeth was cleaned by air etching with 50 microns alumina at 150 psi. Lesion size (mm2) was measured using a calibrated periodontal probe and surface appearance was quantified as shiny (0), dull (1), or chalky (2). Twice daily for 3 months, one group with a total of 27 lesions brushed with the remineralizing dentifrice, while a second group with 41 total lesions brushed and used a mouth tray to apply the paste directly to the lesions for 5 min. In order to promote treatment compliance, test group assignment was based on subject and parental preference. After 1, 2, and 3 months, lesion size was reduced by 5% (ns), 10% (p lesions treated by brushing improved slightly over 3 months. However, the lesions receiving combined brushing and tray applications became significantly (p lesion size within 1 month with concomitant formation of a shiny enamel surface layer. Thus, the combined brushing and mouth tray treatment significantly accelerated the remineralization process. PMID:10686860

Kleber, C J; Milleman, J L; Davidson, K R; Putt, M S; Triol, C W; Winston, A E

1999-01-01

123

Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial  

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Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2 on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL. The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old children with 45 active WSL in anterior permanent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated twice: baseline and on week 4. Maximum lesion dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival were measured in millimeters and classified in four grades of size. WSL were also assessed regarding lesion activity by one calibrated examiner. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used (P 0.01. It was concluded that after 4 applications the two varnish formulations tested produced similar clinical effects, indicating the reduction and the control of carious activity in most WSL.

Jainara Maria Soares Ferreira

2009-12-01

124

The effect of fractional CO2 laser irradiation on remineralization of enamel white spot lesions.  

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This study investigated the combined effect of fractional CO(2) laser irradiation and fluoride on treatment of enamel caries. Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned into four groups and then stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot lesions. Tooth color was determined at baseline (T1) and after demineralization (T2). Afterwards, the teeth in group 1 remained untreated (control), while group 2 was exposed to an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min. In groups 3 and 4, a fractional CO(2) laser was applied (10 mJ, 200 Hz, 10 s) either before (group 3) or through (group 4) the APF gel. The teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva for 90 days while subjected to daily fluoride mouthrinse and weekly brushing. Color examinations were repeated after topical fluoride application (T3) and 90 days later (T4). Finally, the teeth were sectioned, and microhardness was measured at the enamel surface and at 30 and 60 ? from the surface. In both lased groups, the color change between T1 and T4 stages (?E(T1-T4)) was significantly lower than those of the other groups (p?fluoride application (group 3) caused a significant increase in surface microhardness compared to APF alone and control groups (p?fluoride therapy is suggested for recovering the color and rehardening of demineralized enamel. PMID:23519913

Poosti, Maryam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Horieh; Najjaran, Hoda

2014-07-01

125

Regular exposure to rabies virus and lack of symptomatic disease in Serengeti spotted hyenas.  

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We report a previously unrecognized complexity to the ecology of rabies in wildlife. Rabies-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in spotted hyenas, the most numerous large carnivore in the Serengeti ecosystem (Tanzania, East Africa), revealed a high frequency of exposure of 37.0% to rabies virus, and reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR demonstrated rabies RNA in 13.0% of hyenas. Despite this high frequency, exposure neither caused symptomatic rabies nor decreased survival among members of hyena social groups monitored for 9 to 13 years. Repeated, intermittent presence of virus in saliva of 45.5% of seropositive hyenas indicated a "carrier" state. Rabies isolates from Serengeti hyenas differed significantly (8.5% sequence divergence) from those isolated from other Serengeti carnivores, suggesting that at least two separate strains circulate within the Serengeti carnivore community. This finding is consistent with the fact that exposure in hyenas increased with age and social status, following a pattern predicted by intraspecific age and social-status-dependent oral and bite contact rates. High seroprevalence of rabies, low basic reproductive rate of the virus (R(0)) of 1.9, a carrier state, and the absence of symptomatic rabies in a carnivore in an ecosystem with multihost and multistrain maintenance has not been previously demonstrated for rabies. Because of the substantial differences between the hyena viral isolates and those from canids and viverrids in the Serengeti, it is unlikely that spotted hyenas were the source of rabies virus that killed several African wild dog packs in the Serengeti ecosystem in the 1990s. PMID:11742089

East, M L; Hofer, H; Cox, J H; Wulle, U; Wiik, H; Pitra, C

2001-12-18

126

Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations.  

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This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek™ Z250 - control group) and glass-ionomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R™ and Fuji IX™ - experimental groups). Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15) or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15). After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p 0.05) versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p fluoride, aluminum, and strontium, and proved effective in white spot lesion prevention around restorations. PMID:25184496

Paiva, Lilian Fernanda Santos; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Maia, Lucianne Cople

2014-01-01

127

A new cryptic virus belonging to the family Partitiviridae was found in watermelon co-infected with Melon necrotic spot virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel virus was detected in watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) infected with Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) using SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis. In addition to the expected MSNV genome, two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments of 1,312 and 1,118 bp were also identified and sequenced from the purified virus preparations. These two dsRNA segments encode two putative partitivirus-related proteins, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and a capsid protein, which were sequenced. Genomic-sequence analysis and analysis of phylogenetic relationships indicate that these two dsRNAs together make up the genome of a novel Partitivirus. This virus was found to be closely related to the Pepper cryptic virus 1 and Raphanus sativus cryptic virus. It is suggested that this novel virus putatively named Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus be considered as a new member of the family Partitiviridae. PMID:23775759

Sela, Noa; Lachman, Oded; Reingold, Victoria; Dombrovsky, Aviv

2013-10-01

128

The route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The route of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the body of its vectors, Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied during their development. First instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected Datura stramonium plants for 24 h. The rate of transmission by adults was determined in inoculation access feeding test on Emilia sonchifolia leaf disks. Thrips tissues were analysed for infection at 24 h intervals after the acquisition-access feeding period, and assayed by the whole-mount immuno-fluorescent staining technique. The virus was initially detected in the proximal midgut region in larvae of both species, and then in the second and third midgut regions, foregut, and salivary glands. Occasionally the first infections of the salivary glands were already detected in one-day-old second stage larvae. The intensity of the infection in the various organs of the thrips of each species was positively related to the transmission efficiency. In both thrips populations good agreement was found between the percentage of second instar larvae and adults with at least one infected salivary gland lobe and the percentage of transmitting adults. These results support the contention that the virus must reach the salivary glands before thrips pupation in order to be transmitted by old second instar larvae and adults. PMID:12417949

Kritzman, A; Gera, A; Raccah, B; van Lent, J W M; Peters, D

2002-11-01

129

A possible influence of the Great White Spot on Saturn kilometric radiation periodicity  

Science.gov (United States)

The periodicity of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) varies with time, and its two periods during the first 5 years of the Cassini mission have been attributed to SKR from the northern and southern hemisphere. After Saturn equinox in August 2009, there were long intervals of time (March 2010 to February 2011 and September 2011 to June 2012) with similar northern and southern SKR periods and locked SKR phases. However, from March to August 2011 the SKR periods were split up again, and the phases were unlocked. In this time interval, the southern SKR period slowed down by ~ 0.5% on average, and there was a large jump back to a faster period in August 2011. The northern SKR period speeded up and coalesced again with the southern period in September 2011. We argue that this unusual behavior could be related to the so-called Great White Spot (GWS), a giant thunderstorm that raged in Saturn's atmosphere around that time. For several months in 2011, the visible head of the GWS had the same period of ~ 10.69 h as the main southern SKR modulation signal. The GWS was most likely a source of intense gravity waves that may have caused a global change in Saturn's thermospheric winds via energy and momentum deposition. This would support the theory that Saturn's magnetospheric periodicities are driven by the upper atmosphere. Since the GWS with simultaneous SKR periodicity measurements have only been made once, it is difficult to prove a physical connection between these two phenomena, but we provide plausible mechanisms by which the GWS might modify the SKR periods.

Fischer, G.; Ye, S.-Y.; Groene, J. B.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.

2014-12-01

130

Role of Oxalis corniculata L. as plant virus reservoir with special regard to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-RB strain occurrence in rock-wool cultivation in Hungary  

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Full Text Available The creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata L. in Central Europe occurs mainly in anthropogenic areas, where it grows in parks and landfill sites or in protected cultivation sites like greenhouses and nurseries. In Hungary O. corniculata has been spreading since the 19th century. In glass- and greenhouses it is the only weed species that was able to settle and flourish on hydroponic rock-wool and coconut fibre growing media. Among virus pathogens of forced tomato (LYPES and paprika crops (CPSAN in Hungary the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV has become an important one, severely affecting the plants and on occasions causing 100% yield losses. The spread of the virus was largely assisted by its effective vector the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Initially the control of the disease was based on the control of the thrips, later, virus-resistant varieties were introduced. This however proved insufficient to fight the disease as it was discovered, quite recently, that in certain white pepper (CPSAN varieties the virus was able to break up the resistance. According to data of the year 2012, those varieties that were considered resistant, showed up to 50% virus infection. Considering the wide spread of O. corniculata and increasing occurrence of the resistance-breaking TSWV isolates, surveys in greenhouses were conducted to examine whether the weed could serve as reservoir for TSWV. Samples were collected of the virus infected crop plants and O. corniculata growing in the same coconut fibre cubes. The samples were examined using test-plants, serological and RT-PCR methods. In result it was found that the symptoms were indeed caused by resistance-breaking TSWV isolates. However, no virus was found in the suspected O. corniculata samples. Therefore it was concluded that in this particular case the O. corniculata cannot be considered reservoir for the virus, in the hydroponic culture.

Hodi, Anna Maria

2014-02-01

131

Evaluation of ‘white-spotted kidneys’ associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows  

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Full Text Available The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3% showed focal to multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18 and blood (n = 24 samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the LipL32 gene. Leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was detected in 19 (79.2% out of 24 kidneys, as well as 7 (29.2% blood and 10 (55.5% urine samples of cows with white spots in their kidneys. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and a few plasma cells in the renal interstitial tissues. In addition, 14 apparently normal kidneys and associated urine and blood samples were similarly examined by PCR but did not provide any positive results. In this study, high detection of leptospirosis in kidneys with interstitial nephritis suggests that Leptospira spp. are associated with white spotted kidneys. The present findings indicate that white spotted kidneys can be due to leptospirosis in this region in southwestern Iran, which indicates an increased risk of zoonotic disease. The data show that LipL32-based primers are useful for PCR-based diagnosis of leptospirosis.

Shahrzad Azizi

2012-11-01

132

Groundnut ringspot virus and tomato spotted wilt virus – Tospoviruses in Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing number of solanaceous crop and weed species infected with groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) has been identified in Florida. Continuing geographic spread of GRSV into additional vegetable production areas of Florida has also been documented. Much has been learned about GRSV in Florida altho...

133

Identification and incidence of iris yellow spot virus, a new pathogen in onion and leek in Greece  

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Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging and serious pathogen affecting several Allium spp. worldwide (2). The virus causes straw-colored, chlorotic or necrotic lesions that coalesce, occasionally resulting in an extensive necrosis on onion (A. cepa L.) leaves. From February to June 2008, 530 onion and 439 leek (A. porum L.) leaf samples showing a variety of lesions were collected from different areas of Greece. All plants sampled were infested with ...

Chatzivassiliou, E. K.; Giavachtsia, V.; Hassani-mehraban, A.; Hoedjes, K.; Peters, D.

2009-01-01

134

The NSs Protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus Is Required for Persistent Infection and Transmission by Frankliniella occidentalis  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type member of tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus), plant-infecting viruses that cause severe damage to ornamental and vegetable crops. Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips in the circulative propagative mode. We generated a collection of NSs-defective TSWV isolates and showed that TSWV coding for truncated NSs protein could not be transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunostaining of individual i...

Margaria, P.; Bosco, L.; Vallino, M.; Ciuffo, M.; Mautino, G. C.; Tavella, L.; Turina, M.

2014-01-01

135

Molecular basis of gene-specific RNA-mediated resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus in transgenic tobacco plants.  

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Transgenic resistance to tomato spot wilt virus (TSWV) has been accomplished by expressing the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein gene in transgenic tobacco. Similar levels of protection, i.e., complete immunity to the virus in homozygous S2 plants, have been observed when an untranslatable N protein gene was expressed, indicating that the N protein gene-based resistance is mediated by the expressed transgene viral RNA. To test whether this RNA-mediated resistance is limited to plants that expres...

Prins, M.; Haan, P.; Goldbach, R.

1996-01-01

136

Proteomic Analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis and Differentially Expressed Proteins in Response to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Infection  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a persistent propagative manner. Despite the extensive replication of TSWV in midgut and salivary glands, there is little to no pathogenic effect on F. occidentalis. We hypothesize that the first-instar larva (L1) of F. occidentalis mounts a response to TSWV that protects it from pathogenic effects caused by virus infection and replication in various insect tissues. A partial thrips transcriptome was generated us...

Badillo-vargas, I. E.; Rotenberg, D.; Schneweis, D. J.; Hiromasa, Y.; Tomich, J. M.; Whitfield, A. E.

2012-01-01

137

Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ?50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the development of CLs.

Kenneth Gilbert

2014-10-01

138

Development of a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay for detection of Impatiens necrotic spot virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) is an important plant virus that can cause severe disease in various ornamental and agricultural crops. Several species of thrips transmit INSV, of which the western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) is the most important. In this study, primers and TaqMan probes based on INSV non-structural protein gene sequences were designed, and a technique was developed for detecting INSV using fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. The reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity for the RT-PCR were evaluated; and the RT-PCR method was developed to detect INSV in the host plants and western flower thrips. A standard curve constructed by a series of diluted plasmid DNA gave a good linear relationship between Ct value and concentration of plasmid DNA, a low coefficient of variation and good reproducibility. The detection method not only measured quantitatively the concentration of INSV in plant hosts and western flower thrips, but also measured accurately low concentrations of the virus. The measurable concentration fell to as low as 10? copies/?l, while RT-PCR could detect only 10² copies/?l. The method had high specificity and could distinguish INSV from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), both from the same genus of viruses. This is the first report of the same method being used to detect INSV in both plant hosts and western flower thrips, and should be helpful in studies of INSV epidemiology. PMID:23466630

Chen, Xuejiao; Xu, Xiaogang; Li, Yongzhong; Liu, Yating

2013-05-01

139

Resistência de cultivares e linhagens de tomateiro a Tomato chlorotic spot virus e a Potato virus Y Resistance of tomato lines and cultivars to Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Potato virus Y  

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Full Text Available Linhagens avançadas do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum do IAC foram avaliadas em condições de campo em Campinas (SP para resistência a tospovírus e a potyvírus, nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, respectivamente. No primeiro ano, a única espécie de tospovírus que ocorreu na área experimental foi Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. As sete linhagens do grupo IAC exibiram baixa porcentagem de plantas sintomáticas em duas avaliações, com médias abaixo de 28%; as cultivares testadas mostraram-se altamente suscetíveis, com médias acima de 85%, à exceção de 'Franco', que apresentou cerca de 55% de infecção. No segundo experimento, conduzido em 2003/2004, dez linhagens do grupo IAC foram comparadas com cinco cultivares de polinização aberta e híbridos F1, além do acesso LA-444-1 de L. peruvianum. Nesse experimento, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos, verificou-se ocorrência generalizada de Potato virus Y (PVY. Foi determinado o percentual de plantas com sintomas e avaliada a intensidade dos sintomas mediante uso de escala de notas. Com base nos dois critérios, verificou-se que LA-444-1 apresenta alta resistência a PVY, que 'Tyrade' exibe comportamento intermediário, enquanto todos os demais genótipos demonstram alta suscetibilidade ao vírus. O comportamento dos genótipos avaliados neste trabalho mostra a necessidade de se considerar, nos programas de melhoramento do tomateiro, a introgressão de fatores de resistência não só a vírus de importância atual nas regiões produtoras, como geminivírus, mas também a outros vírus potencialmente nocivos à cultura, como tospovírus e potyvírus.Advanced breeding lines from the IAC tomato breeding program and several tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars and F1 hybrids were screened for tospovirus and potyvirus resistance under field conditions, at Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. During the first season, only Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV was detected in plants of the experimental area. On both evaluations, all seven lines (IAC group were resistant to TCSV, with under 28% of infected plants. The tomato cultivars and hybrids were highly susceptible, with greater than 85% of infected plants, except for 'Franco', with 55% of infected plants. During the 2003/2004 growing season, the number of IAC lines evaluated was raised from seven to ten, and they were compared to five cultivars/F1 hybrids and to L. peruvianum LA-444-1. On this experiment, only Potato virus Y (PVY was detected in plants. Evaluations were carried out using a symptom intensity scale and ELISA. Considering both criteria, it was verified that only LA-444-1 displayed high resistance to PVY. In addition, 'Tyrade' displayed an intermediate behavior while all other lines, cultivars and hybrids behaved as susceptible to this potyvirus. These results highlight the need of introgressing resistance to multiple viruses in tomato breeding programs, taking into consideration the economical importance and relative incidence of each virus in different geographical regions and natural variations on incidence from year to year.

André L. Lourenção

2005-12-01

140

Factors Affecting the Formation, Severity and Location of White Spot Lesions during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the formation, severity and location of white spot lesions in patients completing fixed appliance therapy. Material and Methods: A total of 45 patients (19 males and 26 females, mean age 15.81 years, standard deviation 2.89 years attending consecutively Aberdeen Dental Hospital (ADH between January and June 2013 to have their fixed appliances removed were given a questionnaire to elicit information regarding their dental care and diet. They were then examined clinically as well as their pre-treatment photographs to record treatment data and white spot lesion (WSL location and severity using a modified version of Universal Visual Scale for Smooth Surfaces (UniViSS Smooth. Absolute risk (AR and risk ratios (RR were also calculated. Results: The incidence of at least one WSL observed in patients was 42%, with males displaying a higher incidence than females. The highest incidence of WSLs was recorded on the maxillary canines and lateral incisors, and on the maxillary and mandibular premolars and first molars. The gingival areas of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were the most affected surfaces. Significant (P < 0.05 relationships were found between the presence of WSLs and the following factors: poor oral hygiene (OH, males, increased treatment length, lack of use of fluoride supplements, use of carbonated soft drinks and/or fruit juices and the use of sugary foods. Poor OH posed the highest risk of developing WSL (RR = 8.55. Conclusions: 42% of patients have developed white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Various contributing risk factors were identified with the greatest risk posed by a poor oral hygiene.

Khaled Khalaf

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST PELARGONIUM ZONATE SPOT VIRUS COAT PROTEIN EXPRESSED IN ESCHERICHIA COLI AND APPLICATION FOR IMMUNODIAGNOSIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), a new emerging disease on tomato in the United States, has been classified as the first member of new proposed genus, Anulavirus, within the family Bromoviridae and characterized as having unstable virions with weakly immunogenic properties. To develop serologic...

142

Dried blood spots as a practical and inexpensive source for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus surveillance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Passive surveillance of infectious diseases with a high percentage of asymptomatic cases or long incubation periods, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, does not reflect the current transmission dynamics. Thus, a multi-strategic surveillance, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV sentinel surveillance proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, is necessary. The Brazilian HIV sentinel surveillance was started in May 1992 with this purpose. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and costs of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV surveillance using dried blood spots (DBS collected for neonatal screening of metabolic diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was accomplished through the comparison of HIV and HCV seroprevalence with previous Brazilian studies. From December 2001 to June 2002, 24,905 newborns were tested for HIV and 4211 for HCV. HIV seroprevalence was 0.25% and the 95% confidence interval (CI was 0.18, 0.31%; and HCV seroprevalence was 0.71% and the 95% CI was 0.46, 0.97%. These numbers are similar to previous Brazilian studies. Cost in this study was approximately US$ 3.10 per sample, which was roughly one third of the cost of the same exam at the Brazilian HIV sentinel surveillance. We conclude that it is possible and more cost-effective to use DBS for infectious diseases surveillance, albeit it is still necessary to compare these results with the usual sentinel methodology in a concomitant trial.

Antonio Carlos de Castro Toledo Jr.

2005-07-01

143

Dried blood spots as a practical and inexpensive source for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive surveillance of infectious diseases with a high percentage of asymptomatic cases or long incubation periods, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), does not reflect the current transmission dynamics. Thus, a multi-strategic surveillance, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sentinel surveillance proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is necessary. The Brazilian HIV sentinel surveillance was started in May 1992 with this purpose. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and costs of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) surveillance using dried blood spots (DBS) collected for neonatal screening of metabolic diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was accomplished through the comparison of HIV and HCV seroprevalence with previous Brazilian studies. From December 2001 to June 2002, 24,905 newborns were tested for HIV and 4211 for HCV. HIV seroprevalence was 0.25% and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.18, 0.31%; and HCV seroprevalence was 0.71% and the 95% CI was 0.46, 0.97%. These numbers are similar to previous Brazilian studies. Cost in this study was approximately USD 3.10 per sample, which was roughly one third of the cost of the same exam at the Brazilian HIV sentinel surveillance. We conclude that it is possible and more cost-effective to use DBS for infectious diseases surveillance, albeit it is still necessary to compare these results with the usual sentinel methodology in a concomitant trial. PMID:16113879

Toledo, Antonio Carlos de Castro; Januário, José Nélio; Rezende, Renata Maria Silva; Siqueira, Arminda Lúcia; Mello, Bernardo Freire de; Fialho, Erica Ligorio; Ribeiro, Raquel Andrade; Silva, Hélia Lemos da; Pires, Erika Carvalho; Simões, Taynaná César; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu

2005-07-01

144

Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound beta-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought.

van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de

2012-01-01

145

A predictive model for spotted wilt epidemics in peanut based on local weather conditions and the tomato spotted wilt virus risk index.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the genus Tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae), is an important plant virus that causes severe damage to peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in the southeastern United States. Disease severity has been extremely variable in individual fields in Georgia, due to several factors including variability in weather patterns. A TSWV risk index has been developed by the University of Georgia to aid peanut growers with the assessment and avoidance of high risk situations. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between weather parameters and spotted wilt severity in peanut, and to develop a predictive model that integrates localized weather information into the risk index. On-farm survey data collected during 1999, 2002, 2004, and 2005 growing seasons, and derived weather variables during the same years were analyzed using nonlinear and multiple regression analyses. Meteorological data were obtained from the Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring Network. The best model explained 61% of the variation in spotted wilt severity (square root transformed) as a function of the interactions between the TSWV risk index, the average daily temperature in April (TavA), the average daily minimum temperature between March and April (TminMA), the accumulated rainfall in March (RainfallM), the accumulated rainfall in April (RainfallA), the number of rain days in April (RainDayA), evapotranspiration in April (EVTA), and the number of days from 1 January to the planting date (JulianDay). Integrating this weather-based model with the TSWV risk index may help peanut growers more effectively manage tomato spotted wilt disease. PMID:18943452

Olatinwo, R O; Paz, J O; Brown, S L; Kemerait, R C; Culbreath, A K; Beasley, J P; Hoogenboom, G

2008-10-01

146

Effects of Temperature and Host on the Generation of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Defective Interfering RNAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The generation of defective interfering (DI) RNA molecules of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) was studied by serially passaging in-ocula from plant to plant under different controlled conditions. DI RNAs were generated at higher rates in plants at 16 degrees C than in plants incubated at higher temperatures. Another factor promoting the TSWV DI RNA generation was the use of high virus concentrations in the inocula. The solanaceous species Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana benthamiana, and N. rustica supported the generation of DI RNAs, whereas the virus recovered from the inoculated composite species, Emilia sonchifolia, remained free of any DI RNA under all conditions tested. This study resulted in a strategy to maintain DI RNA-free TSWV isolates, as well as in an efficient way to produce a large population of different DI RNA species. A single DI RNA species usually became dominant in an isolate after a few rounds of serial inoculations. The possible mechanisms involved in TSWV DI RNA generation under different inoculation circumstances are discussed. PMID:18945014

Inoue-Nagata, A K; Kormelink, R; Nagata, T; Kitajima, E W; Goldbach, R; Peters, D

1997-11-01

147

Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as “mancha de chocolate” (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissue to Nicotiana benthamiana and, when graft-transmitted to tomato, this agent induced chocolate spot symptoms. This virus-like agent also was sap-transmitted to Datura stramonium and Nicotiana glutinosa, but not to a range of non-solanaceous indicator plants. Icosahedral virions ~28–30 nm in diameter were purified from symptomatic N. benthamiana plants. When rub-inoculated onto leaves of N. benthamiana plants, these virions induced symptoms indistinguishable from those in N. benthamiana plants infected with the sap-transmissible virus associated with chocolate spot disease. Tomatoes inoculated with sap or grafted with shoots from N. benthamiana plants infected with purified virions developed typical chocolate spot symptoms, consistent with this virus being the causal agent of the disease. Analysis of nucleic acids associated with purified virions of the chocolate-spot-associated virus, revealed a genome composed of two single-stranded RNAs of ~7.5 and ~5.1 kb. Sequence analysis of these RNAs revealed a genome organization similar to recently described torradoviruses, a new group of picorna-like viruses causing necrosis-associated diseases of tomatoes in Europe [tomato torrado virus (ToTV)] and Mexico [tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) and tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV)]. Thus, the ~7.5 kb and ~5.1 kb RNAs of the chocolate-spot-associated virus corresponded to the torradovirus RNA1 and RNA2, respectively; however, sequence comparisons revealed 64–83% identities with RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of ToTV, ToANV and ToMarV. Together, these results indicate that the chocolate-spot-associated virus is a member of a distinct torradovirus species and, thus, another member of the recently established genus Torradovirus in the family Secoviridae. The name tomato chocolate spot virus is proposed. PMID:20376682

Batuman, O.; Kuo, Y.-W.; Palmieri, M.; Rojas, M. R.

2010-01-01

148

Detection of infections with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus by analyses of dried blood spots - performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT system and two commercial assays for nucleic acid amplification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Nowadays, dried blood spots (DBS) are primarily used to obtain diagnostic access to risk collectives such as intravenous drug users, who are prone to infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Before DBS analyses can be used in this diagnostic context, however, a comprehensive evaluation of its performance characteristics must be conducted. To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents for the firs...

Ross, Stefan; Stambouli, Oumaima; Gru?ner, Nico; Marcus, Ulrich; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Weidong; Zimmermann, Ruth; Roggendorf, Michael

2013-01-01

149

The nucleocapsid protein of an enveloped plant virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, facilitates long-distance movement of Tobacco mosaic virus hybrids.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the potential role(s) of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the open reading frame for the N protein was expressed from a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector encoding only the TMV replicase proteins. In the absence of other TSWV-encoded proteins, the transiently expressed N protein facilitated long-distance movement of the TMV-based hybrids in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana [NB-MP(+)] expressing movement protein of TMV, thus providing the functional demonstration of the N protein in long-distance RNA movement. Removal of the N-terminal 39 amino acids (N-N?39), the C-terminal 26 amino acids (N-C?26) or both of them (N-N?39C?26) abolished the long-distance movement function, indicating the essential role of both N- and C-terminus. In contrast, alanine substitution of the phenylalanines at positions 242 and 246 (N242/262A), two crucial amino acids for homotypic interaction of the N protein, had little effect, suggesting that the N protein could function in long-distance movement in the form of monomers. In addition, both the wild type N and the alanine mutant N242/262A hardly induced local symptoms in NB-MP(+) plants and TMV-MP transgenic N. tabacum cv. Xanthi. The deletion mutants N-N?39, N-C?26 and N-N?39C?26, however, induced apparent symptoms of necrotic ringspots, necrosis or chlorotic spots in all inoculated leaves. On the basis of these findings, the potential role of N during the TSWV infection was discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the N protein of an enveloped plant virus functioned in long-distance movement. PMID:22020361

Zhang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Weimin

2012-01-01

150

Dried blood spots as a practical and inexpensive source for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus surveillance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Passive surveillance of infectious diseases with a high percentage of asymptomatic cases or long incubation periods, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), does not reflect the current transmission dynamics. Thus, a multi-strategic surveillance, such as the human immunodeficiency virus ( [...] HIV) sentinel surveillance proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is necessary. The Brazilian HIV sentinel surveillance was started in May 1992 with this purpose. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and costs of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) surveillance using dried blood spots (DBS) collected for neonatal screening of metabolic diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was accomplished through the comparison of HIV and HCV seroprevalence with previous Brazilian studies. From December 2001 to June 2002, 24,905 newborns were tested for HIV and 4211 for HCV. HIV seroprevalence was 0.25% and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.18, 0.31%; and HCV seroprevalence was 0.71% and the 95% CI was 0.46, 0.97%. These numbers are similar to previous Brazilian studies. Cost in this study was approximately US$ 3.10 per sample, which was roughly one third of the cost of the same exam at the Brazilian HIV sentinel surveillance. We conclude that it is possible and more cost-effective to use DBS for infectious diseases surveillance, albeit it is still necessary to compare these results with the usual sentinel methodology in a concomitant trial.

Antonio Carlos de Castro, Toledo Jr.; José Nélio, Januário; Renata Maria Silva, Rezende; Arminda Lúcia, Siqueira; Bernardo Freire de, Mello; Érica Ligorio, Fialho; Raquel Andrade, Ribeiro; Hélia Lemos da, Silva; Érika Carvalho, Pires; Taynaná César, Simões; Dirceu Bartolomeu, Greco.

2005-07-01

151

Tomato chlorotic spot virus in hydroponically-grown lettuce in São Paulo State, Brazil / Detecção do Tomato chlorotic spot virus associado a alface em cultivo hidropônico no Estado de São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa) cv. Verônica cultivadas em sistema hidropônico, provenientes dos municípios de Campinas e Sumaré, SP, apresentando sintomas típicos aos induzidos pelos tospovírus, foram coletadas para análise. Partículas pleomórficas arredondadas e envelopadas (80-100 nm de diâmet [...] ro) foram visualizadas ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. Plantas indicadoras, incluindo a alface, apresentaram sintomas típicos daqueles induzidos pelos tospovírus. Algumas diferenças foram observadas em Gomphrena globosa, que reagiu com sintomas locais e sistêmicos. Nestas amostras, identificaram-se dois isolados do Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) através de DAS-ELISA e seqüenciamento de produtos de DNA do gene da capa protéica amplificados via RT-PCR. O alinhamento das seqüências indicou elevados níveis de homologia com outros isolados de TCSV do GenBank. Este é o primeiro relato de perdas causadas por tospovírus em cultivos comerciais de alface hidropônico, no Brasil. Os aspectos epidemiológicos envolvidos na dispersão do vírus, nestas condições, ainda precisam ser esclarecidos, uma vez que a disseminação de tospovírus através de solução nutritiva tem sido relatada para o Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Abstract in english In the regions of Campinas and Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil, hidroponically grown crops of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cv. Verônica, which showed virus-like symptoms were examined by electron microscope, biological, serological and molecular tests. Pleomorphic, enveloped particles (80-100 nm in diameter) [...] were always detected in these samples. Experimentally inoculated host plants, including lettuce, reacted with tospoviruses-induced symptoms. Some differences were observed in Gomphrena globosa, which reacted by showing local lesions and systemic mosaic. Two isolates of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) were identified by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The sequencing and alignment of the RT-PCR coat protein amplified fragments have indicated a high degree of homology with the TCSV sequences stored in the GenBank. This is the first report of losses due to a virus from the genus Tospovirus in commercial hydroponic lettuce crops in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies are needed for better understanding the spread of the virus in hydroponic crops, since Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is reported to spread through the nutritive solution.

Addolorata, Colariccio; Marcelo, Eiras; Alexandre L. R., Chaves; Ricardo, Harakava; César M., Chagas.

2004-06-01

152

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Givens, M Daniel; Brock, Kenny V; DeYoung, Randy W; Walz, Paul H

2010-01-01

153

Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek™ Z250 – control group) and glass-i [...] onomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R™ and Fuji IX™ - experimental groups). Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15) or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15). After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p 0.05) versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p

Lilian Fernanda Santos, PAIVA; Tatiana Kelly da Silva, FIDALGO; Lucianne Cople, MAIA.

2014-08-29

154

HEPATITIS B VIRUS DNA CAN BE AMPLIFIED DIRECTLY FROM DRIED BLOOD SPOT ON FILTER PAPER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infections represent a major public health problem because of the ability of HBV to cause a chronic carrier state. Even though chronic carriers remain largely asymptomatic, a large number of these individuals subsequently develop cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinomas. Dried Blood Spot (DBS samples are a simple and inexpensive sampling method, especially useful for blood collection in resource poor settings with limited access to diagnostic facilities. The main advantage of DBS samples over routine blood samples is that only a small quantity of blood, is required. They are easy to obtain, stable and can be transported to a reference laboratory at minimal cost. This study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBS samples for direct amplification of HBV DNA bypassing nucleic acid extraction. Results obtained from DBS samples were compared from those from plasma by routine molecular technique and also with those from whole blood. On the whole results for DBS, whole blood and plasma samples for HBV-DNA semi quantitative PCR monitoring, demonstrated very good agreement. This study also represents the first report in Egypt to evaluate the use of DBS to direct amplification of HBV-DNA and concluded that the use of DBS for direct amplification of HBV DNA without nucleic acid extraction was reliable, specific, sensitive, cheap and appropriate method to monitor the HBV infected patients."

Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini

2012-01-01

155

The first complete genome sequences of two distinct European tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) represents a major constraint to the production of important vegetable and ornamental crops in several countries around the world, including those in Europe. In spite of their economic importance, European TSWV isolates have only been partially characterized, and a complete genome sequence has not been determined yet. In this study, we completed the whole genome sequence of two distinct TSWV isolates from Italy, p105 and p202/3WT. The sequences of the L and M segments of p105 and of the L segment of p202/3WT were determined using a combined approach of RT-PCR and small RNA (sRNAs) contig assembly. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and GN/GC protein sequences grouped the two isolates in two different clades, showing that different evolutive lineages are present among Italian TSWV isolates. Analysis of possible recombination/reassortment events among our isolates and other available full-length genome TSWV sequences showed a likely reassortment event involving the L segment. PMID:25326756

Margaria, P; Miozzi, L; Ciuffo, M; Pappu, H R; Turina, M

2015-02-01

156

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BV...

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; Deyoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

2009-01-01

157

Immune responses of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, against virus-like particles of betanodavirus produced in Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However, little is known about the activation of genes responsible for cellular and innate immunity by vaccines. In the present study, VLPs of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) were produced in prokaryotes and their ability to enter Asian sea bass cells was the same as native virus, suggesting that they possess a similar structure to OGNNV. VLPs immunogenicity was then determined by intramuscularly vaccinating Epinephelus coioides at different concentrations (1.5 or 15 ?g g(-1) fish body weight, FBW) and immunizing frequencies (administration once, twice and thrice). A single vaccination with the dosage of 1.5 ?g g(-1) FBW is enough to provoke high titer antibodies (average 3 fold higher than that of negative control) with strong neutralizing antibody titer as early as 1 week post immunization. Furthermore, quantitative PCR analysis revealed that eleven genes associated with humoral, cellular and innate immunities were up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney at 12h post immunization, correlating with the early antibody response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VLP vaccination induced humoral immune responses and activated genes associated with cellular and innate immunity against betanodavirus infection in orange-spotted grouper. PMID:24252246

Lai, Yu-Xiong; Jin, Bao-Lei; Xu, Yu; Huang, Li-Jie; Huang, Run-Qing; Zhang, Yong; Kwang, Jimmy; He, Jian-Guo; Xie, Jun-Feng

2014-01-15

158

Pathogenesis study of selected velogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus in White Leghorn chickens  

Science.gov (United States)

Groups of 4-week old White Leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with three Newcastle disease viruses isolated from natural outbreaks (Vietnam, Australia, both velogenic; and U.S., mesogenic) and two strains rescued by reverse genetics (ZJ1 and ZJ1-GFP). The parent ZJ1, a velogen, wa...

159

Tomato spotted wilt virus: agente causal de la marchitez del Miguelito (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) en el Estado de Morelos, México / Tomato spotted wilt virus: causal agent of wilt in "Miguelito" (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) in Morelos, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se observaron síntomas de moteado, manchas necróticas anulares, enanismo y marchitez severa en plantas de miguelito (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) (Fam: Compositae) cultivadas en viveros comerciales del Estado de Morelos, México. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la etiología de e [...] sta enfermedad. Se identificó al virus marchitez manchada del tomate (Tomato spotted wilt virus. TSWV) como el agente causal de la enfermedad del miguelito con base en los ensayos de transmisión mecánica en plantas indicadoras y de patogenicidad en plántulas sanas de Z. elegans, cultivadas desde semilla en el invernadero. En las plantas el virus causó los síntomas de moteado, manchas necróticas en forma de anillos concéntricos, enanismo y marchitez, idénticos a los observados en plantas de miguelito cultivados en condiciones de campo. Se detectó por serología (DAS-ELISA) sólo al TSWV en plantas de miguelito con síntomas de marchitez procedentes de viveros comerciales del Estado de Morelos, en las plantas indicadoras usadas para separar al virus y en las plantas de miguelito producidas desde semilla inoculadas con el aislamiento puro de TSWV en el invernadero. La identidad taxonómica del TSWV se confirmó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de la RT-PCR. Las secuencias obtenidas del TSWV de muestras de campo de miguelito (número de acceso EF067862) y del mismo virus separado de N. rustica (número de acceso EF067863) mostraron una homología en el fragmento amplificado del gen de la proteína de la cápside del TSWV del 100% entre ellas y del 93% con las existentes en la base de datos de lNCBI/GenBank de aislamientos del TSWV ampliamente distribuidos en el mundo. Este trabajo es el primer reporte de la presencia del TSWV en Z. elegans en México y se describen dos métodos moleculares para diagnosticar e identificar este virus. Abstract in english Mottle symptoms, necrotic ring spots, dwarfism, and severe wilt were observed on "miguelito" (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) (Fam: Comositae) plants cultivated in commercial nurseries in the State of Morelos, México. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the etiology of the disease. Tomato spott [...] ed wilt virus (TSWV) was identified as the causal agent of the disease in miguelito by mechanical transmission tests on indicator plants and pathogenicity tests on healthy Z. elegans seedlings cultivated from seed in a greenhouse. On these plants the virus caused mottled symptoms, necrotic spots in the form of concentric rings, dwarfism and wilt, identical to those observed in miguelito plants cultivated in field conditions. Through serology (DAS-ELISA) only TSWV was detected in miguelito plants with wilt symptoms from commercial nurseries in the State of Morelos, in indicator plants used to separate the virus, and in miguelito plants produced from seed and inoculated with a pure isolate of TSWV in the greenhouse. Taxonomical identity of TSWV was confirmed by direct sequencing of the RT-PCR products. The TSWV sequences obtained from field samples of miguelito (access number EF067862) and the same virus separated from N. rustica (access number EF067863) showed 100% homology in the amplified fragment of the capsid protein gene of TSWV, while with the samples of TSWV isolates widely distributed over the world existing in the INCBI/GeneBank there was 93% homology. This paper is the first report of the presence of TSWV in Z. elegans in México, and two molecular methods for diagnosing and identifying this virus are described.

Ma. Valeria, Morales-Díaz; Salomé, Alcacio-Rangel; Rodolfo, De La Torre-Almaraz.

2008-05-01

160

Products of different chemical groups to control maize white spot
Produtos de diferentes grupos químicos no controle da mancha branca do milho
 

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The aim of this work was the evaluation of different products used to control maize white spot, a leaf disease caused by the bacterium Pantoea ananatis. Six products from different chemical groups were used for this experiment, and they were tested on the susceptible hybrid HS200. Parameters, such as severity (%), area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), and productivity, have been estimated. The treatment with oxytetracyline resulted higher grain productivity for maize. Natural products, s...

Eliseu dos Santos Pedro; Ricardo Marcelo Gonçalves; Walter Fernandes Meirelles; Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

A novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting vegetables in Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was recently identified using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida, which extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome s...

162

Solanaceous vegetables in Florida infected with a novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently identified Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida. This extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome se...

163

White matter tract injury and cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus–infected individuals  

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Approximately half of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit cognitive impairment, which has been related to cerebral white matter damage. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment, cognitive impairment remains common even in individuals with undetectable viral loads. One explanation for this may be subtherapeutic concentrations of some antiretrovirals in the central nervous system (CNS). We utilized diffusion tensor imaging and a comprehensive neuropsy...

Gongvatana, Assawin; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Taylor, Michael J.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Letendre, Scott L.; Alhassoon, Omar M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Woods, Steven P.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Grant, Igor

2009-01-01

164

Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

Fanning, Liam J

2012-02-03

165

Reação de híbridos de milho e comparação de métodos para avaliação da Cercosporiose e Mancha Branca Reaction of commercial corn hybrids and comparison of methods for evaluation of maize White Spot and Gray Leaf Spot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o nível de resistência de 12 híbridos comerciais de milho à cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora zeae-maydis, e à Mancha Branca, causada por Pantoea ananatis e comparar a eficiência das estimativas da área abaixo da curva de progresso das doenças e da estabilidade fenotípica, na avaliação da resistência a esses patógenos. Foram conduzidos três experimentos, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, em três locais. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças, em intervalos de sete dias, a partir dos 80 dias da emergência, por meio de uma escala de notas variando de 1 (altamente resistente a 9 (altamente suscetível. Foram estimadas a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e o coeficiente de regressão linear (b1 entre a variável independente época de avaliação (x e a variável dependente severidade da doença (y e o coeficiente de determinação (R². Observou-se que, ambas as metodologias utilizadas mostraram-se eficientes na discriminação do nível de resistência dos híbridos avaliados à Cercosporiose e à Mancha Branca, permitindo a classificação de modo semelhante. Os híbridos mais resistentes às duas doenças foram o AG7088, AG7010 e 2B707 e os mais suscetíveis o 30F44, 30F53 e AG8021. Os híbridos 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 e Impacto apresentaram comportamento variável em função dos locais de avaliação.With the objective of evaluating the resistance level of commercial corn hybrids and comparing the efficiency of the estimates of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC and that of the phenotypical stability parameters in the evaluation of resistance maize white spot and gray leaf spot, three experiments were carried out in the agricultural year of 2007/2008 in three environments. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and gray leaf spot based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-day intervals from the 80th day after maize emergence, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated, as were the phenotypical stability parameters, i.e., the linear regression coefficient (b i between the independent variable evaluation time (x, and the dependent variable, disease severity (y and the determination coefficient (R². It was found that in the case of maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot, both methodologies used proved to be effective in the discrimination of the resistance level of the hybrids, enabling them to be ranked in a similar way. The most resistant hybrids to maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot were AG7088, AG 7010 and 2B707, and the most susceptible were 30F44, 30F53 and AG8021. The 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 and Impacto hybrids showed variable levels of resistance with the environment.

André H. de Brito

2011-02-01

166

Reação de híbridos de milho e comparação de métodos para avaliação da Cercosporiose e Mancha Branca / Reaction of commercial corn hybrids and comparison of methods for evaluation of maize White Spot and Gray Leaf Spot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o nível de resistência de 12 híbridos comerciais de milho à cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora zeae-maydis, e à Mancha Branca, causada por Pantoea ananatis e comparar a eficiência das estimativas da área abaixo da curva de progresso das doenças e da estabilid [...] ade fenotípica, na avaliação da resistência a esses patógenos. Foram conduzidos três experimentos, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, em três locais. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças, em intervalos de sete dias, a partir dos 80 dias da emergência, por meio de uma escala de notas variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente suscetível). Foram estimadas a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD) e o coeficiente de regressão linear (b1) entre a variável independente época de avaliação (x) e a variável dependente severidade da doença (y) e o coeficiente de determinação (R²). Observou-se que, ambas as metodologias utilizadas mostraram-se eficientes na discriminação do nível de resistência dos híbridos avaliados à Cercosporiose e à Mancha Branca, permitindo a classificação de modo semelhante. Os híbridos mais resistentes às duas doenças foram o AG7088, AG7010 e 2B707 e os mais suscetíveis o 30F44, 30F53 e AG8021. Os híbridos 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 e Impacto apresentaram comportamento variável em função dos locais de avaliação. Abstract in english With the objective of evaluating the resistance level of commercial corn hybrids and comparing the efficiency of the estimates of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and that of the phenotypical stability parameters in the evaluation of resistance maize white spot and gray leaf spot, t [...] hree experiments were carried out in the agricultural year of 2007/2008 in three environments. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and gray leaf spot) based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-day intervals from the 80th day after maize emergence, ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated, as were the phenotypical stability parameters, i.e., the linear regression coefficient (b i) between the independent variable evaluation time (x), and the dependent variable, disease severity (y) and the determination coefficient (R²). It was found that in the case of maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot, both methodologies used proved to be effective in the discrimination of the resistance level of the hybrids, enabling them to be ranked in a similar way. The most resistant hybrids to maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot were AG7088, AG 7010 and 2B707, and the most susceptible were 30F44, 30F53 and AG8021. The 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 and Impacto hybrids showed variable levels of resistance with the environment.

André H. de, Brito; Renzo G. von, Pinho; Álvaro de O., Santos; Sidnei dos, Santos.

2011-02-01

167

Global deletion of Trp53 reverts ovarian tumor phenotype of the germ cell-deficient white spotting variant (wv) mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

White spotting variant (Wv) mice are spontaneous mutants attributed to a point mutation in the c-Kit gene, which reduces the tyrosine kinase activity to around 1% and affects the development of melanocytes, mast cells, and germ cells. Homozygous mutant mice are sterile but can live nearly a normal life span. The female Wv mice have a greatly reduced ovarian germ cell and follicle reserve at birth, and the remaining follicles are largely depleted soon after the females reach reproductive stage at around 7 weeks of age. Consequently, ovarian epithelial tumors develop in 100% of Wv females by 3 to 4 months of age. These tumors, called tubular adenomas, are benign but can become invasive in older Wv mice. We tested if additional genetic mutation(s) could convert the benign ovarian epithelial tumors to malignant tumors by crossing the Wv mutant into the Trp53 knockout background. Surprisingly, we found that global deletion of Trp53 suppressed the development of ovarian tubular adenomas in Wv mice. The ovaries of Wv/Wv; Trp53 (-/-) mice were covered by a single layer of surface epithelium and lacked excessive epithelial proliferation. Rather, the ovaries contained a small number of follicles. The presence of ovarian follicles and granulosa cells, as indicated by Pgc7 and inhibin-alpha expression, correlated with the absence of epithelial lesions. A reduction of Pten gene dosage, as in Wv/Wv; Pten (+/-) mice, produced a similar, though less dramatic, phenotype. We conclude that deletion of Trp53 prolongs the survival of ovarian follicles in Wv mice and consequently prevents the proliferation of ovarian epithelial cells and development of ovarian tubular adenomas. The results suggest that various cell types within the ovary communicate and mutually modulate, and an intact tissue environment is required to ensure homeostasis of ovarian surface epithelial cells. Especially, the current finding emphasizes the importance of ovarian follicles in suppressing the hyperplastic growth of ovarian epithelial cells, dominating over the loss of p53. PMID:25622902

Cai, Kathy Qi; Wang, Ying; Smith, Elizabeth R; Smedberg, Jennifer L; Yang, Dong-Hua; Yang, Wan-Lin; Xu, Xiang-Xi

2015-01-01

168

Postsynaptic Alpha 2-Adrenoceptors Mediate Melanosome Aggregation in Melanophores of the White-Spotted Rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature of neuro-melanophore junction in the white-spotted rabbit fish Siganus cancliculatus. In vitro experiments using split fin preparation indicated that melanophores of S. cancliculatus are highly responsive to potassium ions and adrenergic agonists. Potassium ions and the adrenergic agonists induced prompt melanosome aggregation that could be competitively blocked by yohimbine (alpha-2 specific adrenergic antagonist and phentolamine (non-specific alpha adrenergic antagonist. The melanophore responses to repeated potassium stimulation (up to 20 stimuli did not show any sign of fatigue. However, statistically significant enhancement was observed in responses to potassium that followed the first five stimulations. Adrenergic agonists acted in a time and concentration-dependent manner and their relative potency had the following rank order: clonidine (alpha-2 specific agonist > norepinephrine (non-specific adrenergic agonist > phenylephrine (alpha-1 specific agonist > methoxamine (alpha-1-specific agonist. Yohimbine exerted a more potent inhibiting effect on norepinephrine induced melanosome aggregation compared to phentolamine. Prazosine (alpha-1 specific antagonist had no effect on such aggregation. Chemically denervated melanophores displayed hypersensitivity to alpha-adrenergic agonists but were refractive to potassium ion stimulation. The refractivity of denervated melanophores to potassium indicates the effect of potassium ion is not direct on melanophores but it is rather through depolarization effect of potassium on the neuro-melanophore peripheral sympathetic fibers and hence release of norepinephrine. In denervated melanophores, similar to intact melanophores, only phentolamine and yohimbine but not prazosine, significantly inhibited melanosome aggregation effect of norepinephrine, indicating that norepinephrine effect is through postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The present data demonstrate that the nature of melanophore innervation in this teleost is adrenergic and neuro-melanophore signals mediating melanosome aggregation are transmitted through alpha-2 postsynaptic adrenoceptors.

M.H. Amiri

2009-01-01

169

Replication of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the polychaete Dendronereis spp  

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This study investigated whether WSSV replicates in naturally infected Dendronereis spp., a common polychaete (Nereididae) species in shrimp ponds in Indonesia. To detect WSSV replication, (i) immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a monoclonal antibody against WSSV VP28 protein and (ii) nested RT-PCR using specific primers set for the vp28 gene to detect WSSV-specific mRNA were applied. WSSV immunoreactive-nuclei were detected in the gut epithelium of the polychaete and WSSV mRNA was detected with ...

Desrina, H.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Prayitno, S. B.; Rombout, J. H. W. M.; Vlak, J. M.; Verdegem, M. C. J.

2013-01-01

170

Replication of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the polychaete Dendronereis spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated whether WSSV replicates in naturally infected Dendronereis spp., a common polychaete (Nereididae) species in shrimp ponds in Indonesia. To detect WSSV replication, (i) immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a monoclonal antibody against WSSV VP28 protein and (ii) nested RT-PCR using specific primers set for the vp28 gene to detect WSSV-specific mRNA were applied. WSSV immunoreactive-nuclei were detected in the gut epithelium of the polychaete and WSSV mRNA was detected with nested RT-PCR. This, together with the IHC results, confirmed that WSSV could replicate in Dendronereis spp. This is the first report showing that WSSV replicated in a naturally infected non-crustacean host. PMID:23685030

Desrina; Verreth, J A J; Prayitno, S B; Rombout, J H W M; Vlak, J M; Verdegem, M C J

2013-09-01

171

Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus by inactivated vaccine with herbal immunostimulants.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the immune response in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon against WSSV infection, juveniles (350 ± 10 mg) were vaccinated with formalin-inactivated WSSV and fed with herbal immunostimulants. The methanolic extracts of herbal immunostimulants such as Acalypha indica, Cynodon dactylon, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, Withania somnifera and Zingiber officinalis were incorporated in formulated diets at different concentrations; 250 (ED(1)), 500 (ED(2)), 1000 (ED(3)) and 2000 (ED(4)) mg kg(-1) of feed and fed for 60 days after vaccination. After 30 and 60 days intervals of feeding, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps fed with control diets (C(1)) succumbed to death within 5 days after WSSV challenge, when no vaccination and immunostimulations were given. The other control groups (C(2) and C(3)) had slight improvements in all parameters including survival. The percentage survival was significantly (P < 0.05) increased to 30, 50 and 60% in the ED(2), ED(3) and ED(4) diets respectively after 60 days challenging. The better haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters were also found in the herbal extracts supplemented diets fed vaccinated shrimps. The present study revealed that the combined effect of immunostimulation and vaccination helped to boost the immune system against WSSV infection and hence this application can be adopted for shrimp culture. PMID:22421013

Yogeeswaran, Aiyakani; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Punitha, Stanislas Mary Josephine; Babu, Mariavincent Michael; Selvaraj, Thangaswamy; Kumaran, Thangamani; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

2012-06-01

172

Sensitivitas Berbagai Stadia Kepiting Bakau (Scylla paramamosain Estampador) terhadap White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mud crab is the most commercial crabs which are highly sold because oftheir delicious taste and high protein content. In nature, the capture intensity of this crab is very high so the population would decrease rapidly. For this reason people start to breed it. At the moment breeding of mud crab still have a lot of problems. One of those is the lower survival rate of larva stage due to the diseases. The objective of this research was to observe the sensitivity of mud crab from variou...

ZAFRAN; RIA IKA MAHARANI; SURANTO

2005-01-01

173

Characterization of Imjin Virus, a Newly Isolated Hantavirus from the Ussuri White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura lasiura)?  

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Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothe...

Song, Jin-won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N.; Song, Ki-joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-chul; O Guinn, Monica L.; Chong, Sung-tae; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard

2009-01-01

174

Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance  

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Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were clon...

Ma Hao; Song Congfeng; Borth Wayne; Sether Diane; Melzer Michael; Hu John

2011-01-01

175

Specificity of accumulation and transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in two genera, Frankliniella and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation and transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was examined in second instar larvae and adults of two thrips genera, Frankliniella and Thrips. The species tested were F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. intonsa (Trybom), T. tabaciLindeman, T. setosus Moulton, T. palmi Karny and T. hawaiiensis (Morgan). In a standard petunia leaf disc assay, the efficiencies of TSWV transmission by two species of Frankliniella were higher than those of any Thrips species in the adult stage. A triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) showed that large amounts of the TSWV-nucleocapsid (N) protein were present in the ELISA-positive larvae of each species, with the exception of T. palmi. The ELISA titre of and the proportion of virus-infected individuals of the two Frankliniella species increased or did not significantly change from the larval to the adult stages, whereas those of the four Thrips species decreased significantly. These results show that the specificity of virus transmission by adult thrips is probably affected by the amount of viral N protein accumulation in the adults and that the accumulation pattern from the larval to the adult stages is in between the two genera tested in the present study. PMID:15541189

Inoue, T; Sakurai, T; Murai, T; Maeda, T

2004-12-01

176

Evaluation of a modified commercial assay in detecting antibody to hepatitis C virus in oral fluids and dried blood spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid testing is an effective alternative to serum antibody testing for surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B infections, and is being extended to hepatitis C infections. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of a modified commercial assay for the detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in oral fluids collected by two different oral fluid collection devices (the Epitope OraSure trade mark and Sarstedt Salivette ) and in dried fingerprick blood spots. In this study, 253 anti-HCV seropositive patients and 394 blood donors (all anti-HCV negative) were recruited between August 2000 and January 2001. Each participant provided oral fluid specimens by OraSure and Salivette, and at least one dried blood spot. Serum specimens were collected from the patients whenever possible. For those injecting drug users who did not provide a serum specimen, HCV status was established on the basis of previous testing. All the nonserum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HCV, using a modified Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol. The recommended preliminary cutoffs for the modified ELISA were suboptimal. Further, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values could be improved by varying the cutoff and taking into account the likely prevalence of HCV in the population under investigation. For instance, given a population with a 50% prevalence of anti-HCV, the optimal sensitivities of the modified assay on OraSure, Salivette, and dried blood spots were 92%, 83%, and virtually 100%, respectively, in contrast to 83%, 59%, and 99% using the preliminary cutoffs. The respective optimal specificities were 99%, 93%, and 100%. In conclusion, oral fluids collected by the OraSure device provide an extremely useful method to conduct public health surveillance of not only HIV, but also hepatitis C, among injecting drug users. In addition, dried blood spot specimens may be useful for surveillance and could be employed as a first line diagnostic specimen. PMID:12858408

Judd, Ali; Parry, John; Hickman, Matthew; McDonald, Tamara; Jordan, Laura; Lewis, Kim; Contreras, Marcela; Dusheiko, Geoff; Foster, Graham; Gill, Noël; Kemp, Katie; Main, Janice; Murray-Lyon, Iain; Nelson, Mark

2003-09-01

177

Spinach: A new natural host of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (INSV; family Bunyaviridae) was detected in a spinach (Spinacia oleracea) experimental field in Monterey County, CA in October of 2008. Spinach plants exhibiting severe stunting and with leaves that showed interveinal yellowing, thickening, and deformation were obs...

178

Influence of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Uneven Distribution on Its Serological Detection in Tomato, Pepper and Ornamentals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliable detection of plant pathogens does not only mean the development of sufficiently sensitive laboratory techniques for their routine testing. Regardless of the sensitivity of applied methods, the proper selection of samples to be tested has crucial influence on method reliability. Due to uneven distribution of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in naturally infected systemic host plants, the collection and sampling of material for assaying is acritical moment upon which the reliability of laboratory procedure depends. The effect of irregular virus distribution on its serological detection was examined in tomato, pepper and four ornamental species, as its most important host plants in our country.The reliability of virus detection, depending on its uneven distribution, was assessed by serological testing of tomato and pepper symptomatic leaves and fruits, and symptomatic and asymptomatic young and old leaves, as well as flower petals of ornamentals. Although TSWV was detected using ELISA in the majority of plants included in the experiment, the tests indicated an uneven distribution and unequal concentrations of TSWV in different parts of the plants. The virus could not be detected in a certain number of subsamples, prepared from infected tomato and pepper fruits and older ornamental leaves. The virus also could not be detected in some ornamentals and tomato plants with intensive symptoms. Conversely, the virus was detected in three ornamental plants without any symptoms. Examining the virus distribution in different plant parts indicated that the reliability of ELISA could be reached not only by sampling younger ornamental leaves, but also by preparing compound samples with as much leaves as possible, or by testing a greater number of subsamples of the tested plant. Considering a small possibility of TSWV detection in tomato and pepper fruits, the infection of these should be established by testing their leaves. Besides, the data show that negative test results for the known host plants with characteristic symptoms require tests to be repeated using more sensitive methods than ELISA. These results are important as guidelines for growers and professionals who submit samples, as well as for laboratories performing routine testing.

Ivana ?eki?

2008-01-01

179

Coincident ruddy turnstone migration and horseshoe crab spawning creates an ecological ‘hot spot’ for influenza viruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 1985, avian influenza virus surveillance has been conducted annually from mid-May to early June in charadriiform species from the families Scolopacidae and Laridae (shorebirds and gulls) at Delaware Bay in the northeast United States. The mass migrations of shorebirds, gulls and horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) coincide at that time, and large numbers of migrating birds pause at Delaware Bay to feed on horseshoe crab eggs deposited at the high-tide line. Influenza viruses are consis...

Krauss, Scott; Stallknecht, David E.; Negovetich, Nicholas J.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

2010-01-01

180

Incidence of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus on Malus domestica in India  

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In surveys of apple (Malus domestica) orchards in various parts of Himachal Pradesh, samples from trees showing necrotic symptoms on the leaves were collected and tested for detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) initially by ELISA followed by RT-PCR using coat protein gene primers. Positive results were obtained in samples from Kullu and Kalpa regions. The virus gene sequences showed 88-97% similarity to corresponding sequences of other PNRSV isolates deposited in the GenBank da...

Chandel, V.; Rana, T.; Handa, A.; Thakur, Pd; Hallan, V.; Zaidi, Aa

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Outbreak of hepatitis E virus infection in Darfur, Sudan: effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dried blood spots.  

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Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed.

Me?rens, A.; Gue?rin, Pj; Guthmann, Jp; Nicand, E.

2009-01-01

182

Simple and reliable method for detection and genotyping of hepatitis C virus RNA in dried blood spots stored at room temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method for using whole blood collected onto filter paper (dried blood spots) for detection and genotyping of hepatitis C virus RNA that can be useful in large field studies, particularly in settings where collection, preparation, storage, and shipment of samples at controlled temperature can be difficult. PMID:12202607

Solmone, Mariacarmela; Girardi, Enrico; Costa, Francesco; Pucillo, Leopoldo; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R

2002-09-01

183

Simple and Reliable Method for Detection and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Dried Blood Spots Stored at Room Temperature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method for using whole blood collected onto filter paper (dried blood spots) for detection and genotyping of hepatitis C virus RNA that can be useful in large field studies, particularly in settings where collection, preparation, storage, and shipment of samples at controlled temperature can be difficult.

Solmone, Mariacarmela; Girardi, Enrico; Costa, Francesco; Pucillo, Leopoldo; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R.

2002-01-01

184

Outbreak of hepatitis E virus infection in Darfur, Sudan: effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dried blood spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed. PMID:19339474

Mérens, Audrey; Guérin, Philippe Jean; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Nicand, Elisabeth

2009-06-01

185

Dried blood spots as a practical and inexpensive source for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus surveillance  

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Passive surveillance of infectious diseases with a high percentage of asymptomatic cases or long incubation periods, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), does not reflect the current transmission dynamics. Thus, a multi-strategic surveillance, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sentinel surveillance proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is necessary. The Brazilian HIV sentinel surveillance was started in May 1992 with this purpose. The objectives of this s...

Antonio Carlos de Castro Toledo Jr.; José Nélio Januário; Renata Maria Silva Rezende; Arminda Lúcia Siqueira; Bernardo Freire de Mello; Érica Ligorio Fialho; Raquel Andrade Ribeiro; Hélia Lemos da Silva; Érika Carvalho Pires; Taynaná César Simões; Dirceu Bartolomeu Greco

2005-01-01

186

Oral vaccination of chickens with the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Cooked and raw white rice as a vehicle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncooked white rice and cooked white rice were tested as vehicles for the V4 strain of oral Newcastle disease vaccine. The results of feeding experiments were evaluated by the measurement of haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against Newcastle disease virus. Little of the virus applied to uncooked white rice could be recovered, even immediately after mixing, whereas when the virus was applied to cooked white rice most of it could be recovered. In 4 separate experiments, chickens failed to respond serologically to vaccine supplied on uncooked white rice. In all of 4 experiments with cooked white rice, there were serological responses in vaccinated chickens, from 45% to 100% of the chickens developing titres sufficiently high to indicate protection against challenge with virulent virus. Development of haemagglutination inhibition antibodies in some control chickens indicated the ability of the vaccine virus for lateral spread or persistence in the environment. PMID:8465439

Samuel, J L; Bensink, Z; Spradbrow, P B

1993-02-01

187

Transient asymptomatic white matter lesions following Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis  

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Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encephalitis who developed abnormal white matter lesions during the chronic phases of the infection. A 2-year-old-boy was admitted for a 2 day history of decreased activity with ataxic gait. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable except for generalized lethargy and enlarged tonsils with exudates. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at admission showed multiple high signal intensities in both basal ganglia and thalami. The result of EBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the cerebral spinal fluid was positive, and a serological test showed acute EBV infection. The patient was diagnosed with EBV encephalitis and recovered fully without any residual neurologic complications. Subsequently, follow-up MRI at 5 weeks revealed extensive periventricular white matter lesions. Since the patient remained clinically stable and asymptomatic during the follow-up period, no additional studies were performed and no additional treatments were provided. At the 1-year follow-up, cranial MRI showed complete disappearance of the abnormal high signal intensities previously seen in the white matter. The patient continued to remain healthy with no focal neurologic deficits on examination. This is the first case of asymptomatic self-limited white matter lesions seen in serial MRI studies in a Korean boy with EBV encephalitis.

Yoo Young Jang

2011-09-01

188

An additional field method to sex adult Barn Swallows during the non-breeding season in Zambia: white spot length in the outer tail feather  

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Adult Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica exhibit strong sexual size dimorphism in the length of the outermost tail feathers, which are longer in males compared with females. This trait is traditionally used to sex adult Barn Swallows in the field. However, due to the wear and breakage of the tips of the outer tail feather and tail moult during the non-breeding season, sexing becomes unreliable or even impossible. We therefore tested whether the length of the white spot on the outer tail feather is...

Duijns, S.; Dijk, J. G. B.; Kraus, R. H. S.; Kerlen-matema, A. C.; Brink, B.; Hooft, W. F.

2011-01-01

189

Identification of domains of the Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein involved in tubule formation, movement and symptomatology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deletion and alanine-substitution mutants of the Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein were generated to identify domains involved in tubule formation, movement and symptomatology using a heterologous Tobacco mosaic virus expression system. Two regions of NSm, G(19)-S(159) and G(209)-V(283), were required for both tubule formation in protoplasts and cell-to-cell movement in plants, indicating a correlation between these activities. Three amino acid groups, D(154), EYKK(205-208) and EEEEE(284-288) were linked with long-distance movement in Nicotiana benthamiana. EEEEE(284-288) was essential for NSm-mediated long-distance movement, whereas D(154) was essential for tubule formation and cell-to-cell movement; indicating separate genetic controls for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement. The region I(57)-N(100) was identified as the determinant of foliar necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and mutagenesis of HH(93-94) greatly reduced necrosis. These findings are likely applicable to other tospovirus species, especially those within the 'New World' group as NSm sequences are highly conserved. PMID:19481775

Li, Weimin; Lewandowski, Dennis J; Hilf, Mark E; Adkins, Scott

2009-07-20

190

Diversity among tacaribe serocomplex viruses (family Arenaviridae) naturally associated with the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula) in the southwestern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated that arenaviruses naturally associated with white-throated woodrats in central Arizona are phylogenetically closely related to the Whitewater Arroyo virus prototype strain AV 9310135, which originally was isolated from a white-throated woodrat captured in northwestern New Mexico. Pairwise comparisons of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequences revealed extensive diversity among arenaviruses isolated from white-throated woodrats captured in different counties in central Arizona and extensive diversity between these viruses and Whitewater Arroyo virus strain AV 9310135. It was concluded that the viruses isolated from the white-throated woodrats captured in Arizona represent 2 novel species (Big Brushy Tank virus and Tonto Creek virus) and that these species should be included with Whitewater Arroyo virus in a species complex within the Tacaribe serocomplex (family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus). PMID:18454597

Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N B; Haynie, Michelle L; Abbott, Ken D; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F

2008-08-01

191

Tissue distribution of Red Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) genome in experimentally infected juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of viral genome in the tissues of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during the course of a Red Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) infection has not yet been described. The present study addresses this and indicates which target organs may be involved in viral replication. This information should enable more accurate detection of virus in asymptomatic carriers, and in turn help to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of expression of viral genomic segments RNA1 and RNA2, using two absolute real-time PCRs (RT-qPCR), over the course of a RGNNV infection after administering the virus by intramuscular injection. In situ hybridization was also used to locate the RNA2 viral segment in different organs throughout the infection. The experimental challenge provoked an acute form of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), with a resulting cumulative mortality of 37%. The RT-qPCRs designed allowed the detection of both genomic segments in all the organs tested (nervous and non-nervous tissues) at all sampling times examined. The highest viral RNA copy number was found in eyes, although viral replication appeared to begin in the brain. Viral replication was also recorded in pooled internal organs and in caudal fin. However, the increase in the viral RNA copy number in these organs did not result in an increased viral titre, which may indicate that a productive infection does not take place in non-nervous tissues, possibly due to a failure in a viral post-replication step. PMID:21783331

Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Alonso, Maria del Carmen; Thompson, Kim D; Adams, Alexandra; Infante, Carlos; Castro, Dolores; Borrego, Juan Jose; Garcia-Rosado, Esther

2011-12-29

192

Competence and specificity of thrips in the transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus  

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The study described in this thesis aims to elucidate the fate and pathway of ingested TSWV in thrips during their development from larvae to adult. Insight in this process will contribute to a better understanding of the factors regulating and determining vector competence and specificities.Analysis of the differences in virus susceptibility among thrips species or populations was approached by infection of cell cultures. The methodology developed and the media used to prepare primary cell cu...

Nagata, T.

1999-01-01

193

Evaluation of peanut genotypes for resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus by mechanical and thrips inoculation Avaliação de genótipos de amendoim em relação à resistência ao Tomato spotted wilt virus por meio de inoculação mecânica e por tripes  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the reactions of three peanut breeding lines (IC-10, IC-34, and ICGV 86388 to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV by mechanical and thrips inoculation, under greenhouse conditions, and compare them to the reactions of cultivars SunOleic, Georgia Green, and the breeding line C11-2-39. TSWV infection by mechanical inoculation was visually assessed using an index ranging from 0 (no symptoms to 4 (apical death. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to confirm TSWV infection from both mechanical and thrips inoculations. IC-10, IC-34, ICGV 86388, and C11-2-39 were more resistant than the cultivars SunOleic and Georgia Green based on mechanical inoculation. Upon thrips inoculation only IC-34 and ICGV-86388 were infected by TSWV, as demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, although no symptoms of infection were observed. The peanut breeding lines IC-10, IC-34, and ICGV 86388 show higher level of resistance to TSWV than cultivar Georgia Green considered a standard for TSWV resistance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as reações das linhagens de amendoim IC-10, IC-34 e ICGV 86388 quanto à resistência ao Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, por meio de inoculação mecânica e por tripes, em casa de vegetação, e compará-las às reações das cultivares SunOleic, Georgia Green e da linhagem C11-2-39. A infecção de TSWV após inoculação mecânica foi visualmente avaliada, utilizando-se escala de notas que variam de zero (sem sintomas a quatro (morte apical. A análise pelo teste ELISA confirmou a infecção de TSWV em ambos os tipos de inoculação. As linhagens IC-10, IC-34, ICGV 86388 e C11-2-39 foram mais resistentes do que as cultivares SunOleic e Georgia Green, com base nos resultados da inoculação mecânica. Em relação à inoculação por tripes, apenas IC-34 e ICGV 86388 foram infectadas por TSWV, conforme demonstrado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa (RT-PCR, embora nenhum sintoma de infecção tenha sido observado. As linhagens IC-10, IC-34 e ICGV 86388 mostram maior resistência ao vírus, quando comparadas à Georgia Green, considerada padrão de resistência ao TSWV.

Luciana Cordeiro do Nascimento

2006-06-01

194

Products of different chemical groups to control maize white spotProdutos de diferentes grupos químicos no controle da mancha branca do milho  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of different products used to control maize white spot, a leaf disease caused by the bacterium Pantoea ananatis. Six products from different chemical groups were used for this experiment, and they were tested on the susceptible hybrid HS200. Parameters, such as severity (%, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC, and productivity, have been estimated. The treatment with oxytetracyline resulted higher grain productivity for maize. Natural products, such as Rocksil and Pyroligneous acid, even though they are used as supplement for plants, were not effective in controlling the maize white spot. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes produtos no controle da mancha branca do milho, doença foliar causada pela bactéria Pantoea ananatis. Para o experimento foram utilizados seis produtos pertencentes a diferentes grupos químicos, testados no híbrido suscetível HS200. Avaliaramse as variáveis severidade, área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e a produtividade de grãos. O tratamento com oxitetraciclina resultou maior produtividade de grãos da cultura do milho. Produtos naturais testados no experimento, como Rocksil e Ácido Pirolenhoso, utilizados como suplementos nutricionais para as plantas, não foram eficientes no controle da mancha branca do milho.

Eliseu dos Santos Pedro

2012-12-01

195

Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background African swine fever virus (ASFV is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5 in infected pigs than in control group (0.3, marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated.

Karalyan Zaven

2012-02-01

196

Binding Hot Spots and Amantadine Orientation in the Influenza A Virus M2 Proton Channel  

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Structures of truncated versions of the influenza A virus M2 proton channel have been determined recently by x-ray crystallography in the open conformation of the channel, and by NMR in the closed state. The structures differ in the position of the bound inhibitors. The x-ray structure shows a single amantadine molecule in the middle of the channel, whereas in the NMR structure four drug molecules bind at the channel's outer surface. To study this controversy we applied computational solvent ...

Chuang, Gwo-yu; Kozakov, Dima; Brenke, Ryan; Beglov, Dmitri; Guarnieri, Frank; Vajda, Sandor

2009-01-01

197

Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos / Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese 1. - As seguintes especies de Triatomideos não puderam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas a cobayas normaes, nos seguintes prazos após a sucção de animal infectado: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75 e 141 dias (1 exemplar); Triatoma protracta, 15 e 37 dias (1 exempla [...] r), Triatoma infestans, 8 dias (15 exemplares), e Rhodnius prolixus, 2 dias (1 exemplar). Foi demonstrado por inoculaçao que o ultimo insecto ainda continha o virus vivo. 2. - Experiencias de transmissão mechanica, por picada interrompida em animal infectado e continuada immediatamente em animal são, foram tambem negativas, com as especies T. protracta e R. prolixus. Um unico insecto da primeira especie picou 2 vezes cada animal, emquanto que 22 exemplares da segunda especie picaram de 1 a 3 vezes cada cobaya. 3. - A inoculação de gottas de dejecções de um R. prolixus eliminadas 2 dias depois de sugar animal infectado, não produziu a infecção em cobaya normal, não obstante ter sido demonstrada a presença do virus no organismo do barbeiro, por inoculação do conteúdo estomacal em outra cobaya. 4. - Foram feitas experiencias para determinar o tempo de sobrevivencia do virus nos barbeiros, inoculando-se conteúdo intestinal a diversos intervallos depois da sucção de cobayas infectadas, com os seguintes resultados: T. infestans: positivo 1 vez em 24 horas e 2 vezes em 48 horas; negativo 2 vezes em 72. 96, 120 e 192 horas. P. megistus: positivo 3 vezes em 24 horas, 2 vezes em 48 horas e 1 vez em 72 horas; negativo 1 vez em 72 e 96 horas; resultado duvidoso ou sem valor (infecção intercorrente) 1 vez em 48 horas e 2 vezes a 72, 96 e 144 horas cada um. R. prolixus: positivo 1 vez em 24, 48 e 72 horas e negativo em 96 horas. 5. - Em vista dos resultados destas experiencias, feitas com 5 especies pertecentes a 4 generos de Triatomideos, torna-se muito pouco provavel que estes Hemipteros possam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias. Abstract in english 1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug); Triatoma protracta, [...] 15 and 37 days (one bug); T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs); and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug). The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test) feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

Cornelius B., Philip; Emmanuel, Dias.

198

Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1. - As seguintes especies de Triatomideos não puderam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas a cobayas normaes, nos seguintes prazos após a sucção de animal infectado: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75 e 141 dias (1 exemplar; Triatoma protracta, 15 e 37 dias (1 exemplar, Triatoma infestans, 8 dias (15 exemplares, e Rhodnius prolixus, 2 dias (1 exemplar. Foi demonstrado por inoculaçao que o ultimo insecto ainda continha o virus vivo. 2. - Experiencias de transmissão mechanica, por picada interrompida em animal infectado e continuada immediatamente em animal são, foram tambem negativas, com as especies T. protracta e R. prolixus. Um unico insecto da primeira especie picou 2 vezes cada animal, emquanto que 22 exemplares da segunda especie picaram de 1 a 3 vezes cada cobaya. 3. - A inoculação de gottas de dejecções de um R. prolixus eliminadas 2 dias depois de sugar animal infectado, não produziu a infecção em cobaya normal, não obstante ter sido demonstrada a presença do virus no organismo do barbeiro, por inoculação do conteúdo estomacal em outra cobaya. 4. - Foram feitas experiencias para determinar o tempo de sobrevivencia do virus nos barbeiros, inoculando-se conteúdo intestinal a diversos intervallos depois da sucção de cobayas infectadas, com os seguintes resultados: T. infestans: positivo 1 vez em 24 horas e 2 vezes em 48 horas; negativo 2 vezes em 72. 96, 120 e 192 horas. P. megistus: positivo 3 vezes em 24 horas, 2 vezes em 48 horas e 1 vez em 72 horas; negativo 1 vez em 72 e 96 horas; resultado duvidoso ou sem valor (infecção intercorrente 1 vez em 48 horas e 2 vezes a 72, 96 e 144 horas cada um. R. prolixus: positivo 1 vez em 24, 48 e 72 horas e negativo em 96 horas. 5. - Em vista dos resultados destas experiencias, feitas com 5 especies pertecentes a 4 generos de Triatomideos, torna-se muito pouco provavel que estes Hemipteros possam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias.1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug; Triatoma protracta, 15 and 37 days (one bug; T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs; and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug. The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

Cornelius B. Philip

1938-01-01

199

Sintomas atípicos em frutos de meloeiro e de melancia ocasionados por Watermelon mosaic virus-2 Atypic symptoms in melon and watermelon fruits caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2  

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Full Text Available The Northeast of Brazil presents great potencial for melon (Cucumis melo and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production. Melon fruit with white spots and watermelon fruits showing chlorotic spots were demonstrated to be caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2, through indirect enzyme linked-immuno sorbent assay.

J. ALBÉRSIO A. LIMA

2002-09-01

200

Sintomas atípicos em frutos de meloeiro e de melancia ocasionados por Watermelon mosaic virus-2 Atypic symptoms in melon and watermelon fruits caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2  

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The Northeast of Brazil presents great potencial for melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production. Melon fruit with white spots and watermelon fruits showing chlorotic spots were demonstrated to be caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2, through indirect enzyme linked-immuno sorbent assay.

Lima, J. Albe?rsio A.; Abi?lio Queiroz, M.; Ramos, Najara F.; Gonc?alves, M. Fa?tima B.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Nucleotide sequences of a Korean isolate of apple stem grooving virus associated with black necrotic leaf spot disease on pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pear black necrotic leaf spot (PBNLS) is a disease of pears caused by capillovirus-like particles, which can be observed under the electron microscope. The disease was analyzed by Western blot analysis with antisera raised against apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) coat protein. cDNAs covering the entire genome were synthesized by RT-PCR and RACE using RNA isolated from Chenopodium quinoa infected with sap extracted from pear leaves carrying black necrotic spot disease. The complete genome sequence of the putative pear virus, 6497 nucleotides in length excluding the poly (A) tail, was determined and analyzed. It contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1, spans from nucleotide position 37 to 6354, producing a putative protein of 241 kDa. ORF2, which is in a different reading frame within ORF1, begins at nucleotide 4788 and terminates at 5750, and produces a putative protein of 36 kDa. The 241 kDa protein contains sequences related to the NTP-binding motifs of helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The 36-kDa protein contains the consensus sequence GDSG found in the active sites of several cellular and viral serine proteases. Morphological and serological analysis, and sequence comparison between the putative pear virus, ASGV, citrus tatter leaf virus and cherry virus A of the capillovirus suggest that PBNLS may be caused by a Korean isolate of ASGV. PMID:15528995

Shim, Hyekyung; Min, Yeonju; Hong, Sungyoul; Kwon, Moonsik; Kim, Daehyun; Kim, Hyunran; Choi, Yongmoon; Lee, Sukchan; Yang, Jaemyung

2004-10-31

202

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV) IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA  

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The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In...

Borisova, Aneliya

2005-01-01

203

Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

Ma Hao

2011-10-01

204

Parâmetros de cultivo e a enfermidade da mancha-branca em fazendas de camarões de Santa Catarina / Cultivation parameters and the white spot disease in shrimp farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre parâmetros físico-químicos e biológicos do cultivo de camarão com a enfermidade causada pelo vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV). Foram avaliadas a mortalidade, as características físicas e químicas da água e do solo, e foram realizados os [...] exames e as análises microscópicas a fresco, presença de víbrios na hemolinfa, além do diagnóstico histopatológico e molecular (PCR) do WSSV, em viveiros de oito fazendas de Santa Catarina, entre 2008 e 2009. O vírus foi detectado em cinco fazendas com registros da enfermidade em ciclos anteriores. A temperatura da água foi semelhante entre as fazendas com e sem WSSV, e a mortalidade ocorreu a intervalos ascendentes entre 24,6 e 29,3ºC. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros de análises microscópicas a fresco, tempo de coagulação e presença de víbrios na hemolinfa e sinais clínicos, entre viveiros com e sem WSSV. As concentrações de nitrito, sílica, fenol e alcalinidade na água e pH do solo apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os viveiros afetados ou não por WSSV. Os valores de nitrito, sílica e pH do solo estavam dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo de camarões, no entanto, isto não ocorreu com a alcalinidade e a concentração de fenol, o que sugere uma relação dos últimos com a manifestação da enfermidade da mancha-branca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among physicochemical and biological parameters in shrimp cultivation with the disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The occurrence of mortality, physical and chemical characteristics of water and soil were evaluated, and [...] clinical and microscopic analyses and the presence of vibrio in hemolymph, were performed as well as the histopathological and molecular diagnosis (PCR) of the WSSV in ponds of eight farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. The virus was detected in five farms, which had displayed the disease in previous cycles. The temperature of the water was similar among farms independently of the presence of the virus, and mortality occurred at ascendant temperature intervals, between 24.6 and 29.3ºC. No significant differences were found for the parameters of microscopic analyses among ponds either with or without the virus. Nitrite, silica, phenol and water-alkalinity concentrations, as well as soil pH values, showed significant differences among the ponds affected or not by the WSSV. Nitrite, silica and pH values were within the recommended limits for shrimp cultivation, however this did not occur for the alkalinity and phenol concentrations, wich suggests a relationship of the latter parameters with manifestation of the white spot disease.

Sérgio Winckler da, Costa; Luiz Rodrigo Mota, Vicente; Talita Medeiros de, Souza; Edemar Roberto, Andreatta; Maria Risoleta Freire, Marques.

1521-15-01

205

Reconstructing the History of Maize Streak Virus Strain A Dispersal To Reveal Diversification Hot Spots and Its Origin in Southern Africa ? †  

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Maize streak virus strain A (MSV-A), the causal agent of maize streak disease, is today one of the most serious biotic threats to African food security. Determining where MSV-A originated and how it spread transcontinentally could yield valuable insights into its historical emergence as a crop pathogen. Similarly, determining where the major extant MSV-A lineages arose could identify geographical hot spots of MSV evolution. Here, we use model-based phylogeographic analyses of 353 fully sequen...

Monjane, Ade?rito L.; Harkins, Gordon W.; Martin, Darren P.; Lemey, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Shepherd, Dionne N.; Oluwafemi, Sunday; Simuyandi, Michelo; Zinga, Innocent; Komba, Ephrem K.; Lakoutene, Didier P.; Mandakombo, Noella; Mboukoulida, Joseph; Semballa, Silla; Tagne, Appolinaire

2011-01-01

206

Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence  

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Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytoch...

Westmore, G. C.; Poke, F. S.; Allen, G. R.; Wilson, C. R.

2013-01-01

207

Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Infants by Use of Dried Blood Spots and an Ultrasensitive p24 Antigen Assay?  

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We tested 617 dried blood spots (DBS) from human immunodeficiency virus-exposed infants from five countries using an ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay (Up24). The sensitivity was 94.4% (67/71) and the specificity was 100% (431/431) for infants with DBS specimens ?20 months old; DBS older than 30 months demonstrated only 72.2% sensitivity (39/54) (P < 0.001) but displayed 100% specificity (61/61).

Cachafeiro, Ada; Sherman, Gayle G.; Sohn, Annette H.; Beck-sague, Consuelo; Fiscus, Susan A.

2009-01-01

208

Transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates able and unable to overcome tomato or pepper resistance by its vector Frankliniella occidentalis  

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Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes serious diseases of many economically important crops. Disease control has been achieved by breeding tomato and pepper cultivars with the resistance genes Sw-5 and Tsw, respectively. However, TSWV isolates overcoming these genetic resistances have appeared in several countries. To evaluate the risk of spread of these resistance-breaking isolates, we tested their ability of transmission by the main vector of TSWV, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. W...

Debreczeni, Diana Elvira; Rubio, L.; Aramburu, J.; Lo?pez Del Rinco?n, Carmelo; Galipienso, L.; Soler Aleixandre, Salvador; Belliure, B.

2014-01-01

209

Structure and function analysis of nucleocapsid protein of tomato spotted wilt virus interacting with RNA using homology modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleocapsid (N) protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) plays key roles in assembling genomic RNA into ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which serves as a template for both viral gene transcription and genome replication. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of how TSWV N interacts with genomic RNA. In this study, we demonstrated that TSWV N protein forms a range of higher ordered oligomers. Analysis of the RNA binding behavior of N protein revealed that no specific oligomer binds to RNA preferentially, instead each type of N oligomer is able to bind RNA. To better characterize the structure and function of N protein interacting with RNA, we constructed homology models of TSWV N and N-RNA complexes. Based on these homology models, we demonstrated that the positively charged and polar amino acids in its predicted surface cleft of TSWV N are critical for RNA binding. Moreover, by N-RNA homology modeling, we found that the RNA component is deeply embedded in the predicted protein cleft; consistently, TSWV N-RNA complexes are relatively resistant to digestion by RNase. Collectively, using homology modeling, we determined the RNA binding sites on N and found a new protective feature for N protein. Our findings also provide novel insights into the molecular details of the interaction of TSWV N with RNA components. PMID:25540203

Li, Jia; Feng, Zhike; Wu, Jianyan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Min; Wang, Bi; Mao, Xiang; Tao, Xiaorong

2015-02-13

210

Evaluation of Different RNA Extraction Methods and Storage Conditions of Dried Plasma or Blood Spots for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Quantification and PCR Amplification for Drug Resistance Testing?  

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The development and validation of dried sample spots as a method of specimen collection are urgently needed in developing countries for monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Our aim was to test some crucial steps in the use of dried spots, i.e., viral recovery and storage over time. Moreover, we investigated whether dried plasma and blood spots (DPS and DBS, respectively) give comparable viral load (VL) results. Four manual RNA extraction methods from commercial HIV type...

Monleau, Marjorie; Montavon, Ce?line; Laurent, Christian; Segondy, Michel; Montes, Brigitte; Delaporte, Eric; Boillot, Franc?ois; Peeters, Martine

2009-01-01

211

Sintomas atípicos em frutos de meloeiro e de melancia ocasionados por Watermelon mosaic virus-2  

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The Northeast of Brazil presents great potencial for melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production. Melon fruit with white spots and watermelon fruits showing chlorotic spots were demonstrated to be caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2, through indirect enzyme linked-immuno sorbent assay.

Lima Albe?rsio, J. A.; Abi?lio, Queiroz M.; Ramos Najara, F.; Gonc?alves Fa?tima, M. B.

2002-01-01

212

Failure to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus in necropsied farm-raised white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between January 1 and December 31, 2005 gross and histologic examinations were performed on carcasses of 61 farm-raised white-tailed deer originating from Pennsylvania. Single-tube real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and type 2 (BVDV-2) was performed on each animal. Virus isolation was performed on tissue samples from 25 of 61 animals. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of ear-notch skin to identify BVDV antigen was performed on each animal. All tissues samples tested negative for both BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 by real-time RT-PCR, virus isolation, and IHC. Gross or histopathologic lesions suggestive of BVDV infection were not detected. Results of this study suggest that BVD is not a common cause of mortality in farm-raised white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania. PMID:17459862

Brooks, Jason W; Key, Douglas W; Hattel, Arthur L; Hovingh, Ernest P; Peterson, Ryan; Shaw, Daniel P; Fisher, Jenny S

2007-05-01

213

Distribution of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) antigens in nervous and non-nervous organs of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during the course of an experimental challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) antigens was examined by immunohistochemistry in the nervous and non-nervous organs of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during the course of an intramuscular infection. Histological changes resulting from the infection were evaluated from 3 days to 2 months post-infection. The specific antibody response was also studied 2 months post-challenge. Viral proteins were present throughout the experimental period in the retina (inner nuclear layer, ganglion layer, outer limiting membrane, and outer plexiform layer), brain (cerebellum and tectum opticum), and liver (hepatocytes and endothelial cells). These proteins were also observed in the renal tubular cells, white pulp of spleen, and in fibroblasts and cartilage of caudal fin. This is the first report of RGNNV proteins appearing in these organs, where the immunostaining was only detected at certain sampling times after the onset of mortality. Brain and retina of virus-exposed fish showed high levels of vacuolation, while accumulation of fat vacuoles was observed in the liver. RGNNV infection also induced a specific antibody response as measured by an ELISA. In summary, this is the first study demonstrating the presence of viral proteins in cells of caudal fin, kidney and spleen of European seabass. PMID:23271176

Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Thompson, Kim Dawn; Adams, Alexandra; Infante, Carlos; Borrego, Juan Jose

2012-01-01

214

Diagnosis of Deerpox virus infection in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 3-month-old fawn from a group of 12 captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) displaying cutaneous lesions was presented to the Mississippi Veterinary Research & Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Postmortem examination identified multiple discrete, round, alopecic, flat, proliferative dermal lesions scattered along the skin of the lips, muzzle, pinna, ventral thorax, medial limbs, and most notably the abdomen. Multiple ulcers were present on the commissures of the lips, dorsal surface of the tongue, and left caudal buccal surface of the oral cavity. The abdomen was filled with fibrinopurulent exudate and ruminal contents. Multiple to coalescing transmural ulcers were identified in the rumen. Histopathological evaluation of the skin revealed markedly thickened epidermis and focal areas of superficial dermal fibrosis, intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusions in swollen keratinocytes and lymphocytic and plasmacytic perivascular dermatitis. The rumen ulcers were surrounded with necrotic cellular debris mixed with fibrin, bacteria, hemorrhages, and a collection of mixed inflammatory cells. Some swollen ruminal mucosal epithelia had eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions. Poxvirus was isolated from the skin and rumen tissue specimens. Electron microscopy detected viral particles with poxvirus morphology. Polymerase chain reaction assays detected A21, a gene conserved within family Poxviridae, in the skin and rumen tissues. Phylogenic analysis of the A21 sequences indicated that the viral isolate (M10-9055) was closely related to known members of genus Cervidpoxvirus. In conclusion, findings indicate that Deerpox virus can produce extensive lesions in white-tailed deer. PMID:21908356

Baughman, Brittany; Zhang, Shuping; Jin, Ling; Pace, Lanny W; Cooley, Jim; Yan, Lifang; Zhang, Michael Z

2011-09-01

215

The lead-lag relationship between the spot index FTSE 20 and the future contract of the Greek Stock Market  

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? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????? ?????? (?.?.?.) ???? ???????? ??? ? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???. ? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? spot ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?...

????????, ???????????

2003-01-01

216

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

2013-01-01

217

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

GuohuiZhou

2013-09-01

218

Analysis of resistance to Yam mosaic virus, genus Potyvirus in white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) genotypes  

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Resistance to Yam mosaic virus (YMV), genus Potyvirus was studied in 10 populations of selected white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata). Plants of resistant genotypes: TDr 35, TDr 1621, TDr 93-1, TDr 93-32, TDr 95-107, TDr 93-23, and susceptible ones: TDr 87/00211, TDr 87/00571 and TDr 95-127 were screened for their reaction to the pathogen by symptom severity scoring scale of 1-5, and by quantifying virus multiplication by triple antibody sandwich enzyme-li...

Babajide Odu O.; Asiedu Robert; Shoyinka Stephen A.; D’a Hughes Jacqueline

2011-01-01

219

Elaboração e validação da escala diagramática para avaliação da mancha branca do milho / Diagrammatic scale for severity evaluation of maize white foliar spot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A correta avaliação das doenças de plantas é de fundamental importância para os estudos epidemiológicos e para as estratégias de controle das mesmas. A escala diagramática de doenças além de contribuir para a correta avaliação fornece um padrão de uniformidade aos diferentes avaliadores. O objetivo [...] deste trabalho foi desenvolver e validar a escala diagramática para quantificação da severidade da Mancha Branca em folhas de milho. Para a construção da escala, utilizaram-se os limites de severidade mínima e máxima da doença observados, sendo os níveis intermediários da escala definidos por acréscimos logarítmicos, obedecendo a "Lei do estímulo de Weber-Fechner". A escala é composta por sete níveis de severidade: 1,1; 2,1; 4,2; 7,9; 14,4; 25,0 e 39,7%, a qual foi validada por dez avaliadores sem experiência na quantificação da Mancha Branca em milho. Primeiramente, a severidade da doença foi estimada pelos dez avaliadores sem auxílio da escala, e em seguida, com a utilização da escala proposta, em 30 folhas de milho, com níveis de severidade heterogêneos. Regressões lineares simples relacionando os valores das severidades reais e severidades estimadas foram utilizadas para análise da acurácia dos avaliadores, enquanto os coeficientes de determinação e variância dos erros absolutos determinaram a precisão dos avaliadores. Constatou-se precisão nas estimativas visuais de severidade da doença pelo uso da escala diagramática. A escala diagramática proposta é adequada para estimar a severidade da Mancha Branca em folhas de milho, sendo possível sua utilização em pesquisas epidemiológicas. Abstract in english Precise evaluation of plant diseases is very important for epidemiology studies and elaboration of control strategies. The diagrammatic scale of diseases contributes for an accurate evaluation and supplies an uniform standard for different evaluators. The objective of this work was to develop and va [...] lidate a diagrammatic scale to quantify the severity of maize white foliar spot disease. In order to build the scale, minimum and maximum severity extremes of the disease were set by observation, and the intermediate levels were defined by logarithmic increment, according to "Weber-Fechner law of stimulus". The scale is composed by seven levels of severity: 1.1; 2.1; 4.2; 7.9; 14.4; 25.0 and 39.7%, which were validated by evaluators (10) without any experience in maize white spot disease quantification. Thirty leaves of corn with heterogeneous levels of the disease were analyzed and the severity was estimated by the evaluators, at first, without the scale and then, prior to that, with the proposed scale. Simple linear regressions relating the real values of severity and the estimated severities were used for the accuracy analysis of the evaluators, while the coefficients of determination and variance of absolute errors determined the precision of the evaluators. Visual estimation of severity was precise with the use of the diagrammatic scale. The proposed diagrammatic scale is adequate to estimate the severity of maize white foliar spot disease, and can be used in epidemiology studies.

Gustavo, Malagi; Idalmir dos, Santos; Rubia Cristiani, Camochena; Renata, Moccellin.

2011-09-01

220

Multicenter Evaluation of Use of Dried Blood and Plasma Spot Specimens in Quantitative Assays for Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA: Measurement, Precision, and RNA Stability  

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Eleven laboratories evaluated the use of dried blood and plasma spots for quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA by two commercially available RNA assays, the Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor and the bioMerieux NucliSens HIV-1 QT assays. The recovery of HIV RNA was linear over a dynamic range extending from 4,000 to 500,000 HIV type 1 RNA copies/ml. The Monitor assay appeared to have a broader dynamic range and seemed more sensitive at lower concentrations. However, the NucliSens ...

Brambilla, Don; Jennings, Cheryl; Aldrovandi, Grace; Bremer, James; Comeau, Anne Marie; Cassol, Sharon A.; Dickover, Ruth; Jackson, J. Brooks; Pitt, Jane; Sullivan, John L.; Butcher, Ann; Grosso, Lynell; Reichelderfer, Patricia; Fiscus, Susan A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Evidence of a tomato spotted wilt virus resistance-breaking strain originated through natural reassortment between two evolutionary-distinct isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Tsw resistance-breaking tomato spotted wilt virus field isolate (TSWV-p331) found in northern Italy originated via reassortment from two evolutionary distinct TSWV strains, as revealed by recombination and phylogenetic analysis. Compared to the closest isolate present in the database, p331 NSs protein carries an unusually high number of amino acid substitutions, but no differences in the nucleocapsid protein. Despite these substitutions, p331 NSs is a potent silencing suppressor. As shown by phylogenetic analyses of TSWV nucleocapsid sequences collected over fifteen years, one likely p331 parental lineage has never been detected in northern Italy, allowing speculations on the origin of TSWV-p331. PMID:25433286

Margaria, P; Ciuffo, M; Rosa, C; Turina, M

2015-01-22

222

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) with bovine viral diarrhea virus type-1 isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the current study was to elucidate the within-host dynamics of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type-1 infection to better understand how this virus could be maintained in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, WTD) populations. The BVDV type-1 used in this study was originally isolated from a free-ranging WTD in Indiana. Four fawns were intranasally inoculated with 2 ml BVDV type-1 strain 544 WTD at a 10(6) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50))/ml. Two fawns were inoculated with sham inoculum (negative controls). Animals were bled on days -7, 0, 1, 7, and 14 postinoculation (PID) for a complete blood count, chemistry panel, buffy coat (BC), real-time RT-PCR, and virus neutralization (VN). On days 7 and 14 PID, nasal and rectal swabs were obtained for RT-PCR and two of the virus-inoculated fawns and one of the negative controls fawns were euthanized. At necropsy, multiple samples were obtained for histopathology and in situ hybridization (ISH). Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on serum, BC, nasal, and rectal swabs. All animals tested negative for BVDV type 1 neutralizing antibodies on day 0 and animals in the control group remained seronegative throughout the study. No gross lesions were observed at necropsy. BVDV was isolated from lung and pooled lymph nodes from all BVDV-inoculated fawns on days 7 and 14 PID. Infected deer had lymphoid depletion, apoptosis, and lymphoid necrosis in the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. BVDV was detected in lymphoid tissues of infected animals by ISH. No lesions or virus were identified in control fawns. On day 7 PID, samples from two virus-inoculated fawns were positive for BVDV by virus isolation and RT-PCR from BC and nasal swab samples. One fawn was also positive on a rectal swab. Nasal and rectal swabs from all animals were negative on day 14. Results indicate that infection of WTD with BVDV is possible, and leads to histologic lesions in variety of tissues. In addition, virus shedding into the environment through feces and other secretions is likely. PMID:19617475

Raizman, E A; Pogranichniy, R; Lévy, M; Negron, M; Langohr, I; Van Alstine, W

2009-07-01

223

Manchas por alimentación de Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) en uva de mesa blanca / Ring spots by feeding of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on white table grapes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre 2006-2008 se hicieron siete ensayos en el Valle Central de Chile para verificar que la alimentación de Frankliniella occidentalis, después de la floración, causa manchas en uva de mesa blanca con pérdidas de hasta 50% en algunas áreas. Las bayas se protegieron con spinosad a 5,76 g ia/hL, apli [...] cado por inmersión de los racimos o por aspersión, cubriendo diversos períodos del desarrollo desde el cierre de racimos y terminaron en cosecha temprana. El daño a la cosecha alcanzó 70-99% en el control sin tratar y sólo 1-6% en los racimos que se protegieron de la alimentación del trips durante el cierre. Las aplicaciones desde la pinta de las bayas presentaron 22-55% de incidencia en los racimos, y aquellas temprano en la cosecha tuvieron daño similar al control. En todos los ensayos, los resultados de proteger los racimos contra los trips sólo al cierre fueron similares a los de aplicaciones múltiples en todos los estados fenológicos. En un ensayo en 2007-2008, una aplicación durante el cierre de racimos redujo significativamente el daño. Sin embargo, de los seis sitios seleccionados en 2006 por presentar las manchas en temporadas previas, sólo tres tuvieron daño significativo en el control sin tratar. La aparición variable de estas manchas debería inducir a los agricultores a evaluar la densidad de trips temprano en el cierre de racimos o hacer aplicaciones por calendario en este período para evitar daños. Abstract in english Seven trials were conducted during 2006-2008 in the Central Valley of Chile to verify that Frankliniella occidentalis feeding after flowering induce ring spots on white table grapes shortly before harvest, resulting in economic losses up to 50% in some areas. Treatment of spinosad at 5.76 g ai/hL we [...] re applied by dipping grape bunches or by spraying, across a range of fruit growth stages including bunch closure and veraison, and were stopped at early harvest. Ring spot incidence in bunches at harvest reached 70-99% in the untreated control compared to 1-6% in treatments where bunch closure was treated and protected from thrips. Applications starting at veraison resulted in 22- 55% incidence in bunches, while those started at early harvest time were equal in damage to the control. In all trials, results achieved by protecting against thrips feeding only at bunch closure were equal to multiple applications at all fruit growth stages. Damage levels in another trial during 2007-2008 for thrips control during bunch closure found that a single application at this stage can provide commercial ring spot russet reduction. However, of the six sites selected in 2006 due to ring spot russet damage previously, only three had significant damage in the untreated control. The variable appearance of ring spot russet should prompt growers to monitor thrip populations in bunches at early bunch closure or to do calendar sprays during this stage to avoid damage.

JAIME E., ARAYA; CARLOS, MERINO; FELIPE, SANTIBÁÑEZ; LUIS, SAZO.

2014-06-01

224

Determining the Effect of Calculus, Hypocalcification, and Stain on Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy for Detecting White Spot Lesions  

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Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS have been shown as useful methods for distinguishing sound enamel from carious lesions ex vivo. However, factors in the oral environment such as calculus, hypocalcification, and stain could lead to false-positive results. OCT and PRS were used to investigate extracted human teeth clinically examined for sound enamel, white spot lesion (WSL, calculus, hypocalcification, and stain to determine whether these factors would confound WSL detection with these optical methods. Results indicate that OCT allowed differentiating caries from sound enamel, hypocalcification, and stain, with calculus deposits recognizable on OCT images. ANOVA and post-hoc unequal N HSD analyses to compare the mean Raman depolarization ratios from the various groups showed that the mean values were statistically significant at P<.05, except for several comparison pairs. With the current PRS analysis method, the mean depolarization ratios of stained enamel and caries are not significantly different due to the sloping background in the stained enamel spectra. Overall, calculus and hypocalcification are not confounding factors affecting WSL detection using OCT and PRS. Stain does not influence WSL detection with OCT. Improved PRS analysis methods are needed to differentiate carious from stained enamel.

Lin-P'ing Choo-Smith

2010-01-01

225

Reconstructing the history of maize streak virus strain a dispersal to reveal diversification hot spots and its origin in southern Africa.  

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Maize streak virus strain A (MSV-A), the causal agent of maize streak disease, is today one of the most serious biotic threats to African food security. Determining where MSV-A originated and how it spread transcontinentally could yield valuable insights into its historical emergence as a crop pathogen. Similarly, determining where the major extant MSV-A lineages arose could identify geographical hot spots of MSV evolution. Here, we use model-based phylogeographic analyses of 353 fully sequenced MSV-A isolates to reconstruct a plausible history of MSV-A movements over the past 150 years. We show that since the probable emergence of MSV-A in southern Africa around 1863, the virus spread transcontinentally at an average rate of 32.5 km/year (95% highest probability density interval, 15.6 to 51.6 km/year). Using distinctive patterns of nucleotide variation caused by 20 unique intra-MSV-A recombination events, we tentatively classified the MSV-A isolates into 24 easily discernible lineages. Despite many of these lineages displaying distinct geographical distributions, it is apparent that almost all have emerged within the past 4 decades from either southern or east-central Africa. Collectively, our results suggest that regular analysis of MSV-A genomes within these diversification hot spots could be used to monitor the emergence of future MSV-A lineages that could affect maize cultivation in Africa. PMID:21715477

Monjane, Adérito L; Harkins, Gordon W; Martin, Darren P; Lemey, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Shepherd, Dionne N; Oluwafemi, Sunday; Simuyandi, Michelo; Zinga, Innocent; Komba, Ephrem K; Lakoutene, Didier P; Mandakombo, Noella; Mboukoulida, Joseph; Semballa, Silla; Tagne, Appolinaire; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Erdmann, Julia B; van Antwerpen, Tania; Owor, Betty E; Flett, Bradley; Ramusi, Moses; Windram, Oliver P; Syed, Rizwan; Lett, Jean-Michel; Briddon, Rob W; Markham, Peter G; Rybicki, Edward P; Varsani, Arvind

2011-09-01

226

Second generation peanut genotypes resistant to thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt virus exhibit tolerance rather than true resistance and differentially affect thrips fitness.  

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Spotted wilt disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a major constraint to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern United States. Reducing yield losses to TSWV has heavily relied on planting genotypes that reduce the incidence of spotted wilt disease. However, mechanisms conferring resistance to TSWV have not been identified in these genotypes. Furthermore, no information is available on how these genotypes influence thrips fitness. In this study, we investigated the effects of newly released peanut genotypes (Georganic, GA-06G, Tifguard, and NC94022) with field resistance to TSWV and a susceptible genotype (Georgia Green) on tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), fitness, and TSWV incidence. Thrips-mediated transmission resulted in TSWV infection in both TSWV-resistant and susceptible genotypes and they exhibited typical TSWV symptoms. However, some resistant genotypes had reduced viral loads (fewer TSWV N-gene copies) than the susceptible genotype. F. fusca larvae acquired TSWV from resistant and susceptible genotypes indicating that resistant genotypes also can serve as inoculum sources. Unlike resistant genotypes in other crops that produce local lesions (hypersensitive reaction) upon TSWV infection, widespread symptom development was noticed in peanut genotypes. Results indicated that the observed field resistance in peanut genotypes could be because of tolerance. Further, fitness studies revealed some, but not substantial, differences in thrips adult emergence rates and developmental time between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Thrips head capsule length and width were not different when reared on different genotypes. PMID:23786043

Shrestha, Anita; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G

2013-04-01

227

Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis / Seleção de reprodutores de camarão livres da síndrome da mancha-branca e da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar reprodutores de Litopenaeus vannamei sobreviventes de um surto do vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV), adaptados às condições locais e diagnosticados negativamente para WSSV e para o vírus da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética (IHHNV), e ava [...] liar se esta extratégia é uma alternativa viável para produção em Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados fenotipicamente 800 machos e 800 fêmeas, de um viveiro. Análises de nested-PCR de 487 fêmeas e de 231 machos, sexualmente maduros, mostraram que 63% das fêmeas e 55% dos machos estavam infectados com IHHNV. Os animais livres de IHHNV foram testados para WSSV, e os considerados duplo negativos destinados à reprodução. As pós-larvas produzidas foram estocadas em nove berçários, para análise. Das 45 amostras, com 50 pós-larvas cada, apenas duas foram positivas para IHHNV e nenhuma para WSSV. Os lotes de pós-larvas diagnosticadas livres de vírus por nested-PCR foram encaminhados para seis fazendas. Foi realizada análise comparativa em viveiros de engorda, entre pós-larvas locais e pós-larvas do Nordeste do Brasil. Também foram analisados caranguejos (Chasmagnathus granulata), siris (Callinectes sapidus) e lebres do mar (Aplysia brasiliana), que são possíveis vetores dos vírus. A média de sobrevivência foi de 55% para as pós-larvas locais e de 23,4% para as pós-larvas do Nordeste. As lebres do mar apresentaram prevalência de 50% e os caranguejos de 67% de WSSV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and to evaluate if this strat [...] egy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata), blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana), which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

Carlos Cesar de, Mello Junior; Gael Yvan Leclercq, Delsol; Emmerik, Motte; Virna Alexia Cedeño, Escobar; Pedro Filipe, Rey; Mauricio Laterça, Martins; Luis Alejandro Vinatea, Arana; Giovanni Lemos de, Mello; Alvaro Pestana de, Farias; Xavier Antonio Serrano, Arguello; John Erick Montaño, Maridueña.

2011-05-01

228

Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis Seleção de reprodutores de camarão livres da síndrome da mancha-branca e da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar reprodutores de Litopenaeus vannamei sobreviventes de um surto do vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV, adaptados às condições locais e diagnosticados negativamente para WSSV e para o vírus da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética (IHHNV, e avaliar se esta extratégia é uma alternativa viável para produção em Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados fenotipicamente 800 machos e 800 fêmeas, de um viveiro. Análises de nested-PCR de 487 fêmeas e de 231 machos, sexualmente maduros, mostraram que 63% das fêmeas e 55% dos machos estavam infectados com IHHNV. Os animais livres de IHHNV foram testados para WSSV, e os considerados duplo negativos destinados à reprodução. As pós-larvas produzidas foram estocadas em nove berçários, para análise. Das 45 amostras, com 50 pós-larvas cada, apenas duas foram positivas para IHHNV e nenhuma para WSSV. Os lotes de pós-larvas diagnosticadas livres de vírus por nested-PCR foram encaminhados para seis fazendas. Foi realizada análise comparativa em viveiros de engorda, entre pós-larvas locais e pós-larvas do Nordeste do Brasil. Também foram analisados caranguejos (Chasmagnathus granulata, siris (Callinectes sapidus e lebres do mar (Aplysia brasiliana, que são possíveis vetores dos vírus. A média de sobrevivência foi de 55% para as pós-larvas locais e de 23,4% para as pós-larvas do Nordeste. As lebres do mar apresentaram prevalência de 50% e os caranguejos de 67% de WSSV.

Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

2011-05-01

229

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA  

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Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

Aneliya BORISOVA

2005-08-01

230

Sequence diversity of the nucleoprotein gene of iris yellow spot virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) isolates from the western region of the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), a tentative virus species in the genus Tospovirus and family Bunyaviridae, is considered a rapidly emerging threat to onion production in the western United States (US). The present study was undertaken to determine the sequence diversity of IYSV isolates from infected onion plants grown in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Washington. Using primers derived from the small RNA of IYSV, the complete sequence of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of each isolate was determined and the sequences compared. In addition, a shallot isolate of IYSV from Washington was included in the study. The US isolates of IYSV shared a high degree of sequence identity (95 to 99%) with one another and to previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that with the exception of one isolate from central Oregon and one isolate from California, all the onion and shallot isolates from the western US clustered together. This cluster also included onion and lisianthus isolates from Japan. A second distinct cluster consisted of isolates from Australia (onion), Brazil (onion), Israel (lisianthus), Japan (alstroemeria), The Netherlands (iris) and Slovenia (leek). The IYSV isolates evaluated in this study appear to represent two distinct groups, one of which largely represents isolates from the western US. Understanding of the population structure of IYSV would potentially provide insights into the molecular epidemiology of this virus. PMID:16320007

Pappu, H R; du Toit, L J; Schwartz, H F; Mohan, S K

2006-05-01

231

Host plant resistance against tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its impact on susceptibility to the virus, virus population genetics, and vector feeding behavior and survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely affects peanut production in the southeastern United States. Breeding efforts over the last three decades resulted in the release of numerous peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV. The degree of field resistance in these genotypes has steadily increased over time, with recently released genotypes exhibiting a higher degree of field resistance than older genotypes. However, most new genotypes have never been evaluated in the greenhouse or laboratory against TSWV or thrips, and the mechanism of resistance is unknown. In this study, TSWV-resistant and -susceptible genotypes were subjected to TSWV mechanical inoculation. The incidence of TSWV infection was 71.7 to 87.2%. Estimation of TSWV nucleocapsid (N) gene copies did not reveal significant differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Parsimony and principal component analyses of N gene nucleotide sequences revealed inconsistent differences between virus isolates collected from resistant and susceptible genotypes and between old (collected in 1998) and new (2010) isolates. Amino acid sequence analyses indicated consistent differences between old and new isolates. In addition, we found evidence for overabundance of nonsynonymous substitutions. However, there was no evidence for positive selection. Purifying selection, population expansion, and differentiation seem to have influenced the TSWV populations temporally rather than positive selection induced by host resistance. Choice and no-choice tests indicated that resistant and susceptible genotypes differentially affected thrips feeding and survival. Thrips feeding and survival were suppressed on some resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes. These findings reveal how TSWV resistance in peanut could influence evolution, epidemiology, and management of TSWV. PMID:24025049

Sundaraj, Sivamani; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

2014-02-01

232

Quantitative relationship of two viruses (MrNV and XSV) in white-tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

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Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) were purified from diseased freshwater prawns M rosenbergii and used to infect healthy post-larvae (PL) by an immersion method. Three groups of prawns were challenged with various combined doses of MrNV and XSV. Signs of white-tail disease (WTD) were observed in Groups 1 and 2, which had been challenged with combinations containing relatively high proportions of MrNV and low proportions of XSV. By contrast there was little...

Zhang, Hj; Wang, Hm; Yuan, Jf; Li, Lj; Zhang, Jh; Bonami, Jean-robert; Shi, Zl

2006-01-01

233

Global Deletion of Trp53 Reverts Ovarian Tumor Phenotype of the Germ Cell–Deficient White Spotting Variant (Wv) Mice1  

Science.gov (United States)

White spotting variant (Wv) mice are spontaneous mutants attributed to a point mutation in the c-Kit gene, which reduces the tyrosine kinase activity to around 1% and affects the development of melanocytes, mast cells, and germ cells. Homozygous mutant mice are sterile but can live nearly a normal life span. The female Wv mice have a greatly reduced ovarian germ cell and follicle reserve at birth, and the remaining follicles are largely depleted soon after the females reach reproductive stage at around 7 weeks of age. Consequently, ovarian epithelial tumors develop in 100% of Wv females by 3 to 4 months of age. These tumors, called tubular adenomas, are benign but can become invasive in older Wv mice. We tested if additional genetic mutation(s) could convert the benign ovarian epithelial tumors to malignant tumors by crossing the Wv mutant into the Trp53 knockout background. Surprisingly, we found that global deletion of Trp53 suppressed the development of ovarian tubular adenomas in Wv mice. The ovaries of Wv/Wv; Trp53 (?/?) mice were covered by a single layer of surface epithelium and lacked excessive epithelial proliferation. Rather, the ovaries contained a small number of follicles. The presence of ovarian follicles and granulosa cells, as indicated by Pgc7 and inhibin-alpha expression, correlated with the absence of epithelial lesions. A reduction of Pten gene dosage, as in Wv/Wv; Pten (+/?) mice, produced a similar, though less dramatic, phenotype. We conclude that deletion of Trp53 prolongs the survival of ovarian follicles in Wv mice and consequently prevents the proliferation of ovarian epithelial cells and development of ovarian tubular adenomas. The results suggest that various cell types within the ovary communicate and mutually modulate, and an intact tissue environment is required to ensure homeostasis of ovarian surface epithelial cells. Especially, the current finding emphasizes the importance of ovarian follicles in suppressing the hyperplastic growth of ovarian epithelial cells, dominating over the loss of p53. PMID:25622902

Cai, Kathy Qi; Wang, Ying; Smith, Elizabeth R.; Smedberg, Jennifer L.; Yang, Dong-Hua; Yang, Wan-Lin; Xu, Xiang-Xi

2015-01-01

234

Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

2013-09-01

235

Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus 50 kDa protein is targeted to plasmodesmata and accumulates in sieve elements in transgenic plant leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the in situ localization of the 50 kDa protein encoded by ORF2 of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) genome which is thought to be a movement protein. In immunogold electron microscopy of ACLSV-infected Chenopodium quinoa leaves, the 50 kDa protein was localized on plasmodesmata and nearby cytoplasm. Observation of transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis leaves expressing the 50 kDa protein fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) by fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that green fluorescence was observed as spots on the cell wall or strands passing through the cell wall of several cell types, i.e., epidermal, palisade and spongy mesophyll and collenchyma cells. In transverse and longitudinal sections of leaf veins of transgenic plants showed that the 50K-EGFP fusion accumulated in sieve elements and formed an extensive interconnecting network of threadlike structure. These results indicated that ACLSV 50 kDa protein can target plasmodesmata and traffic into sieve elements. PMID:10664400

Yoshikawa, N; Oogake, S; Terada, M; Miyabayashi, S; Ikeda, Y; Takahashi, T; Ogawa, K

1999-01-01

236

Identification of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon regulatory factor 3 involved in antiviral immune response against fish RNA virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is an important transcription factor which regulates the expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) following virus recognition. In this study, a novel IRF3 gene was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides (EcIRF3) and its effects against Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was investigated. The full-length of EcIRF3 cDNA was composed of 2513 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 458 amino acids which shared 82% identity with European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). EcIRF3 contained three conserved domains including a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF associated domain (IAD) and a serine-rich domain. Expression profile analysis revealed that EcIRF3 was abundant in head kidney, kidney, spleen and gill. Upon different stimuli in vitro, the transcript of EcIRF3 was significantly up-regulated after RGNNV infection or treatment with polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). During SGIV infection, the increase of the EcIRF3 transcription was only detected at the late stage, suggesting that EcIRF3 was differently regulated by different stimuli. Immune fluorescence assay indicated that the fluorescence signal of EcIRF3 was increased significantly after infection with RGNNV or treatment with poly I:C, but moderately at the late stage of SGIV infection. Reporter gene assay showed that EcIRF3 activated zebrafish type I IFN and type III IFN promoter in vitro. The viral gene transcription and virus production of RGNNV were significantly decreased in EcIRF3 overexpressing cells. However, the ectopic expression of EcIRF3 did not affect the gene transcription and virus production of SGIV. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of type I IFN and IFN-inducible genes (MxI, ISG15 and ISG56) were increased in RGNNV infected EcIRF3 overexpressing cells compared to empty vector transfected cells. Together, our results demonstrated that IFN immune response mediated by grouper IRF3 was exerted crucial roles for fish RNA virus, but not for DNA virus replication. PMID:25463297

Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; OuYang, Zhengliang; Wei, Shina; Wei, Jingguang; Qin, Qiwei

2015-02-01

237

Diversity Among Tacaribe Serocomplex Viruses (Family Arenaviridae) Naturally Associated with the White-Throated Woodrat (Neotoma albigula) in the Southwestern United States  

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Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated that arenaviruses naturally associated with white-throated woodrats in central Arizona are phylogenetically closely related to the Whitewater Arroyo virus prototype strain AV 9310135, which originally was isolated from a white-throated woodrat captured in northwestern New Mexico. Pairwise comparisons of glycoprotein precursor and nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequences revealed extensive diversity ...

Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Haynie, Michelle L.; Abbott, Ken D.; Bradley, Robert D.; Fulhorst, Charles F.

2008-01-01

238

Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus.  

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The complete M segment sequences of hantaviruses amplified from tissues of a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States and from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, from New York were 99% identical and differed from those of Four Corners virus by 23%. The serum of this patient failed to recognize a conserved, immunodominant epitope of the Four Corners virus G1 glycoprotein. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. leucopus harbors a genetically and a...

Hjelle, B.; Lee, S. W.; Song, W.; Torrez-martinez, N.; Song, J. W.; Yanagihara, R.; Gavrilovskaya, I.; Mackow, E. R.

1995-01-01

239

Evidence that the nonstructural protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus is the avirulence determinant in the interaction with resistant pepper carrying the TSW gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

All known pepper cultivars resistant to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) possess a single dominant resistance gene, Tsw. Recently, naturally occurring resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV strains have been identified, causing major concerns. We used a collection of such strains to identify the specific genetic determinant that allows the virus to overcome the Tsw gene in Capsicum spp. A reverse genetic approach is still not feasible for TSWV; therefore, we analyzed reassortants between wild-type (WT) and RB strains. Our results confirmed that the S RNA, which encodes both the nucleocapsid protein (N) and a nonstructural protein (NSs), carries the genetic determinant responsible for Tsw resistance breakdown. We then used full-length S RNA segments or the proteins they encode to compare the sequences of WT and related RB strains, and obtained indirect evidence that the NSs protein is the avirulence factor in question. Transient expression of NSs protein from WT and RB strains showed that they both can equally suppress post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Moreover, biological characterization of two RB strains carrying deletions in the NSs protein showed that NSs is important in maintaining TSWV infection in newly emerging leaves over time, preventing recovery. Analysis of another RB strain phenotype allowed us to conclude that local necrotic response is not sufficient for resistance in Capsicum spp. carrying the Tsw gene. PMID:17506332

Margaria, P; Ciuffo, M; Pacifico, D; Turina, M

2007-05-01

240

Quantitative relationship of two viruses (MrNV and XSV) in white-tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) were purified from diseased freshwater prawns M. rosenbergii and used to infect healthy post-larvae (PL) by an immersion method. Three groups of prawns were challenged with various combined doses of MrNV and XSV. Signs of white-tail disease (WTD) were observed in Groups 1 and 2, which had been challenged with combinations containing relatively high proportions of MrNV and low proportions of XSV. By contrast there was little sign of WTD in Group 3, which had been challenged with a higher proportion of XSV than MrNV. A 2-step Taqman real-time RT-PCR was developed and applied to quantify viral copy numbers in each challenged PL. Results showed that genomic copies of both viruses were much higher in Groups 1 and 2 than they were in Group 3, indicating that MrNV plays a key role in WTD of M. rosenbergii. The linear correlation between MrNV and XSV genome copies in infected prawns demonstrated that XSV is a satellite virus, dependent on MrNV, but its role in pathogenicity of WTD remains unclear. PMID:16921996

Zhang, Huajun; Wang, Jianmin; Yuan, Junfa; Li, Lijuan; Zhang, Jianhong; Bonami, Jean-Robert; Shi, Zhengli

2006-07-11

 
 
 
 
241

Analysis of resistance to Yam mosaic virus, genus Potyvirus in white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir. genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resistance to Yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus was studied in 10 populations of selected white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata. Plants of resistant genotypes: TDr 35, TDr 1621, TDr 93-1, TDr 93-32, TDr 95-107, TDr 93-23, and susceptible ones: TDr 87/00211, TDr 87/00571 and TDr 95-127 were screened for their reaction to the pathogen by symptom severity scoring scale of 1-5, and by quantifying virus multiplication by triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA. Controlled crosses were made among the genotypes within and between the groups according to reactions to the pathogen. The resultant F1 progenies were evaluated for the infection by disease symptom development and by TAS ELISA to detect a symptomless infection in an insect-proof screenhouse for the assessment of inheritance of resistance to YMV. A genetic analysis of the reactions of progenies derived from the D. rotundata genotypes to inoculation with YMV strongly suggests that resistance to the virus is a dominantly inherited trait. Segregation ratios obtained from the families indicate that at least two dominant genes are involved.

Babajide Odu O.

2011-01-01

242

Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans. PMID:19357167

Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

2009-06-01

243

Detection of virus-like particles in the liver of black and white ruffed lemurs with hepatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two young black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) died at the San Diego Zoo (San Diego, California, USA) with extensive liver lesions suggestive of acute viral infection. Immunoassays performed to detect hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers were negative. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers overlapping the HBV core gene produced an amplicon of approximately 411 base pairs (bp) from serum DNA of a HBV-positive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) but not from serum DNA of either lemur. Cesium chloride gradient fractions of liver homogenates from both lemurs contained a peak protein fraction with a density of 1.18 g/cm3. Electron microscopic analysis of fraction contents, concentrated by ultracentrifulgation, revealed numerous pleomorphic, spherical particles varying in diameter from 16-25 nm. In one of the lemurs, this peak fraction also contained a double-shelled virus-like particle 47-50 nm in diameter. The size, morphology, and density of these particles suggest they are members of the Hepadnaviridae, a group of hepatotropic DNA-genome viruses for which HBV is the prototype. PMID:12038123

Worley, Michael B; Stalis, Ilse H

2002-04-01

244

Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Vir...

Supamattaya, K.; Klowklieng, T.; Arunrat, S.; Kasornchandra, J.; Sukasem, N.; Sukrakanchana, N.; Kiriratnikom, S.; Ruangsri, J.

2005-01-01

245

A method for the detection and confirmation of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in dried blood spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the development and evaluation of a cost effective test rationale for the detection of anti-HCV in dried blood spots. Samples were screened using an 'in house' IgG ELISA that incorporated the recombinant proteins c22-3, c200 and NS5. Confirmation of specific antibody to HCV was by a modification of the immunoblot RIBA 3.0. An extensive panel of well evaluated anti-HCV positive and negative samples from the UK and South Africa were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the two tests. One third of the anti-HCV positive samples had been typed. All anti-HCV positive samples were detected by the 'in house' screening EIA. Test/negative optical density ratios showed that more than 95% of reactive samples produced values greater than 5.0. Antibodies to HCV could be detected in a wide range of samples derived from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients and of different genotypes, with similar sensitivity. The presence of anti-HCV could be confirmed by RIBA 3.0 in samples with low reactivity but not in anti-HCV negative samples. Furthermore the immunoblot assay successfully increased specificity by screening out false reactive EIA samples that might occur in an epidemiological survey of a multi-ethnic population. PMID:9389410

Parker, S P; Cubitt, W D; Ades, A E

1997-11-01

246

Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Karen Sumire Kubo; Paulo de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara; Alessandra Jesus Boari; Renata Takassugi Gomes; Juliana Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Gilberto José de Morais; Renato Barbosa Salaroli

2008-01-01

247

The use of real-time PCR to detect hepatitis C virus RNA in dried blood spots from Brazilian patients infected chronically.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collecting and transporting samples for RNA analysis can be challenging, especially in situations where financial resources are limited. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the analysis of HCV RNA was developed and adapted for use with dried blood spot (DBS) samples. A qPCR for HCV 5'NCR, an internal control and a calibration curve were developed, and the sensitivity, specificity and dynamic range of amplification were evaluated using a panel of viruses. Plasma and DBS samples from 100 patients who had completed four weeks of Peginterferon alfa-2b+Ribavirin treatment were collected (DBS on SS903 collection cards and transported at room temperature). After 24 weeks of treatment, samples were collected from 68 of these patients. Of the 168 samples, 2 yielded false-negative results, and 4 yielded false-positive results (sensitivity was 98%, specificity was 94.3%, positive predictive value was 96.1%, and negative predictive value was 96.9%). Additionally, 2039 DBS samples from 1114 patients currently undergoing treatment for a chronic HCV infection in a clinical trial were tested. Only 10 samples out of the 2039 yielded invalid results warranting re-collection of DBS. The detection of HCV RNA in DBS can be a cost-effective strategy for HCV treatment monitoring, especially in settings where resources are limited. PMID:21871496

Santos, Carlos; Reis, Alexanda; Dos Santos, Cintia Vilhena; Damas, Cristine; Silva, Mariliza Henrique; Viana, Mônica Valverde; Ferraz, Maria Lucia; Carnauba, Dimas; El-Far, Fabiane; Serra, Fernando; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

2012-01-01

248

The use of dried blood spots for assessing antibody response to hepatitis A virus after natural infection and vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

During recent years, vaccination against hepatitis A has been implemented in several countries. It is expected that the increase in mass vaccination against hepatitis A will eventually result in a decreased prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in the general population. For this reason, a suitable clinical sample for diagnosis of hepatitis A must be sufficiently sensitive to enable detection of lower antibodies titers. In this study, the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) was assessed for the detection of anti-HAV antibodies after a natural infection and vaccination. Seventy-four DBS and paired plasma samples were obtained from a group of college students for a cross-sectional hepatitis A seroepidemiological study. Forty-six students seronegative for anti-HAV were selected randomly and immunized with an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine using an 0-6 month schedule. Seroconversion was monitored in paired plasma and DBS samples 6 months after the first dose followed by a period of 8 and 24 months after the second dose. A strong correlation between OD/CO rates of paired plasma and DBS samples for the detection of anti-HAV was observed. The sensitivity and specificity of the DBS compared with plasma for the detection of anti-HAV antibodies after natural infection was 100%. The sensitivity of DBS in samples collected 24 months after the second dose of hepatitis A vaccine was 95.4%. The results showed that DBS samples can be used for the detection of anti-HAV antibodies both after natural infection or vaccination. PMID:21181914

Melgaço, J G; Pinto, M A; Rocha, A M; Freire, M; Gaspar, L P; Lima, S M B; Cruz, O G; Vitral, C L

2011-02-01

249

The seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus among pregnant Bangladeshi and white British women in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, UK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the comparative seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women of two ethnic groups, white British and Bangladeshi, living in an inner city area of London, United Kingdom. Women aged 16-45 years were recruited from antenatal clinics of the Royal London Hospital in the Borough of Tower Hamlets. Complete data were obtained from 275 white British and 765 Bangladeshi women. VZV antibody prevalence was 93.1% (95% CI 89.4-95.8) and 86.0% (95% CI 83.3-88.4) respec...

Talukder, Y. S.; Kafatos, G.; Moira, A. P.; Aquilina, J.; Parker, S. P.; Crowcroft, N. S.; Brown, D. W. G.; Breuer, J.

2007-01-01

250

Role of insecticides in reducing thrips injury to plants and incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in Virginia market-type peanut.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV), transmitted by many thrips species, is a devastating pathogen of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. TSWV has become a serious problem in the Virginia/Carolina peanut-growing region of the United States. During 2002, TSWV was present in 47% of the North Carolina hectarage and caused a 5% yield reduction in Virginia. Factors influencing levels of TSWV in runner market-type peanut cultivars, which are primarily grown in Alabama, Flordia, Georgia, and Texas, have been integrated into an advisory to help those peanut growers reduce losses. An advisory based on the southeast runner market-type version is currently under development for virginia market-type peanut cultivars that are grown primarily in the Virginia/ Carolina region. A version based on preliminary field experiments was released in 2003. One factor used in both advisories relates to insecticide use to reduce the vector populations and disease incidence. This research elucidated the influence of insecticides on thrips populations, thrips plant injury, incidence of TSWV, and pod yield in virginia market-type peanut. Eight field trials from 2003 to 2005 were conducted at two locations. In-furrow application of aldicarb and phorate resulted in significant levels of thrips control, significant reductions in thrips injury to seedlings, reduced incidence of TSWV, and significant increases in pod yield. Foliar application of acephate after aldicarb or phorate applied in the seed furrow further reduced thrips plant injury and incidence of TSWV and improved yield. These findings will be used to improve the current virginia market-type TSWV advisory. PMID:17849876

Herbert, D Ames; Malone, S; Aref, S; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Royals, B M; Johnson, P D

2007-08-01

251

Age Spots  

Science.gov (United States)

... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

252

Spotted Inflation  

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We describe new scenarios of generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ``spot'', which arises from interactions associated with enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap to the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it appears not simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the sc...

Matsuda, Tomohiro

2010-01-01

253

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TS WV), weeds and thrip vectors in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the Andean region of Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), malezas y vectores de trips en el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) en la región andina de Cundinamarca (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presencia y distribución de TSWV, arvenses y los trips vectores en las principales zonas productoras de tomate en la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca (provincias de Oriente, Sumapaz y Ubaté), se confirmó mediante la técnica DAS ELISA , se evaluó la presencia del virus TSWV en tejido [...] de tomate, arvenses y trips asociados. Se observaron incidencias altas en diferentes provincias de la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca. La incidencia viral alcanzó promedios de 23,3% en el Sumapaz, el 19,4% en Oriente y el 4% en Ubaté. Los síntomas característicos observados correspondieron a manchas de color café y anillos concéntricos en el área foliar, tallos y frutos, bronceado, manchas en flor y marchitez en hojas, tallos y flores. Las especies de trips con mayor presencia fueron Frankliniella occidentalis, seguida de Thrips palmi y Thrips tabaci. Se determinó el importante papel de las arvenses como fuente de inóculo y reservorio de vectores en las especies Emilia sonchifolia y Amaranthus dubius Abstract in english The presence and distribution of the TSWV, weeds and thrip vectors in major tomato producing areas in the Andean department of Cundinamarca (Oriente, Sumapaz and Ubate provinces) were assessed with the DAS ELISA technique, evaluating the presence of the TSWV in tomato tissue, associated thrips and w [...] eeds. High incidences were observed in different provinces of the Andean department of Cundinamarca. The average viral incidence reached 23.3% in Sumapaz, 19.4% in Oriente and 4% in Ubate. The symptoms observed were: brown spots and concentric rings in the leaf area, stems and fruits; browning and spotting in the flower; and wilting in the leaves, stems and flowers. The thrip species with the highest presence were Frankliniella occidentalis, followed by Thrips palmi and Thrips tabaci. We determined the important role of weeds as inoculum sources and vector reservoirs for the species Emilia sonchifolia and Amaranthus dubius

Everth E, Ebratt R; Rocio, Acosta A; Olga Y, Martínez B; Omar, Guerrero G; Walther, Turizo A.

2013-04-01

254

Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3?(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination.

Richard W. Moyer

2011-01-01

255

Performance of a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Total Nucleic Acid-Based Real-Time PCR Assay Using Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spots for Diagnosis of HIV in Infants?  

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The new Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Qual test offers advanced automation for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA in dried blood spots (DBS) and whole blood. An analytical evaluation using an HIV-1 secondary standard yielded limits of detection of 514, 710, and 1,090 HIV RNA copies/ml for EDTA plasma, whole blood, and DBS, respectively. The precision and reproducibility of HIV-1 detection was equivalent for DBS and whole blood. Inclusivity was demons...

Stevens, Wendy; Erasmus, Linda; Moloi, Matsidisho; Taleng, Thabo; Sarang, Somaya

2008-01-01

256

Analysis of Pleiotropism at the Dominant White-Spotting (W) Locus of the House Mouse: A Description of Ten New W Alleles  

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Characterization of the pleiotropic effects of ten new putative W locus mutations, nine co-isogenic and one highly congenic with the C57BL/6J strain, reveals a wide variety of influences upon pigmentation, blood formation and gametogenesis. None of the putative alleles, each of which is closely linked to Ph, a gene 0.1 cM from W, gave evidence of complementation with W39, a new allele previously shown to be allelic to Wv. All W*/W39 genotypes resulted in black-eyed-white anemics with reduced ...

Geissler, Edwin N.; Mcfarland, Eleanor C.; Russell, Elizabeth S.

1981-01-01

257

The two envelope membrane glycoproteins of Tomato spotted wilt virus show differences in lectin-binding properties and sensitivities to glycosidases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Genus: Tospovirus, Family: Bunyaviridae) is a major constraint to the production of several different crops of agronomic and horticultural importance worldwide. The amino acid sequence of the two envelope membrane glycoproteins, designated as GN (N-terminal) and GC (C-terminal), of TSWV contain several tripeptide sequences, Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, suggesting that the proteins are N-glycosylated. In this study, the lectin-binding properties of the viral glycoproteins and their sensitivities to glycosidases were examined to obtain information on the nature of potential oligosaccharide moieties present on GN and GC. The viral proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and probed by affinoblotting using a battery of biotinylated lectins with specificity to different oligosaccharide structures. GC showed strong binding with five mannose-binding lectins, four N-acetyllactosamine-binding lectins and one fucose-binding lectin. GN was resolved into two molecular masses and only the slow migrating form showed binding, albeit to a lesser extent than GC, with three of the five mannose-binding lectins. The N-acetyllactosamine- and fucose-specific lectins did not bind to either molecular mass form of GN. None of the galactose-, N-acetylgalactosamine-, or sialic acid-binding lectins tested showed binding specificity tectins tested showed binding specificity to GC or GN. Treatment of the denatured virions with endoglycosidase H and peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) resulted in a significant decrease in the binding of GC to high mannose- and N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectins. However, no such differences in lectin binding were apparent with GN. These results indicate the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides of high mannose- and complex-type on GC and possibly high mannose-type on GN. Differences in the extent of binding of the two envelope glycoproteins to different lectins suggest that GC is likely to be more heavily N-glycosylated than GN. No evidence was observed for the presence of O-linked oligosaccharides on GN or GC

258

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-02-12

259

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia  

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Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in unders...

Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

2013-01-01

260

Import risk analysis: A case study of white shrimp in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the culture industry of black tiger shrimp in Thailand has encountered several problems causing unsuccessful shrimp culture over decades, a new non-indigenous marine species, i.e. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei was imported into Thailand as an alternation. However, imported white shrimp may carry some infectious agents which pose serious threats on aquatic species native to Thailand. Therefore, in the present study the import risk analysis (IRA was conducted to identify any hazard and estimate the risk presented by importation of white shrimp. The process involves the risk analysis steps of hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment and risk management. The risks associated with individual diseases and disease agents of white shrimp have been evaluated. Risk assessment conducted using risk evaluation matrix indicated high risk of Taura syndrome virus (TSV, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in imported white shrimp. The iterative process of risk management leads to a set of acceptable measures or strategies for each identified hazard for which the unrestricted risk is considered higher than appropriate level of protection. These measures or strategies will reduce risk to a level that is considered acceptable. Where measures or strategies that reduce the risk associated with a particular hazard to an acceptable level cannot be identified, permission to import the relevant commodity will be denied. The measures implemented in the control of white shrimp imports constitute quarantine and health certificate issued by exporting countries.

Supamattaya, K.

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

WSSV ie1 promoter is more efficient than CMV promoter to express H5 hemagglutinin from influenza virus in baculovirus as a chicken vaccine  

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Abstract Background The worldwide outbreak of influenza A (H5N1) viruses among poultry species and humans highlighted the need to develop efficacious and safe vaccines based on efficient and scaleable production. Results White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early promoter one (ie1) was shown to be a stronger promoter for gene expression in insect cells compared with Cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV) promoter in luciferase assays. In an attempt to impro...

Yu Li; Ho YuenFern; He Fang; Kwang Jimmy

2008-01-01

262

Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

2008-02-01

263

Analysis of the populations genetic variability of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), virus vector of the rice white leaf  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a monophagous insect of the rice and virus vector of the white leaf (RHBV). It is distributed in America Central, El Caribe, part of the America del Sur and in Costa Rica it is in all the producing zones of rice. The genetic variability was analyzed by means of RAPD-PCR of individuals from three populations of Costa Rica: Parrita, Guanacaste (Liberia) y San Carlos (Santa Clara), that they are found separated geographically. The technique consisted of amplifying regions at random of the genome of these insects utilizing five primers. A total of 72 polymorphic bands were obtained, that upon being analyzed statistically by means of the multivariate analysis program of numerical taxonomy could show a clear genetic distancing among said populations. The genetic distance observed in the molecular analysis can be explained for the climatic and/or geographical isolation of the populations or by the incident of Wolbachia, riquettsia that induces cytoplasmic sterility in insects. These symbionts are transmitted of generation in generation, of the mother to their offspring and they cause reproductive alterations as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. The presence of Wolbachia was determined by means of transmission electronic microscopy being observed in the greasy and muscular weave of the abdomen of T. orizicolus. Rickettsias present pleomorphic morphology and form small groups, that are characterized form small groups, that are characterized for the presence of electrondense material semidetached to the cell wall with an interior electronlucent. Its size in transverse cuts ranged between 520 nm of length X 470 nm of width. In addition, its presence was detected by means of the amplification by PCR of the genomic DNA of the insects; a specific primer for the DNA ribosomal 16S of Wolbachia was utilized for it. A 86% of insects of the San Carlos population were positive, a 96% was determined for Guanacaste, a 37% for Parrita and a 100% for Colombia. Individual insects originating from populations of T. orizicolus of the zones of Parrita and Guanacaste, maintained in greenhouse, they were crossed among them in the greenhouse. Of the crossing infected males with uninfected females progeny was not obtained, what it seems to indicate that is cytoplasmic incompatibility unidirectional. Also, a reduction or a drastic absence of offspring was observed in those crossings where both insects were infected, what could be explained by the incidence of more than a race of the bacterium (bidirectional mutual incompatibility). This last phenomenon could be a head in part of the genetic isolation observed among populations of T. orizicolus originating from different localities. (author)

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Increasing the uptake of hepatitis C virus testing among injecting drug users in specialist drug treatment and prison settings by using dried blood spots for diagnostic testing: a cluster randomized controlled trial.  

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The objective of this study was to assess whether introducing dried blood spot testing can increase hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnostic testing. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sites were matched into pairs, with one site in each pair randomly allocated to receive the intervention (training and use of dried blood spot). Data were collected from all sites for 6 months before and 6 months after the start of the intervention. The participants were 22 specialist drug clinics and six prisons in England and Wales. The main outcome measure of this study was percentage point difference in individuals tested for HCV (the difference between the percentage of patients tested 6 months after and 6 months before the introduction of dried blood spot tests). Before the trial, 8% of patients at control and intervention sites had been tested for HCV, with 16 sites testing less than 5% of their caseload. The average percentage point difference between intervention and control sites was 14.5% (95% CI 1.3-28%, paired t-test, P = 0.03); with 13 of the 14 pairs contributing to the positive effect of the intervention (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank-test, P = 0.002). The size of the difference between intervention and control sites varied considerably. The study provides preliminary supporting evidence that dried blood spot testing may increase the uptake of HCV diagnostic testing, by increasing the opportunity for patients to be offered testing. Additional trials with a larger number of sites are justified, ideally in the context of drug and treatment policies that gave clearer priority (and targets) to infection control and testing. PMID:18086182

Hickman, M; McDonald, T; Judd, Ali; Nichols, T; Hope, V; Skidmore, S; Parry, J V

2008-04-01

265

A soluble form of the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) glycoprotein GN (GN-S) inhibits transmission of TSWV by Frankliniella occidentalis  

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Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) recombinant viral vectors are commonly used to mediate virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of target genes in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato; however, the efficiency of TRV-based VIGS is more variable in tomato. Our goal was to use real-time RT-PCR to quantify the effect...

266

Intracellular distribution, cell-to-cell trafficking and tubule-inducing activity of the 50 kDa movement protein of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus fused to green fluorescent protein.  

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The 50 kDa protein (50KP) encoded by ORF2 of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed transiently in cells of Nicotiana occidentalis and Chenopodium quinoa leaves. Its intracellular distribution, cell-to-cell trafficking in leaf epidermis and tubule formation on the surface of protoplasts were analysed. The 50KP-GFP fluorescence was distributed as small irregular spots or a fibrous network structure on the periphery of epidermal cells and protoplasts of both plant species. In leaf epidermis of N. occidentalis, the protein spread from the cells that produced it into neighbouring cells in both young and mature leaves and targetted plasmodesmata in these cells. In contrast, GFP was restricted to single cells in most cases in mature leaves. When 50KP and GFP were co-expressed in leaf epidermis of N. occidentalis, GFP spread more widely from the initial cells that produced it than when GFP was expressed alone, suggesting that 50KP facilitated the cell-to-cell trafficking of GFP. 50KP-GFP was able to complement local spread of 50KP-deficient virus when expressed transiently in leaf epidermis of C. quinoa. Expression of 50KP-GFP in protoplasts resulted in the production of tubular structures protruding from the surface. Mutational analyses showed that the C-terminal region (aa 287-457) was not essential for localization to plasmodesmata, cell-to-cell trafficking, complementation of movement of 50KP-deficient virus or tubule formation on protoplasts. In contrast, deletions in the N-terminal region resulted in the complete disruption of all these activities. PMID:10900048

Satoh, H; Matsuda, H; Kawamura, T; Isogai, M; Yoshikawa, N; Takahashi, T

2000-08-01

267

Histophathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings in Two White-tail Deer Fawns Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus  

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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...

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Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus / Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum) cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas [...] cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB). Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV). Abstract in english Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted vir [...] uses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV).

Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima; Karen Sumire, Kubo; Paulo de Tarso Oliveira, Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de, Alcântara; Alessandra Jesus, Boari; Renata Takassugi, Gomes; Juliana, Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Gilberto José de, Morais; Renato Barbosa, Salaroli.

2008-02-01

269

Barreras de maíz en una estrategia de manejo integral para controlar epidemias del virus mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) / Corn barriers in an integrated management strategy to control epidemics of papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las epidemias ocasionadas por el virus de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) se han logrado retrasar mediante un sistema de manejo integral (MIP), aunque no se ha medido la efectividad individual de algunos componentes. Para ello se evaluó el establecimiento de barreras de maíz [...] (Zea mays L.) en el control del PRSV-P en Veracruz, México. El MIP incluyó la protección del vivero con malla de polipropileno, 2743 plantas ha-1, la erradicación de plantas enfermas, la fertilización mineral y el control de arvenses. Los tratamientos fueron: manejo integral con barreras de maíz (MIP), manejo integral sin barreras (MIZ) y manejo regional (MR, 1600 plantas ha-1, con insecticidas, sin barreras ni eliminación de plantas enfermas). El modelo logístico explicó adecuadamente la incidencia en MIP, MIZ y MIR, y la severidad en MIZ (R²=0.92 a 0.97); el exponencial y Gompertz explicaron la severidad (R²=0.92 y 0.98) en el MIP y MR. La mayor tasa epidémica se observó en el MR (0.054), mientras que el MIP la redujo en 42 % (0.031). Las barreras indujeron menor incidencia y severidad promedio (Yp-MIP= 18.4 y 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ= 23.4 y 11.7 %) y fnal (Yf-MIP= 81.0 y 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ= 94.11 y 43.0 %). La severidad máxima a 238 d después del trasplante (ddt) se observó en MR (69.0 %) y la menor en MIP (35.7 %). La ausencia de barreras incrementó las epidemias; en MR la máxima incidencia (100 %) y severidad (60 %) ocurrió 175 ddt, mientras que en MIP 238 ddt (incidencia 80 %, severidad 35 %). Las barreras mejoraron la sanidad del MIP en 14.0 % (Yf-MIP = 81.0 % Abstract in english Te epidemics caused by papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) have been delayed by an integral management system (MIP), although the individual efectiveness of some components has not been measured. Te establishment of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers was evaluated in the control of PRSV-P in [...] Veracruz, Mexico. Te MIP included the protection of the nursery with polypropylene mesh, 2743 plants ha-1, eradication of diseased plants, mineral fertilization and weed control. Treatments were: integral management with corn barriers (MIP), integral management without barriers (MIZ) and regional management (MR, 1600 plants ha-1, using insecticides, without barriers and elimination of diseased plants). Te logistic model adequately explained the incidence in MIP, MIZ and MR, and severity (R²=0.92 to 0.97) in MIZ; the exponential and Gompertz models explained severity (R²= 0.92 and 0.98) in MIP and MR. Te highest epidemic rate was observed in MR (0.054), while MIP reduced it by 42 % (0.031). Barriers induced lower incidence and mean severity (Yp -MIP = 18.4 and 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ = 23.4 and 11.7 %) and final (Yf-MIP = 81.0 and 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ = 94.11 and 43.0 %). Maximum severity at 238 d after transplant (dat) was observed in MR (69.0 %) and the lowest in MIP (35.7 %). Te absence of barriers increased the epidemics; in MR the maximum incidence (100 %) and severity (60 %) occurred 175 dat, while in MIP, 238 dat (incidence 80 %, severity 35 %). Barriers improved papaya health under MIP by 14 % (Yf-MIP =81.0 %

Elías, Hernández-Castro; J. Antonio, Villanueva-Jiménez; J. Antonio, Mora-Aguilera; Cristian, Nava-Díaz.

2010-05-01

270

RT-PCR amplification and sequence analysis of extra small virus associated with white tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) cultured in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with white tail disease (WTD) have been reported in Taiwan. The causative agents have been identified as M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) associated with extra small virus (XSV). The present study is the first report confirming the presence of XSV virus in M. rosenbergii displaying WTD symptoms in Taiwan by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A 772 bp amplified product was obtained by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 772 bp DNA fragment revealed 98% and 97% identity with XSV isolated from China and India, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the XSV partial genome showed strong homology (99% and 97%) with isolates from China and India. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the XSV-Taiwan isolate was more closely related to the Chinese rather than the Indian isolates. The results demonstrated the presence of XSV virus co-infection in M. rosenbergii cultured in Taiwan suffering from WTD. PMID:17352787

Wang, C S; Chang, J S; Shih, H H; Chen, S N

2007-03-01

271

Penetración de tres adhesivos en lesiones interproximales de caries de mancha blanca: estudio in vitro / Penetration of three adhesives in proximal white- spot carious lesions: an in vitro study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: el tratamiento de lesiones interproximales de caries temprana representa un reto en la concepción moderna de la cariología y la operatoria. Como respuesta, además del diagnóstico temprano, emergen nuevos materiales para controlar la progresión de la caries temprana. El objetivo de este [...] estudio fue evaluar in vitro el grado de penetración de tres adhesivos: Excite (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply) y Single Bond (3M-ESPE), en el sellado de lesiones interproximales no cavitacionales de mancha blanca. MÉTODOS: 117 premolares humanos extraídos con lesión interproximal de mancha blanca Icdas-II 2 montados en yeso, simulando la situación en cavidad oral, fueron asignados aleatoriamente a uno de los tres grupos; se sellaron las lesiones con cada material previamente mezclado con azul de metileno; se obtuvieron secciones longitudinales de 250 µm y se analizaron en fotografías obtenidas bajo estereomicroscopía. Se valoró cubrimiento total de la lesión, profundidad histológica de la lesión en zonas y en micrómetros y, penetración máxima del adhesivo. RESULTADOS: se analizaron 116 dientes. Se encontró cubrimiento total de la lesión en 52,5%; 75% se ubicaron en la mitad interna del esmalte, con profundidad promedio de 854 ± 493 µm. La máxima penetración promedio del adhesivo en la lesión fue de 697 ± 412 µm. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos para las variables (Kruskal Wallis y correlación de Spearman; p > 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: estos tres adhesivos de baja viscosidad, con alto contenido de TEGDMA y HEMA, lograron el cubrimiento y la penetración de material para el sellado de lesiones tempranas de caries interproximal. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the treatment of early proximal carious lesions represents a challenge to modern conceptions of cariology and operative dentistry. The possible solutions include, besides an early diagnosis, development of new materials to control early caries progression. The objective of this in vitr [...] o study was to evaluate the degree of penetration of three adhesives: Excite (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply), and Single Bond (3M-ESPE), in the process of sealing white-spot non-cavitated proximal lesions. METHODS: 117 extracted human premolars with ICDAS 2 white-spot non-cavitated proximal lesions mounted on plaster, to simulate oral cavity conditions, were randomly sorted out in each of the three groups. The lesions were sealed with each of the materials previously mixed with methylene blue; longitudinal sections of 250 µm were obtained, and they were later analyzed on photographs taken with a stereo microscope. These variables were evaluated: total lesion coating, lesion's histologic depth (in micrometers), and the adhesive's maximum penetration. RESULTS: a total of 116 teeth were analyzed. Entire lesion coating was found in 52.5% of the cases; 75% were located in the enamel's internal half, with an average depth of 854 ± 493 µm. The adhesive's maximum average lesion penetration was 697 ± 412 µm. No statistical significant differences were found among the groups (Kruskal Wallis and Spearman correlation; p > 0.05). CONCLUSION:these three low-viscosity adhesives with high amounts of TEGDMA and HEMA effectively achieved covering and penetrating of the material for sealing early proximal carious lesions.

Olga Lucía, Zarta; Alba Lucía, Zuluaga Valencia; María Cristina, Huertas Díaz; Juan Sebastián, Lara; Ingrid Katherine, Quintero; Marisol, Téllez; Margarita, Úsuga; Stefanía, Martignon.

2012-12-01

272

Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

273

A possible dominant white gene in Jersey cattle  

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Full Text Available Abstract A white heifer ("Snow" was born in 1991 from coloured registered Jersey parents. She produced six calves sired by coloured Jersey bulls: three white bull calves, two white heifer calves, and one coloured bull calf. One of the white bull calves was mated with 40 Hereford × Friesian yearling heifers (white face, predominantly black body with some white patches. The 38 resulting calves included 16 white and 22 coloured calves. Twelve of the 16 white calves were heifers and four were bulls. Red or black spotting was recorded on some white calves. The results are consistent with an autosomal dominant mutant causing the white phenotype. The mutation appears to have arisen spontaneously in Snow, then passing to her white progeny and white grand-progeny. The white individuals varied from entirely white in a few cases, to most having some residual small areas of red or black pigmentation in patterns not typical of other reported white spotting patterns of cattle.

Sponenberg D Phillip

2001-01-01

274

Association of dual viral infection with mortality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in culture ponds in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei has been introduced recently for culture practice in India. Though SPF stocks are imported for larval production and thereafter culture practice, these are prone to infection with the existing viruses in the environment. Here we report mortality of L.vannamei in several farms in India with minimum biosecurity. The shrimp were harvested early within 50-72 days of culture due to the onset of disease and consequent mortality. As per the analysis carried out, the shrimp were infected with two virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). About 80 % of the samples collected had either or both of the viruses. A majority of these samples (60 %) had dual infection with WSSV and IHHNV. Infection of shrimp with WSSV and IHHNV could be detected both by PCR and histopathology. Some of the samples had either exclusively WSSV infection or IHHNV infection and were also harvested before the completion of the required culture period. All the samples analyzed were negative for taura syndrome virus, yellow head virus and infectious myonecrosis virus. While it is difficult to point out the exact etiological agent as the cause of mortality, strict biosecurity measures are advisable for the continuity of L. vannamei culture in India. PMID:24426311

Otta, S K; Arulraj, R; Ezhil Praveena, P; Manivel, R; Panigrahi, A; Bhuvaneswari, T; Ravichandran, P; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

2014-01-01

275

Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and died due to infection. The mortality of affected species associated with a causative agent was confirmed in most species, except the mud crab and freshwater prawn (Marcrobrachium rosenbergii. However, viral particles can be still detected in surviving animals 10 days after infection. The results of this study will be a helpful tool employed in establishing measures on disease control and reduction of risk with the importation of white shrimp broodstock.

Supamattaya, K.

2005-02-01

276

Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses  

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Full Text Available Entre cêrca de 200 variedades de feijoeiro ensaiadas, a Manteiga foi mais sensitiva aos vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca, formando, nas fôlhas primárias, lesões locais adequadas para contagens. Com o vírus de vira-cabeça as lesões locais apareceram de 3 -6 dias após as inoculações, sob a forma de manchas cloróticas, às vezes com anéis necróticos; com o vírus da necrose branca as lesões se manifestaram em 1 - 4 dias, sob a forma de pontuações necróticas, pequenos anéis necróticos ou, em casos de certas estirpes do vírus, como pintas cloróticas. Feijoeiros com as fôlhas primárias tendo 2/3 de sua expansão ou mais desenvolvidas deram melhores resultados para o vírus de vira-cabeça; para o vírus da necrose branca os melhores resultados foram obtidos com fôlhas que tinham 2/3 ou ligeiramente menos de sua expansão total. O vírus de vira-cabeça não se tornou sistêmico em plantas inoculadas mecanicamente. A maioria das estirpes do vírus da necrose branca também não se tornou sistêmica em feijoeiros inoculados mecanicamente. Uma estirpe amarela deste tem a capacidade de se tornar sistêmica em feijoeiros sob determinadas condições. O sulfito de sódio em solução 0,0125 M, usado na extração do inóculo, aumentou ligeiramente o número de lesões formadas nas fôlhas do feijoeiro Manteiga pelo vírus de vira-cabeça; aumento consideravelmente maior foi obtido com a extração em presença de búfer de fosfato 0,1 M com pH 7, sendo êsse efeito atribuído a um aumento da sensitividade da planta-teste. A mistura de ambos causou aumento igual ou ligeiramente menor que o búfer só. Para o vírus da necrose branca a presença de sulfito de sódio 0,0125 M durante a extração aumentou consideravelmente o número de lesões, sendo esse efeito atribuído à diminuição na perda de atividade do vírus, devida à oxidação; o búfer sozinho ocasionou pequeno aumento em comparação com a testemunha, mas a mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both viruses. Bean plants kept for 48 hours under reduced light gave a higher number of lesions th

A. S. Costa

1957-01-01

277

A real-time PCR for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus in penaeid shrimp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a recently observed shrimp virus, which threats the cultured Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry. The specific aim of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of shrimp IMNV. A real-time PCR assay with a pair of primers to specifically amplify a 101bp IMNV cDNA fragment and a corresponding TaqMan probe was developed, which shown to be specific for IMNV without cross reaction with DNA samples prepared from four other shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic virus (IHHNV). The method could detect as low as one single copy of IMNV plasmid cDNA. PMID:23639336

Liu, Hong-Ling; Yan, Dong-Chun; Sun, Hu-Shan; Wang, Yi-Yan; Wang, Lei

2013-07-01

278

Molecular breeding of transgenic white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with field resistance to Alfalfa mosaic virus through the expression of its coat protein gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viral diseases, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), cause significant reductions in the productivity and vegetative persistence of white clover plants in the field. Transgenic white clover plants ectopically expressing the viral coat protein gene encoded by the sub-genomic RNA4 of AMV were generated. Lines carrying a single copy of the transgene were analysed at the molecular, biochemical and phenotypic level under glasshouse and field conditions. Field resistance to AMV infection, as well as mitotic and meiotic stability of the transgene, were confirmed by phenotypic evaluation of the transgenic plants at two sites within Australia. The T(0) and T(1) generations of transgenic plants showed immunity to infection by AMV under glasshouse and field conditions, while the T(4) generation in an agronomically elite 'Grasslands Sustain' genetic background, showed a very high level of resistance to AMV in the field. An extensive biochemical study of the T(4) generation of transgenic plants, aiming to evaluate the level and composition of natural toxicants and key nutritional parameters, showed that the composition of the transgenic plants was within the range of variation seen in non-transgenic populations. PMID:21947755

Panter, S; Chu, P G; Ludlow, E; Garrett, R; Kalla, R; Jahufer, M Z Z; de Lucas Arbiza, A; Rochfort, S; Mouradov, A; Smith, K F; Spangenberg, G

2012-06-01

279

A multiplex nested PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus and a phytoplasma in white jute (Corchorus capsularis L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiplex nested PCR assay was developed by optimizing reaction components and reaction cycling parameters for simultaneous detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV) and a phytoplasma (Group 16Sr V-C) causing little leaf and bunchy top in white jute (Corchorus capsularis). Three sets of specific primers viz. a CoGMV specific (DNA-A region) primer, a 16S rDNA universal primer pair P1/P7 and nested primer pair R16F2n/R2 for phytoplasmas were used. The concentrations of the PCR components such as primers, MgCl2 , Taq DNA polymerase, dNTPs and PCR conditions including annealing temperature and amplification cycles were examined and optimized. Expected fragments of 1 kb (CoGMV), 674 bp (phytoplasma) and 370 bp (nested R16F2n/R2) were successfully amplified by this multiplex nested PCR system ensuring simultaneous, sensitive and specific detection of the phytoplasma and the virus. The multiplex nested PCR provides a sensitive, rapid and low-cost method for simultaneous detection of jute little leaf phytoplasma and CoGMV. Based on BLASTn analyses, the phytoplasma was found to belong to the Group 16Sr V-C. PMID:23413927

Biswas, C; Dey, P; Satpathy, S

2013-05-01

280

Modulation of innate immunity and gene expressions in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei following long-term starvation and re-feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The survival rate, weight loss, immune parameters, resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ß-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppA), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), integrin ß, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), and extracel...

Lin, Yong-chin; Chen, Jiann-chu; C Man, Siti Nursafura; W Morni, Wan Zabidii; N A Suhaili, Awangku Shahrir; Cheng, Sha-yen; Hsu, Chih-hung

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Impact of West Nile virus and other mortality factors on American white pelicans at breeding colonies in the northern plains of North America  

Science.gov (United States)

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial-nesting birds and their breeding sites are concentrated in a few small areas, making this species especially vulnerable to factors that can influence productivity, such as disease, disturbance, predation, weather events and loss of nesting habitat. Nearly half of the American white pelican population breeds at four colonies in the northern plains: Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Dakota, Bitter Lake (Waubay NWR) in South Dakota, Medicine Lake NWR in Montana, and Marsh Lake in Minnesota. Thus, sustained productivity at these colonies is crucial to the health of the entire species. During the latter half of the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons, unusually high mortality of pelican chicks was observed at these colonies. West Nile virus (WNv) was identified as one source of these losses. In 2004-2007 we monitored three major colonies in the northern plains to assess mortality of chicks during the late breeding season. We documented severe weather events, disturbance, and WNv as factors contributing to chick mortality. Before WNv arrived in the region in 2002, chick mortality after mid-July was ???4%, and then jumped to as high as 44% in the years since WNv arrived. WNv kills older chicks that are no longer vulnerable to other common mortality factors (e.g., severe weather, gull predation) and typically would have survived to fledge; thus WNv appears to be an additive mortality factor. Persistence of lower productivity at American white pelican colonies in the northern plains might reduce the adult breeding population of this species in the region.

Sovada, M.A.; Pietz, P.J.; Converse, K.A.; Tommy, King D.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Scherr, P.; Ip, H.S.

2008-01-01

282

Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo / A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Entre cêrca de 200 variedades de feijoeiro ensaiadas, a Manteiga foi mais sensitiva aos vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca, formando, nas fôlhas primárias, lesões locais adequadas para contagens. Com o vírus de vira-cabeça as lesões locais apareceram de 3 -6 dias após as inoculações, sob a for [...] ma de manchas cloróticas, às vezes com anéis necróticos; com o vírus da necrose branca as lesões se manifestaram em 1 - 4 dias, sob a forma de pontuações necróticas, pequenos anéis necróticos ou, em casos de certas estirpes do vírus, como pintas cloróticas. Feijoeiros com as fôlhas primárias tendo 2/3 de sua expansão ou mais desenvolvidas deram melhores resultados para o vírus de vira-cabeça; para o vírus da necrose branca os melhores resultados foram obtidos com fôlhas que tinham 2/3 ou ligeiramente menos de sua expansão total. O vírus de vira-cabeça não se tornou sistêmico em plantas inoculadas mecanicamente. A maioria das estirpes do vírus da necrose branca também não se tornou sistêmica em feijoeiros inoculados mecanicamente. Uma estirpe amarela deste tem a capacidade de se tornar sistêmica em feijoeiros sob determinadas condições. O sulfito de sódio em solução 0,0125 M, usado na extração do inóculo, aumentou ligeiramente o número de lesões formadas nas fôlhas do feijoeiro Manteiga pelo vírus de vira-cabeça; aumento consideravelmente maior foi obtido com a extração em presença de búfer de fosfato 0,1 M com pH 7, sendo êsse efeito atribuído a um aumento da sensitividade da planta-teste. A mistura de ambos causou aumento igual ou ligeiramente menor que o búfer só. Para o vírus da necrose branca a presença de sulfito de sódio 0,0125 M durante a extração aumentou consideravelmente o número de lesões, sendo esse efeito atribuído à diminuição na perda de atividade do vírus, devida à oxidação; o búfer sozinho ocasionou pequeno aumento em comparação com a testemunha, mas a mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento. Abstract in english Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW) and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS) viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or [...] rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for bo

A. S., Costa.

283

[Genetic characterization of the Sakhalin virus (SAKV), Paramushir virus (PMRV) (Sakhalin group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae), and Rukutama virus (RUKV) (Uukuniemi group, Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) isolated from the obligate parasites of the colonial sea-birds ticks Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae, White 1852 and I. signatus Birulya, 1895 in the water area of sea of the Okhotsk and Bering sea].  

Science.gov (United States)

Full-length genomes of the Sakhalin virus (SAKH) and Paramushir virus (PRMV) (Sakhalin group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) isolated from the ticks Ixodes uriae White 1852 were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing (Genbank ID: KF801659, KF801656). SAKV and PRMV have 81% identity for the part of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) on the nucleotide level and 98.5% on the amino acid level. Full-length genome comparison shows that SAKV have, in average, from 25% (N-protein, S-segment) to 50% (RdRp, L-segment) similarity with the nairoviruses. The maximum value of the amino acid similarity (50.3% for RdRp) SAKV have with the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Dugbe virus (DUGV), which are also associated with the Ixodidae ticks. Another virus studied is Rukutama virus (RUKV) (isolated from ticks I. signatus Birulya, 1895) that recently was classified (based on morphology and antigenic reaction) to the Nairovirus genus, presumably to the Sakhalin group. In this work the genome of the RUKV was sequenced (KF892052-KF892054) and RUKV was classified as a member of the Uukuniemi group (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae). RUKV is closely related (93.0-95.5% similarity) with our previously described Komandory virus (KOMV). RUKV and KOMV form separate phylogenetic line neighbor of Manawa virus (MWAV) isolated from the ticks Argas abdussalami Hoogstraal et McCarthy, 1965 in Pakistan. The value of the similarity between RUCV and MWAV is 65-74% on the amino acid level. PMID:25335413

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

2014-01-01

284

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or any other foreign material in the body. White blood cells make antibodies. White blood cells are a type of blood cell ... attaching to the invading virus, antibodies cause other white blood cells to attack the virus and destroy ...

285

Characterization of the yeast form symbiant of Togosodes orizicolus (Hemiptera: delphacidae), vector of the rice white leaf virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the yeast forms symbionts of Togo soles Orizicolus (YLSTo), through its morphologic description and locating in situ through microscopy of light, electronic microscopy of transmission and of sweeping and immuno microscopy. Likewise, molecular tests were carried out to classify phylogenetically the symbionts, utilizing partial sequences of the ribosomal DNA 18S. This study will permit to determine, the existence or not of interactions among the YLSTo and the insect vector, in the future. The paper of that interaction in the mechanism of trans ovarial transmission of the virus and the search of alternatives for the control of the disease in the rice. (S. Grainger)

286

Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/?g of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/?g in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/?g in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/?g in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

2011-11-01

287

Hot Sauce Hot Spots  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners model hot spot island formation, orientation and progression with condiments. Learners squirt a thick condiment sauce on a coarsely woven fabric to model how volcanic island hot spots form.

Eric Muller

2007-01-01

288

Role of Oxalis corniculata L. as plant virus reservoir with special regard to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-RB) strain occurrence in rock-wool cultivation in Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata L.) in Central Europe occurs mainly in anthropogenic areas, where it grows in parks and landfill sites or in protected cultivation sites like greenhouses and nurseries. In Hungary O. corniculata has been spreading since the 19th century. In glass- and greenhouses it is the only weed species that was able to settle and flourish on hydroponic rock-wool and coconut fibre growing media. Among virus pathogens of forced tomato (LYPES) and paprika crops (...

Hodi, Anna Maria; Bese, Gabor; Hodi, Laszlo; Palkovics, Laszlo

2014-01-01

289

Measuring Your Blind Spot  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners calculate the width (horizontal diameter) of the blind spot on their retina. Learners make a blind spot tester using a piece of notebook paper. They use simple geometry of similar triangles to calculate the size of the blind spot.

Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D.

2009-01-01

290

Anticuerpos contra el virus de estomatitis vesicular en Huanganas (Tayassu Pecari) en Madre de Dios, Perú / Antibodies against vesicular estomatitis virus in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu Pecari) in Madre de Dios, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra los serotipos New Jersey (NJ) e Indiana subtipo 1 (IND-1) del virus Estomatitis Vesicular (VEV) en huanganas (Tayassu pecari) de vida libre de las localidades de Boca de Manu (n=30), Concesión para la C [...] onservación Los Amigos (n=10) y La Reserva Nacional Tambopata/Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (n=48) en el departamento de Madre de Dios. La presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEV fue determinado mediante la prueba de neutralización viral en las 88 muestras de suero de huanganas machos y hembras adultos de apariencia normal. El 53.4% (47/88) y 18.2% (16/88) de las muestras fue positiva a anticuerpos contra los serotipos IND-1 y NJ, respectivamente, en tanto que el 29.5 y el 2.3% de las muestras tuvieron anticuerpos neutralizantes igual o mayor a 1:32 contra los serotipos IND-1 y NJ, respectivamente. No hubo asociación significativa entre las variables presencia de anticuerpos contra el VEV y lugar de procedencia de las muestras. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against New Jersey (NJ) and Indiana subtype 1 (IND-1) Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in free-living white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in three localities of Madre de Dios, Peru. The presence of antibodies against VSV by virus n [...] eutralization test was determined in 88 serum samples of adult male and females in apparent good health condition. Results showed that 53.4% (47/88) and 18.2% (16/88) of samples were positive to antibodies against serotypes IND-1 and NJ respectively, whereas 55.3 and 12.6% of the serum samples had neutralizing antibodies titers equal or greater than 1:32 against serotype IND-1 and NJ respectively. There was a no significant association between seropositivity of VSV and source of samples.

Susan, Carruitero H; Hermelinda, Rivera G; Mercy, Ramírez V; Juan, More B; Alfonso, Zúñiga H; Mónica, Romero S.

291

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and tries to prevent future ones. Virus Cell Antibodies are special chemicals the body uses to defend ... material in the body. White blood cells make antibodies. White blood cells are a type of blood ...

292

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for an elevated white blood cell count, an increased percentage of atypical white blood cells, and a ... that infects about 95% of all people. At times, Epstein-Barr virus can result in sore throat, ...

293

Analysis of Wild-Type and Mutant SL3-3 Murine Leukemia Virus Insertions in the c-myc Promoter during Lymphomagenesis Reveals Target Site Hot Spots, Virus-Dependent Patterns, and Frequent Error-Prone Gap Repair  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The murine leukemia retrovirus SL3-3 induces lymphomas in the T-cell compartment of the hematopoetic system when it is injected into newborn mice of susceptible strains. Previously, our laboratory reported on a deletion mutant of SL3-3 that induces T-cell tumors faster than the wild-type virus (S. Ethelberg, A. B. Sørensen, J. Schmidt, A. Luz, and F. S. Pedersen, J. Virol. 71:9796-9799, 1997). PCR analyses of proviral integrations in the promoter region of the c-myc proto-oncogene in lymphom...

Nielsen, Anne Ahlmann; Sørensen, Annette Balle; Schmidt, Jo?rg; Pedersen, Finn Skou

2005-01-01

294

Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia and alpha-foetoprotein detection from dried blood spots: applications to field-based studies and to clinical care in hepatitis B virus endemic areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many resource-limited regions with endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV), there is limited infrastructure to collect, process, transport, and store blood samples for identification of persons with chronic HBV infection or with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We describe the application of a simple technique using commercially available kits for detection of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) in dried blood spots (DBS) collected on filter paper. Study participants included subjects with and without chronic HBV infection and subjects with HCC or cirrhosis. Three to five blood drops were dried on filter paper. Dried blood (equivalent to 20 muL) was eluted and tested for HBsAg by Determine(TM) HBsAg and for AFP by counter-current immuno-electrophoresis and radio-immunoassay (RIA). The primary analysis focused on comparison of DBS results to serum testing results as the gold standard. The sensitivity of DBS for detecting chronic HBV infection was 96% (98-98) with specificity of 100% (CI 99-100). Sensitivity of DBS in detecting AFP compared with serum RIA was 73% (60-86) with specificity of 90% (81-98). Both HBsAg and AFP recovery were unaffected when DBS were left at room temperature (30-33 degrees C) and under humid conditions for up to 28 days prior to elution. We conclude that DBS can be reliably used as an economical and logical alternative for detection of HBsAg in chronically infected patients and for AFP-based diagnosis of HCC in clinical situations which preclude adequate collection and processing of blood samples. Both research-oriented field studies and routine clinical care may benefit from application of these techniques in resource-limited settings. PMID:16255766

Mendy, M; Kirk, G D; van der Sande, M; Jeng-Barry, A; Lesi, O A; Hainaut, P; Sam, O; McConkey, S; Whittle, H

2005-11-01

295

Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini  

CERN Document Server

We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact...

Choi, David S; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Simon-Miller, Amy A

2013-01-01

296

Susceptibility of various parental lines of commercial white leghorn layers to infection with a naturally occurring recombinant avian leukosis virus containing subgroup B envelope and subgroup J long terminal repeat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chickens from seven different parental lines of commercial White Leghorn layer flocks from three independent breeders were inoculated with a naturally occurring avian leukosis virus (ALV) containing an ALV-B envelope and an ALV-J long terminal repeat (LTR) termed ALV-B/J. Additional groups of chickens from the same seven parental lines were inoculated with ALV-B. Chickens were tested for ALV viremia and antibody at 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32 wk postinfection. Chickens from all parental lines studied were susceptible to infection with ALV-B with 40%-100% of inoculated chickens positive for ALV at hatch following embryo infection. Similarly, infection of egg layer flocks with the ALV-B/J recombinant virus at 8 days of embryonation induced tolerance to ALV with 86%-100% of the chickens viremic, 40%-75% of the chickens shedding virus, and only 2/125 (2%) of the chickens producing serum-neutralizing antibodies against homologous ALV-B/J recombinant virus at 32 wk postinfection. In contrast, when infected with the ALV-B/J recombinant virus at hatch, 33%-82% of the chickens were viremic, 28%-47% shed virus, and 0%-56% produced serum-neutralizing antibodies against homologous ALV-B/J recombinant virus at 32 wk postinfection. Infection with the ALV-B/J recombinant virus at embryonation and at hatch induced predominately lymphoid leukosis (LL), along with other common ALV neoplasms, including erythroblastosis, osteopetrosis, nephroblastomas, and rhabdosarcomas. No incidence of myeloid leukosis (ML) was observed in any of the commercial White Leghorn egg layer flocks infected with ALV-B/J in the present study. Data suggest that the parental line of commercial layers may influence development of ALV-B/J-induced viremia and antibody, but not tumor type. Differences in type of tumors noted in the present study and those noted in the field case where the ALV-B/J was first isolated may be attributed to differences in the genetics of the commercial layer flock in which ML was first diagnosed and the present commercial layer flocks tested in the present study. PMID:17039832

Mays, Jody K; Pandiri, Arun R; Fadly, Aly M

2006-09-01

297

Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies / Anatomy of leaf lesions caused by Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV) transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis in different host species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpi [...] dae). Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB), o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV). O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C) e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N), mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV), mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV) e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV), representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso. Abstract in english The botanical genus Clerodendrum belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes several ornamental species. Necrotic and chlorotic spots on leaves of bleeding heart were observed for the first time in a residential garden from Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, associated with an infest [...] ation by the flat mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Tissue section analysis of the leaf lesions under transmission electron microscope showed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type, indicating that the symptoms were caused by a Brevipalpus-transmitted virus (BTV), named Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV). This virus was shown to be transmitted mechanically and by B. phoenicis to several plant species. In order to complete ClCSV characterization, anatomical changes in the leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected leaves were evaluated. Histological sections of healthy, control leaves and leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected plants of C. x speciosum, Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus and Annona muricata were analyzed. ClCSV infection resulted in similar tissue alterations caused by other BTV as Citrus Leprosies Virus Cytoplasmic (CiLV-C) and Nuclear (CiLV-N), Coffee Ringspot Virus (CoRSV), Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus (SvRSV) and Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV). Such symptoms consisted of hypertrophy and hyperplasia frequently followed by necrosis in palisade and spongy parenchyma tissues.

Renata Takassugui, Gomes; Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima; Francisco André Osamu, Tanaka; João Paulo Rodrigues, Marques; Beatriz, Appezzato-da-Glória.

2010-12-01

298

Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies Anatomy of leaf lesions caused by Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis in different host species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB, o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV. O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N, mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV, mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV, representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso.The botanical genus Clerodendrum belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes several ornamental species. Necrotic and chlorotic spots on leaves of bleeding heart were observed for the first time in a residential garden from Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, associated with an infestation by the flat mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Tissue section analysis of the leaf lesions under transmission electron microscope showed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type, indicating that the symptoms were caused by a Brevipalpus-transmitted virus (BTV, named Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV. This virus was shown to be transmitted mechanically and by B. phoenicis to several plant species. In order to complete ClCSV characterization, anatomical changes in the leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected leaves were evaluated. Histological sections of healthy, control leaves and leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected plants of C. x speciosum, Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus and Annona muricata were analyzed. ClCSV infection resulted in similar tissue alterations caused by other BTV as Citrus Leprosies Virus Cytoplasmic (CiLV-C and Nuclear (CiLV-N, Coffee Ringspot Virus (CoRSV, Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus (SvRSV and Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV. Such symptoms consisted of hypertrophy and hyperplasia frequently followed by necrosis in palisade and spongy parenchyma tissues.

Renata Takassugui Gomes

2010-12-01

299

Poisson's spot with molecules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Poisson-spot experiment, waves emanating from a source are blocked by a circular obstacle. Due to their positive on-axis interference an image of the source (the Poisson spot) is observed within the geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In this paper we report the observation of Poisson's spot using a beam of neutral deuterium molecules. The wavelength independence and the weak constraints on angular alignment and position of the circular obstacle make Poisson's spot a promising candidate for applications ranging from the study of large molecule diffraction to patterning with molecules.

300

Detection of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) of penaeid shrimp by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) infecting cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Brazil is a double-stranded RNA virus that causes a slowly progressive disease with cumulative mortalities of up to 70%. The disease is currently diagnosed using a combination of gross signs (primarily skeletal tail muscle necrosis with white opaque discoloration), histopathology, and in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled gene probe. A rapid and sensitive method for definitive diagnosis of the disease was developed using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two primer sets were used to detect 328 and 139 bp amplicons in a nested RT-PCR assay. Using RNA extracted from purified virions, the first step reaction detected 100 copies of the IMNV viral genome whereas the nested step detected 10 copies. The primers were shown to be specific for IMNV and no amplicons were detected using RNA extracted from shrimp infected with other penaeid shrimp viruses (Taura syndrome virus [TSV], yellowhead virus [YHV], infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus [IHHNV] and white spot syndrome virus [WSSV]). PMID:17240754

Poulos, Bonnie T; Lightner, Donald V

2006-11-21

 
 
 
 
301

Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409

Busayarat, Nattaphon; Senapin, Saengchan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Unajak, Sasimanas; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Lo, Chu-Fang; Phongdara, Amornrat

2011-07-01

302

Spotting Spots: Simulating Stellar Noise for Spot Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Stellar noise masks planetary signals and prevents the detection of low-mass exoplanets. In order to identify and eventually subtract noise originating from starspots, we constructed a simulator that models spot-based periodic variations. Given smoothed radial velocity (RV) data, our simulator calculates basic stellar parameters and the fractional surface area covered by starspots for the target star. We applied the simulator to Tau Ceti RV measurements taken with the CHIRON spectrometer in the hopes of determining whether coherent signals exhibited in the data are planetary or spot-based in nature. The results were then compared with the starspot activity of Tau Ceti-like stars in the Kepler database to assess the reliability of the simulator. This work aims to produce an effective tool for future identification and removal of starspot noise, and facilitate further discoveries of low-mass exoplanets.

Behmard, Aida; Zhang, Cyril; Giguere, Matthew J.; Fischer, Debra

2015-01-01

303

Finding the Sweet Spot  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners will discover how to find the "sweet spots" on a baseball bat. Whenever an object is struck, it vibrates in response. These vibrations travel in waves up and down the length of the object. At one point, called "the node," the waves always cancel each other out. The "sweet spot" is actually a node!

Exploratorium, The

2012-06-26

304

Correlation between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA measurements obtained with dried blood spots and those obtained with plasma by use of Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 and Abbott RealTime HIV load tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load is used in the clinical routine for the monitoring of HIV infection and the patient's response to antiretroviral therapy. Other body fluids or dried blood spots (DBS) can be used, however, to assess the level of viremia. The use of DBS may be especially helpful for the monitoring of HIV-infected patients in resource-poor settings, where access to adequate laboratory facilities is often difficult. However, the correlation between the HIV RNA levels in plasma and those in DBSs has not been well established. Paired plasma and DBS samples obtained from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients were tested for HIV RNA copy numbers by using two different commercial assays, the Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 (version 1.1) test (the Nuclisens test; Biomerieux) and the m2000rt RealTime HIV test (the m2000rt test; Abbott). Nucleic acid extraction was performed manually by using either the Nuclisens isolation kit (which uses the Boom methodology) or the m2000rt sample preparation kit (an iron particle-based method). A total of 103 paired plasma and DBS samples were tested. Viral load results were obtained for 97 (94.2%) samples with the Nuclisens isolation kit and 81 (78.6%) samples with the m2000rt kit. The overall correlation between the RNA loads in plasma and DBS was good, although better results were obtained by the Nuclisens test (R(2) = 0.87, P Nuclisens and the m2000rt tests (97.1% and 100%, respectively), the sensitivity was greater by the Nuclisens test than by the m2000rt test (75.8% and 56.6%, respectively). Overall, the viral loads in DBS tended to be lower than those in plasma, with mean differences of 0.3 log unit (standard deviation, 0.5 log unit) and 0.76 log unit (standard deviation, 0.8 log unit) for the Nuclisens and the m2000rt tests, respectively. The levels of agreement between the measurements in plasma and DBS were assessed by using the Bland-Altman plot for each assay. The Nuclisens test gave results within its defined limits (-0.65 to 1.26) for 95.9% of the samples, while the m2000rt test gave results within its limits (-0.83 to 2.33) for 100% of the samples. In summary, the HIV-1 load can accurately be quantified by testing DBS by either the Nuclisens or the m2000rt test, although the Nuclisens test may outperform the m2000rt test when nucleic acids are extracted manually. PMID:19193847

Garrido, Carolina; Zahonero, Natalia; Corral, Angélica; Arredondo, Miguel; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

2009-04-01

305

Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding. New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*, N. Gossey Domin, N. Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**, S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (* This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (** One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

A. S. Costa

1942-02-01

306

Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding). New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*), N. Gossey Domin, N. [...] Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**), S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (*) This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (**) One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

A. S., Costa; R., Forster.

1942-02-01

307

Identification of Potato Virus Y Strains in Tobacco Crops  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five viruses: Potato Virus Y (PVY), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Alfalfa Mosaic Virus, of which PVY was predominant, were detected by serological testing of tobacco samples collected from many localities in Vojvodina in 2006. Viruses are the most important pathogens in tobacco and PVY causes considerable economic damages all over the world. A PVY population comprises several different strain groups, strain subgroups and recombinant strains. Among ...

Jelena Zindovi?; Janoš Berenji; Milena Paukovi?; Ivana ?eki?; Aleksandra Bulaji?; Branka Krsti?

2007-01-01

308

Spatial point pattern analyses of Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in domestic livestock herds and concomitant seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important disease of domestic cattle that is capable of infecting cervids. A first step in the formulation of a regional BVDV management plan is a local assessment of the likelihood of pathogen transmission from wildlife to domestic livestock. To achieve this, blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout New York State in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The SVANOVIR BVDV p80-AB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Svanova Biotech AV, Uppsala, Sweden) was used to screen sera for anti-BVDV antibodies. Because this ELISA is not validated for use in white-tailed deer, sera that tested positive were tested again using serum neutralization to verify the presence of antibodies. Spatial data describing the geographic location of BVDV antigen-positive cattle and camelid herds and BVDV-seropositive white-tailed deer were analyzed via the dual kernel density estimation method. In white-tailed deer, 7.48% (80/1,069) were BVDV-seropositive, whereas 3.43% (144/4,195) of tested herds were positive for BVDV antigen. An exploratory cluster analysis revealed 1 significant cluster of BVDV antigen-positive herds and 2 significant clusters of BVDV-seropositive deer. There was no spatial overlap between the clusters. The spatial point pattern and exploratory cluster analyses suggest that BVDV is maintained independently in domestic livestock herds in the western part of the state and in the white-tailed deer population in the northwestern part of the state. PMID:23512919

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

2013-03-01

309

Perceiving the sweet spot.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many sports involve aligning a hitting implement with a ball trajectory such that contact is made at the implement's center of percussion or 'sweet spot'. This spot is not visibly distinct; its perception must be haptic. Although it is functionally defined with respect to contact--it is the point of impact that produces the least vibration in the hand holding the implement--hitting success requires appreciating the location of the sweet spot prior to contact. Two experiments verified that perceivers (novices as well as expert tennis players) distinguished perception of length from perception of the position of the sweet spot simply on the basis of wielding, both for tennis rackets and for bats contrived from wooden rods with attached masses. Results conformed to previous research on dynamic touch in showing that perceiving the lengths of wielded objects, including selectively perceiving partial lengths, is constrained by inertial properties of the object. PMID:10615469

Carello, C; Thuot, S; Anderson, K L; Turvey, M T

1999-01-01

310

Mononucleosis spot test  

Science.gov (United States)

Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

311

Detection of shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has caused a slowly progressive disease with cumulative mortalities of up to 70% or more in cultured Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in Northeast Brazil and Indonesia. Rapid detection of viruses by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of genomic material with high specificity and sensitivity can be applied for diagnosis, monitoring and control of diseases in shrimp aquaculture. Using an IMNV template, successful detection was achieved after a 60-min RT-LAMP reaction using biotin-labeled primers followed by 5min hybridization with an FITC-labeled DNA probe and 5min assay using a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD). Thus, the combined system of RT-LAMP and LFD required a total assay interval of less than 75min, excluding the RNA extraction time. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of other commonly used methods for nested RT-PCR detection of IMNV. In addition to reducing amplicon detection time when compared to electrophoresis, LFD confirmed amplicon identity by hybridization and eliminated the need to handle carcinogenic ethidium bromide. The RT-LAMP-LFD method gave negative test results with nucleic acid extracts from normal shrimp and from shrimp infected with other viruses including infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), a hepatopancreatic parvovirus from P. monodon (PmDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), Taura syndrome virus (TSV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and gill associated virus (GAV). PMID:19022295

Puthawibool, Teeranart; Senapin, Saengchan; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Flegel, Timothy W

2009-03-01

312

White Ring; White ring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1998-01-05

313

Turbulent Spot Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most interesting pattern forming processes occurs when separated spatial regions of turbulent and laminar flows (turbulent spots) form in shear flows. Examples include the spots in boundary layer flows, pipe flow slugs, and Spiral Turbulence in circular Couette flow. This process was studied in detail in a plane Couette flow apparatus where spots can easily be created through a subcritical (or metastable) transition and can easily be observed in the laboratory frame. The results from this study showed pervasive vortex structures with their rotation axes aligned in the direction of the wall velocity. An interpretation of the visualization evidence from this experiment is presented. This interpretation suggests that the stress on the laminar flow from the turbulence induces vortex stretching and vortex tilting in the laminar flow that result in the before mentioned pervasive vortex structures. These vortex structures and their complex interactions constitute the smaller scale turbulence.

Hegseth, John

1998-03-01

314

Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

Kajita, Shin; Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsventoukh, Mikhail M.; Barengolts, Sergey A.

2014-12-01

315

Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

2013-01-01

316

Dollar spot of turfgrass  

Science.gov (United States)

This plant disease lesson on Dollar spot of turfgrass (caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Tom W. Allen (University of Georgia; )

2005-01-01

317

TV spots' impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates. PMID:12288256

El-bakly, S

1994-09-01

318

Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

2010-01-01

319

Spot cooling systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the article is to offer a step-by-step condensed version of a spot cooling system design procedure. It is basically directed towards the designer who may be interested in designing the system, but not in the details of the development of the procedure itself. A schematic diagram of a jet of cold air projected vertically downward into a hot industrial environment is presented. The jet model developed by Koestel was adopted in the design procedure. A summary of expressions is given for predicting the average jet properties at the target area of the work station. A detailed procedure of their development is also given. This spot cooling system is effective for applications where there are comparatively few workers or work stations.

Azer, N.Z.

1985-06-01

320

Monitoreo de Tagosodes Orizicolus M. e incidencia del virus de la hoja blanca "VHB" en el cultivo de arroz en calabozo, estado guárico, Venezuela / Monitoring of sogata Tagosodes Orizicolus M. and incidence of white leaf virus "WLV" in rice in calabozo, guárico, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la información sobre la incidencia del virus de la hoja blanca (VHB) y poblaciones del insecto sogata, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir) 1926, ejecutada en 10 parcelas comerciales del sistema de riego río Guárico (S.R.R.G.), el cual se dividió en tres (3) sectores durante la época de sequía en [...] tre los años 2003 y 2007. Se presenta la información del VHB en 3 parcelas en las épocas de sequía y lluvias. El objetivo del trabajo fue: Evaluar la incidencia en plantas de arroz del VHB y las poblaciones del insecto vector de la enfermedad en siembras comerciales del S.R.R.G. El porcentaje de plantas afectadas por el virus de la hoja blanca alcanzo niveles muy bajos, comprendidos entre 0,56% y 1,08% y las poblaciones del insecto resultaron en promedio de 3,90 individuos por pase doble de malla Abstract in english The incidence of white leaf virus (WLV) and insect population density of sogata, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir) 1926, was studied in 10 commercial plots of rice located in the Rio Guárico Irrigation System (RG.I.S). The area under the study was divided into three (3) sections during the dry season from [...] 2003 to 2007. The incidence of WLV also was registered in three commercial plots of rice, both in the dry and rainy season. The objective of this study was the evaluation of WLV effect on rice plants as well as the effect of sogata population density as a vector of the disease in commercial plantings (R.G.I.S). The percentage of plants affected by the virus was very low, ranging between 0.56% and 1.08%, and the insect population density of sogata averaged 3.90 individuals per insect net (double pass)

Luis E, Vivas C; Dilcia, Astudillo; Judith, Poleo.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

White House  

Science.gov (United States)

... in history. Learn How You Can Participate White House Petitions A new way to petition the Obama ... image_file/p011615ps-0124.jpg?itok=T4tiljd2 White House Daily Schedule The President's Schedule The Vice President's ...

322

Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis / Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores real [...] izados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho. Abstract in english A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in the field. This bacterium produced similar symptoms of the disease when inoculated on maize plants in greenhouse. Previous studies carried out by other authors [...] demonstrated that the control of this disease in field conditions has been achieved through the use of fungicides mainly with the Mancozeb in the initial phases of its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of P. ananatis from infected plants in the region of "Londrina, Paraná State" and to reproduce symptoms of the disease through artificial inoculation of maize plants in greenhouse. Using the chemical products tested previously by other authors for the control of this disease in the field, it was also objective of this work to evaluate the potential of these products to inhibit the bacterium, at both in laboratory and in condition of natural infection. The results showed that P. ananatis was successfully isolated from 40% of the young lesions collected in the field and when inoculated in greenhouse (controlled conditions), it reproduced symptoms similar to what was observed in the field. Among the tested chemical products, the fungicide Mancozeb was the best in the control of the disease under field conditions, in agreement with previous reports. This product inhibited completely the bacterium in laboratory, explaining the results found in the field. The others products were not efficient to control the disease and they did not also inhibit the bacterium in laboratory. The results represent additional evidences that the bacterium P. ananatis is the causal agent of the maize white spot disease.

Cleide Aparecida, Bomfeti; Walter Fernandes, Meirelles; Edneia Aparecida, Souza-Paccola; Carlos Roberto, Casela; Alexandre da Silva, Ferreira; Ivanildo Evódio, Marriel; Luzia Doretto, Paccola-Meirelles.

2007-03-01

323

Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in the field. This bacterium produced similar symptoms of the disease when inoculated on maize plants in greenhouse. Previous studies carried out by other authors demonstrated that the control of this disease in field conditions has been achieved through the use of fungicides mainly with the Mancozeb in the initial phases of its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of P. ananatis from infected plants in the region of "Londrina, Paraná State" and to reproduce symptoms of the disease through artificial inoculation of maize plants in greenhouse. Using the chemical products tested previously by other authors for the control of this disease in the field, it was also objective of this work to evaluate the potential of these products to inhibit the bacterium, at both in laboratory and in condition of natural infection. The results showed that P. ananatis was successfully isolated from 40% of the young lesions collected in the field and when inoculated in greenhouse (controlled conditions, it reproduced symptoms similar to what was observed in the field. Among the tested chemical products, the fungicide Mancozeb was the best in the control of the disease under field conditions, in agreement with previous reports. This product inhibited completely the bacterium in laboratory, explaining the results found in the field. The others products were not efficient to control the disease and they did not also inhibit the bacterium in laboratory. The results represent additional evidences that the bacterium P. ananatis is the causal agent of the maize white spot disease.

Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

2007-03-01

324

Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot  

Science.gov (United States)

True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

325

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLECULAR MARKER(S) ASSOCIATED WITH RESISTANCE TO TSWV AND LEAF SPOTS IN PEANUTS  

Science.gov (United States)

In peanut production areas in the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt virus disease caused by tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) has become more prevalent and more severe. TSWV has become a major limiting factor for many peanut producers and control methods are limited. Both early (Cercospor...

326

Spotting effect in microarray experiments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect because it most probably arises during steps in the array printing procedure. Conclusions The spotting effect is not appropriately corrected by current normalization methods, even by those addressing spatial variability. Importantly, the spotting effect may alter differential and clustering analysis.

Mary-Huard Tristan

2004-05-01

327

Differential expression profiling of orange-spotted grouper larvae, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), that survived a betanodavirus outbreak.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a piscine nodavirus, has caused serious viral nervous necrosis and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide range of marine teleost species worldwide in the last two decades. Although the mortality of NNV-infected larvae is nearly 100%, there are still some larvae that survive this catastrophe. To comprehensively understand the variations of these survivors at the molecular level, we collected orange-spotted grouper larvae that survived an NNV outbreak in an indoor hatchery in southern Taiwan to study differential gene expression. Healthy larvae with high, medium and low levels of detected NNV were compared with morbid larvae using a 9600-clone-containing grouper larva cDNA microarray, and differential gene expression was further confirmed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significant variation exists in healthy larvae. The following genes were upregulated: adenylate kinase 1-2, myosin binding protein H-like, myosin light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, fast/white muscle troponin T embryonic isoform, and parvalbumin 1 and 2 genes. The following genes were downregulated: apolipoprotein A-I, trypsinogen, pyruvate kinase and astacin-like metalloprotease. Moreover, immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene transcription was significantly higher in healthy larvae that had high virus levels, indicating that humoral immunity might protect organisms from viral infection. These results suggest that some non-immune-related genes may have played important roles in survival during the larval metamorphosis stage, after betanodavirus infection. PMID:22324345

Wu, M-S; Chen, C-W; Lin, C-H; Tzeng, C-S; Chang, C-Y

2012-03-01

328

Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

2012-01-01

329

Localization of Pantoea ananatis inside lesions of maize white spot disease using transmission electron microscopy and molecular techniques Localização da bactéria Pantoea ananatis no interior de lesões da doença mancha branca do milho por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e técnicas moleculares  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The etiological agent of maize white spot (MWS disease has been a subject of controversy and discussion. Initially the disease was described as Phaeosphaeria leaf spot caused by Phaeosphaeria maydis. Other authors have suggested the existence of different fungal species causing similar symptoms. Recently, a bacterium, Pantoea ananatis, was described as the causal agent of this disease. The purpose of this study was to offer additional information on the correct etiology of this disease by providing visual evidence of the presence of the bacterium in the interior of the MWS lesions by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and molecular techniques. The TEM allowed visualization of a large amount of bacteria in the intercellular spaces of lesions collected from both artificially and naturally infected plants. Fungal structures were not visualized in young lesions. Bacterial primers for the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were used in PCR reactions to amplify DNA extracted from water-soaked (young and necrotic lesions. The universal fungal oligonucleotide ITS4 was also included to identify the possible presence of fungal structures inside lesions. Positive PCR products from water-soaked lesions, both from naturally and artificially inoculated plants, were produced with bacterial primers, whereas no amplification was observed when ITS4 oligonucleotide was used. On the other hand, DNA amplification with ITS4 primer was observed when DNA was isolated from necrotic (old lesions. These results reinforced previous report of P. ananatis as the primary pathogen and the hypothesis that fungal species may colonize lesions pre-established by P. ananatis.O agente etiológico da mancha branca do milho (MBM tem sido alvo de discussão e controvérsia. Inicialmente a doença foi descrita como sendo a mancha foliar de Phaeosphaeria causada por Phaeosphaeria maydis. Outros autores sugeriram a existência de diferentes espécies fúngicas provocando sintomas semelhantes. Recentemente a bactéria Pantoea ananatis foi descrita como sendo o agente causal desta doença. O objetivo deste estudo foi oferecer informações adicionais sobre a correta etiologia da doença proporcionando evidências visuais da presença da bactéria no interior de lesões da MBM por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET e técnicas moleculares. A MET permitiu visualizar um grande número de células bacterianas nos espaços intercelulares em lesões oriundas de plantas naturalmente e artificialmente infectadas. Estruturas fúngicas não foram visualizadas em lesões jovens. Primers bacterianos para os genes 16S rRNA e rpoB foram usados em reações de PCR para amplificar DNA extraído diretamente de lesões jovens e de lesões necróticas. O oligonucleotídeo universal para fungo, ITS4, foi incluído para identificar a possível presença de estruturas fúngicas nas lesões. Amplificação positiva foi obtida com primers bacterianos, a partir de lesões jovens, natural e artificialmente inoculadas, enquanto que nenhuma amplificação foi observada quando o oligonucleotídeo ITS4 foi usado. Amplificação do DNA com o primer ITS4 foi observada quando o DNA foi extraído de lesões em estádio avançado de necrose. Estes resultados reforçam relatos anteriores que descrevem P. ananatis como patógeno primário da doença e a hipótese de que espécies fúngicas podem colonizar lesões pré-estabelecidas pela P. ananatis.

Cleide A. Bomfeti

2008-02-01

330

Advances in spot curing technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

331

Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus is a member of the genus Anulavirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete genomic sequence of Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus (CIBV) is described. The virus has a genomic organization similar to that of pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), the type member of the genus Anulavirus, but it is most closely related to a second, recently described, anulavirus, Amazon lily mild mottle virus (ALiMMV). PMID:24838850

Scott, Simon W; MacFarlane, Stuart A; McGavin, Wendy J; Fargette, Denis

2014-10-01

332

Further Insights Into The Epidemiology And Monitoring Practices Of Tomato Viruses  

Science.gov (United States)

There are a number of serious virus threats to tomato production in Florida. These include the whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and, more recently, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) which are both vectored by thrips. GRSV and TCSV are cl...

333

Vaccine by Chicken Line Interaction Alters the Protective Efficacy against Challenge with a Very Virulent plus Strain of Marek’s Disease Virus in White Leghorn Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marek’s disease (MD is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV, an oncogenic and highly contagious ?-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine efficacy have continued in both research communities and vaccine industries. We reported the host genetic variation affecting Marek’s disease vaccine-induced immunity in chickens earlier. In this study, we evaluated chicken lines, vaccines, and line by vaccine interaction on the protective efficacy of vaccination against MD. Specific pathogen free chickens from the relatively resistant line 63 and the highly susceptible line 72 were primarily used to evaluate the protection by three kinds of vaccines (rMd5?Meq, CVI988/Rispens, and HVT upon challenge with a very virulent plus strain of MDV, vv+648A. Our data confirmed that both the chicken line and the vaccine significantly affected the protective efficacy of vaccination and showed that a chicken line by vaccine interaction, in most of the trials, also altered vaccine protective efficacy. More interestingly, although the protective index of all vaccine strains was higher in resistant than in susceptible line of chickens, the difference for HVT protection was striking and warrants further study. The findings may have important implications for vaccine development as well as for selective use of particular vaccines in specific lines of chickens to achieve maximum protection at minimized costs.

Huanmin Zhang

2012-02-01

334

Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators  

Science.gov (United States)

The Universe is a violent place - as astronomers use increasingly sensitive means and methods to study the diverse processes out there, they become aware of the extraordinary forces acting in the space that surrounds us. With larger telescopes and ever-more sophisticated instruments, new information is gained about remote celestial objects and their behaviour. Among the most intriguing ones are the radio galaxies which emit prodiguous amounts of energy, in the form of fast-moving particles and intense electromagnetic radiation. One of these is known as 3C 445 ; it is located near the celestial equator within the zodiacal constellation Aquarius (The Waterman), at a distance of about 1 billion light-years. It most probably harbours a black hole at its centre, more massive than the one at the centre of our own galaxy, the Milky Way ( ESO PR 19/02 ). This galaxy was first observed from Cambridge (United Kingdom) in the 1950's and was listed as radio source no. 445 in the Third Cambridge Catalogue (1959), hence the name. Later observations revealed a strong outflow from this galaxy's active centre, visible on radio maps as two opposite plasma jets with strong synchrotron radiation ( [2]) originating from rapidly moving electrons in the associated magnetic field (image "a" in PR Photo 26/02 ). Now, a trio of European astronomers [1] have used two advanced instruments, ISAAC and FORS1 on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) to obtain near-infrared images of these jets (images "b" and "c" in PR Photo 26/02 ). As can be clearly seen on the radio picture of 3C 445 obtained with the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) radio facility ("a"), the plasma jets of fast particles emanating from the galaxy ram into the surrounding intergalactic medium (mostly primordial hydrogen), thereby producing two "shocks" , both at a distance of approximately 1.5 million light-years from the central galaxy and with particularly strong synchrotron emission. With a total length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the

2002-11-01

335

Spots on Am stars  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the light variations of 15 Am stars using four years of high-precision photometry from the Kepler spacecraft and an additional 14 Am stars from the K2 Campaign 0 field. We find that most of the Am stars in the Kepler field have light curves characteristic of rotational modulation due to star spots. Of the 29 Am stars observed, 12 are {\\delta} Scuti variables and one is a {\\gamma} Doradus star. One star is an eclipsing binary and another was found to be a binary from time-delay measurements. Two Am stars show evidence for flares which are unlikely to be due to a cool companion. The fact that 10 out of 29 Am stars are rotational variables and that some may even flare strongly suggests that Am stars possess significant magnetic fields. This is contrary to the current understanding that the enhanced metallicity in these stars is due to diffusion in the absence of a magnetic field. The fact that so many stars are {\\delta} Scuti variables is also at odds with the prediction of diffusion theory. We su...

Balona, L A; Abedigamba, O P; Ripepi, V; Smalley, B

2015-01-01

336

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

337

Serological and molecular methods for surveillance of influenza A virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The natural reservoir for influenza A viruses is birds, and numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented. There is a risk of novel subtypes originating from birds infecting humans, and the question of migratory birds as long-distance vectors for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses has also been raised. Areas where migratory flyways meet and birds nest have been suggested as hot spots for influenza A viruses to m...

Wallerstro?m, Sofie

2014-01-01

338

Dynamics of a dry spot  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results are presented for the motion of a dry spot in a thin viscous film on a horizontal surface. These include global and spatial measurements of dry spot diameter, front velocities, static and dynamic contact angle, and the shape of the liquid solid interface. Data are presented as a function of initial fluid depth for both an advancing fluid front of a collapsing dry spot and a receding fluid front of an opening dry spot. Results for both cases show that the final or static hole diameter increases as the initial fluid depth decreases. Also, insight is obtained into the relationship between the contact angle and the velocity for both advancing and receding fluid fronts. The experimental results are compared to a lubrication model, and good agreement is obtained.

Bankoff, S. G.; Johnson, M. F. G.; Miksis, M. J.; Schluter, R. A.; Lopez, P. G.

2003-07-01

339

Vanishing White Matter Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that it is a ... information about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White ...

340

Ryan White Program  

Science.gov (United States)

... HIV/AIDS The Ryan White Program The Ryan White Program Mar 05, 2013 The Ryan White Program, ... of HIV data, among other changes. 8 Ryan White Program Clients HRSA estimates that more than half ...

 
 
 
 
341

"HOT SPOT" ON HEPATIC SCINTIGRAPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Filling defects are often observed on 99mTc sulfur colloid liver scans. Hot spots are much less frequently seen. Superior vena cava syndrome is the most frequent cause of this finding. In this report 3 patients with S.V.C and budd - Chiari syndrome with HOT SPOT on liver scan are presented."nMechanisms of scintigraphic patterns are reviewed.

MOHAMMAD EFTEKHARI

1994-05-01

342

Spotting effect in microarray experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio) and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect beca...

Mary-Huard Tristan; Daudin Jean-Jacques; Robin Stéphane; Bitton Frédérique; Cabannes Eric; Hilson Pierre

2004-01-01

343

Hot spots in fiber pinches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented on the behavior of ''bright spots'' in carbon and deuterium fiber Z-pinches using the MAGPIE generator at the I MA current level. The experimental diagnosis was carried out using optical and X-ray framing and streak images, along with Schlieren and shadowgraphy laser probing. After a short (?4 ns) duration formation phase, these bright spots exhibit highly dynamic behavior. Bifurcation of the bright spots gives rise to rapid axial motion at 1-3x105 m/sec. The post-bifurcation bright spots persist for up to 40 ns. The important features of bright spot evolution can be reproduced using a 2-D MHD code incorporating LTE ionization dynamics and cold start conditions. Construction of ''artificial'' diagnostic images from the simulation data allows direct comparison to experiment. From the close agreement between experiment and 2-D simulation we infer that the observed bright spot behavior can be explained entirely in terms of the non-linear evolution of the m=0 instability

344

First report of Tobacco rattle virus in spinach in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009 in coastal California (Santa Barbara County), commercially grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea) in two nearby fields exhibited symptoms of a previously unrecognized virus-like disease. Symptoms consisted of general chlorosis and bright yellow blotches and spots. Necrotic spots were also associa...

345

7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413 Agriculture...Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both,...

2010-01-01

346

Characterization of host microRNAs that respond to DNA virus infection in a crustacean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many processes of eukaryotic cells. It is known that the expression profiles of host miRNAs can be reshaped by viruses. However, a systematic investigation of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection has not yet been performed. Results In this study, the shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Small RNA sequencing of WSSV-infected shrimp at different time post-infection (0, 6, 24 and 48?h identified 63 host miRNAs, 48 of which were conserved in other animals, representing 43 distinct families. Of the identified host miRNAs, 31 were differentially expressed in response to virus infection, of which 25 were up-regulated and six down-regulated. The results were confirmed by northern blots. The TargetScan and miRanda algorithms showed that most target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immune responses. Gene ontology analysis revealed that immune signaling pathways were mediated by these miRNAs. Evolutionary analysis showed that three of them, miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34, are highly conserved in shrimp, fruit fly and humans and function in the similar pathways. Conclusions Our study provides the first large-scale characterization of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection. This will help to reveal the molecular events involved in virus-host interactions mediated by miRNAs and their evolution in animals.

Huang Tianzhi

2012-04-01

347

Two cysteine proteinases respond to bacterial and WSSV challenge in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Yun-Dong; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-10-01

348

Pome Fruit Viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field surveys and laboratory tests were carried out to assess the sanitary status of pome fruit trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Field surveys were carried out in 10 orchards, two nurseries and one varietal collectione during 2005-2006. A total of 65 apple and 51 pear cultivars were tested for the presence of the four most important pome fruit viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV. The most frequent viruses of apple were ACLSV (72% and ASPV (69%, whereas for pear those were ASGV (69% and ACLSV (64%. Biological indexing was more reliable than ELISA for virus detection. Multiplex RT-PCR results of 20 randomly selected apple cultivars were in line with biological indexing.This is the first report of the presence of ACLSV, ASPV, ASGV and ApMV in Bosnia and Herzegovina in pome fruits.

Biljana Loli?

2007-01-01

349

Plant essential oils and particle films for the management of tomato spotted wilt on tomatoes  

Science.gov (United States)

The thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is a limiting factor in tomato production in the southern USA. Because insecticides do not effectively control primary infection by thrips immigrating into crop fields, we are investigating alternatives that would be effective and environmentally non-di...

350

Hematozoa from the spotted owl.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred five spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) from seven populations and three subspecies were examined for hematozoa. Haemoproteus noctuae, H. syrnii, Leucocytozoon ziemanni, Trypanosoma avium, Atoxoplasma sp. and unidentified microfilariae were recorded. All northern (S. occidentalis caurina), California (S. occidentalis occidentalis) and Mexican (S. occidentalis lucida) spotted owls were infected with at least one hematozoan; 79% had multiple infections. Twenty-two percent of the owls were infected with as many as four species of parasites. There were significant differences in the prevalence of these species of parasites occurring among the five populations of northern and California spotted owls sampled in California. Haemoproteus noctuae, H. syrnii and Atoxoplasma sp. represented new host records for this host species. PMID:2810564

Gutiérrez, R J

1989-10-01

351

Photoelectron spectrometer with spot definition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Common procedures of photoelectron spectroscopy with spot definition allows the use of thin samples only. These are brought up on a carrier foil of aluminium. The foil is scanned on the rear side with an electron beam, the hereby generated X-rays induce a local emission of photoelectrons in the sample on top. In the procedure described the sample is exposed on the surface by X-rays or ultraviolet radiation, which effects an emission of photoelectrons. For analysis of the energy a sensor for electrons with two-dimensional spot definition together with a sector of a spherical capacitor as an electrostatic lens is used. Proper selected voltages and the possibility to change the position between sample and sensor results in a wide-coverage spot resolution. (J.K.)

352

Positioning using SunSPOT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dead reckoning is a really hard challenge, that many robot builders will eventually face. A solution to this challenge might be to attach a SunSPOT to the robot, and let it calculate the position. If a large amount of data has to be transmitted back and forth to the SunSPOT, it will have a major impact on the time between each calculation of the position. Because a low time is preferred, the data transmission and the sampling should not happen at the same time. If only a very s...

Sørensen, Morten Christian

2010-01-01

353

Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

354

Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

355

IF YOU KNOW ONE VIRUS, YOU DON'T KNOW THEM ALL  

Science.gov (United States)

Growers are encountering questions related to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) this season on their petunia, calibrachoa and nemesia crops. Although this is probably the best-known plant virus world-wide, it is not familiar to the average greenhouse grower. Because Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) h...

356

LED downlights with non-circular spots  

Science.gov (United States)

The ubiquitous downlight inhabits our ceilings by the millions. Hot, inefficient, and electrically wasteful, it is next in line for replacement by the latest high-brightness, high-efficacy white LEDs. The conventional downlight configuration of a large incandescent spotlight in a low-cost, ceiling-recessed metal can, represents the culmination of old technology, fated never to improve significantly. Incandescent downlights add greatly both to direct and indirect electrical consumption, with the lamps requiring relatively frequent replacement. The small size of LED emitters means small optical elements can produce much higher-quality beams than incandescent spotlight-lamps can produce. Herein we introduce compact high-luminosity LED downlights with lenses that deliver uniform illumination to delimited targets such as tables. One version utilizes circular lenses and micro-diffuser films to deliver square outputs. The other uses lenses cut to the target shape. In particular, one of these lenses is the first to offer a semicircular spot suitable for gambling tables.

Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

2005-09-01

357

White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

2013-02-01

358

Dotted white--a plumage color mutant in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

Science.gov (United States)

A plumage color mutant, dotted white (DTW), of Japanese quail is described in this paper. The adult DTW mutant shows white plumage with a small colored spot on the head and/or back. The pigmented spots invariably appear on the dorsal region and never on the ventral region of the body. Some birds lack colored spots and show pure white plumage. The chick of the DTW mutant shows cream yellow plumules similar to those of the White Leghorn chick. Colored spots also exist as in adults, and its coloration is diluted light brown. The feathers on colored spots of the adult show diluted pigmentation as compared with wild-type feathers. In addition, the wheat-straw colored shaft streak is extremely narrow and the transversal bars are missing. The DTW mutant is thought to be genetically different from previously reported similar mutants, brown-splashed white, panda, and recessive white. Genetic analyses revealed that the DTW mutant plumage is controlled by an autosomal recessive gene. The gene symbol dtw is provisionally proposed, since there remains a possibility that the DTW character may be allelic to some of the similar mutant characters mentioned above. PMID:1740163

Tsudzuki, M; Kusano, S; Wakasugi, N; Morioka, H; Esaki, K

1992-01-01

359

Hot White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

The article covers the physical properties and evolution of single white dwarfs ranging in temperature from 20,000K to 200,000 and higher, the hottest know electron-degenerate stars. After discussing the classification of their spectra, the author reviews the known properties, parameters, evolutionary state, as well as persisting and new puzzles regarding all spectroscopic subclasses of hot white dwarfs: the hot DA white dwarfs, the DAO white dwarfs, the PG1159 degenerates, the DO white dwarfs, the DB white dwarfs, the DBA white dwarfs, and the Hot DQ white dwarfs (an entirely new class). The most recent observational and theoretical advances are brought to bear on the topic.

Sion, Edward M

2011-01-01

360

Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots  

CERN Document Server

In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

Athi, N.; Wylie, S. R.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Jader, M.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.

2009-07-01

362

An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

363

Full local elastic strain tensor from Laue micro diffraction: simultaneous Laue pattern and spot energy measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In sample-scanning Laue micro diffraction, the local crystal orientation and local deviatoric strain tensor are obtained by illuminating the polycrystalline sample with a broadband 'white' (5-30 keV) X-ray microbeam and analyzing the spot positions in the resulting local Laue pattern. Mapping local hydrostatic strain is usually slower, owing to the need to alternate between white and tunable-energy monochromatic microbeams. A technique has been developed to measure hydrostatic strain while keeping the white beam. The energy of one of the Laue spots of the grain of interest is measured using an energy-dispersive point detector, while simultaneously recording the Laue pattern on the two-dimensional detector. The experimental spot energy, E(exp), is therefore measured at the same time as Etheor, the theoretical spot energy for zero hydrostatic strain, which is derived from the analysis of the Laue pattern. The performance of the technique was compared with that of the monochromatic beam technique in two test cases: a Ge single crystal and a micrometre-sized UO2 grain in a polycrystal. Accuracies on the hydrostatic strain ?a/a of ±0.4*10-4 and ±1.3*10--4 were obtained for Ge and UO2, respectively. Measurement strategies to limit the remaining uncertainties on Etheor are discussed. (authors)

364

Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads) and ...

eleonora nistor

2013-01-01

365

Development of a novel baculovirus titration method using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the most powerful methods for production of recombinant proteins for research or commercial purposes. Titration of viable virus in insect cell culture is often required when BEVS is used for basic research or bioprocessing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay using monoclonal antibodies against the major capsid protein VP39 of both Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) was developed for baculovirus quantitation at 48h post-infection. The titer was determined by visualizing infected insect cells as blue spots and automated spot counting was achieved with ELISPOT hardware and software. Log-scale comparison of the results between the ELISPOT assay and a conventional end point dilution assay using a fluorescent marker showed a good correlation for both AcMNPV (R(2)=0.9980, p<0.05) and BmNPV (R(2)=0.9834, p<0.05). In conclusion, a novel, rapid and semi-automated procedure for titrating baculovirus was developed based on the specific immunostaining of infected cells followed by automated spot counting. PMID:23274754

Wang, Wei; Cheng, Tong; Ma, Ke; Xia, Dezhen; Wang, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Du, Hailian; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

2013-03-01

366

Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties. PMID:22136111

Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

2012-01-11

367

A Drosophila wing spot test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

368

Determination of focal spot area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the activities for standardization on the national and the international level. The measuring methods explained in the various standards are discussed with a view to applicability and information yield: Measurement of the MTF of focal spot is tedious but yields a maximum of information on the imaging characteristics. This technique therefore is the method of choice recommended in the new DIN/EC focal spot publications. Direct resolution measurement using the NEMA test bears the disadvantage of many error sources, and only limited information yield. It is, however, a technique that has gained most support in the USA, due to simplicity of instruments and rapid procedure. Another, novel concept, the RMS concept, is discussed as a candidate concept for standardization. (orig./DG)

369

Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus. M. Verbeek and A. Dullemans contributed to this re...

Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A. M.; Heuvel, J. F. J. M.; Maris, P. C.; Vlugt, R. A. A.

2010-01-01

370

Sweet Spots and Door Stops  

Science.gov (United States)

A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

2011-01-01

371

Spot-to-Beam Procedure  

CERN Document Server

We describe the interactive "STB" (spot_to_beam) MATHEMATICA procedure for a) approximating the spot image at the screen as ellipse, b) getting five parameters of the elliptic beam (two diameters, center coordinates, and orientation angle). The basic idea is to "map" the reference holes at screen onto the X-Y plane normal to the beam direction (Z-axis). All distortions of the image, e.g., due to camera-screen disposition can be, in principle, taken into account,assuming that the hole positions at screen and the orientation of the screen are known. With the non-linear LMS fitting, the "curved-coordinate-system" of the holes at image is transferred to the Cartesian coordinate system at XY-plane. Then the fitting ellipse is found in this latter system, by solving the system of N linear equations for 5 unknown parameters of beam ellipse, where N>5 is a number of reference points on edge of spot image. The examples of the real measurements at various screens will be demonstrated. The accuracy of beam diameters is ...

Seidov, Zakir F; Yahalom, Asher

2004-01-01

372

7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture ...Spotted Cotton § 28.425 Low Middling Spotted Co