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Sample records for white spot virus

  1. THE WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV) LOAD IN Dendronereis spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Desrina; Sarjito; Alfabetian Harjuno Condro Haditomo; Diana Chilmawati

    2012-01-01

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the causative agent of White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD), is a major shrimp pathogen in Indonesia. Dendronereis spp. is a ubiquitous Polychaetes and natural food of shrimp raised in brackishwater pond in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to determine the occurrence of WSSV and the viral load in Dendronereis spp. obtained from the shrimp pond. Dendronereis spp. was obtained with PVC (10 cm in diameter) from a traditional shrimp pond in Semarang...

  2. White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern

    OpenAIRE

    Sa?nchez-paz, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies...

  3. White spot syndrome virus: Genotypes, Epidemiology and Evolutionary Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shekar, Malathi; Pradeep, Balakrishnan; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that has emerged globally affecting shrimp populations. Comparison of WSSV genome have shown the virus to share a high genetic similarity except for a few variable genomic loci that has been employed as markers in molecular epidemiology studies for determining the origin, evolution and spread in different geographical regions. Molecular genotyping of WSSV are based on genomic deletions associated with ORF23/24 and ORF14/15 variable regions and th...

  4. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  5. THE WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV LOAD IN Dendronereis spp.

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    Desrina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative agent of White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD, is a major shrimp pathogen in Indonesia. Dendronereis spp. is a ubiquitous Polychaetes and natural food of shrimp raised in brackishwater pond in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to determine the occurrence of WSSV and the viral load in Dendronereis spp. obtained from the shrimp pond. Dendronereis spp. was obtained with PVC (10 cm in diameter from a traditional shrimp pond in Semarang vicinity. As acomparison, healthy looking Penaeus monodon was also obtained from the same pond. The occurrence of WSSV in Dendronereis spp. was determined with 1-step and nested PCR using primer for WSSV major envelope protein, VP 28. The viral load was counted with 1-step Real Time PCR. The WSSV was detected in Dendronereis spp. with 1-step and nested PCR. The point prevalence of WSSV infection in Dendronereis spp. is 90 %. The viral load ranged from 0 to 1.9 x 104 copy of DNA/µg total DNA. The viral load in Dendronereis is comparable with that of naturally infected and at carrier state P.monodon from the same pond. This is the first report of WSSV load in naturally infected Dendronereis spp.

  6. Experiments on the effect of temperature on white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Joa?o Jose? Pereira Dantas Da Rocha

    2006-01-01

    White Spot Disease (WSD) is an aggressive and devastating viral disease caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). This highly pathogenic and widespread disease, present throughout Asia and the Americas, can cause up to 100% mortality within 3-7 days after infection. It is annually responsible for huge ecological and economical losses in the main producing countries and forms as such one of the greatest threats for the further sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture. Previous re...

  7. Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Hulten, M. C. W.

    2001-01-01

    Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to 100% within 3 to 10 days.One of the clinical signs of WSSV is the appearance of white spots in the exoskeleton of ...

  8. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    González-Galaviz José Reyes; Rodriguez-Anaya Libia Zulema; Molina-Garza Zinnia Judith; Ibarra-Gámez José Cuauhtémoc; Galaviz-Silva Lucio

    2013-01-01

    White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV) isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris), crabs (Callinectes arcuatus) and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei) in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and s...

  9. Baculovirus-mediated promoter assay and transcriptional analysis of white spot syndrome virus orf427 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Li; Manopo Ivanus; Wang Hai; Lu Liqun; Kwang Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important pathogen of the penaeid shrimp with high mortalities. In previous reports, Orf427 of WSSV is characterized as one of the three major latency-associated genes of WSSV. Here, we were interested to analyze the promoter of orf427 and its expression during viral pathogenesis. Results in situ hybridization revealed that orf427 was transcribed in all the infected tissues during viral lytic infection and the translational product ca...

  10. Designing and Introduce a Diagnostic Kit for Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Cultured Penaeus indicus in Iran

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    A.M. Saberi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is designing a diagnostic kit for white spot syndrome virus. We designed 2 series of primers for diagnosis of viral VP24 gene and also primers as internal controls which amplify part of genome in both positive and negative samples. DNA of shrimps were extracted and PCR amplification carried out. In this research, a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps designed and tested using 32 shrimp samples which were dubious to have this disease. White spot virus were found in 23 samples and the other 9 were negative. For extra confirmation, the PCR product was sequenced and deposited to GenBank. We designed a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps and tested successfully.

  11. Effects of Water Temperature on the White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Prompamorn, Piyanuch; Thongkao, Kanittada; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of high water temperature (32 ± 1 °C) on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL15). WSSV challenge was done by immersion. One group of PL15 was continuously maintained at 32 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge and a control group of PL15 was constantly maintained at 28 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge. Other groups were kept at 32 ± 1 °C until temperature was altere...

  12. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. PMID:25402810

  13. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

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    Juan Hsueh-Fen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant (nr database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at http://xbio.lifescience.ntu.edu.tw/pm/. Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

  14. Analysis of a genomic segment of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp containing ribonucleotide reductase genes and repeat regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hulten, M. C. W.; Tsai, M. F.; Schipper, C. A.; Lo, C. F.; Kou, G. H.; Vlak, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    White spot syndrome is a worldwide disease of penaeid shrimp. The disease agent is a bacilliform, enveloped virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), with a double-stranded DNA genome that probably contains well over 200 kb. Analysis of a 12?3 kb segment of WSSV DNA revealed eight open reading frames (ORFs), including the genes for the large (RR1) and small (RR2) subunits of ribonucleotide reductase. The rr1 and rr2 genes were separated by 5760 bp, containing several putative ORFs and two doma...

  15. Detection and Quantification of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus and White Spot Virus in Shrimp Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and SYBR Green Chemistry

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    Dhar, Arun K.; Roux, Michelle M.; Klimpel, Kurt R.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive real-time PCR detection and quantification method for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), a single-stranded DNA virus, and white spot virus (WSV), a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus infecting penaeid shrimp (Penaeus sp.), was developed using the GeneAmp 5700 sequence detection system coupled with SYBR Green chemistry. The PCR mixture contains a fluorescence dye, SYBR Green, which upon binding to dsDNA exhibits fluorescence enhancement....

  16. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  17. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa

  18. Characterization of white spot syndrome virus VP52B and its interaction with VP26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fanyu; Jie, Zuliang; Hou, Luhong; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

    2015-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens of cultured shrimp. Identification of envelope protein interactions has become a central issue for the understanding of WSSV assembly. In this paper, WSSV envelope protein VP52B was fused with GST-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Immunogold-electron microscopy revealed that VP52B was located on the outside surface of WSSV virions. Far-Western blotting analysis suggested that VP52B might directly interact with a major viral envelope protein VP26, and their interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down assay. Further investigation showed that the VP52B binding domain was located between residues 135-170 of VP26. These findings will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:25331340

  19. Baculovirus-mediated promoter assay and transcriptional analysis of white spot syndrome virus orf427 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is an important pathogen of the penaeid shrimp with high mortalities. In previous reports, Orf427 of WSSV is characterized as one of the three major latency-associated genes of WSSV. Here, we were interested to analyze the promoter of orf427 and its expression during viral pathogenesis. Results in situ hybridization revealed that orf427 was transcribed in all the infected tissues during viral lytic infection and the translational product can be detected from the infected shrimp. A time-course RT-PCR analysis indicated that transcriptional products of orf427 could only be detected after 6 h post virus inoculation. Furthermore, a baculovirus-mediated promoter analysis indicated that the promoter of orf427 failed to express the EGFP reporter gene in both insect SF9 cells and primary shrimp cells. Conclusion Our data suggested that latency-related orf427 might not play an important role in activating virus replication from latent phase due to its late transcription during the lytic infection.

  20. Mixed-genotype white spot syndrome virus infections of shrimp are inversely correlated with disease outbreaks in ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Tuyet Hoa, T. T.; Zwart, M. P.; Phuong, N. T.; Oanh, D. T. H.; Jong, M. C. M.; Vlak, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp culture and its relation to virus virulence are not well understood. Here we provide evidence that the presence of WSSV mixed-genotype infections correlate with lower outbreak incidence and that disease outbreaks correlate with single-genotype infections. We tested 573 shrimp samples from 81 shrimp ponds in the Mekong delta with outbreak or non-outbreak status. The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci of WSSV were used as molecular ...

  1. siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system and seem to rely on various innate immune responses. An alternative and more specific approach to counteract WSSV infections in shrimp could be by the exploitation of RNA interference. As long dsRNA...

  2. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical water parameters on a farm with 11 ponds that had WSSV infection. The virus was detected in shrimp exposed to two or more simultaneous stress factors (temperature, pH, water level) or multiple stres...

  3. A Putative Cell Surface Receptor for White Spot Syndrome Virus Is a Member of a Transporter Superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huai-ting; Leu, Jiann-horng; Huang, Po-yu; Chen, Li-li

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a large enveloped DNA virus, can cause the most serious viral disease in shrimp and has a wide host range among crustaceans. In this study, we identified a surface protein, named glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), which could also interact with WSSV envelope protein, VP53A. Sequence analysis revealed that Glut1 is a member of a large superfamily of transporters and that it is most closely related to evolutionary branches of this superfamily, branches that functio...

  4. Identification and phylogeny of a non-specific nuclease gene of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Witteveldt, J.; Hulten, M. C. W.; Vlak, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a taxonomically unclassified virus which causes a disease in shrimps worldwide. A 936 bp long open reading frame (ORF) was found on a 7.2 kb HindIII fragment of the DNA genome of WSSV located adjacent to the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit gene. This putative ORF showed homology to prokaryotic and eukaryotic endonucleases, which contain a non-specific endonuclease motif. Alignment with viral and eukaryotic endonuclease ORFs revealed that most catalyt...

  5. Saturn's Great White Spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of observations of the Great White Spots on Saturn is reviewed, incluing the 1876, 1903, 1933, and 1960 outbreaks. The spots have been used to trace zonal winds on Saturn, showing longitudinal expansion spot velocities of 30 to 45 m/s and north-south expansion velocities of about 3 m/s. The relationship between spot activity and the Saturnian atmosphere is discussed. A graph of insolation at the top of Saturn's atmosphere during Great White Spot activity and photographs of the 1933 and 1960 spots are presented. Because the trends in spot activity show a recurrence time of about one Saturnian year (29.51 yrs), it is suggested that spot activity may occur in 1989 or 1990

  6. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. PMID:25779823

  7. White spot syndrome virus protein ICP11: A histone-binding DNA mimic that disrupts nucleosome assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hao-ching; Wang, Han-ching; Ko, Tzu-ping; Lee, Yu-may; Leu, Jiann-horng; Ho, Chun-han; Huang, Wei-pang; Lo, Chu-fang; Wang, Andrew H. -j

    2008-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large (?300 kbp), double-stranded DNA eukaryotic virus that has caused serious disease in crustaceans worldwide. ICP11 is the most highly expressed WSSV nonstructural gene/protein, which strongly suggests its importance in WSSV infection; but until now, its function has remained obscure. We show here that ICP11 acts as a DNA mimic. In crystal, ICP11 formed a polymer of dimers with 2 rows of negatively charged spots that approximated the duplex arrangeme...

  8. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

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    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2014-06-23

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. PMID:24953507

  9. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent

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    Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single-challenge and serial challenge results, and on previous published work showing that S. serrata is relatively unaffected by WSSV infection, we propose that susceptibility to white spot disease in the genus Scylla is species-dependent and may also be dose-history dependent. In practical terms for shrimp farmers, it means that S. olivacea and S. paramamosain may pose less threat as WSSV carriers than S. serrata. For crab farmers, our results suggest that rearing of S. serrata would be a better choice than S. paramamosain or S. olivacea in terms of avoiding losses from seasonal outbreaks of white spot disease.

  10. The tidepool shrimp, Palaemon ritteri Holmes, constitutes a novel host to the white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, A; Terán-Díaz, B; Enríquez-Espinoza, T; Encinas-Garcia, T; Vázquez-Sánchez, I; Mendoza-Cano, F

    2014-06-23

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal and contagious pathogen for penaeid shrimp and a growing number of other crustacean species. To date, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic treatments commercially available to interfere with the occurrence and spread of the disease. In addition, the significance of alternative vectors on the dispersal of this disease has been largely ignored and therefore the ecological dynamics of the WSSV is still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. Thus, an important issue that should be considered in sanitary programmes and management strategies is the identification of species susceptible to infection by WSSV. The results obtained provide the first direct evidence of ongoing WSSV replication in experimentally infected specimens of the tidepool shrimp Palaemon ritteri. Viral replication was detected using a validated set of primers for the amplification by RT-PCR of a 141 bp fragment of the transcript encoding the viral protein VP28. It is therefore conceivable that this shrimp may play a significant role in the dispersal of WSSV. PMID:24953350

  11. Molecular immune response of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) to the White Spot Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes. PMID:24045127

  12. Preparation of transgenic Dunaliella salina for immunization against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuying; Feng, Wenpo; Zhao, Ling; Gu, Huihui; Li, Qinghua; Shi, Ke; Guo, Sanxing; Zhang, Nannan

    2014-03-01

    Although a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) subunit vaccine could significantly enhance the immune response and benefit the shrimp host, its practical application is currently not feasible because of drawbacks in existing expression systems. We generated a transgenic Dunaliella salina (D. salina) strain by introducing the WSSV VP28 gene to produce a novel oral WSSV subunit vaccine. Following transformation of D. salina, VP28 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and western blot analysis. The RT-PCR results indicated that the VP28 gene was successfully expressed in D. salina cells. The presence of recombinant VP28 proteins with natural bioactivity was confirmed by western blot analysis and ELISA. Animal vaccination experiments indicated that transgenic D. salina can induce protection against WSSV by oral delivery in crayfish. Our findings indicate that the VP28 gene can be successfully expressed in transgenic D. salina and can be applied as an oral vaccine to protect crayfish against WSSV. We have demonstrated that it is feasible to produce an oral vaccine using D. salina, and thereby provide a new method for controlling other viral diseases in crustaceans. PMID:24081826

  13. An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India

    OpenAIRE

    Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxyg...

  14. Designing and Introduce a Diagnostic Kit for Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Cultured Penaeus indicus in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, A. M.; Bandehpour, M.; Afsharnasab, M.; Ghayour, E.; Yousefi Namin, S. A.; Kazemi, B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is designing a diagnostic kit for white spot syndrome virus. We designed 2 series of primers for diagnosis of viral VP24 gene and also primers as internal controls which amplify part of genome in both positive and negative samples. DNA of shrimps were extracted and PCR amplification carried out. In this research, a diagnosis kit for white spot disease of shrimps designed and tested using 32 shrimp samples which were dubious to have this disease. White spot virus were fou...

  15. Increased susceptibility of white spot syndrome virus-infected Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio campbellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Corteel, M; Nauwynck, H J; Pensaert, M B; Alday-Sanz, V; Van den Broeck, W; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2008-10-01

    The concept of polymicrobial disease is well accepted in human and veterinary medicine but has received very little attention in the field of aquaculture. This study was conducted to investigate the synergistic effect of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio campbellii on development of disease in specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The juvenile shrimp were first injected with WSSV at a dose of 30 SID(50) shrimp(-1) (SID(50) = shrimp infectious dose with 50% endpoint) and 24 h later with 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of V. campbellii shrimp(-1). Controls receiving just one of the pathogens or negative inocula were included. In the treatment with WSSV only, shrimp started to die at 48-108 h post injection (hpi) and cumulative mortality reached 100% at 268-336 hpi. In the treatment with only V. campbellii injection (10(6) cfu shrimp(-1)), cumulative mortality reached 16.7%. Shrimp in the dual treatment died very quickly after V. campbellii injection and 100% cumulative mortality was obtained at 72-96 hpi. When WSSV-injected shrimp were given sonicated V. campbellii instead of live V. campbellii, no synergistic effect was observed. Density of V. campbellii in the haemolymph of co-infected moribund shrimp collected 10 h after V. campbellii injection was significantly higher than in shrimp injected with V. campbellii only (P shrimp inoculated with WSSV only compared with dually inoculated ones. This study revealed that prior infection with WSSV enhances the multiplication and disease inducing capacity of V. campbellii in shrimp. PMID:18616551

  16. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

  17. Sensitivitas Berbagai Stadia Kepiting Bakau (Scylla paramamosain Estampador terhadap White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAFRAN

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Mud crab is the most commercial crabs which are highly sold because oftheir delicious taste and high protein content. In nature, the capture intensity of this crab is very high so the population would decrease rapidly. For this reason people start to breed it. At the moment breeding of mud crab still have a lot of problems. One of those is the lower survival rate of larva stage due to the diseases. The objective of this research was to observe the sensitivity of mud crab from various stages to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV. The research was conducted in Pathology laboratory, Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali, January to April 2004. This experiment was run using three stages they were zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet stage. The treatment of this research were: for zoea-1 and zoea-3 stage, i.e. treatment (A the larvae were bathed for 2 hours in stock WSSV suspension, in which the solution was diluted for 150 times; treatment (B the larvae were bathed for 2 hours in stock WSSV suspension, in which the solution was diluted for 15000 times; C as control, without WSSV. For crablet stage the WSSV infection was done by feeding them with tiger shrimp which infected by WSSV. ANOVA used to analyze the different effect of infection treatment, i.e. diluted 150x, 15000x, and control to survival rate, then continue DMRT test in 5% level. T test used to compare two treatments i.e. infection treatment with feed and without infection. PCR method used to detect WSSV of infection in zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet stages. The results showed that for zoea-1 and zoea-3 stage, increasing concentration virus showed significant difference respect, showed by decreasing of survival rate. In crablet stage the WSSV infection by feeding can decrease survival rate. In proving the dead of mud crab zoea-1, zoea-3 and crablet were due to the infection of WSSV, the PCR method was used. The result showed that look PCR product was revenged in the cell with size of band were as expractise. According to this result can be concluded that zoea-1, zoea-3, and crablet stages of tested mud crab were sensitive to WSSV infection.

  18. First report on White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae) under semi intensive culture condition in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gunalan Balakrishnan; Soundarapandian Peyail; Ramachandran Kumaran; Anand Theivasigamani; Kotiya Anil S.; Solanki Jitesh B.; Nithyamary Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly inAndrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Continuous success of shrimp culture was affected by mass mortalities ofcultured shrimp in 1994. Thereafter disease infection on survival and production of shrimps get itsimportance in culture. The present study is the first report on WSSV (white spot syndrome virus)infection in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) in India. WSSV infection was observed on 70thda...

  19. A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhi-ying; Yin, Zhi-xin; Xu, Xiao-peng; Weng, Shao-ping; Rao, Xia-yu; Dai, Zong-xian; Luo, Yong-wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-sheng; Guan, Hao-ji; Li, Se-dong; Chan, Siu-ming; Yu, Xiao-qiang; He, Jian-guo

    2008-01-01

    C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis reveale...

  20. A pilot metabolic profiling study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei with white spot syndrome virus based on ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Qing-hui; Wu, Yin; Jie, Huang

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus, which was a pathogen first found in 1992, had emerged globally affecting shrimp populations in aquaculture. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the metabolic changes of hepatopancreas from Litopenaeus vannamei which were infected with white spot syndrome virus by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, significantly metabolic changes were observed in WSSV-infected groups compared with the control groups. In the first 48 h, ?-glucose and ?-glucose were higher in the WSSV-infected group. Meanwhile, acetate, lactate, N-acetyl glycoprotein signals, lysine, tyrosine and lipid were significantly decreased in the WSSV-infected group. These results suggest that WSSV caused absorption inhibition of amino acids and disturbed protein metabolism as well as cell metabolism in favor of its replication. Our findings could also contribute to further understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25450952

  1. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. PMID:25189688

  2. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesignificance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  3. Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

    2014-07-01

    Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

  4. A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Rao, Xia-Yu; Dai, Zong-Xian; Luo, Yong-Wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-Sheng; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Chan, Siu-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that LvCTL1 mRNA was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Recombinant LvCTL1 (rLvCTL1) had hemagglutinating activity and ligand binding specificity for mannose and glucose. rLvCTL1 also had a strong affinity for WSSV and interacted with several envelope proteins of WSSV. Furthermore, we showed that the binding of rLvCTL1 to WSSV could protect shrimps from viral infection and prolong the survival of shrimps against WSSV infection. Our results suggest that LvCTL1 is a mannose-binding C-type lectin that binds to envelope proteins of WSSV to exert its antiviral activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a shrimp C-type lectin that has direct anti-WSSV activity. PMID:18945787

  5. Effects of white spot syndrome virus infection on immuno-enzyme activities and ultrastructure in gills of Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Li; Zuo, Di; Wang, Lan-Mei; Sun, Ting; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we explored the pathogenic mechanism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, by investigating activities of enzymes related to innate immune function during infection. After 6-12 h of exposure to WSSV, the activities of four enzymes, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LSZ), increased in the gills of C. quadricarinatus but then sharply decreased during longer infection times. Except for PO, the activities of other enzymes in the WSSV-infected crayfish (Group II) were significantly lower than those of the controls at 72 h post-exposure (P reduced in number and size or damaged; meanwhile, the mitochondria morphology changed, with parts of the cristae diminished leaving large vacuoles. Moreover, electron dense deposits appeared and heterochromatinized nuclei could be seen in blood cells with ruptured nuclear membranes and outflow of nucleoplasm. The findings of this study furthers our understanding of the biochemical alterations induced by viral infections, including changes in the antioxidant status, oxidative stress and lysozyme activity, which could help to advance strategies for control of WSSV in crayfish. PMID:22281607

  6. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) risk factors associated with farming practices in polyculture and monoculture P. monodon farms in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Bosma, R. H.; Verreth, J. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot sydrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral disease of shrimp. Several studies to control the disease have been done. Tank experiments identified WSSV risk factors related to the physico chemical properties of the water. A few studies reported pond level WSSV risk factors. This study identifies the risk factors associated with essentially two different farming systems: polyculture and semi-intensive monoculture of Penaeus monodon. Data were gathered from a total of 174 ...

  7. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M. P.; Phuong, N. T.; Jong, M. C. M.; Vlak, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in ORF75, ORF94 and ORF125. In the current study, we investigated whether or not the number of repeat units in the VNTRs correlates with virus outbreak status and/...

  8. Dietary administration of a Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract enhances the immune response and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirustananun, Nuttarin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Li-Li; Sim, Su Sing; Chiew, Siau Li

    2011-12-01

    The haemogram, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, lysozyme activity, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue (HPT) were examined after the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the hot-water extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-35 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with the amount of extract and time, but slightly decreased after 35 days. RBs, SOD activity, and GPx activity reached the highest levels after 14 days, whereas PO and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 28 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei, which had been fed diets containing the extract for 14 days, were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 2 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. The survival rate of shrimp fed the extract-containing diets was significantly higher than that of shrimp fed the control diet at 72-144 h post-challenge. We concluded that dietary administration of the G. tenuistipitata extract at ?1.0 g kg(-1) could enhance the innate immunity within 14 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters and mitotic index of HPT in shrimp and their enhanced resistance against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. Shrimp fed the extract-containing diets showed a higher and continuous increase in the humoral response indicating its persistent role in innate immunity. PMID:21820059

  9. An immersion of Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract improves the immunity and survival of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chang-Che; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2011-12-01

    The innate immunity and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received the Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract were examined. Shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 0 (control), 400 and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h were challenged with WSSV at 2 × 10(4) copies shrimp(-1). Shrimp not exposed to the extract and not received WSSV challenge served as unchallenged control. The survival rate of shrimp immersed in 400 mg L(-1) or 600 mg L(-1) extract was significantly higher than that of challenged control shrimp over 24-120 h. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 6, 6, 6, 6, and 6-24 h post-challenge. In another experiment, shrimp which had received 3 h immersion of 0, 400, 600 mg L(-1) extract were challenged with WSSV. The shrimp were then received a booster (3 h immersion in the same dose of the extract), and the immune parameters were examined at 12-120 h post-challenge. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract, and then received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 12-48 h post-challenge. In conclusion, shrimp which had received the extract exhibited protection against WSSV as evidenced by the higher survival rate and higher values of immune parameters. Shrimp which had received the extract and infected by WSSV showed improved immunity when they received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h post-WSSV challenge. The extract treatment caused less decrease in PO activity, and showed better performance of lysozyme activity and antioxidant response in WSSV-infected shrimp. PMID:21802517

  10. VP26 of White Spot Syndrome Virus Functions as a Linker Protein between the Envelope and Nucleocapsid of Virions by Binding with VP51?

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Qiang; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

    2008-01-01

    The envelopment of the nucleocapsid is an important step in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) assembly. Previous studies showed that VP26, a major envelope protein of WSSV, can interact with viral nucleocapsid. In this study, using the biotin label transfer technique, we found that the biotin label was transferred from Bio-rVP26 to the viral capsid protein VP51 or from Bio-MBP-VP51 to VP26. Far-Western analyses provided further evidence for direct interaction between VP26 and VP51. Therefore, ...

  11. Indel-II region deletion sizes in the white spot syndrome virus genome correlate with shrimp disease outbreaks in southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M. P.; Phuong, N. T.; Oanh, D. T. H.; Jong, M. C. M.; Vlak, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most variable. Here we examined the nature of these 2 indel regions in 313 WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp collected between 2006 and 2009 from 76 aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam...

  12. First report on White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV infection in white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae under semi intensive culture condition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunalan Balakrishnan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly inAndrapradesh and Tamilnadu. Continuous success of shrimp culture was affected by mass mortalities ofcultured shrimp in 1994. Thereafter disease infection on survival and production of shrimps get itsimportance in culture. The present study is the first report on WSSV (white spot syndrome virusinfection in cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in India. WSSV infection was observed on 70thdays of culture due to cross contamination of white spot infected shrimp from the neighboring farmbecause of birds. Due to this infection within two days the mortality ratio has gone up to 25% in pond 1and 12% in pond 2. So this present study strongly recommends to every shrimp farmers to go for birdfencing & crab fencing to avoid horizontal contamination, before stocking the good quality seed, thenthey will have the risk free WSSV culture.

  13. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to reduce the protein and carbohydrate levels significantly (P < 0.01) from the control diet fed groups. Moreover these diets help to decrease the coagulation time of maximum 61% from control groups and improve the total haemocyte count of maximum 51.82 × 10(5) cells ml(-1) in D4 diet fed F. indicus. Finally immunological parameters including prophenol oxidase (proPO) activity, intracellular superoxide anion production and intra-agar lysozyme activity was significantly (P ? 0.001) improved in the D-3 and D-4 fed F. indicus after WSSV challenge. PMID:25301717

  14. Identification of RAPD-SCAR marker linked to white spot syndrome virus resistance in populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, K; Chakrabarty, U; Mallik, A; Mandal, N

    2014-05-01

    White spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. Despite several efforts, no such permanent remedy was yet developed. Selective breeding using DNA markers would be a cost-effective strategy for long-term solution of this problem. In the present investigation, out of 30 random primers, only one primer produced a statistically significant (P disease resistant and disease susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon from three geographical locations along the East coast of India. Because RAPD markers are dominant, a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed by cloning and sequencing of 502 bp RAPD fragment, which generates a single 457 bp DNA fragment after PCR amplification only in the disease resistant shrimps. Challenge experiment was also conducted to validate this 457 bp SCAR marker, and the results suggested that the WSSV loads were 2.25 × 10(3) fold higher in disease susceptible than that in disease resistant shrimps using real-time PCR. Therefore, this 457 bp DNA SCAR marker will be very valuable towards the development of disease-free shrimp aquaculture industry. PMID:23952572

  15. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  16. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Braunig; Rafael Diego da, Rosa; Caroline Heidrich, Seibert; Mariana, Borsa; Patricia Hermes, Stoco; Edmundo Carlos, Grisard; Aguinaldo Roberto, Pinto.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was [...] purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolated in Brazil.

  17. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Braunig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

  18. KLONING DAN SEQUENCING KERANGKA BACA TERBUKA VP26 DAN VP28 VIRUS WSSV SEBAGAI KANDIDAT VAKSIN UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BINTIK PUTIH (WHITE SPOT DISEASE) PADA UDANG WINDU (PENAEUS MONODON)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Anshary; Triyanto; Gunarto Latama; Sriwulan

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) merupakan virus patogen yang paling mematikan bagi udang windu (Peneaus monodon) dan telah menimbulkan kerugian ekonomi yang sangat besar serta mengancam perkembangan industri budidaya udang di dunia termasuk di Indonesia. Genom WSSV telah ditentukan urutan nukleotidanya secara lengkap. Berbagai upaya telah digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah infeksi wssv, antara lain penerapan biosecurity, penerapan good aquaculture practices serta menebar benur udang yang berl...

  19. White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Monwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

  20. Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding. PMID:24509436

  1. Expression profile of bio-defense genes in Penaeus monodon gills in response to formalin inactivated white spot syndrome virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, N S; Poulose, Gigi; Thomas, Ancy; Viswanath, Kiron; Kulkarni, Amod; Narayanan, R B; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating pathogen of penaeid shrimp. While developing technology to vaccinate shrimp against WSSV, it is imperative to look into the immune response of the animal at molecular level. However, very little information has been generated in this direction. The present study is an attempt to understand the expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues of Penaeus monodon in response to formalin inactivated WSSV. A WSSV vaccine with a viral titer of 1×10(9) DNA copies was prepared and orally administered to P. monodon at a rate of 1.75×10(6) DNA copies of inactivated virus preparation (IVP) day(-1) for 7days. The animals were challenged with WSSV on 1st and 5th day post vaccination, and temporal expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues was studied. Survival of 100% and 50% were observed respectively on 1st and 5th day post vaccination challenge. The humoral immune genes prophenoloxidase (proPO), alpha 2-macroglobulin (?2M), crustin and PmRACK, and the cell mediated immune genes caspase and Rab7 were up regulated in gill tissue upon vaccination and challenge. The expression of humoral gene crustin and cellular gene Rab7 was related to survival in IVP administered shrimp. Results of the study suggest that these genes have roles in protecting shrimp from WSSV on vaccination. PMID:25735464

  2. Development of primary cell cultures from mud crab, Scylla serrata, and their potential as an in vitro model for the replication of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika, A; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell cultures were developed from haemocytes and testis of Scylla serrata. Haemocytes were collected from live animals and cultured in double-strength L-15 medium (2× L-15) prepared in crab saline, supplemented with 5% foetal bovine serum and antibiotic-antimycotic solution (penicillin 100 U/mL, streptomycin 100 ?g/mL and amphotericin B 0.25 ?g/mL) with osmolality adjusted to 894 mOsm/kg. The haemocytes adhered within 2 h after seeding and showed proliferation up to 72 h. The disaggregated testis tissue fragments were seeded in 3× L-15 supplemented with non-essential amino acid mixture, lipid concentrate and antibiotic-antimycotic solution, with osmolality adjusted to 1,035 mOsm/kg with crab saline. Cells from the testis could be subcultured and maintained up to 21 d as suspension culture. Different dilutions of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) inoculum (known virus copy number) prepared from infected Penaeus monodon were inoculated in the cultured cells, and the cytopathic effects like detachment, rounding of cells and clear areas of depleted cells were observed after 48 h in haemocyte cultures. However, WSSV-exposed testis cells did not show any obvious change until 72 h post-infection. WSSV was detected in both haemocyte and testis cultures at different time-points of infection by conventional and real-time PCR using WSSV-specific primers. The transcripts of WSSV were found to be much higher in haemocytes than in testis culture. The virus harvested from the cultured haemocytes after three passages could infect healthy P. monodon. The present study showed that mud crab haemocyte culture can support WSSV replication, and it can be used as an in vitro tool for WSSV replication. PMID:24357036

  3. Microabrasion: a treatment option for white spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza de Barros Vasconcelos, M Q; Almeida Vieira, K; da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, M; Almeida Alfaya, T; Santos Ferreira, C; Bussadori, S K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe a clinical protocol for the treatment of white spots with the use of an abrasive material. A four-year-old patient presented with a white spot on tooth 51 and a white spot associated with a carious lesion in the cervical region of tooth 52. Treatment was planned with microabrasion and restoration of the upper right lateral incisor. Prophylaxis was first performed, followed by protection with a dental dam and the application of the abrasive material (silicon carbide and hydrochloric acid 6%). Five applications were needed to remove the spots. The restoration of the upper right lateral incisor was then performed with a resin composite. A good esthetic outcome was achieved and both the patient and her guardians were satisfied with the results. Microabrasion is a conservative treatment option that achieves satisfactory results with regard to tooth color. PMID:25631722

  4. Immunostimulatory activity of sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri and development of resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Rudtanatip, Tawut; Praiboon, Jantana

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated galactans (SG) were isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri). Chemical analysis revealed SG contains sulfate (12.7%) and total carbohydrate (42.2%) with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kDa. Structure analysis by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that SG is a complex structure with a linear backbone of alternating 3-linked ?-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose units with partial 6-O-methylate-?-D-galactopyranose and with sulfation occurring on C4 of D-galactopyranose and C6 of L-galactopyranose units. SG treatment enhanced immune parameters including total haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anions and superoxide dismutase in shrimp Penaeus monodon. Shrimp fed with Artemia salina enriched with SG (100 and 200 ?g ml(-1)) and inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) showed a significantly lower mortality rate and lower viral VP 28 amplification and expression than control. The results suggest that SG from G. fisheri exhibits immune stimulatory and antiviral activities that could protect P. monodon from WSSV infection. PMID:24161778

  5. Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV

  6. Are there spots on magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporal variation of the circular polarization observed in the magnetic white dwarf G195--19 is interpreted in terms of an oblique rotator model. The peculiar behavior observed in red light strongly suggests the presence of a spot on the surface of this star. A model based on this assumption is found to be consistent with observations

  7. Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Deng, Xie-Xiong; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING-type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, a coiled-coil region, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between LvTRAF6 and other known TRAF6s is 22.2-33.3%. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that LvTRAF6 could activate the promoters of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Drosophila Attacin A and Drosomycin, and shrimp Penaeidins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that LvTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of L. vannamei. After Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvTRAF6 was down-regulated, though with different expression patterns in the intestine compared to other tissues. After WSSV challenge, LvTRAF6 was up-regulated 2.7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression. PMID:20816892

  8. A new shrimp peritrophin-like gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyan; Li, Fuhua; Wang, Bing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-09-01

    Peritrophin was first separated from insect peritrophic membrane (PM), and it played an important role in stimulating the digestion of food and protecting insects from invasion by microorganisms. In this study, a full-length cDNA of a new peritrophin-like protein (EcPT) was cloned from the ridgetail white shrimp Exopalaemon carinicauda, which was an excellent experimental animal for shrimp. The full length cDNA comprised 1235 bp including an 873 bp open reading frame encoding 291 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a segment of signal peptide and three conserved chitin binding type 2 domains (ChtBD2) characterized by having a 6-cysteine motif. Tissue expression analysis revealed that EcPT was mainly expressed in stomach and gills, which were also the two main target tissues of WSSV infection. The transcription levels of EcPT in both stomach and gills were found to have significantly changed upon WSSV infection by real-time PCR. Silencing EcPT by dsRNA interference led to higher survival rate of shrimp against WSSV challenge, which suggested that EcPT might be involved in WSSV infection. PMID:23811409

  9. The protection of CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against White spot syndrome virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Q.; Liu, R.; Sun, R.; Wang, L.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, M.; Liu, Y.; Sun, J.; Madzak, C.; Song, L.

    2014-01-01

    The white spot syndrome is one of the most serious disease which has caused high mortalities and huge economic losses to shrimp culture. In the present study, the oral administrations with CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 (rVP28-yl) as dietary supplement for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were conducted to evaluate their protective effects against WSSV. After feeding for 15 days, the cumulative mortality and the copy number of WSSV in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps were signific...

  10. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. PMID:25462462

  11. Revisión de patogénesis y estrategias moleculares contra el virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca en camarones peneidos / A review of pathogenesis and molecular strategies against white spot syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martin I, Bustillo-Ruiz; César M, Escobedo-Bonilla; Rogerio R, Sotelo-Mundo.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El virus del síndrome de mancha blanca (WSSV) provoca graves mortandades en granjas de cultivo de camarones peneidos y serias pérdidas económicas. La secuencia y estructura genética excepcionales de WSSV lo colocan en su propia nueva familia, Nimaviridae. Recientemente, novedosas técnicas mo [...] leculares de alto rendimiento han permitido identificar y caracterizar varias proteínas estructurales de WSSV. Estas incluyen la secuenciación por `shotgun' y marcadores isobáricos para cuantificación absoluta y relativa (iTRAQ). Dichas técnicas han permitido caracterizar 14 nuevas proteínas de WSSV. La caracterización y localización de proteínas estructurales pueden ayudar a conocer la morfogénesis y patogénesis de WSSV. Ambos procesos son esenciales para entender el mecanismo de infección y para desarrollar nuevos métodos de control. Hasta ahora no existen tratamientos efectivos para combatir este virus en campo. Proteínas estructurales de WSSV como VP28 y VP19 han sido evaluadas para reducir el impacto de WSSV. Estas moléculas son esenciales en las etapas tempranas de infección. Bioensayos de neutralización usando anticuerpos específicos contra proteínas estructurales de WSSV han aumentado la supervivencia de camarones tratados. Recientemente, construcciones de RNA de interferencia (RNAi) dirigidos contra proteínas estructurales han sido usadas como una nueva herramienta para reducir/inhibir la replicación de WSSV. Una mejor comprensión de las interacciones hospedero-patógeno permitirá desarrollar nuevos métodos para controlar este virus. La localización y función de proteínas estructurales usando métodos de alto rendimiento contribuirá a implementar nuevas estrategias contra la infección. Métodos de intervención para bloquear la entrada del virus a la célula podrían ser valiosos productos de este tipo de investigaciones. Abstract in english ABSTRACT White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality to farmed shrimp and serious economic losses. Its unique sequence and genome structure has placed WSSV in its own new family Nimaviridae. Recently, high performance molecular techniques have made it possible to identify and characterize [...] several WSSV structural proteins. These include `shotgun' sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Such techniques have made it possible to characterize 14 new WSSV proteins. Location and characterization of structural proteins can help to understand WSSV morphogenesis and pathogenesis. Both processes are essential to understand the mechanism of infection and to develop novel control methods. At present no effective treatments exist to fight WSSV in the field. WSSV structural proteins such as VP28 and VP19 have been evaluated to reduce the impact of WSSV. These molecules are essential early in the infection. Neutralization assays using specific antibodies against WSSV structural proteins have shown an increased survival of treated shrimp. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) constructs directed against structural proteins have been used as a new tool to reduce/inhibit WSSV replication. A better comprehension of the host-pathogen interaction would allow the development of new methods to control WSSV. The use of high throughput techniques to determine the location and function of structural proteins will contribute to develop new strategies against infection. Intervention strategies aimed to block virus entry into the host cells may be a valuable output from these studies.

  12. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems. Chemicals such as formaldehyde, sodium percarbonate and sodium chloride have been applied to control infections with this parasite. However, information on the influence of concentration, length of treatment period and temperature, on the survival of theronts and tomonts, has been lacking. The tolerance of the free-living theront stage towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate in solution was investigated at two temperature levels (11-12 and 21-22 °C). The theronts were exposed to the two substances in concentrations of 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/l. The survival of theronts was examined in a four-well setup. Each well contained 5-12 theronts in 150 µl aqueous solution. Tolerance towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate was tested simultaneously, together with two pure water negative controls. At each concentration and temperature (11-12 and 21-22 °C) the experiment was repeated 4-9 times. The numbers of live theronts were counted every 15 minutes using a stereo-microscope (8-100× magnification). Lysed and/or immobilised theronts with no movement of cilia were considered dead. For both substances a negative relationship was seen between the survival of theronts and length of treatment, temperature and concentration of chemical. Using formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate, all theronts were dead within 15 minutes at a concentration of 64 mg/l at 21-22 °C. At the same temperature, using 8 mg/l, this was achieved within 150 minutes using formaldehyde and 135 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At the low temperature (11-12 °C) using 64 mg/l, all theronts were dead within 45 minutes using formaldehyde and 30 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At 8 mg/l all theronts died within 300 minutes when treating with formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate. Dose-response experiments on tomonts showed that this parasite stage was much more tolerant towards both chemicals. Filtration experiments on tomont containing water were conducted. Mesh sizes of 500, 300, 160 and 80 µm were used. A mesh size of 80 µm was demonstrated to filter out 100 % of the tomonts. The abiotic factors temperature, chemical and concentration all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis.

  13. Presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca em crustáceos decápodes silvestres em lagoas costeiras no Sul do Brasil / Presence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild decapods crustaceans in coastal lagoons in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.W., Costa; A.P.M., Fraga; A.S., Zamparetti; M.R.F., Marques; E.R., Andreatta.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca (em inglês WSSV) nas principais espécies de camarões, siris e caranguejos de cinco lagoas que recebem o efluente de fazendas afetadas pela enfermidade foi detectada por nested PCR, e inclusões virais nos camarões por histologia. Pela nested PCR encont [...] rou-se a presença de WSSV em 13 de 16 (81,2%) amostras de camarões da espécie Farfantepenaeus paulensis, em 13 de 14 (92,8%) de Litopenaeus schmitti, em uma de duas de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%), em 13 de 15 (86,6%) de siri da espécie Callinectes danae e em 11 de 12 (91,6%) de Callinectes sapidus, e não foi detectada no caranguejo Chasmagnathus granulata em 10 amostras. Inclusões características de WSSV foram observadas em três amostras histológicas de 50 (6,0%) no epitélio gástrico e cuticular e nas brânquias de dois exemplares de F. paulensis e um de L. schmitti. É o primeiro relato da presença de WSSV em camarões L. schmitti e no siri C. danae silvestres. As principais espécies de camarões e siris dos ambientes de entorno das fazendas foram contaminadas pelo WSSV, constituindo-se em vetores potenciais do vírus. Abstract in english The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the main species of shrimps, blue crabs, and burrowing crabs of five lagoons where shrimp farm effluents are discharged, was analyzed by nested PCR and the presence of virus inclusions in the shrimps was analyzed through histopathology. The nested [...] PCR analysis indicated the presence of WSSV in 13 of 16 (81.2%) samples of the shrimp species of Farfantepenaeus paulensis, in 13 of 14 (92.8%) of Litopenaeus schmitti, in one of two of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%), in 13 of 15 (86.6%) of blue crab species of Callinectes danae and in 11 of 12 (91.6%) of Callinectes sapidus and none was detected in the 10 samples of the burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata. The inclusion characteristics of WSSV were observed in three samples of 50 (6.0%) in the gastric and cuticular epithelium and in the gills of two specimens of F. paulensis and one of L. schmitti. The presence of WSSV in L. schmitti wild shrimp and in the C. danae blue crab is reported for the first time in the present work. The results indicate that the main species of shrimps and blue crabs of the environment surrounding the farms were infected by WSSV, and they may be considered potential vectors of the virus.

  14. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing Sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its extract showed increased immunity and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truong-Giang; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Lin, Yong-Chin; Shyu, Jeng-Feng; Chen, Li-Li; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2011-08-01

    This study was to examine the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and WSSV when shrimp received the Sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its hot-water extract. Both powder and extract showed activation of prophenoloxidase and generation of superoxide anion in the shrimp in vitro. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst, and lysozyme activity were examined after the shrimp were immersed in seawater containing S. hemiphyllum var. chinense powder or its extract at 0, 100, 300, and 500 mg L?¹ for 1, 3, and 5 h. These immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 300 and 500 mg L?¹ powder, and 100 and 300 mg L?¹ extract were significantly higher than those of control shrimp after 3 h, but slightly decreased after 5 h. In another experiment, shrimp immersed in seawater containing the powder or the extract at 0, 100, 300, and 500 mg L?¹ after 3 h were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 8 × 10? colony-forming unit (cfu) shrimp?¹, or challenged with WSSV at 1 × 10? copies shrimp?¹, and then placed in seawater. Survival rate of shrimp immersed in 500 mg L?¹ powder was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 24-120 h in the V. alginolyticus-challenge test, and after 72 h in the WSSV-challenge test, respectively. Survival rate of shrimp immersed in 300 mg L?¹ extract was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 72-120 h in both V. alginolyticus-challenge and WSSV-challenge tests. It was concluded that the shrimp immersed in seawater containing the powder at 500 mg L?¹, and the extract at 300 mg L?¹ had increased immunity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection, and the shrimp that received extract at 300 mg L?¹ showed resistance against WSSV infection. PMID:21658452

  15. The influence of VAR processes and parameters on white spot formation in Alloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damkroger, B.K.; Kelley, J.B.; Schlienger, M.E.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.; Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.

    1994-05-01

    Significant progress has occurred lately regarding the classification, characterization, and formation of white spots during vacuum arc remelting (VAR). White spots have been generally split into three categories: discrete white spots, which are believed to be associated with undissolved material which has fallen in from the shelf, crown, or torus regions; dendritic white spots, usually associated with dendrite clusters having fallen from the electrode; and solidification white spots, believed to be caused by local perturbations in the solidifications conditions. Characteristics and proposed formation mechanisms of white spots are reviewed and discussed in context of physical processes occurring during VAR, such as fluid flow and arc behavior. Where possible, their formation mechanisms will be considered with respect to specific operating parameters. In order to more fully understand the formation of solidification white spots, an experimental program has been begun to characterize the solidification stability of Alloy 718 and variants with respect to changes in growth rate and thermal environment. A description of the experimental program and preliminary results are included.

  16. Nano-indentation characterisation of natural carious white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T T Y; He, L H; Darendeliler, M A; Swain, M V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterise the mechanical properties (MPs) and microstructural features of natural enamel white spot lesions (WSLs) using nano-indentation. Five natural WSLs from 4 extracted sound premolar teeth were cross-sectioned. Elastic modulus and hardness were measured systematically across the WSLs at intervals of 25 and 50 microm. The WSLs showed a large reduction in MPs compared to sound counterpart: elastic modulus was up to 83% lower (77.0 +/- 2.2 to 13.4 +/- 2.1 GPa) and hardness up to 91% lower (3.39 +/- 0.41 to 0.29 +/- 0.07 GPa). The intact surface layer above WSLs had less than 34% reduction in MPs. Detailed MP measurements were mapped as two-dimensional contour plots. Typically, WSLs displayed steep MP gradients at the lesion boundary and more uniform MPs with isolated variations in the lesion body. Despite the large reduction in MPs, the microstructure of WSLs remained intact. We postulate that loss of mineral and change of the hierarchical microstructure at the crystallite level contributed to the overall MPs of WSLs. PMID:20173325

  17. [Description of bacillus-shaped spot sweetflag virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrika, T Iu; Serdenko, O B; Didenko, L F; Varbanets', L D; Brovars'ka, O S; Vasyl'iev, V M; Spivak, M Ia

    2007-01-01

    The spot sweetflag virus (SSV) as to its morphology and structural components in comparison with phytorhabdovirus of curly potato dwarf virus (CPDV) and rhabdoviruses of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), pathogenic for people and animals, corresponds to the definition of rhabdovirus and belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. Virions of SSV have a bacillus-like form and dimensions 110-130 x 45 nm. SSV contains structural proteins 130, 66, 43-39, 32-30 and 25 kDa. In the virion structure the fatty acids have been identified: palmitic (47 %), linolic (4.2%), oleic (14.9%), stearic (3.94%), holesterol (23%), and also carbohydrates: glucose (25.3%), galactose (18.3%), arabinose (16%), rhamnose (3.1%) and mannose (2.32%). Aminosaccharides: glucosamine and galactosamine, with correlation 1:7.2, were also found out. The paper is presented in Ukrainian. PMID:18217354

  18. ????????????????? The Forming Mechanism of the White Spot on the Chemical Conversion Coating of the Die-Casting Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????SEM?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The forming mechanism of the white spot of the die-casting magnesium was investigated by means of SEM andOM.The roughness of the white spot was also tested. It indicated that the larger ? phase caused by the uneven temperature distribution of the die result in the formation of the white spot. It can be improved by changing the agent spaying parameter.

  19. [Microsatellite variation in white-spotted char Salvelinus leucomaenis from Sakhalin Oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A panel of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for the population genetic studies of white-spotted char Salvelinus leucomaenis. The four population samples examined consisted of 48 individuals each, and were collected in different geographical regions, including Sakhalin Island, Kunashir Island, and Iturup Island (two samples). The total number of different-sized alleles at different loci varied in the range of 2-31. In the population of white-spotted char subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure allelic diversity and expected heterozygosity indices were found to be lower than in wild populations of this species. The considerable genetic subdivision of different insular populations of white-spotted char observed was consistent with isolation by the distance model. PMID:25508907

  20. Saturn Northern hemisphere's atmosphere after the 2010/2011 Great White Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcroix, M.; Fischer, G.; Barry, T.

    2012-09-01

    In 2012, after the 2010/2011 Great White Spot (GWS), amateur observations made it possible to follow the evolution of the "GWS zone" centered around 41° planetographic north latitude, in particular the regions where the northern and southern tails of the GWS had developed. We also make a correlation between Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED) observations and a bright NNTB (North North Temperate Band) re-occurring spot.

  1. White-spot disease of Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus *

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-liang; Zhang, Chu-long; Fang, Wei-huan; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) in culture farms using an artificial warming system in Zhejiang, China, often show typical signs of white-spot disease such as white spots on their bodies, skin lesions, anorexia and eventually death. The sick turtles were mostly 5~80 g in weight. A suspected fungal pathogen was isolated from the sick turtles and verified as Paecilomyces lilacinus by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of its ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Detailed m...

  2. Novel treatment of white spot lesions: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Vasundhara; Shivakumar, B

    2011-10-01

    This case report describes a technique used to treat smooth surface white spot lesions microinvasively. It is based on the infiltration of an initial enamel caries lesion with low-viscosity light-curing resins called infiltrants. The surface layer is eroded and desiccated, followed by resin infiltrant application. The resin penetrates into the lesion microporosities driven by capillary force and is hardened by light curing. Infiltrated lesions lose their whitish appearance and look similar to sound enamel. Additionally, the treatment prevents lesion progression. This technique might be an alternative to microabrasion and restorative treatment in treating of white spot lesions of esthetically relevant teeth. PMID:22144817

  3. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus on Catharanthus roseus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in the ornamental crop Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as vinca) in south Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting this species. Genetic diversity of the virus was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging vir...

  4. The genetics of brown coat color and white spotting in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M-Q; Xu, X; Luo, S-J

    2014-10-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) exhibit two major coat color variations: a brown vs. wild-type black pigmentation and a white spotting vs. wild-type solid color pattern. The genetic basis for these variations in color and distribution remains largely unknown and may be complicated by a breeding history involving hybridization between yaks and cattle. Here, we investigated 92 domestic yaks from China using a candidate gene approach. Sequence variations in MC1R, PMEL and TYRP1 were surveyed in brown yaks; TYRP1 was unassociated with the coloration and excluded. Recessive mutations from MC1R, or p.Gln34*, p.Met73Leu and possibly p.Arg142Pro, are reported in bovids for the first time and accounted for approximately 40% of the brown yaks in this study. The remaining 60% of brown individuals correlated with a cattle-derived deletion mutation from PMEL (p.Leu18del) in a dominant manner. Degrees of white spotting found in yaks vary from color sidedness and white face, to completely white. After examining the candidate gene KIT, we suggest that color-sided and all-white yaks are caused by the serial translations of KIT (Cs6 or Cs29 ) as reported for cattle. The white-faced phenotype in yaks is associated with the KIT haplotype S(wf) . All KIT mutations underlying the serial phenotypes of white spotting in yaks are identical to those in cattle, indicating that cattle are the likely source of white spotting in yaks. Our results reveal the complex genetic origins of domestic yak coat color as either native in yaks through evolution and domestication or as introduced from cattle through interspecific hybridization. PMID:24989079

  5. Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein domains involved in tubule formation, movement and symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absence of a reliable reverse genetics system for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has impeded direct demonstration of gene function. We previously used a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression system to demonstrate that the TSWV NSm protein is able to support cell-to-cell movement in the absen...

  6. Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein domains involved in tubule formation,movement and symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct demonstration of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) gene function has been slowed by the absence of a reliable reverse genetics system. A Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression system was previously used by us to demonstrate that the TSWV NSm protein is able to support cell-to-cell movemen...

  7. Primeiro relato do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) em Campanula medium L. no Brasil / First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infecting Campanula medium in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Gioria; Kátia Regiane, Brunelli; Romulo Fujito, Kobori; Márcia Maria Rabelo Guimarães, Kobori; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas de campânula (Campanula medium) exibindo mosaico e necrose foliar e anéis em flores foram coletadas em uma estufa comercial de flores na região de Atibaia, SP. Suspeitando de possível etiologia viral, amostras de tecido lesionado foram analisadas por ensaios de transmissão mecânica, microsco [...] pia eletrônica e sorologia. Todos os resultados apontaram para a presença do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) como o responsável pelos sintomas. Esse é o primeiro relato deste patógeno em campânula no Brasil. Abstract in english Plants of bellflower (Campanula medium) exhibiting symptoms of mosaic, leaf necrosis and flower ring spot were found in a commercial crop in a greenhouse in Atibaia, São Paulo State. Electron microscopy, serology and biological assays indicated the presence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). This [...] is the first report of this pathogen in bellflower plants in Brazil.

  8. Praziquantel treatment of captive white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) infested with monogean trematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Janse, M.; Borgsteede, F. H. M.

    2003-01-01

    Captive white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) were infested with Clemacotyle australis (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) on the skin and with a species of the Hexabothriinae on the gills. Different behavioural changes have been described caused by these infections. Oral treatment with 10-40 mg praziquantel per kg bodyweight had no effect. Bath treatment with 20 mg praziquantel per litre for 45-90 minutes showed good results against both parasite species. The presence of cleaner wrasse (Labro...

  9. Novel treatment of white spot lesions: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanna, Vasundhara; Shivakumar, B.

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a technique used to treat smooth surface white spot lesions microinvasively. It is based on the infiltration of an initial enamel caries lesion with low-viscosity light-curing resins called infiltrants. The surface layer is eroded and desiccated, followed by resin infiltrant application. The resin penetrates into the lesion microporosities driven by capillary force and is hardened by light curing. Infiltrated lesions lose their whitish appearance and look similar to...

  10. Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano; Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz; Orlando Saliba; Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service an...

  11. Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service and other information. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and ADA (American Dental Association. The data were processed and analyzed with the Epi-info software program, version 3.2, and Microsoft Excel. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied to assess the association among the variables. The enamel white spot prevalence was 30.8% and the age group, duration of the bedtime milk feeding habit, age of initial practice of oral hygiene and presence of caries lesions with cavitation were considered statistically significant with regard to enamel white spot prevalence (p < 0.05. No association was found between oral hygiene quality and the study variables.

  12. Alfalfa Mosaic Virus RNAs Serve as Cap Donors for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Transcription during Coinfection of Nicotiana benthamiana

    OpenAIRE

    Duijsings, D.; Kormelink, R. J. M.; Goldbach, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was shown to use alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs as cap donors in vivo during a mixed infection in Nicotiana benthamiana. By use of nested reverse transcription-PCR, TSWV N and NSs mRNAs provided with capped leader sequences derived from all four AMV RNAs could be cloned and sequenced. The sequence specificity of the putative TSWV endonuclease involved is discussed.

  13. Molecular Detection of Latent Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in Elite Mother Plants of Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Watpade; Baswaraj Raigond; Thakur, P. D.; Handa, Anil; Pramanick, K. K.; Sharma, Y. P.; Tomar, Manica

    2012-01-01

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV; family Betaflexiviridae genus Trichovirus) is one of the economically important latent virus infecting apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures were used to amplify coat protein gene of ACLSV. Among 5 primer sets used, two primer sets (1F1R and 1F2R) amplified fragments of expected size (432 bp). Products visible on agarose gel were produced using templates extracted from apple leaves. The...

  14. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzivassiliou, E. K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to those caused by TSWV were observed on sweet honey leaf (Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, [synonym Eupatorium rebaudianum Bertoni], family Asteraceae) plants in an experimental field in the prefec...

  15. Identification of Hot Spots in the Variola Virus Complement Inhibitor (SPICE) for Human Complement Regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Viveka Nand; Pyaram, Kalyani; Mullick, Jayati; Sahu, Arvind

    2008-01-01

    Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, encodes a soluble complement regulator named SPICE. Previously, SPICE has been shown to be much more potent in inactivating human complement than the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), although they differ only in 11 amino acid residues. In the present study, we have expressed SPICE, VCP, and mutants of VCP by substituting each or more of the 11 non-variant VCP residues with the corresponding residue of SPICE to identify hot spots ...

  16. Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Lilian Fernanda Santos; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek™ Z250 - control group) and glass-ionomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R™ and Fuji IX™ - experimental groups). Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15) or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15). After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p exchange (Ca, P, F, Al, Sr, and Si) between restorative materials and teeth. In addition, enamel white spot lesion formation was evaluated macroscopically (p 0.05) versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p < 0.05). Filtek™ Z250 was not able to prevent white spot formation around restorations in comparison with Ionomaster R™ (p < 0.001) and Fuji IX™ (p = 0.004). GICs reduced white spot formation and presented a preventive effect (p = 0.051). GICs presented a greater percentage of fluoride, aluminum, and strontium, and proved effective in white spot lesion prevention around restorations. PMID:25184496

  17. Ice nucleation activity in Pantoea ananatis obtained from maize white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vanessa Sauer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize white spot lesions caused by Pantoea ananatis has contributed substantially to yield reduction of maize crops in many countries, including Brazil. The initial symptoms of the disease include water-soaked lesions on the leaves, which later become necrotic and straw-colored. Basic knowledge regarding the biology and the infection mechanisms of this pathogen is lacking. In this study, 15 P. ananatis isolates obtained from maize white spot lesions were examined for their ice nucleation activity (INA. The INAs of individual bacterial isolates was determined by tube nucleation tests. Bacterial isolates were grown on tryptic soy broth medium and an aliquot of 0.1 mL of culture was added to test tubes containing 1 mL of sterile distilled water. The tubes were packed in an ice bath, which had a temperature below –10°C, for approximately 2 min. Instantaneous formation of ice in the tube revealed a positive INA phenotype of the isolate. Only 9 of the 15 studied isolates showed the INA+ phenotype. Pathogenicity tests were performed using whole plants and detached leaves. Symptoms were reproduced in both tests, but only for the inoculations using INA+ isolates. Electron microscopy allowed visualization of protein vesicles under outer cell wall of isolates characterized as INA+.

  18. Effects of Microabrasion on non Active White Spots in Primary Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Júdica RAMOS

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the enamel micromorphology with non active white spot lesions after the application of two different compounds used in microabrasion technique. Method: Thirty primary molars with non active white spot lesions in approximal surfaces were selected. Samples were randomly divided into three groups. G1 (n=10: control, untreated. G2 (n=10: compound (35% phosphoric acid and pumice mixed - 1:1 was applied on stain enamel. G3 (n=10: compound Opalustre, a slurry containing 6.6% HCl (hydrochloric acid and silicon carbide microparticles was applied. After this, all specimens were dehydrated, mounted on metal stubs, coated with gold and examined under scanning electron microscope (Jeol, JSM - 6100. Results: Eletronmicrographs analysis showed that the G1 samples (control, without treatment had a smooth surface with the presence of pumice residue. G2 samples (phosphoric acid and pumice presented rugous enamel surface with areas of enamel prisms demineralization. In G3 samples (Opalustre it were observed the formation of scratchs and grooves, beyond the presence of compound residue. Conclusion: The application of different types of compounds led to the formation of different aspects in micromorphology of primary teeth enamel.

  19. Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Batuman, O.; Kuo, Y. -w; Palmieri, M.; Rojas, M. R.; Gilbertson, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as “mancha de chocolate” (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased t...

  20. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed ?-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and ?-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 alimentados con ?-1,3 glucano vitamina E y ?-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Pacheco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with ?-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and ?-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and ?-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with ?-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with ?-?-glucan and ?-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, or ?-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.Se evaluó el efecto de ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y ?-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g en contenedores de fibra de vidrio de 60 L y se alimentaron diariamente durante 23 días con ?-1,3-glucano (0,1%, vitamina E (0,01%, y ?-caroteno (0,01% y posteriormente se inocularon con WSSV. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD y catalasa (CAT en hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 y 48 h después de la infección. Los grupos de camarones alimentados con los tratamientos incrementaron la actividad SOD en el hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 12 y 24 h después de la infección, respectivamente. Los juveniles tratados con vitamina E y ?-1,3-glucano mantuvieron un incremento en la actividad SOD desde las 12 a 48 h postinfección. Los camarones alimentados con ?-caroteno incrementaron la actividad de SOD antes de la infección con WSSV y los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y vitamina E incrementaron la actividad CAT también antes de la infección. La actividad CAT en músculo se incrementó respecto al grupo control, con todos los grupos de camarones tratados desde 1 hasta 6 h posteriores a la inoculación con WSSV. La actividad antioxidante más alta se registró en los camarones alimentados con vitamina E. Los juveniles alimentados con vitamina E y posteriormente inoculados con WSSV, registraron 100% de mortalidad a las 72 h, pero los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y ?-caroteno resistieron la infección hasta las 144 h. Los resultados de Antioxidant response in F. californiensis fed with dietary supplements and infected with WSSV este estudio mostraron la capacidad de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus californiensis alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E o ?-caroteno, de incrementar la respuesta antioxidante antes y durante una infección viral.

  1. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900), fed ?-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and ?-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus / Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900) alimentados con ?-1,3 glucano vitamina E y ?-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosario, Pacheco; Felipe, Ascencio; Martha, Zarain; Gracia, Gómez; Ángel, Campa.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y ?-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV). Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g) en contenedores de fibra de vidrio de 60 L y se ali [...] mentaron diariamente durante 23 días con ?-1,3-glucano (0,1%), vitamina E (0,01%), y ?-caroteno (0,01%) y posteriormente se inocularon con WSSV. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y catalasa (CAT) en hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 y 48 h después de la infección. Los grupos de camarones alimentados con los tratamientos incrementaron la actividad SOD en el hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 12 y 24 h después de la infección, respectivamente. Los juveniles tratados con vitamina E y ?-1,3-glucano mantuvieron un incremento en la actividad SOD desde las 12 a 48 h postinfección. Los camarones alimentados con ?-caroteno incrementaron la actividad de SOD antes de la infección con WSSV y los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y vitamina E incrementaron la actividad CAT también antes de la infección. La actividad CAT en músculo se incrementó respecto al grupo control, con todos los grupos de camarones tratados desde 1 hasta 6 h posteriores a la inoculación con WSSV. La actividad antioxidante más alta se registró en los camarones alimentados con vitamina E. Los juveniles alimentados con vitamina E y posteriormente inoculados con WSSV, registraron 100% de mortalidad a las 72 h, pero los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y ?-caroteno resistieron la infección hasta las 144 h. Los resultados de Antioxidant response in F. californiensis fed with dietary supplements and infected with WSSV este estudio mostraron la capacidad de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus californiensis alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E o ?-caroteno, de incrementar la respuesta antioxidante antes y durante una infección viral. Abstract in english The effect of dietary ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g) were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with ?-1. [...] 3-glucan (0.1%), vitamin E (0.01%), and ?-carotene (0.01%) for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and ?-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with ?-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with ?-?-glucan and ?-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, or ?-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.

  2. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  3. White spots on smoke rings by bruce nauman: a case study on contemporary art conservation using microanalytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafalda, Ana Cardeira; Câmara, Rodrigo Bettencourt da; Strzelec, Patrick; Schiavon, Nick; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

    2015-02-01

    The artwork "Smoke Rings: Two Concentric Tunnels, Non-Communicating" by Bruce Nauman represents a case study of corrosion of a black patina-coated Al-alloy contemporary artwork. The main concern over this artwork was the widespread presence of white spots on its surface. Alloy substrate, patina, and white spots were characterized by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Alloy substrate was identified as an aluminum alloy 6,000 series Al-Si-Mg. Patina's identified composition confirmed the documentation provided by the atelier. Concerning the white spots, zircon particles were found on patina surface as external elements. PMID:25158782

  4. A Simple Repeat Polymorphism in the MITF-M Promoter Is a Key Regulator of White Spotting in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowska Ko?rberg, Izabella; Sundstro?m, Elisabeth; Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Gustafson, Ulla; Hedhammar, A?ke; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Seddon, Jennifer; So?derberg, Arne; Vila?, Carles; Zhang, Xiaolan; A?kesson, Mikael; Lindblad-toh, Kerstin; Andersson, Go?ran; Andersson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    The white spotting locus (S) in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor) gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S) to extreme white spotting (sw). We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the sw allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with wh...

  5. Characterization and virus susceptibility of a skin cell line from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; He, Li-Bo; Pei, Chao; Yuan, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2012-08-01

    A red-spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara skin (RGS) cell line was established and characterized. RGS cells had a normal diploid chromosome number of 2n = 48, the morphology of which was fibroblastic-like in 3 days and epithelial-like over 5 after 16 passages. The cells multiplied well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% of fetal bovine serum at 25°C. Susceptibilities of RGS and grass carp ovary (GCO) cells to two viruses were tested, and the results showed that the titer of an iridovirus Rana grylio virus (RGV) in RGS cells was 10³·? TCID?? ml?¹, which was much higher than a rhabdovirus spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the cells (10?·? TCID?? ml?¹). The titers of RGV and SVCV in GCO were 10?·? TCID?? ml?¹ and 10?·? TCID?? ml?¹, respectively, which were higher than those in RGS cells. The data may imply that RGS cells could be selectively resistible to some viruses during infection. RT-PCR analysis of RGV-infected RGS cells showed that RGV could replicate in RGS cells. Further study of virus replications in RGS cells was conducted by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy has shown that virus particles scattered in the cytoplasm and virus protein appeared in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The results suggested that RGS cells could be used as a potential in vitro model to study the cutaneous barrier function against virus infection. PMID:22252337

  6. Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Valéria Pagliari, Tiano; Suzely Adas Saliba, Moimaz; Orlando, Saliba; Cléa Adas Saliba, Garbin.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, [...] the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service and other information. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization) and ADA (American Dental Association). The data were processed and analyzed with the Epi-info software program, version 3.2, and Microsoft Excel. Fisher's exact test (p

  7. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste. The intervention period was 4 weeks and the endpoints were quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) on buccal surfaces of the upper incisors, cuspids and first premolars and visual scoring from digital photos. The attrition rate was 15%, mostly due to technical errors, and 327 lesions were included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p <0.05) regression of the WSL was disclosed in both study groups compared to baseline, but there was no difference between the groups. The mean area of the lesions decreased by 58% in the CPP-ACP group and 26% in the fluoride group (p = 0.06). The QLF findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced area of the lesions after 4 weeks as assessed by QLF. The improvement was however not superior to the "natural" regression following daily use of fluoride toothpaste.

  8. HEPATITIS B VIRUS DNA CAN BE AMPLIFIED DIRECTLY FROM DRIED BLOOD SPOT ON FILTER PAPER

    OpenAIRE

    Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini; Abadeer, Mamdouh Z.; El-taher, Sheref M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections represent a major public health problem because of the ability of HBV to cause a chronic carrier state. Even though chronic carriers remain largely asymptomatic, a large number of these individuals subsequently develop cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinomas. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples are a simple and inexpensive sampling method, especially useful for blood collection in resource poor settings with limited access to diagnostic facilities. The ma...

  9. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Vegetables in Florida and the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Craig G; Frantz, Galen; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Mellinger, H Charles; McAvoy, Eugene; Turechek, William W; Marshall, Spencer H; Tantiwanich, Yaowapa; McGrath, Margaret T; Daughtrey, Margery L; Adkins, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) are two emerging tospoviruses in Florida. In a survey of the southeastern United States, GRSV and TCSV were frequently detected in solanaceous crops and weeds with tospovirus-like symptoms in south Florida, and occurred sympatrically with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and pepper in south Florida. TSWV was the only tospovirus detected in other survey locations, with the exceptions of GRSV from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in South Carolina and New York, both of which are first reports. Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were the only non-solanaceous GRSV and/or TCSV hosts identified in experimental host range studies. Little genetic diversity was observed in GRSV and TCSV sequences, likely due to the recent introductions of both viruses. All GRSV isolates characterized were reassortants with the TCSV M RNA. In laboratory transmission studies, Frankliniella schultzei was a more efficient vector of GRSV than F. occidentalis. TCSV was acquired more efficiently than GRSV by F. occidentalis but upon acquisition, transmission frequencies were similar. Further spread of GRSV and TCSV in the United States is possible and detection of mixed infections highlights the opportunity for additional reassortment of tospovirus genomic RNAs. PMID:25317844

  10. Two spinefoot colour morphs: mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T-H; Adiputra, Y T; Burridge, C P; Gwo, J-C

    2011-11-01

    Mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are two similar species that differ subtly in colouration and morphology. Three major mtDNA clades were identified for these species, but individuals were clustered by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) according to geography rather than morphology, suggesting that the colour morphs are interbreeding. PMID:22026611

  11. [Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement: angiographic and electrophysiologic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, V; Ducos de Lahitte, G; Terrada, C; Simon, C; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B

    2008-03-01

    Multiple white evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) and acute idiopathic blind spot syndrome enlargement (AIBSE) are two acute retinopathies occurring in young patients: improvement is the rule. The present review describes two cases: one case of MEWDS and one of AIBSE. We observed these patients from the acute phase until absolute recovery. Comparing these two reports, we noted differences in ophthalmoscopic, fluorescein angiographics, and multifocal electroretinographic (mERG) analysis, but common findings were observed in clinical presentation and indocyanine green imagery. The first and recent description of these two disorders dates from less than 25 years ago. Although the pathophysiology is still unknown, some authors suggest that these two syndromes could be two different expressions of the same disease, depending on the patient's sensitivity. In our two case reports, multifocal ERG anomalies were directly related to visual impairment and visual field alterations. MEWDS and AIBSE are two acute retinopathies that must be recognized, because of the spontaneous visual recovery that the patient needs to understand for a good follow-up. PMID:18404119

  12. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, T; Chandel, V; Kumar, Y; Ram, R; Hallan, V; Zaidi, A A

    2010-12-01

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ACLSV isolates and Trichoviruses were used for comparative analysis. Indian ACLSV isolates among themselves and with isolates from elsewhere in the world shared 91-100% and 70-98% sequence identities at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of the isolates was observed. Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. Recombination analysis (RDP3 ver.2.6) done for all the available ACLSV complete CP sequences of the world and Indian isolates indicate no significant evidence of recombination. However, one recombination event among Indian ACLSV-CP isolates was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of complete CP sequence variability study from India and also the first evidence of homologous recombination in ACLSV. PMID:21289443

  13. Fontes de resistência em tomateiro aos begomovírus bissegmentados Tomato yellow spot virus e Tomato severe rugose virus / Sources of resistance in tomato to bipartite begomoviruses Tomato yellow spot virus and Tomato severe rugose virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco D, Hurtado; Marta A, Gil; Yamila M, Zubiaur; Jorge G, Aguilera; César Augusto D, Xavier; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini Junior; Derly Jose H da, Silva.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os begomovírus causam doenças de grande importância econômica em diversas culturas, principalmente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Juntamente com outras famílias de vírus, os begomovírus têm causado grande prejuízo para os produtores de tomate in natura e para processamento industrial. O objeti [...] vo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de 11 genótipos resistentes ao Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) frente à infecção pelos begomovírus Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) e Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) em condições de casa-vegetação. A inoculação das plantas foi realizada via biobalística no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. A infecção viral confirmou-se pelo desenvolvimento dos sintomas e pela técnica de hibridização dot blot. Selecionaram-se como promissores os genótipos STY2, STY5, STY6 e L7, por não apresentarem sintomas e por terem concentrações virais muito baixas para os dois vírus. O espectro de resistência dos genes Ty-1 e Ty-2 não resultaram efetivos ante as espécies virais empregadas no estudo. As linhagens TY52, H24 e CLN2116B, portadoras destes genes, foram suscetíveis aos vírus ToYSV e ToSRV. Abstract in english Begomoviruses cause diseases of major economic importance in many crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Together with other families of viruses, the begomoviruses cause great damage for producers of fresh and processed tomatoes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavi [...] or of 11 resistant genotypes to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) when infected by the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were inoculated by biobalistic method when displaying two true leaves. Viral infection was confirmed by visual observation of symptoms and by dot blot hybridization. Genotypes STY2, STY5, STY6 and L7 were selected as promising due to the absence of symptoms and very low viral concentration for both viruses. The resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-2 were not effective against the viral species used in the study. The lines TY52, H24 and CLN2116B, carrying these genes, exhibited a susceptible behavior.

  14. Fontes de resistência em tomateiro aos begomovírus bissegmentados Tomato yellow spot virus e Tomato severe rugose virus Sources of resistance in tomato to bipartite begomoviruses Tomato yellow spot virus and Tomato severe rugose virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco D Hurtado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os begomovírus causam doenças de grande importância econômica em diversas culturas, principalmente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Juntamente com outras famílias de vírus, os begomovírus têm causado grande prejuízo para os produtores de tomate in natura e para processamento industrial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de 11 genótipos resistentes ao Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV frente à infecção pelos begomovírus Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV e Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV em condições de casa-vegetação. A inoculação das plantas foi realizada via biobalística no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. A infecção viral confirmou-se pelo desenvolvimento dos sintomas e pela técnica de hibridização dot blot. Selecionaram-se como promissores os genótipos STY2, STY5, STY6 e L7, por não apresentarem sintomas e por terem concentrações virais muito baixas para os dois vírus. O espectro de resistência dos genes Ty-1 e Ty-2 não resultaram efetivos ante as espécies virais empregadas no estudo. As linhagens TY52, H24 e CLN2116B, portadoras destes genes, foram suscetíveis aos vírus ToYSV e ToSRV.Begomoviruses cause diseases of major economic importance in many crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Together with other families of viruses, the begomoviruses cause great damage for producers of fresh and processed tomatoes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of 11 resistant genotypes to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV when infected by the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were inoculated by biobalistic method when displaying two true leaves. Viral infection was confirmed by visual observation of symptoms and by dot blot hybridization. Genotypes STY2, STY5, STY6 and L7 were selected as promising due to the absence of symptoms and very low viral concentration for both viruses. The resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-2 were not effective against the viral species used in the study. The lines TY52, H24 and CLN2116B, carrying these genes, exhibited a susceptible behavior.

  15. A white spot disease-like syndrome in the Pacific blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris) as a form of bacterial shell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Goarant, Cyrille; Brizard, Raphael; Marteau, Anne-laure

    2000-01-01

    In May 1997, some white lesions evoking the white spot syndrome disease were observed in Litopenaeus stylirostris broodstock in New Caledonia. The occurrence of these lesions was neither associated with mortality, nor with histological evidence of white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV), The evidence suggests that these lesions result from a form of bacterial disease and are associated with an increased bacterial flora on the outer surface of the cuticle, as well as an increased incidence thro...

  16. Tomato spotted wilt virus infection reduces the fitness of a nonvector herbivore on pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Chen, Gong; Li, Fei; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Liu, Baiming; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-04-01

    Plant pathogens and insect herbivores often share hosts under natural conditions. Hence, pathogen-induced changes in a host plant can affect the herbivore and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and nonvector herbivores. Here we tested whether the performance of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype Q, was altered when raised on pepper infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). TSWV infection reduced B. tabaci fecundity and longevity and increased B. tabaci developmental time but did not affect the insect's survival or female body lengths. Our results demonstrate that TSWV infection can decrease the fitness of B. tabaci biotype Q on pepper plants. PMID:23786083

  17. Identification of domains of the Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein involved in tubule formation, movement and symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deletion and alanine-substitution mutants of the Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein were generated to identify domains involved in tubule formation, movement and symptomatology, using a heterologous expression system derived from Tobacco mosaic virus. Two regions of NSm were required for both tub...

  18. Detección del iris yellow spot virus en el cultivo de cebolla en Zacatecas, México / Iris yellow spot virus detection in the onion cultivation of Zacatecas, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Manuel, Reveles-Hernández.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la mancha amarilla del iris (IYSV) es la enfermedad viral de mayor importancia para los cultivos de ajo y cebolla en Zacatecas, México. A finales de mayo de 2010 se encontraron lesiones amarillentas en forma de diamante en hojas y tallo floral de plantas de cebolla en parcelas comerciale [...] s, localizados en los municipios de Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. y Enrique Estrada pertenecientes al estado de Zacatecas. La prueba DAS-ELISA mostró resultados positivos para este virus en las muestras procedentes de diferentes municipios. Thrips tabaci el único vector conocido del IYSV se encontró en las parcelas comerciales muestreadas, aunque la presencia de Frankliniella occidentalis también fue reconocida en una parcela comercial de cebolla, cuyas muestras resultaron positivas a IYSV. No se encontró diferencia entre la altura, número de hojas, peso y diámetro de bulbo de plantas sin lesiones y aquellas con diferente número de lesiones de IYSV. Abstract in english The yellow spot virus Iris (IYSV) is the most important viral disease for garlic and onion crops in Zacatecas, Mexico. In late May 2010, yellow lesions were found in diamond-shaped leaves and flower stem of onion plants in commercial fields located in the municipalities of Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain [...] Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. and Enrique Estrada from the State of Zacatecas. The DAS-ELISA test was positive for the virus in samples from different municipalities. Thrips tabaci the only known vector of IYSV was found in sampled commercial parcels, although, the presence of Frankliniella occidentalis was also recognized in a commercial plot of onions, whose samples were positive for IYSV too. No difference was found between height, leaf number, bulb weight or diameter of the plants without lesions and those with different numbers of IYSV lesions.

  19. THE TUBULE-FORMING NSM PROTEIN FROM TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS COMPLEMENTS CELL-TO-CELL AND LONG-DISTANCE MOVEMENT OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS HYBRIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Florida isolate of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was able to complement cell-to-cell movement of a movement-defective Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector. To test for complementation of movement in the absence of other TSWV proteins, the open reading frame for the NSm protein was expressed from ...

  20. Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Benefits a Non-Vector Arthropod, Tetranychus Urticae, by Modulating Different Plant Responses in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Nachappa, Punya; Margolies, David C.; Nechols, James R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Rotenberg, Dorith

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between plant viruses and non-vector arthropod herbivores is poorly understood. However, there is accumulating evidence that plant viruses can impact fitness of non-vector herbivores. In this study, we used oligonucleotide microarrays, phytohormone, and total free amino acid analyses to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and a non-vector arthropod, twospotted spider mite (Tetranychusurticae), on tomato plan...

  1. Null mutation of endothelin receptor type B gene in spotting lethal rats causes aganglionic megacolon and white coat color.

    OpenAIRE

    Gariepy, C. E.; Cass, D. T.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) produce congenital aganglionic megacolon and pigment abnormalities in mice and humans. Here we report a naturally occurring null mutation of the EDNRB gene in spotting lethal (sl) rats, which exhibit aganglionic megacolon associated with white coat color. We found a 301-bp deletion spanning the exon 1-intron 1 junction of the EDNRB gene in sl rats. A restriction fragment length polymorphism caused by this deletion perfectly...

  2. Melon necrotic spot virus replication occurs in association with altered mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aix, Cristina; García-García, María; Aranda, Miguel A; Sánchez Pina, María Amelia

    2014-11-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV; genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae) is a single stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that has become an experimental model for the analysis of cell-to-cell virus movement and translation of uncapped viral RNAs whereas little is known about its replication. Analysis of the cytopathology after MNSV infection showed the specific presence of modified organelles that resemble mitochondria. Immunolocalisation of the glycine-decarboxylase P protein in these organelles confirmed their mitochondrial origin. In situ hybridisation and immunolocalization experiments showed the specific localization of positive-sense viral RNA, CP and dsRNA in these organelles meaning that replication of the virus takes place in association with them. The 3D reconstructions of the altered mitochondria showed the presence of large, interconnected, internal dilatations which appeared to be linked to the outside cytoplasmic environment through pores and/or complex structures, and with lipid bodies. Transient expression of MNSV p29 revealed that its specific target is mitochondria. Our data document the extensive reorganization of host mitochondria induced by MNSV, which provides a protected environment to viral replication, and show that the MNSV p29 protein is the primary determinant of this effect in the host. PMID:25372121

  3. Induction of necrosis via mitochondrial targeting of Melon necrotic spot virus replication protein p29 by its second transmembrane domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virulence factor of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), a virus that induces systemic necrotic spot disease on melon plants, was investigated. When the replication protein p29 was expressed in N. benthamiana using a Cucumber mosaic virus vector, necrotic spots appeared on the leaf tissue. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial aggregation in these tissues. Fractionation of tissues expressing p29 and confocal imaging using GFP-tagged p29 revealed that p29 associated with the mitochondrial membrane as an integral membrane protein. Expression analysis of p29 deletion fragments and prediction of hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) in p29 showed that deletion of the second putative TMD from p29 led to deficiencies in both the mitochondrial localization and virulence of p29. Taken together, these results indicated that MNSV p29 interacts with the mitochondrial membrane and that p29 may be a virulence factor causing the observed necrosis.

  4. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  5. Typing of herpes simplex virus isolates with monoclonal antibodies and by nucleic acid spot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, T; Hukkanen, V; Arstila, P; Auvinen, P; Jalava, A; Hyypiä, T

    1985-10-01

    Fifty-one clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were typed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using mouse monoclonal antibodies, by DNA spot hybridization, and by restriction enzyme analysis using restriction endonuclease Eco RI. Extracts of VERO cells infected with the isolates were used for coating microtitre plates or denatured and spotted onto nitrocellulose filters. Viral antigens passively adsorbed to microtitre plates were detected by an indirect EIA using mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for HSV type 1 (HSV-1) or HSV type 2 (HSV-2). Spotted DNA was hybridized with 32P-labeled probes containing Hind III/Sal I-fragments of either HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA and bound radioactivity was detected by autoradiography and counted in a liquid scintillation counter. All the three methods gave identical results for the 51 isolates studied. Twenty-six isolates were identified as HSV-1 and 25 as HSV-2. An additional 30 specimens were tested only by EIA and hybridization. Results by both techniques were in complete agreement. PMID:3001118

  6. Morphology and mechanics of the teeth and jaws of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jason B; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2007-08-01

    The teeth of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) are used to clutch soft-bodied prey and crush hard prey; however, the dual function is not evident from tooth morphology alone. Teeth exhibit characteristics that are in agreement with a clutching-type tooth morphology that is well suited for grasping and holding soft-bodied prey, but not for crushing hard prey. The dual role of this single tooth morphology is facilitated by features of the dental ligament and jaw joint. Tooth attachment is flexible and elastic, allowing movement in both sagittal and frontal planes. During prey capture spike-like tooth cusps pierce the flesh of soft prey, thereby preventing escape. When processing prey harder than the teeth can pierce the teeth passively depress, rotating inward towards the oral cavity such that the broader labial faces of the teeth are nearly parallel to the surface of the jaws and form a crushing surface. Movement into the depressed position increases the tooth surface area contacting prey and decreases the total stress applied to the tooth, thereby decreasing the risk of structural failure. This action is aided by a jaw joint that is ventrally offset from the occlusal planes of the jaws. The offset joint position allows many teeth to contact prey simultaneously and orients force vectors at contact points between the jaws and prey in a manner that shears or rolls prey between the jaws during a bite, thus, aiding in processing while reducing forward slip of hard prey from the mouth. Together the teeth, dental ligament, and jaws form an integrated system that may be beneficial to the feeding ecology of C. plagiosum, allowing for a diet that includes prey of varying hardness and elusiveness. PMID:17458888

  7. A possible influence of the Great White Spot on Saturn kilometric radiation periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G.; Ye, S.-Y.; Groene, J. B.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The periodicity of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) varies with time, and its two periods during the first 5 years of the Cassini mission have been attributed to SKR from the northern and southern hemisphere. After Saturn equinox in August 2009, there were long intervals of time (March 2010 to February 2011 and September 2011 to June 2012) with similar northern and southern SKR periods and locked SKR phases. However, from March to August 2011 the SKR periods were split up again, and the phases were unlocked. In this time interval, the southern SKR period slowed down by ~ 0.5% on average, and there was a large jump back to a faster period in August 2011. The northern SKR period speeded up and coalesced again with the southern period in September 2011. We argue that this unusual behavior could be related to the so-called Great White Spot (GWS), a giant thunderstorm that raged in Saturn's atmosphere around that time. For several months in 2011, the visible head of the GWS had the same period of ~ 10.69 h as the main southern SKR modulation signal. The GWS was most likely a source of intense gravity waves that may have caused a global change in Saturn's thermospheric winds via energy and momentum deposition. This would support the theory that Saturn's magnetospheric periodicities are driven by the upper atmosphere. Since the GWS with simultaneous SKR periodicity measurements have only been made once, it is difficult to prove a physical connection between these two phenomena, but we provide plausible mechanisms by which the GWS might modify the SKR periods.

  8. Evaluation of 'white-spotted kidneys' associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Hajimirzaei, Mohammad R; Gholami Varnamkhast, Mohssen; Sadeghian, Hossein; Oryan, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys) can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3%) showed focal to multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18) and blood (n = 24) samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the LipL32 gene. Leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 19 (79.2%) out of 24 kidneys, as well as 7 (29.2%) blood and 10 (55.5%) urine samples of cows with white spots in their kidneys. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and a few plasma cells in the renal interstitial tissues. In addition, 14 apparently normal kidneys and associated urine and blood samples were similarly examined by PCR but did not provide any positive results. In this study, high detection of leptospirosis in kidneys with interstitial nephritis suggests that Leptospira spp. are associated with white spotted kidneys. The present findings indicate that white spotted kidneys can be due to leptospirosis in this region in southwestern Iran, which indicates an increased risk of zoonotic disease. The data show that LipL32-based primers are useful for PCR-based diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:23327135

  9. The use of SD-OCT in the differential diagnosis of dots, spots and other white retinal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharova E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elena Zaharova1, Jerome Sherman1-31State University of New York's State College of Optometry, University Eye Center, New York, NY, USA; 2SUNY Eye Institute, New York, NY, USA; 3New York Eye Institute and Laser Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To demonstrate the utility of a retinal imaging technique using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT for creating a B-scan layer-by-layer analysis to aid in the differential diagnosis of various retinal dots, spots, and other white lesions.Design: Review.Methods: A retrospective review of imaging studies performed with SD-OCT (Topcon, 3DOCT-2000, Oakland, NJ at SUNY State College of Optometry.Results: B-scan layer-by-layer analysis and unique SD-OCT reflectivity patterns of the following retinal white lesions are reviewed in the order of their retinal layer localization: myelinated nerve fiber layer, cotton wool spot, exudates, edema residues, drusen, fundus albipunctatus, Stargardt disease, Bietti crystalline dystrophy, punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC, presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS, post-photocoagulation chorioretinal scarring, and osseous choristoma.Conclusion: The reviewed images demonstrate the utility of SD-OCT in the identification of the unique characteristics of the presented retinal pathologies. SD-OCT is ideal for retinal layer localization of lesions, thus enhancing the differential diagnosis of retinal dots, spots, and other white lesions. Even though true pathognomonic patterns are rare, highly suggestive findings of certain retinal abnormalities often facilitate immediate recognition and diagnosis.Keywords: SD-OCT, photoreceptor integrity line, retinal pigment epithelium, white dot syndrome, retinal pathology, imaging

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis and Differentially Expressed Proteins in Response to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Badillo-vargas, I. E.; Rotenberg, D.; Schneweis, D. J.; Hiromasa, Y.; Tomich, J. M.; Whitfield, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a persistent propagative manner. Despite the extensive replication of TSWV in midgut and salivary glands, there is little to no pathogenic effect on F. occidentalis. We hypothesize that the first-instar larva (L1) of F. occidentalis mounts a response to TSWV that protects it from pathogenic effects caused by virus infection and replication in various insect tissues. A partial thrips transcriptome was generated us...

  11. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ?50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the development of CLs.

  12. Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de

    2012-01-01

    Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound beta-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought.

  13. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerl...

  14. Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuman, O; Kuo, Y-W; Palmieri, M; Rojas, M R; Gilbertson, R L

    2010-06-01

    Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as "mancha de chocolate" (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissue to Nicotiana benthamiana and, when graft-transmitted to tomato, this agent induced chocolate spot symptoms. This virus-like agent also was sap-transmitted to Datura stramonium and Nicotiana glutinosa, but not to a range of non-solanaceous indicator plants. Icosahedral virions approximately 28-30 nm in diameter were purified from symptomatic N. benthamiana plants. When rub-inoculated onto leaves of N. benthamiana plants, these virions induced symptoms indistinguishable from those in N. benthamiana plants infected with the sap-transmissible virus associated with chocolate spot disease. Tomatoes inoculated with sap or grafted with shoots from N. benthamiana plants infected with purified virions developed typical chocolate spot symptoms, consistent with this virus being the causal agent of the disease. Analysis of nucleic acids associated with purified virions of the chocolate-spot-associated virus, revealed a genome composed of two single-stranded RNAs of approximately 7.5 and approximately 5.1 kb. Sequence analysis of these RNAs revealed a genome organization similar to recently described torradoviruses, a new group of picorna-like viruses causing necrosis-associated diseases of tomatoes in Europe [tomato torrado virus (ToTV)] and Mexico [tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) and tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV)]. Thus, the approximately 7.5 kb and approximately 5.1 kb RNAs of the chocolate-spot-associated virus corresponded to the torradovirus RNA1 and RNA2, respectively; however, sequence comparisons revealed 64-83% identities with RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of ToTV, ToANV and ToMarV. Together, these results indicate that the chocolate-spot-associated virus is a member of a distinct torradovirus species and, thus, another member of the recently established genus Torradovirus in the family Secoviridae. The name tomato chocolate spot virus is proposed. PMID:20376682

  15. Differences in organotin accumulation in relation to life history in the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Otolith Sr:Ca ratios in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. ? TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. ? Sea-run type have higher risk of TBT and TPT than freshwater-residents in white-spotted charr. - Abstract: To examine the accumulation pattern of organotins (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate migration type. Mean Sr:Ca ratio from the core to the edge of the otolith in sea-run individuals was significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident one. There were no significant correlations in S. leucomaenis between OT accumulation and various biological characteristics. It is noteworthy that TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are both of the same species. These results suggest that sea-run S. leucomaenis have a higher ecological risk of OT exposure than freshwater-residents during their life histories.

  16. Detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Giovanna; Roggero, Piero; Tavella, Luciana

    2003-04-01

    A method for rapid and reliable detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera Thripidae) would be a useful tool for studying the epidemiology of this virus. A RT-PCR method developed for this purpose is reported. The method was tested on thrips involved in laboratory transmission trials and on thrips collected in the field, whose capability to transmit TSWV was checked previously by leaf disk assays. The RT-PCR results were consistent with the results obtained by the leaf disk assays. Among thrips involved in laboratory experiments, 97% of the adults that transmitted TSWV were positive by RT-PCR; as did some non-transmitter adults reacted, whereas among field-collected thrips only the individuals able to transmit were positive by RT-PCR. In addition, healthy thrips were allowed to feed as adults on virus-infected leaves for 48 h, and then examined by RT-PCR immediately or after starving or feeding on virus-free plants for various times, to determine if virus ingested (but not transmissible) was also detectable. The virus was detectable immediately after the feed or within 12 and 24 h for individuals starved or fed on virus-free plants, respectively, but not after those periods. Thus, the method could detect rapidly and reliably the virus in vectors from the field, providing 24 h of starving to avoid positive RT-PCR results from thrips simply carrying the virus. PMID:12668270

  17. Proteomic analysis of Frankliniella occidentalis and differentially expressed proteins in response to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Vargas, I E; Rotenberg, D; Schneweis, D J; Hiromasa, Y; Tomich, J M; Whitfield, A E

    2012-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a persistent propagative manner. Despite the extensive replication of TSWV in midgut and salivary glands, there is little to no pathogenic effect on F. occidentalis. We hypothesize that the first-instar larva (L1) of F. occidentalis mounts a response to TSWV that protects it from pathogenic effects caused by virus infection and replication in various insect tissues. A partial thrips transcriptome was generated using 454-Titanium sequencing of cDNA generated from F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV. Using these sequences, the L1 thrips proteome that resolved on a two-dimensional gel was characterized. Forty-seven percent of the resolved protein spots were identified using the thrips transcriptome. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of virus titer in L1 thrips revealed a significant increase in the normalized abundance of TSWV nucleocapsid RNA from 2 to 21 h after a 3-h acquisition access period on virus-infected plant tissue, indicative of infection and accumulation of virus. We compared the proteomes of infected and noninfected L1s to identify proteins that display differential abundances in response to virus. Using four biological replicates, 26 spots containing 37 proteins were significantly altered in response to TSWV. Gene ontology assignments for 32 of these proteins revealed biological roles associated with the infection cycle of other plant- and animal-infecting viruses and antiviral defense responses. Our findings support the hypothesis that L1 thrips display a complex reaction to TSWV infection and provide new insights toward unraveling the molecular basis of this interaction. PMID:22696645

  18. Viruses of the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Kanematsu, Satoko; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Rosellinia necatrix is a filamentous ascomycete that is pathogenic to a wide range of perennial plants worldwide. An extensive search for double-stranded RNA of a large collection of field isolates led to the detection of a variety of viruses. Since the first identification of a reovirus in this fungus in 2002, several novel viruses have been molecularly characterized that include members of at least five virus families. While some cause phenotypic alterations, many others show latent infections. Viruses attenuating the virulence of a host fungus to its plant hosts attract much attention as agents for virocontrol (biological control using viruses) of the fungus, one of which is currently being tested in experimental fields. Like the Cryphonectria parasitica/viruses, the R. necatrix/viruses have emerged as an amenable system for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. Several techniques have recently been developed that enhance the investigation of virus etiology, replication, and symptom induction in this mycovirus/fungal host system. PMID:23498907

  19. Identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to TSWV and leaf spots through genetic mapping and selction of high oleic cultivars with high resistance to TSWV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, and southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii). In peanut production areas in the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt viru...

  20. Evaluation of dried blood spots for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Amanda; Jennings, Cheryl; Bennett, Diane; Fitzgibbon, Joseph; Bremer, James W; Ussery, Michael; Kalish, Marcia L; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2007-02-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are simpler to prepare, store, and transport than plasma or serum and may represent a good alternative for drug resistance genotyping, particularly in resource-limited settings. However, the utility of DBS for drug resistance testing is unknown. We investigated the efficiency of amplification of large human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol fragments (1,023 bp) from DBS stored at different temperatures, the type of amplified product(s) (RNA and/or DNA), and the similarity between plasma and DBS sequences. We evaluated two matched plasma/DBS panels stored for 5 to 6 years at several temperatures and 40 plasma/DBS specimens collected from untreated persons in Cameroon and stored for 2 to 3 years at -20 degrees C. The amplification of HIV-1 pol was done using an in-house reverse transcriptase-nested PCR assay. Reactions were done with and without reverse transcription to evaluate the contribution of HIV DNA to pol sequences from DBS. Amplification was successful for the DBS samples stored for 5 to 6 years at -20 degrees C or at -70 degrees C but not for those stored at room temperature. Thirty-seven of the 40 (92.5%) DBS from Cameroon were amplifiable, including 8/11 (72.7%) with plasma virus loads of 10,000. Proviral DNA contributed significantly to DBS sequences in 24 of the 37 (65%) specimens from Cameroon. The overall similarity between plasma and DBS sequences was 98.1%. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of DBS for drug resistance testing and indicate that -20 degrees C is a suitable temperature for long-term storage of DBS. The amplification of proviral DNA from DBS highlights the need for a wider evaluation of the concordance of resistance genotypes between plasma and DBS. PMID:17166967

  1. Stability of dried blood spot specimens for detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassol, S.; Salas, T.; Gill, M. J.; Montpetit, M.; Rudnik, J.; Sy, C. T.; O Shaughnessy, M. V.

    1992-01-01

    Blood sampling on filter paper has many advantages for the detection of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, if the method is to be widely used, an assessment of its performance under field conditions is required. To simulate conditions in the field, 50-microliters aliquots of whole blood containing low levels of HIV proviral DNA (4 to 1,024 copies per 100,000 nucleated cells) were spotted onto filter paper; dried; and subject...

  2. HEPATITIS B VIRUS DNA CAN BE AMPLIFIED DIRECTLY FROM DRIED BLOOD SPOT ON FILTER PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infections represent a major public health problem because of the ability of HBV to cause a chronic carrier state. Even though chronic carriers remain largely asymptomatic, a large number of these individuals subsequently develop cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinomas. Dried Blood Spot (DBS samples are a simple and inexpensive sampling method, especially useful for blood collection in resource poor settings with limited access to diagnostic facilities. The main advantage of DBS samples over routine blood samples is that only a small quantity of blood, is required. They are easy to obtain, stable and can be transported to a reference laboratory at minimal cost. This study was to evaluate the feasibility of DBS samples for direct amplification of HBV DNA bypassing nucleic acid extraction. Results obtained from DBS samples were compared from those from plasma by routine molecular technique and also with those from whole blood. On the whole results for DBS, whole blood and plasma samples for HBV-DNA semi quantitative PCR monitoring, demonstrated very good agreement. This study also represents the first report in Egypt to evaluate the use of DBS to direct amplification of HBV-DNA and concluded that the use of DBS for direct amplification of HBV DNA without nucleic acid extraction was reliable, specific, sensitive, cheap and appropriate method to monitor the HBV infected patients."

  3. Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

    2010-08-01

    In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants. PMID:20626283

  4. Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Fernanda Santos, PAIVA; Tatiana Kelly da Silva, FIDALGO; Lucianne Cople, MAIA.

    2014-08-29

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek™ Z250 – control group) and glass-i [...] onomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R™ and Fuji IX™ - experimental groups). Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15) or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15). After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p 0.05) versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p

  5. Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; Deyoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BV...

  6. Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome After Vaccination for Human Papilloma Virus and Meningococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven M

    2009-06-25

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome is a rare chorioretinopathy causing transitory vision loss, usually in females and generally in one eye. In 2007, widespread vaccination of older children against human papilloma virus and meningococcus was recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A 17-year-old girl presented with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome 1 month after receiving these two vaccinations. PMID:19645392

  7. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection in childhood: clinical patterns and evolution in 224 white children

    OpenAIRE

    Barbera, Cristiana

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics and evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were retrospectively investigated in a study of 224 HCV RNA-seropositive white children who were consecutively recruited at 7 European centers in 1980-1998. At presentation, all patients were positive for antibodies to hepatitis C virus, 87% were asymptomatic, and 48% had alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels that were < or =2 times the upper limit of the range considered to be normal. Of 200 children followed for 1-17.5 y...

  8. Immune responses of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, against virus-like particles of betanodavirus produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Xiong; Jin, Bao-Lei; Xu, Yu; Huang, Li-Jie; Huang, Run-Qing; Zhang, Yong; Kwang, Jimmy; He, Jian-Guo; Xie, Jun-Feng

    2014-01-15

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However, little is known about the activation of genes responsible for cellular and innate immunity by vaccines. In the present study, VLPs of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) were produced in prokaryotes and their ability to enter Asian sea bass cells was the same as native virus, suggesting that they possess a similar structure to OGNNV. VLPs immunogenicity was then determined by intramuscularly vaccinating Epinephelus coioides at different concentrations (1.5 or 15 ?g g(-1) fish body weight, FBW) and immunizing frequencies (administration once, twice and thrice). A single vaccination with the dosage of 1.5 ?g g(-1) FBW is enough to provoke high titer antibodies (average 3 fold higher than that of negative control) with strong neutralizing antibody titer as early as 1 week post immunization. Furthermore, quantitative PCR analysis revealed that eleven genes associated with humoral, cellular and innate immunities were up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney at 12h post immunization, correlating with the early antibody response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VLP vaccination induced humoral immune responses and activated genes associated with cellular and innate immunity against betanodavirus infection in orange-spotted grouper. PMID:24252246

  9. Caracterização do Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolado de jiló no Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo Characterization of a Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolated from gilo in Paraíba Valley, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO EIRAS

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os tospovírus são responsáveis por perdas significativas em diversas culturas, principalmente solanáceas. No município de São José dos Campos (SP, plantas de jiló (Solanum gilo apresentando sintomas de mosaico, bolhosidades, nanismo e queda acentuada da produção foram coletadas para análise. Visando a caracterização do agente causador dos sintomas, testes biológicos, elétrono microscópicos, sorológicos e moleculares foram realizados. Através de inoculação mecânica em plantas indicadoras das famílias Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae e Solanaceae obtiveram-se resultados típicos aos esperados para tospovírus. Ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, observaram-se, em contrastação negativa, partículas pleomórficas com diâmetro entre 80 e 110 nm e em cortes ultra-finos partículas presentes em vesículas do retículo endoplasmático. Através de DAS-ELISA, identificou-se o Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. A partir de RNA total extraído de folhas infetadas, amplificaram-se, via RT-PCR, fragmentos correspondentes ao gene da proteína do capsídeo (cp os quais foram seqüenciados e comparados com outros depositados no "GenBank". A homologia de nucleotídeos e aminoácidos deduzidos foi respectivamente de 99 e 95% quando comparada com seqüências de isolados de TCSV. A comparação com as outras espécies do gênero Tospovirus apresentou valores de homologia entre 72 e 84%. Estes resultados confirmam a identidade deste vírus como pertencente à espécie TCSV, que é predominante no Estado de São Paulo e importante patógeno de outras plantas cultivadas. Além disso, variedades de jiló quando inoculadas foram susceptíveis tanto ao TCSV como às espécies Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV e Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV.Tospoviruses are responsible for important losses in most crops, mainly Solanaceae. Gilo (Solanum gilo plants showing mosaic, blistering, stunting and 100% production losses were collected for analysis from São José dos Campos in the State of São Paulo. Biological, electron microscopy, serological and molecular tests were carried out in order to characterize the virus isolate. The mechanical inoculation on Amaranthaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae plants showed typical tospovirus-induced symptoms. Pleomorphic particles from 80 to 110 nm were observed in negatively stained preparations and in vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV was identified by DAS-ELISA. DNA fragments were amplified by RT-PCR, with specific primers designed to the nucleocapsid gene (N of the main Tospovirus species, sequenced and compared with others in the GenBank. The nucleotide and amino acid deduced sequences homology was 99 and 95%, respectively, with TCSV. Comparison with other Tospovirus species presented values between 74 and 81%. These results confirmed the identity of this virus isolate as TCSV, the main tospovirus species in São Paulo that also damages other Solanaceous crops. Varieties of gilo have been inoculated showing susceptibility to TCSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV and Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV.

  10. Complete sequence of a viral nervous necrosis virus (NNV) isolated from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Teng, Yong; Zheng, Xiaocong; Wu, Yurong; Xie, Xiayang; He, Junqiang; Ye, Yiyou; Wu, Zhixin

    2012-04-01

    A nodavirus isolated from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) larvae in China has been subjected to genome analysis. The full-length genome sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 were determined, and the 5'-non-coding region (NCR) and 3'NCR sequences were determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and 3'RACE. RNA1 is 3,103 nt in length and contains a 982-amino-acid open reading frame (ORF) encoding protein A with a calculated molecular mass of 110.74 kDa. RNA2 is 1,433 nt long and contains a 338-amino-acid major ORF encoding coat protein with a calculated molecular mass of 37.059 kDa. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis clearly supported including this virus in the species Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, genus Betanodavirus, family Nodaviridae. PMID:22270757

  11. Peanut EST Genomics Project: Identification and characterization of molecular marker(s) associated with resistance to TSWV and white mold in peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, and southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii). In peanut production areas in the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt viru...

  12. Characterization and genetic mapping of disease resistance genes to TSWV and white mold and development of molecular markers for breeding selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut is vulnerable to a range of diseases, such as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, and southern stem rot/white mold (Sclerotium rolfsii). In peanut production areas in the southeastern U.S., tomato spotted wilt viru...

  13. A novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting vegetables in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was recently identified using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida, which extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome s...

  14. Transient asymptomatic white matter lesions following Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo Young Jang; Kye Hyang Lee

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis who developed abnormal white matter lesions during the chronic phases of the infection. A 2-year-old-boy was admitted for a 2 day history of decreased activity with ataxic gait. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable except for generalized lethargy and enlarged tonsils with exudates. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at admission showed multiple high signal intensities in both basal ganglia and...

  15. Onions showing reduced damage by thrips and iris yellow spot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of a USDA SCRI project were to understand better the epidemiology of the virus and to identify onion populations that suffer less damage under severe pressure from thrips and IYSV. Research demonstrated that North American isolates of IYSV were not all identical, indicating that the virus ...

  16. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Liam J

    2012-02-03

    The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

  17. Postsynaptic Alpha 2-Adrenoceptors Mediate Melanosome Aggregation in Melanophores of the White-Spotted Rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Amiri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature of neuro-melanophore junction in the white-spotted rabbit fish Siganus cancliculatus. In vitro experiments using split fin preparation indicated that melanophores of S. cancliculatus are highly responsive to potassium ions and adrenergic agonists. Potassium ions and the adrenergic agonists induced prompt melanosome aggregation that could be competitively blocked by yohimbine (alpha-2 specific adrenergic antagonist and phentolamine (non-specific alpha adrenergic antagonist. The melanophore responses to repeated potassium stimulation (up to 20 stimuli did not show any sign of fatigue. However, statistically significant enhancement was observed in responses to potassium that followed the first five stimulations. Adrenergic agonists acted in a time and concentration-dependent manner and their relative potency had the following rank order: clonidine (alpha-2 specific agonist > norepinephrine (non-specific adrenergic agonist > phenylephrine (alpha-1 specific agonist > methoxamine (alpha-1-specific agonist. Yohimbine exerted a more potent inhibiting effect on norepinephrine induced melanosome aggregation compared to phentolamine. Prazosine (alpha-1 specific antagonist had no effect on such aggregation. Chemically denervated melanophores displayed hypersensitivity to alpha-adrenergic agonists but were refractive to potassium ion stimulation. The refractivity of denervated melanophores to potassium indicates the effect of potassium ion is not direct on melanophores but it is rather through depolarization effect of potassium on the neuro-melanophore peripheral sympathetic fibers and hence release of norepinephrine. In denervated melanophores, similar to intact melanophores, only phentolamine and yohimbine but not prazosine, significantly inhibited melanosome aggregation effect of norepinephrine, indicating that norepinephrine effect is through postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The present data demonstrate that the nature of melanophore innervation in this teleost is adrenergic and neuro-melanophore signals mediating melanosome aggregation are transmitted through alpha-2 postsynaptic adrenoceptors.

  18. Postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors mediate melanosome aggregation in melanophores of the white-spotted rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, M H

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature of neuro-melanophore junction in the white-spotted rabbit fish Siganus canaliculatus. In vitro experiments using split fin preparation indicated that melanophores of S. canaliculatus are highly responsive to potassium ions and adrenergic agonists. Potassium ions and the adrenergic agonists induced prompt melanosome aggregation that could be competitively blocked by yohimbine (alpha-2 specific adrenergic antagonist) and phentolamine (non-specific alpha adrenergic antagonist). The melanophore responses to repeated potassium stimulation (up to 20 stimuli) did not show any sign of fatigue. However, statistically significant enhancement was observed in responses to potassium that followed the first five stimulations. Adrenergic agonists acted in a time and concentration-dependent manner and their relative potency had the following rank order: clonidine (alpha-2 specific agonist) > norepinephrine (non-specific adrenergic agonist) > phenylephrine (alpha-1 specific agonist) > methoxamine (alpha-1-specific agonist). Yohimbine exerted a more potent inhibiting effect on norepinephrine induced melanosome aggregation compared to phentolamine. Prazosine (alpha-1 specific antagonist) had no effect on such aggregation. Chemically denervated melanophores displayed hypersensitivity to alpha-adrenergic agonists but were refractive to potassium ion stimulation. The refractivity of denervated melanophores to potassium indicates the effect of potassium ion is not direct on melanophores but it is rather through depolarization effect of potassium on the neuro-melanophore peripheral sympathetic fibers and hence release of norepinephrine. In denervated melanophores, similar to intact melanophores, only phentolamine and yohimbine but not prazosine, significantly inhibited melanosome aggregation effect of norepinephrine, indicating that norepinephrine effect is through postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The present data demonstrate that the nature of melanophore innervation in this teleost is adrenergic and neuro-melanophore signals mediating melanosome aggregation are transmitted through alpha-2 postsynaptic adrenoceptors. PMID:19579911

  19. White spot syndrome virus Manipulates Ubiquitin Gene Expression in Penaeus monodon

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya, R.; Gireesh-babu, P.; Pani Prasad, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of WSSV on the expression profiles of shrimp ubiquitin gene both at protein and transcript levels at different time points after infection. A gradual decrease in ubiquitin protein levels was observed till 12 hpi (0.25 and 0.23 ?g/mg of the total protein in gills and muscle, respectively) with a sudden increase at 18 hpi (1.86 and 1.8 ?g/mg of total protein in gills and muscle, respectively). The RT-PCR results showed a gradual decrease in ubiquitin m...

  20. Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijn, D; Munster, V J; Ebbinge, B S; Jonkers, D A; Müskens, G J D M; Van Randen, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2010-07-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture-resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture in The Netherlands in four consecutive winters. We ask what factors are related to AI virus prevalence and whether there are ecological consequences associated with AI virus infection in staging white-fronted geese. Mean seasonal (low pathogenic) AI virus prevalence ranged between 2.5 and 10.7 per cent, among the highest reported values for non-duck species, and occurred in distinct peaks with near-zero prevalence before and after. Throat samples had a 2.4 times higher detection frequency than cloacal samples. AI virus infection was significantly related to age and body mass in some but not other winters. AI virus infection was not related to resighting probability, nor to maximum distance travelled, which was at least 191 km during the short infectious lifespan of an AI virus. Our results suggest that transmission via the respiratory route could be an important transmission route of AI virus in this species. Near-zero prevalence upon arrival on their wintering grounds, in combination with the epidemic nature of AI virus infections in white-fronted geese, suggests that white-fronted geese are not likely to disperse Asian AI viruses from their Siberian breeding grounds to their European wintering areas. PMID:20200028

  1. Ingestion, retention, and transmission of two strains of raspberry ring-spot virus by Longidorus macrosoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgill, D L; Brown, D J

    1978-01-01

    The transmission of two strains of raspberry ringspot virus (RRV) by small numbers of nematodes was compared. A strain of RRV from Scotland (RRV-S), originally found in the field associated with Longidorus elongatus, was transmitted frequently by L. elongatus but only once by L. macrosoma. A strain from England (RRV-E) associated with L. macrosoma in the field was transmitted infrequently by each species of nematode. The reasons why L. macrosoma infected only a small proportion of bait plants with virus were investigated, and it was found that most of the nematodes tested had fed on the source plants and many had ingested virus. Most nematodes exposed to RRV-E or RRV-S had fed on the roots of the bait plants and, when thin sections were examined by electron microscope, had retained particles (thought to be those of the virus) in the region of the anterior odontostyle, Thus, most nematodes seem to have had ample opportunity to transmit virus, and the low frequency of transmission may have been due to a failure of the virus particles to be released from the site of retention or to a lack of infectivity of the virus when L. macrosoma was the vector and Petunia hybrida was the host. PMID:19305817

  2. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N

    2014-04-16

    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3)  copy ?g(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock. PMID:24735185

  3. Ground-based observations of the long-term evolution and death of Saturn's 2010 Great White Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Delcroix, Marc; Legarreta, Jon J.; Gómez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Hueso, Ricardo; García-Melendo, Enrique; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Barrado-Navascués, David; Lillo, Jorge; International Outer Planet Watch Team IOPW-PVOL

    2012-08-01

    We report on the long-term evolution of Saturn's sixth Great White Spot (GWS) event that initiated at northern mid-latitudes of the planet on December 5th, 2010 (Fletcher, L. et al. [2011]. Science 332, 1413-1417; Sánchez-Lavega, A. et al. [2011]. Nature 475, 71-74; Fischer, G. et al. [2011]. Nature 475, 75-77). We find from ground-based observations that the GWS formed a planetary-scale disturbance that encircled the planet in 50 days, covering the latitude band between 24.6° and 44.8°N (planetographic) or about 22,000 km in meridional extent and 280,000 km in full zonal circumference length. The head of the GWS was located at an averaged latitude of 40.8 ± 1°N in the peak of a westward jet and showed a mean linear drift in System III longitude of 2.793 deg/day, equivalent to a mean zonal velocity of u = -27.9 m s-1, with maximum speed fluctuations around this mean of -5.3 to +2.7 m s-1. The difference between the undisturbed jet peak velocity and the GWS head was ?u = -12 m s-1. Assuming the GWS has a deep origin at the water cloud a vertical extent of ?z ˜ 250 km is expected and we can derive a vertical shear of the zonal winds ?u/?z ˜ 5 × 10-5 s-1. The cloud morphology of the disturbance was sculpted by the winds at this latitude and their latitudinal shears, showing several distinct features: (1) A long-lived Dark Spot (DS, anticyclone vortex) placed at 41.5 ± 1.1°N with a speed u = -11.0 ± 0.1 m s-1 and a size of 7800 km (East-West) per 6000 km (North-South). (2) Two branches of zonally periodic features at both sides of the jet peak, a northern branch at 44.4°N (anticyclonic) and a southern branch at 32°N (cyclonic), with wavelengths in the range ˜ 5000-14,000 km. Precise long-term cloud tracking of disturbance features shows that they moved with speeds close to those of the prevailing winds, although differences up to ˜-45 m s-1 were measured, probably due to wave motion or to real wind changes produced by momentum transfers induced by the disturbance. Vortex DS and the GWS head encountered between the 15th and 19th of June 2011, disappearing within the resolution of our images. We present and discuss two simple hypothesis to explain the nature of this phenomenon. Taking into account our results together with previous historical events, we summarize the mysteries of GWS phenomena: seasonal forcing, occurrence at preferred latitudes only in the Northern hemisphere, no relation of the outbreaks with the wind profile structure and the existence of a continuous deep moist convection source to feed the disturbance.

  4. Pink spot, white spot: the pineal skylight of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) skull and its possible role in the phenology of feeding migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, which have an irregular pink area on the crown of the head known as the pineal or ‘pink spot’, forage upon jellyfish in cool temperate waters along the western and eastern margins of the North Atlantic during the summer. Our study showed that the skeletal structures underlying the pink spot in juvenile and adult turtles are compatible with the idea of a pineal dosimeter function that would support recognition of environmental light stimuli. We interrogated an extensive turtle sightings database to elucidate the phenology of leatherback foraging during summer months around Great Britain and Ireland and compared the sightings with historical data for sea surface temperatures and day lengths to assess whether sea surface temperature or light periodicity/levels were likely abiotic triggers prompting foraging turtles to turn south and leave their feeding grounds at the end of the summer. We found that sea temperature was too variable and slow changing in the study area to be useful as a trigger and suggest that shortening of day lengths as the late summer equilux is approached provides a credible phenological cue, acting via the pineal, for leatherbacks to leave their foraging areas whether they are feeding close to Nova Scotia or Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Transient asymptomatic white matter lesions following Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Young Jang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encephalitis who developed abnormal white matter lesions during the chronic phases of the infection. A 2-year-old-boy was admitted for a 2 day history of decreased activity with ataxic gait. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable except for generalized lethargy and enlarged tonsils with exudates. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at admission showed multiple high signal intensities in both basal ganglia and thalami. The result of EBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the cerebral spinal fluid was positive, and a serological test showed acute EBV infection. The patient was diagnosed with EBV encephalitis and recovered fully without any residual neurologic complications. Subsequently, follow-up MRI at 5 weeks revealed extensive periventricular white matter lesions. Since the patient remained clinically stable and asymptomatic during the follow-up period, no additional studies were performed and no additional treatments were provided. At the 1-year follow-up, cranial MRI showed complete disappearance of the abnormal high signal intensities previously seen in the white matter. The patient continued to remain healthy with no focal neurologic deficits on examination. This is the first case of asymptomatic self-limited white matter lesions seen in serial MRI studies in a Korean boy with EBV encephalitis.

  6. Identification of a Genotype IX Newcastle Disease Virus in a Guangxi White Duck

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Xu, Zongli; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    We report the complete genomic sequence of a novel Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, duck/China/Guangxi19/2011, isolated from a white duck in Guangxi Province, southern China. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fusion gene comparison with different NDV strains revealed that duck/China/Guangxi19/2011 is phylogenetically close to genotype IX NDV, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion protein cleavage site was 112R-R-Q-R-R-F117. The whole nucleotide sequence had the highest homolog...

  7. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in dried blood spots by a duplex real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Yang, Hua; Rathbun, Kimberly; Pau, Chou-Pong; Ou, Chin-Yih

    2005-04-01

    A dried blood spot (DBS) is a well-accepted means for the collection, transport, and storage of blood samples for various epidemiologic, serologic, and molecular assays for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) studies. It is particularly important for mother-to-infant-transmission studies of affected individuals living in remote areas. We have developed a real-time PCR method to detect HIV type 1 (HIV-1) DNA in dried blood spots. A cellular gene, RNase P, was coamplified with the HIV-1 DNA in the same tube to monitor the DNA extraction efficiency and the overall assay performance. Our assay is a one-tube, single-step closed-system assay and uses a dUTP/uracil DNA glycosidase anti-PCR contamination control. The HIV-1 primers and probe were derived from a conserved region of the long terminal repeat. The detection of RNase P is attenuated by lowering the forward and reverse primer concentrations so that its amplification will not overwhelm the HIV-1 amplification and yet will provide a semiquantitative measurement of the quality of the isolated DBS DNA. We examined 103 HIV-1-seropositive and 56 seronegative U.S. adults and found that our assay has a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.5% to 100%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99% to 100%). The positive and negative predictive values are 100% and 96.6%, respectively. This duplex PCR assay may be useful in identifying HIV-1-infected persons, particularly infants born to seropositive mothers in remote areas of the world. PMID:15815008

  8. Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius B. Philip

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. - As seguintes especies de Triatomideos não puderam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas a cobayas normaes, nos seguintes prazos após a sucção de animal infectado: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75 e 141 dias (1 exemplar; Triatoma protracta, 15 e 37 dias (1 exemplar, Triatoma infestans, 8 dias (15 exemplares, e Rhodnius prolixus, 2 dias (1 exemplar. Foi demonstrado por inoculaçao que o ultimo insecto ainda continha o virus vivo. 2. - Experiencias de transmissão mechanica, por picada interrompida em animal infectado e continuada immediatamente em animal são, foram tambem negativas, com as especies T. protracta e R. prolixus. Um unico insecto da primeira especie picou 2 vezes cada animal, emquanto que 22 exemplares da segunda especie picaram de 1 a 3 vezes cada cobaya. 3. - A inoculação de gottas de dejecções de um R. prolixus eliminadas 2 dias depois de sugar animal infectado, não produziu a infecção em cobaya normal, não obstante ter sido demonstrada a presença do virus no organismo do barbeiro, por inoculação do conteúdo estomacal em outra cobaya. 4. - Foram feitas experiencias para determinar o tempo de sobrevivencia do virus nos barbeiros, inoculando-se conteúdo intestinal a diversos intervallos depois da sucção de cobayas infectadas, com os seguintes resultados: T. infestans: positivo 1 vez em 24 horas e 2 vezes em 48 horas; negativo 2 vezes em 72. 96, 120 e 192 horas. P. megistus: positivo 3 vezes em 24 horas, 2 vezes em 48 horas e 1 vez em 72 horas; negativo 1 vez em 72 e 96 horas; resultado duvidoso ou sem valor (infecção intercorrente 1 vez em 48 horas e 2 vezes a 72, 96 e 144 horas cada um. R. prolixus: positivo 1 vez em 24, 48 e 72 horas e negativo em 96 horas. 5. - Em vista dos resultados destas experiencias, feitas com 5 especies pertecentes a 4 generos de Triatomideos, torna-se muito pouco provavel que estes Hemipteros possam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias.1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug; Triatoma protracta, 15 and 37 days (one bug; T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs; and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug. The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

  9. Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos / Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cornelius B., Philip; Emmanuel, Dias.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese 1. - As seguintes especies de Triatomideos não puderam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas a cobayas normaes, nos seguintes prazos após a sucção de animal infectado: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75 e 141 dias (1 exemplar); Triatoma protracta, 15 e 37 dias (1 exempla [...] r), Triatoma infestans, 8 dias (15 exemplares), e Rhodnius prolixus, 2 dias (1 exemplar). Foi demonstrado por inoculaçao que o ultimo insecto ainda continha o virus vivo. 2. - Experiencias de transmissão mechanica, por picada interrompida em animal infectado e continuada immediatamente em animal são, foram tambem negativas, com as especies T. protracta e R. prolixus. Um unico insecto da primeira especie picou 2 vezes cada animal, emquanto que 22 exemplares da segunda especie picaram de 1 a 3 vezes cada cobaya. 3. - A inoculação de gottas de dejecções de um R. prolixus eliminadas 2 dias depois de sugar animal infectado, não produziu a infecção em cobaya normal, não obstante ter sido demonstrada a presença do virus no organismo do barbeiro, por inoculação do conteúdo estomacal em outra cobaya. 4. - Foram feitas experiencias para determinar o tempo de sobrevivencia do virus nos barbeiros, inoculando-se conteúdo intestinal a diversos intervallos depois da sucção de cobayas infectadas, com os seguintes resultados: T. infestans: positivo 1 vez em 24 horas e 2 vezes em 48 horas; negativo 2 vezes em 72. 96, 120 e 192 horas. P. megistus: positivo 3 vezes em 24 horas, 2 vezes em 48 horas e 1 vez em 72 horas; negativo 1 vez em 72 e 96 horas; resultado duvidoso ou sem valor (infecção intercorrente) 1 vez em 48 horas e 2 vezes a 72, 96 e 144 horas cada um. R. prolixus: positivo 1 vez em 24, 48 e 72 horas e negativo em 96 horas. 5. - Em vista dos resultados destas experiencias, feitas com 5 especies pertecentes a 4 generos de Triatomideos, torna-se muito pouco provavel que estes Hemipteros possam transmitir pela picada o virus da febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias. Abstract in english 1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug); Triatoma protracta, [...] 15 and 37 days (one bug); T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs); and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug). The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test) feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

  10. Nucleotide sequences of a Korean isolate of apple stem grooving virus associated with black necrotic leaf spot disease on pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyekyung; Min, Yeonju; Hong, Sungyoul; Kwon, Moonsik; Kim, Daehyun; Kim, Hyunran; Choi, Yongmoon; Lee, Sukchan; Yang, Jaemyung

    2004-10-31

    Pear black necrotic leaf spot (PBNLS) is a disease of pears caused by capillovirus-like particles, which can be observed under the electron microscope. The disease was analyzed by Western blot analysis with antisera raised against apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) coat protein. cDNAs covering the entire genome were synthesized by RT-PCR and RACE using RNA isolated from Chenopodium quinoa infected with sap extracted from pear leaves carrying black necrotic spot disease. The complete genome sequence of the putative pear virus, 6497 nucleotides in length excluding the poly (A) tail, was determined and analyzed. It contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1, spans from nucleotide position 37 to 6354, producing a putative protein of 241 kDa. ORF2, which is in a different reading frame within ORF1, begins at nucleotide 4788 and terminates at 5750, and produces a putative protein of 36 kDa. The 241 kDa protein contains sequences related to the NTP-binding motifs of helicases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The 36-kDa protein contains the consensus sequence GDSG found in the active sites of several cellular and viral serine proteases. Morphological and serological analysis, and sequence comparison between the putative pear virus, ASGV, citrus tatter leaf virus and cherry virus A of the capillovirus suggest that PBNLS may be caused by a Korean isolate of ASGV. PMID:15528995

  11. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  12. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence

    OpenAIRE

    Westmore, G. C.; Poke, F. S.; Allen, G. R.; Wilson, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytoch...

  13. Development and Validation of an Immunoassay for Identification of Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections and Its Use on Dried Serum Spots

    OpenAIRE

    Barin, Francis; Meyer, Laurence; Lancar, Re?mi; Deveau, Christiane; Gharib, Myriam; Laporte, Anne; Desenclos, Jean-claude; Costagliola, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to develop and to validate an immunossay to identify recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections that can be used on dried serum spots (DSS). A single, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to quantify antibodies toward four HIV-1 antigens: consensus peptides of the immunodominant epitope of gp41 (IDE), consensus V3 peptides, recombinant integrase, and recombinant p24. The parameters of the logistic regression used to classify the samples...

  14. Parâmetros de cultivo e a enfermidade da mancha-branca em fazendas de camarões de Santa Catarina Cultivation parameters and the white spot disease in shrimp farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Winckler da Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre parâmetros físico-químicos e biológicos do cultivo de camarão com a enfermidade causada pelo vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade, as características físicas e químicas da água e do solo, e foram realizados os exames e as análises microscópicas a fresco, presença de víbrios na hemolinfa, além do diagnóstico histopatológico e molecular (PCR do WSSV, em viveiros de oito fazendas de Santa Catarina, entre 2008 e 2009. O vírus foi detectado em cinco fazendas com registros da enfermidade em ciclos anteriores. A temperatura da água foi semelhante entre as fazendas com e sem WSSV, e a mortalidade ocorreu a intervalos ascendentes entre 24,6 e 29,3ºC. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros de análises microscópicas a fresco, tempo de coagulação e presença de víbrios na hemolinfa e sinais clínicos, entre viveiros com e sem WSSV. As concentrações de nitrito, sílica, fenol e alcalinidade na água e pH do solo apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os viveiros afetados ou não por WSSV. Os valores de nitrito, sílica e pH do solo estavam dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo de camarões, no entanto, isto não ocorreu com a alcalinidade e a concentração de fenol, o que sugere uma relação dos últimos com a manifestação da enfermidade da mancha-branca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among physicochemical and biological parameters in shrimp cultivation with the disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. The occurrence of mortality, physical and chemical characteristics of water and soil were evaluated, and clinical and microscopic analyses and the presence of vibrio in hemolymph, were performed as well as the histopathological and molecular diagnosis (PCR of the WSSV in ponds of eight farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. The virus was detected in five farms, which had displayed the disease in previous cycles. The temperature of the water was similar among farms independently of the presence of the virus, and mortality occurred at ascendant temperature intervals, between 24.6 and 29.3ºC. No significant differences were found for the parameters of microscopic analyses among ponds either with or without the virus. Nitrite, silica, phenol and water-alkalinity concentrations, as well as soil pH values, showed significant differences among the ponds affected or not by the WSSV. Nitrite, silica and pH values were within the recommended limits for shrimp cultivation, however this did not occur for the alkalinity and phenol concentrations, wich suggests a relationship of the latter parameters with manifestation of the white spot disease.

  15. Parâmetros de cultivo e a enfermidade da mancha-branca em fazendas de camarões de Santa Catarina / Cultivation parameters and the white spot disease in shrimp farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Winckler da, Costa; Luiz Rodrigo Mota, Vicente; Talita Medeiros de, Souza; Edemar Roberto, Andreatta; Maria Risoleta Freire, Marques.

    1521-15-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre parâmetros físico-químicos e biológicos do cultivo de camarão com a enfermidade causada pelo vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV). Foram avaliadas a mortalidade, as características físicas e químicas da água e do solo, e foram realizados os [...] exames e as análises microscópicas a fresco, presença de víbrios na hemolinfa, além do diagnóstico histopatológico e molecular (PCR) do WSSV, em viveiros de oito fazendas de Santa Catarina, entre 2008 e 2009. O vírus foi detectado em cinco fazendas com registros da enfermidade em ciclos anteriores. A temperatura da água foi semelhante entre as fazendas com e sem WSSV, e a mortalidade ocorreu a intervalos ascendentes entre 24,6 e 29,3ºC. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros de análises microscópicas a fresco, tempo de coagulação e presença de víbrios na hemolinfa e sinais clínicos, entre viveiros com e sem WSSV. As concentrações de nitrito, sílica, fenol e alcalinidade na água e pH do solo apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os viveiros afetados ou não por WSSV. Os valores de nitrito, sílica e pH do solo estavam dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo de camarões, no entanto, isto não ocorreu com a alcalinidade e a concentração de fenol, o que sugere uma relação dos últimos com a manifestação da enfermidade da mancha-branca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among physicochemical and biological parameters in shrimp cultivation with the disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The occurrence of mortality, physical and chemical characteristics of water and soil were evaluated, and [...] clinical and microscopic analyses and the presence of vibrio in hemolymph, were performed as well as the histopathological and molecular diagnosis (PCR) of the WSSV in ponds of eight farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. The virus was detected in five farms, which had displayed the disease in previous cycles. The temperature of the water was similar among farms independently of the presence of the virus, and mortality occurred at ascendant temperature intervals, between 24.6 and 29.3ºC. No significant differences were found for the parameters of microscopic analyses among ponds either with or without the virus. Nitrite, silica, phenol and water-alkalinity concentrations, as well as soil pH values, showed significant differences among the ponds affected or not by the WSSV. Nitrite, silica and pH values were within the recommended limits for shrimp cultivation, however this did not occur for the alkalinity and phenol concentrations, wich suggests a relationship of the latter parameters with manifestation of the white spot disease.

  16. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in captive bison, elk, white-tailed deer, cattle, and goats from Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissue...

  17. Overwintering of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Winter Annual Weeds Infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus and Patterns of Virus Movement Between Susceptible Weed Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, R L; Walgenbach, J F; Moyer, J W; Kennedy, G G

    2001-09-01

    ABSTRACT Overwintering of tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, was investigated on common winter annual host plants infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Populations of tobacco thrips produced on TSWV-infected plants did not differ from those produced on healthy plants, whereas populations varied greatly among host plant species. The mean per plant populations of F. fusca averaged 401, 162, and 10 thrips per plant on Stellaria media, Scleranthus annuus, and Sonchus asper, respectively, during peak abundance in May. Adult F. fusca collected from plant hosts were predominately brachypterous throughout the winter and early spring, but macropterous forms predominated in late spring. Weed hosts varied in their ability to serve as overwintering sources of TSWV inoculum. Following the initial infection by TSWV in October 1997, 75% of Scleranthus annuus and Stellaria media retained infection over the winter and spring season, whereas only 17% of Sonchus asper plants remained infected throughout the same interval. Mortality of TSWV-infected Sonchus asper plants exceeded 25%, but mortality of infected Stellaria media and Scleranthus annuus did not exceed 8%. TSWV transmission by thrips produced on infected plants was greatest on Stellaria media (18%), intermediate on Scleranthus annuus (6%), and lowest on Sonchus asper (2%). Very few viruliferous F. fusca were recovered from soil samples collected below infected wild host plants. Vegetative growth stages of Stellaria media, Sonchus asper, and Ranunculus sardous were more susceptible to F. fusca transmission of TSWV than flowering growth stages, whereas both growth stages of Scleranthus annuus were equally susceptible. In a field study to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of virus movement from a central source of TSWV-infected Stellaria media to adjacent plots of R. sardous, the incidence of infection in R. sardous plots increased from 42% in June 1999. Infection levels in the Stellaria media inoculum source remained high throughout the experiment, averaging nearly 80% until June 1999 when all Stellaria media plants had senesced. Dispersal of TSWV from the inoculum source extended to the limits of the experimental plot (>37 m). Significant directional patterns of TSWV spread to the R. sardous plots were detected in April and May but not in June. R. sardous infections were detected as early as March and April, suggesting that overwintering inoculum levels in an area can increase rapidly during the spring in susceptible weed hosts prior to planting of susceptible crops. This increase in the abundance of TSWV inoculum sources occurs at a time when vector populations are increasing rapidly. The spread of TSWV among weeds in the spring serves to bridge the period when overwintered inoculum sources decline and susceptible crops are planted. PMID:18944235

  18. Seasonal dynamics of thrips (Thrips tabaci) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) transmitters of iris yellow spot virus: a serious viral pathogen of onion bulb and seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Sudeep; Rondon, Silvia I; Druffel, Keri L; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-02-01

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is an important economic constraint to the production of bulb and seed onion crops in the United States and many other parts of the world. Because the virus is exclusively spread by thrips, the ability to rapidly detect the virus in thrips vectors would facilitate studies on the role of thrips in virus epidemiology, and thus formulation of better vector management strategies. Using a polyclonal antiserum produced against the recombinant, Escherichia coli-expressed nonstructural protein coded by the small (S) RNA of IYSV, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detecting IYSV in individual as well as groups of adult thrips. The approach enabled estimating the proportion of potential thrips transmitters in a large number of field-collected thrips collected from field-grown onion plants. Availability of a practical and inexpensive test to identify viruliferous thrips would be useful in epidemiological studies to better understand the role of thrips vectors in outbreaks of this economically important virus of onion. PMID:24665687

  19. Evidence of a tomato spotted wilt virus resistance-breaking strain originated through natural reassortment between two evolutionary-distinct isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaria, P; Ciuffo, M; Rosa, C; Turina, M

    2015-01-22

    A Tsw resistance-breaking tomato spotted wilt virus field isolate (TSWV-p331) found in northern Italy originated via reassortment from two evolutionary distinct TSWV strains, as revealed by recombination and phylogenetic analysis. Compared to the closest isolate present in the database, p331 NSs protein carries an unusually high number of amino acid substitutions, but no differences in the nucleocapsid protein. Despite these substitutions, p331 NSs is a potent silencing suppressor. As shown by phylogenetic analyses of TSWV nucleocapsid sequences collected over fifteen years, one likely p331 parental lineage has never been detected in northern Italy, allowing speculations on the origin of TSWV-p331. PMID:25433286

  20. Serological Evidence for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Macmillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N.; Saxton-shaw, Kali D.; Graham, Alan C.; Turmel, Jon P.; Mutebi, John-paul

    2013-01-01

    Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Ver...

  1. Determining the Effect of Calculus, Hypocalcification, and Stain on Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy for Detecting White Spot Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-P'ing Choo-Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS have been shown as useful methods for distinguishing sound enamel from carious lesions ex vivo. However, factors in the oral environment such as calculus, hypocalcification, and stain could lead to false-positive results. OCT and PRS were used to investigate extracted human teeth clinically examined for sound enamel, white spot lesion (WSL, calculus, hypocalcification, and stain to determine whether these factors would confound WSL detection with these optical methods. Results indicate that OCT allowed differentiating caries from sound enamel, hypocalcification, and stain, with calculus deposits recognizable on OCT images. ANOVA and post-hoc unequal N HSD analyses to compare the mean Raman depolarization ratios from the various groups showed that the mean values were statistically significant at P<.05, except for several comparison pairs. With the current PRS analysis method, the mean depolarization ratios of stained enamel and caries are not significantly different due to the sloping background in the stained enamel spectra. Overall, calculus and hypocalcification are not confounding factors affecting WSL detection using OCT and PRS. Stain does not influence WSL detection with OCT. Improved PRS analysis methods are needed to differentiate carious from stained enamel.

  2. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  3. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

    2013-10-25

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

  4. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis / Seleção de reprodutores de camarão livres da síndrome da mancha-branca e da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Cesar de, Mello Junior; Gael Yvan Leclercq, Delsol; Emmerik, Motte; Virna Alexia Cedeño, Escobar; Pedro Filipe, Rey; Mauricio Laterça, Martins; Luis Alejandro Vinatea, Arana; Giovanni Lemos de, Mello; Alvaro Pestana de, Farias; Xavier Antonio Serrano, Arguello; John Erick Montaño, Maridueña.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar reprodutores de Litopenaeus vannamei sobreviventes de um surto do vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV), adaptados às condições locais e diagnosticados negativamente para WSSV e para o vírus da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética (IHHNV), e ava [...] liar se esta extratégia é uma alternativa viável para produção em Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados fenotipicamente 800 machos e 800 fêmeas, de um viveiro. Análises de nested-PCR de 487 fêmeas e de 231 machos, sexualmente maduros, mostraram que 63% das fêmeas e 55% dos machos estavam infectados com IHHNV. Os animais livres de IHHNV foram testados para WSSV, e os considerados duplo negativos destinados à reprodução. As pós-larvas produzidas foram estocadas em nove berçários, para análise. Das 45 amostras, com 50 pós-larvas cada, apenas duas foram positivas para IHHNV e nenhuma para WSSV. Os lotes de pós-larvas diagnosticadas livres de vírus por nested-PCR foram encaminhados para seis fazendas. Foi realizada análise comparativa em viveiros de engorda, entre pós-larvas locais e pós-larvas do Nordeste do Brasil. Também foram analisados caranguejos (Chasmagnathus granulata), siris (Callinectes sapidus) e lebres do mar (Aplysia brasiliana), que são possíveis vetores dos vírus. A média de sobrevivência foi de 55% para as pós-larvas locais e de 23,4% para as pós-larvas do Nordeste. As lebres do mar apresentaram prevalência de 50% e os caranguejos de 67% de WSSV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and to evaluate if this strat [...] egy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata), blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana), which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  5. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  6. The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  7. Resistencia genética de híbridos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) Al virus del bronceado (TSWV) / Genetic resistance of tomato hybrids (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Gabriel; Daniel, Sanabria; Silene, Veramendi; Giovanna, Plata; Ada, Angulo; Mario, Crespo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación se realizó en el invernadero y laboratorio de la Fundación PROINPA en Cochabamba - Bolivia en el 2012. El objetivo fue evaluar la resistencia y suscep-tibilidad de plantas a los virus Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV y Groundnut ringspot [...] virus - GRSV en 10 híbridos de tomate mediante evaluación feno-típica y del patrón molecular (marcador SCAR Sw- 421), que distingue los homocigotos y hete-rocigotos resistentes del susceptible. Los resul-tados mostraron que el marcador SW-421 se co-localizó con el gen Sw-5 de resistencia a TSWV. Se observó la presencia de la banda de resistencia (R) para TSWV a 940 bp en las variedades PROINPA 2 (Aguaí) y PROINPA 9 (Bonita) en estado homocigoto dominante (Sw-5/Sw-5). Las variedades PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka), y PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera), mostraron la banda resistencia (H) a TSWV a 900-940 bp en estado heterocigoto (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Solamente la variedad PROINPA 7 (Redonda), el padre 71 89S LACHING SW-5 y la variedad Shannon mostraron el gen de suscep-tibilidad (S) al TSWV a 900 bp en estado homo-cigoto recesivo (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). Los análisis de severidad y de DAS-ELISA fueron confirmados con el análisis molecular. Abstract in english This research was conducted at the PROINPA Foundation’s greenhouse and laboratory in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2012. Its objective was to evaluate the resistance and susceptibility to Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV and Groundnut ringspot virus - GRSV in 10 tomato [...] hybrids. Phenotypic and molecular pattern (SCAR marker SW-421) evaluations were performed in order to differentiate homozygous and heterozygous resistant from susceptible plants. Results showed that molecular marker Sw421 is co -located with the TSWV-resistance Sw-5 gene. A TSWV-resistance band (R) was observed at 940 bp and showed the homozygous presence of the Sw-5 allele (Sw-5/Sw-5) in PROINPA 2 (Aguai) and PROINPA 9 (Bonita) varieties. PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka) and PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera) varieties, showed a TSWV resistance band (H) at 900-940 bp in the heterozygous state (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Only PROINPA 7 (Redonda), the male parent 71 LACHING 89S Sw-5 and the variety Shannon showed TSWV susceptibility gene (S) at 900 bp in the homozygous-recessive state (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). The results of the severity analysis and of DAS-ELISA were confirmed by the molecular analysis.

  8. Prohibitin Interacts with Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Prevents Infection in the Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Jiang-feng; Li, Xin-cang; Sun, Jie-jie; Gong, Jing; Wang, Xian-wei; Shi, Xiu-zhen; Shi, Li-jie; Weng, Yu-ding; Zhao, Xiao-fan; Wang, Jin-xing

    2013-01-01

    Prohibitins (PHBs) are ubiquitously expressed conserved proteins in eukaryotes that are associated with apoptosis, cancer formation, aging, stress responses, cell proliferation, and immune regulation. However, the function of PHBs in crustacean immunity remains largely unknown. In the present study, we identified a PHB in Procambarus clarkii red swamp crayfish, which was designated PcPHB1. PcPHB1 was widely distributed in several tissues, and its expression was significantly upregulated by wh...

  9. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  10. Analysis of Tomato spotted wilt virus NSs protein indicates the importance of the N-terminal domain for avirulence and RNA silencing suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Dryas; Pasquier, Adrien; Ying, Su; Butterbach, Patrick; Lohuis, Dick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recently, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) nonstructural protein NSs has been identified unambiguously as an avirulence (Avr) determinant for Tomato spotted wilt (Tsw)-based resistance. The observation that NSs from two natural resistance-breaking isolates had lost RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity and Avr suggested a link between the two functions. To test this, a large set of NSs mutants was generated by alanine substitutions in NSs from resistance-inducing wild-type strains (NSs(RI) ), amino acid reversions in NSs from resistance-breaking strains (NSs(RB)), domain deletions and swapping. Testing these mutants for their ability to suppress green fluorescent protein (GFP) silencing and to trigger a Tsw-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) revealed that the two functions can be separated. Changes in the N-terminal domain were found to be detrimental for both activities and indicated the importance of this domain, additionally supported by domain swapping between NSs(RI) and NSs(RB). Swapping domains between the closely related Tospovirus Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) NSs and TSWV NSs(RI) showed that Avr functionality could not simply be transferred between species. Although deletion of the C-terminal domain rendered NSs completely dysfunctional, only a few single-amino-acid mutations in the C-terminus affected both functions. Mutation of a GW/WG motif (position 17/18) rendered NSs completely dysfunctional for RSS and Avr activity, and indicated a putative interaction between NSs and Argonaute 1 (AGO1), and its importance in TSWV virulence and viral counter defence against RNA interference. PMID:24103150

  11. Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelle, B.; Lee, S. W.; Song, W.; Torrez-martinez, N.; Song, J. W.; Yanagihara, R.; Gavrilovskaya, I.; Mackow, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    The complete M segment sequences of hantaviruses amplified from tissues of a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States and from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, from New York were 99% identical and differed from those of Four Corners virus by 23%. The serum of this patient failed to recognize a conserved, immunodominant epitope of the Four Corners virus G1 glycoprotein. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. leucopus harbors a genetically and a...

  12. The movement protein (NSm) of Tomato spotted wilt virus is the avirulence determinant in the tomato Sw-5 gene-based resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Ana; Cañizares, M Carmen; Rubio, Luis; López, Carmelo; Moriones, Enrique; Aramburu, José; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2014-10-01

    The avirulence determinant triggering the resistance conferred by the tomato gene Sw-5 against Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is still unresolved. Sequence comparison showed two substitutions (C118Y and T120N) in the movement protein NSm present only in TSWV resistance-breaking (RB) isolates. In this work, transient expression of NSm of three TSWV isolates [RB1 (T120N), RB2 (C118Y) and non-resistance-breaking (NRB)] in Nicotiana benthamiana expressing Sw-5 showed a hypersensitive response (HR) only with NRB. Exchange of the movement protein of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) with NSm supported cell-to-cell and systemic transport of the chimeric AMV RNAs into N.?tabacum with or without Sw-5, except for the constructs with NBR when Sw-5 was expressed, although RB2 showed reduced cell-to-cell transport. Mutational analysis revealed that N120 was sufficient to avoid the HR, but the substitution V130I was required for systemic transport. Finally, co-inoculation of RB and NRB AMV chimeric constructs showed different prevalence of RB or NBR depending on the presence or absence of Sw-5. These results indicate that NSm is the avirulence determinant for Sw-5 resistance, and mutations C118Y and T120N are responsible for resistance breakdown and have a fitness penalty in the context of the heterologous AMV system. PMID:24690181

  13. White noise effects of U.S. crude oil spot prices on stock prices of a publicly traded company: A case study cross-correlation analysis based on green energy management theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine white noise effects of U.S. crude oil spot prices on the stock prices of a green energy company. Epistemological, Phenomenological, Axiological and Ontological assumptions of Green Energy Management (GEM) Theory were utilized for selecting Air Products and Chemicals Inc. (APD) as the case study. Exxon Mobil (XOM) was used as a control for triangulation purposes. The period of time examined was between January of 1999 and December of 2008. Monthly stock prices for APD and XOM for the ten year period of time were collected from the New York Stock Exchange. Monthly U.S. crude oil spot prices for the ten year period of time were collected from the US Energy Information Administration. The data was entered into SPSS 17.0 software in order to conduct cross-correlation analysis. The six cross-correlation assumptions were satisfied in order to conduct a Cross-correlation Mirror Test (CCMT). The CCMT established the lag time direction and verified that U.S. crude oil spot prices serve as white noise for stock prices of APD and XOM. The Theory of Relative Weakness was employed in order to analyze the results. A 2 year period of time between December, 2006 and December, 2008 was examined. The correlation coefficient r = - .155 indicates that U.S. crude oil spot prices lead APD stock prices by 4 months. During the same 2 year period of time, U.S. crude oil spot prices lead XOM stock prices by 4 months at r = -.283. XOM stock prices and APD stock prices were positively correlated with 0 lag in time with a positive r = .566. The 4 month cycle was an exact match between APD stock prices, XOM stock prices and U.S. crude oil spot prices. The 4 month cycle was due to the random price fluctuation of U.S. crude oil spot prices that obscured the true stock prices of APD and XOM for the 2 year period of time.

  14. Analysis of resistance to Yam mosaic virus, genus Potyvirus in white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babajide Odu O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to Yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus was studied in 10 populations of selected white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata. Plants of resistant genotypes: TDr 35, TDr 1621, TDr 93-1, TDr 93-32, TDr 95-107, TDr 93-23, and susceptible ones: TDr 87/00211, TDr 87/00571 and TDr 95-127 were screened for their reaction to the pathogen by symptom severity scoring scale of 1-5, and by quantifying virus multiplication by triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA. Controlled crosses were made among the genotypes within and between the groups according to reactions to the pathogen. The resultant F1 progenies were evaluated for the infection by disease symptom development and by TAS ELISA to detect a symptomless infection in an insect-proof screenhouse for the assessment of inheritance of resistance to YMV. A genetic analysis of the reactions of progenies derived from the D. rotundata genotypes to inoculation with YMV strongly suggests that resistance to the virus is a dominantly inherited trait. Segregation ratios obtained from the families indicate that at least two dominant genes are involved.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus serotyping on dried serum spots as a screening tool for the surveillance of the AIDS epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barin, Francis; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Brand, Denys; Brunet, Sylvie; Moreau, Alain; Liandier, Benoit; Thierry, Damien; Cazein, Françoise; Lot, Florence; Semaille, Caroline; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the utility of the dried blood spot (DBS) or dried plasma/serum spot (DSS) method for serological and molecular diagnosis of HIV infection. Here, we report on the description of a serotyping assay performed on DSS, and its application to a national surveillance program of HIV variants. We combined serotyping assays that we developed previously to discriminate between HIV-1 and HIV-2, between HIV-1 group O and HIV-1 group M, and between B and non-B subtypes of HIV-1 group M. The assays are based on antibody binding to either the immunodominant epitope of gp41 or the V3 domain of gp120 of these various types, groups and subtypes. Therefore, a unique enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format applied to serum eluted from DSS allowed the simultaneous discrimination between infections caused by HIV-1 B, HIV-1 non-B, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2. Together, this serotyping assay and an immunoassay for recent infection were used for a virological surveillance linked to the anonymous mandatory notification of HIV infection in France. The preliminary results of this virological surveillance allowed us to obtain estimates of the prevalence of the rare variants HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O. It also allowed identification of the two first cases of M/O dual infections reported outside the endemic group O region of the western part of equatorial Africa, and showed that non-B subtypes circulate widely in France, almost 50% of new HIV diagnoses in 2003 being due to these variants. PMID:16622871

  16. Global analysis of population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics of genetic diversity, and evolutionary lineages of Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Bag, Sudeep; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-08-15

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus is an economically important viral pathogen of Allium crops worldwide. A global analysis of known IYSV nucleocapsid gene (N gene) sequences was carried out to determine the comparative population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics with reference to its genetic diversity and evolution. A total of 98 complete N gene sequences (including 8 sequences reported in this study) available in GenBank and reported from 23 countries were characterized by in-silico RFLP analysis. Based on RFLP, 94% of the isolates could be grouped into NL or BR types while the rest belonged to neither group. The relative proportion of NL and BR types was 46% and 48%, respectively. A temporal shift in the IYSV genotypes with a greater incremental incidence of IYSVBR was found over IYSVNL before 2005 compared to after 2005. The virus population had at least one evolutionarily significant recombination event, involving IYSVBR and IYSVNL. Codon substitution studies did not identify any significant differences among the genotypes of IYSV. However, N gene codons were minimally positively selected, moderately negatively selected denoting the action of purifying selection, thus rejecting the theory of neutral mutation in IYSV population. However, one codon position (139) was found to be positively selected in all the genotypes. Population selection statistics in the IYSVBR, IYSVNL genotypes and in the population as a whole also revealed the action of purifying selection or population expansion, whereas IYSVother displayed a decrease in population size. Genetic differentiation studies showed inherent differentiation and infrequent gene flow between IYSVBR and IYSVNL genotypes corroborating the geographical confinement of these genotypes. Taken together the study suggests that the observed diversity in IYSV population and temporal shift in IYSVBR genotype is attributable to genetic recombination, abundance of purifying selection, insignificant positive selection and population expansion. Restricted gene flow between the two major IYSV genotypes further emphasizes the role of genetic drift in modeling the population architecture, evolutionary lineage and epidemiology of IYSV. PMID:24954534

  17. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the count...

  18. Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic analysis of integration will be important in evaluating the safety of human gene therapy with retroviral vectors. Here, we investigated MLV vector integration sites in human T-cells, since they are amenable to gene transfer studies, and have been used therapeutically in clinical trials. We mapped 340 MLV vector integration sites in the infected human T-cell clones we established. The data showed that MLV preferred integration near the transcription start sites (±5 kb), near CpG islands (±1 kb), and within the first intron of RefSeq genes. We also identified MLV integration hot spots that contained three or more integrations within a 100 kb region. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA-levels of T-cell clones that contained MLV integrations near transcription start sites or introns were dysregulated compared to the uninfected cells. These studies help define the profile of MLV integration in T-cells and the risks associated with MLV-based gene therapy

  19. Dried blood spots collected on filter paper: an international resource for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Type-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A Cassol

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of dried blood spots (DBS on filter paper provides a powerful approach for the development of large-scale, population-based screening programs. DBS methods are particularly valuable in developing countries and isolated rural regions where resources are limited. Large numbers of field specimens can be economically collected and shipped to centralized reference laboratories for genetic and (or serological analysis. Alternatively, the dried blood can be stored and used as an archival resource to rapidly establish the frequency and distribution of newly recognized mutations, confirm patient identity or track the origins and emergence of newly identified pathogens. In this report, we describe how PCR-based technologies are beginning to interface with international screening programmes for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. In particular, we review recent progress using DBS specimens to resolve the HIV-1 infection status of neonates, monitor the genetic evolution of HIV-1 during early infancy and establish a sentinel surveillance system for the systematic monitoring of HIV-1 genetic variation in Asia.

  20. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This mosaic of the Great Red Spot shows that the region has changed significantly since the Voyager 1 encounter three months ago. Around the northern boundary a white cloud is seen, which extends to east of the region. The presence of this cloud prevents small cloud vertices from circling the spot in the manner seen in the Voyager 1 encounter. Another white oval cloud (different from the one present in this position three months ago) is seen south of the Great Red Spot. The internal structure of these spots is identical. Since they both rotate in an anticyclonic manner these observations indicate that they are meteorologically similar. This image was taken on July 6 from a range of 2,633,003 kilometers.

  1. Dried fluid spots for peste des petits ruminants virus load evaluation allowing for non-invasive diagnosis and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Ataur; Chowdhury, Emdadul; Kwiatek, Olivier; Parvin, Rokshana; Rahman, Mushfiqur M; Islam, Mohammad R; Albina, Emmanuel; Libeau, Geneviève

    2014-10-11

    BackgroundActive surveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) should ease prevention and control of this disease widely present across Africa, Middle East, central and southern Asia. PPR is now present in Turkey at the gateway to the European Union. In Bangladesh, the diagnosis and genotyping of PPR virus (PPRV) may be hampered by inadequate infrastructures and by lack of proper clinical material, which is often not preserved under cold chain up to laboratories. It has been shown previously that Whatman® 3MM filter paper (GE Healthcare, France) preserves the nucleic acid of PPRV for at least 3 months at 32°C.ResultsIn this study, we demonstrate the performances of filter papers for archiving RNA from local PPRV field isolates for further molecular detection and genotyping of PPRV, at ¿70°C combined with ambient temperature, for periods up to 16 months. PPR-suspected live animals were sampled and their blood and nasal swabs were applied on filter papers then air dried. Immediately after field sampling, RT-PCR amplifying a 448-bp fragment of the F gene appeared positive for both blood and nasal swabs when animals were in febrile stage and only nasal swabs were detected positive in non-febrile stage. Those tested positive were monitored by RT-PCR up to 10 months by storage at ¿70°C. At 16 months, using real time RT-PCR adapted to amplify the N gene from filter paper, high viral loads could still be detected (~2 x 107 copy numbers), essentially from nasal samples. The material was successfully sequenced and a Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction achieved adequate resolution to establish temporal relationships within or between the geographical clusters of the PPRV strains.ConclusionsThis clearly reveals the excellent capacity of filter papers to store genetic material that can be sampled using a non-invasive approach. PMID:25301058

  2. Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Alstine, William

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10,...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

  4. Impact of early-season thrips management on reducing the risks of spotted wilt virus and suppressing aphid populations in Flue-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, R M; Stephenson, M G; Lahue, S S; Mullis, S W

    2005-02-01

    The influence of tray drench (TD) treatments, with and without foliar applications of the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard), was examined in replicated field plots in 2000--2002. TD treatments of Actigard, imidacloprid (Admire), and these two products combined had little effect on seasonal mean thrips populations; however, thrips densities were lower in the Admire-treated plots at 4 and 5 wk after transplanting. Actigard and Admire TD treatments significantly reduced the seasonal incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) symptomatic plants in 2 yr in the study. The combination of both products was better in reducing TSWV than Actigard alone. Three early-season foliar sprays of Actigard had no effect on thrips population densities, but they did reduce TSWV incidence. The tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), comprised 92-95% of the thrips complex each year. Other thrips collected on tobacco foliage at very low densities included Haplothrips spp., Chirothrips spp., Limothrips cerealium (Haliday), other Frankliniella spp. and other unidentified species. Using nonstructural TSWV protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 1.5-2.3% of the F. fusca tested positive for nonstructural TSWV protein. Cured yields were higher in the TD treatments and the Actigard foliar treatments in the years with high TSWV in the untreated plots. The TD treatments and foliar Actigard had little impact on plant height or grade index; however, TD treatments with Admire had low tobacco aphid, Myzus nicotianae Blackman, populations through 10 wk after transplanting. The early-season Actigard and Admire treatment options are management decisions that can effectively reduce the risks of TSWV incidence in flue-cured tobacco. PMID:15765674

  5. Virus infection on Brain White Matter: statistical analysis of DT MRI scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, R; Muttan, S; Kumarasamy, N

    2011-01-01

    Brain White Matter (BWM) is formed on nerve fibres (due to myelin coating) and it undergoes continuous changes with aging throughout the life of humans. This age-related morphology, however, also gets further modified when a subject is infected by a viral disease such as HIV. In the present study, textural variations in BWM specific to a set of control images vs. images of a HIV + subject are assayed via an algorithm based on the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM); and the associated Haralick features that are extracted from the GLCM. The clinical images of the brain used in the study are gathered from the noninvasive technique of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT MRI). Results observed in the images of normal (nonpathogenic) subjects show progressive changes in the image parameters with aging; whereas, a wider variation is observed in the relevant parameters of the images pertinent to pathogenic subjects who exhibit cognitive (or motor impairments) due to HIV infection. The findings of the proposed method are reasonably correlated with clinical diagnosis in two HIV+ cases. PMID:21816715

  6. Prevalence of eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies among white-tailed deer populations in maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Godsey, Marvin; Smith, Robert P; Renell, Melanie R; Smith, Leticia; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen; Lubelczyk, Charles

    2015-03-01

    During the fall of 2010, 332 deer serum samples were collected from 15 of the 16 (93.8%) Maine counties and screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralizing tests (PRNTs). The aim was to detect and map EEEV activity in the state of Maine. Forty-seven of the 332 (14.2%) sera were positive for EEEV antibodies, showing a much wider distribution of EEEV activity in Maine than previously known. The percentage of EEEV antibody-positive deer sera was ?10% in six counties-Piscataquis (100%), Somerset (28.6%), Waldo (22.2%), Penobscot (21.7%), Kennebec (13.7%), and Sagadahoc (10%). Positive sera were detected in all the six counties (Somerset, Waldo, Penobscot, Kennebec, Cumberland, and York) that were positive in 2009, suggesting endemic EEEV activity in these counties. EEEV antibodies were not detected in sera collected in five counties-Franklin, Knox, Lincoln, Oxford, and Washington-which was either due to low sample size or lack of EEEV activity in these counties. Our data suggest higher EEEV activity in central Maine compared to southern Maine, whereas EEEV activity in Maine has historically been associated with the southern counties of York and Cumberland. PMID:25793477

  7. Mobuck virus genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis: identification of a novel Orbivirus isolated from a white-tailed deer in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elyse; Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Klumper, Patricia; Scherba, Gail; Simonson, Randy R; Hause, Ben M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Orbivirus includes a diverse group of segmented dsRNA viruses that are transmitted via arthropods, have a global distribution and affect a wide range of hosts. A novel orbivirus was co-isolated with epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibiting clinical signs characteristic of EHDV. Using antiserum generated against EHDV, a pure isolate of the novel non-cytopathic orbivirus was obtained in Aedes albopictus cell culture. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of predicted ORFs showed that eight of the ten ORFs were most homologous to Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV), with amino acid identities of 44.3-73.7?%. The remaining two ORFs, VP3 and VP5, were most similar to Middle Point orbivirus (35.9?%) and Yunnan orbivirus (59.8?%), respectively. Taxonomic classification of orbiviruses is largely based on homology of the major subcore structural protein VP2(T2), encoded by segment 2 for mobuck virus. With only 69.1?% amino acid identity to PHSV, we propose mobuck virus as the prototype of a new species of Orbivirus. PMID:24114792

  8. The two envelope membrane glycoproteins of Tomato spotted wilt virus show differences in lectin-binding properties and sensitivities to glycosidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Genus: Tospovirus, Family: Bunyaviridae) is a major constraint to the production of several different crops of agronomic and horticultural importance worldwide. The amino acid sequence of the two envelope membrane glycoproteins, designated as GN (N-terminal) and GC (C-terminal), of TSWV contain several tripeptide sequences, Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, suggesting that the proteins are N-glycosylated. In this study, the lectin-binding properties of the viral glycoproteins and their sensitivities to glycosidases were examined to obtain information on the nature of potential oligosaccharide moieties present on GN and GC. The viral proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and probed by affinoblotting using a battery of biotinylated lectins with specificity to different oligosaccharide structures. GC showed strong binding with five mannose-binding lectins, four N-acetyllactosamine-binding lectins and one fucose-binding lectin. GN was resolved into two molecular masses and only the slow migrating form showed binding, albeit to a lesser extent than GC, with three of the five mannose-binding lectins. The N-acetyllactosamine- and fucose-specific lectins did not bind to either molecular mass form of GN. None of the galactose-, N-acetylgalactosamine-, or sialic acid-binding lectins tested showed binding specificity tectins tested showed binding specificity to GC or GN. Treatment of the denatured virions with endoglycosidase H and peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) resulted in a significant decrease in the binding of GC to high mannose- and N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectins. However, no such differences in lectin binding were apparent with GN. These results indicate the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides of high mannose- and complex-type on GC and possibly high mannose-type on GN. Differences in the extent of binding of the two envelope glycoproteins to different lectins suggest that GC is likely to be more heavily N-glycosylated than GN. No evidence was observed for the presence of O-linked oligosaccharides on GN or GC

  9. Mongolian spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Mongolian spots (MS) are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis. PMID:23760316

  10. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-02-12

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  11. Collaboration Spotting

    CERN Document Server

    Agocs, A; Le Goff, J-M; Skogstad, E; Tanev, H; Van der Goot, E

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration Spotting is a software package under development at CERN in collaboration with EC-JRC that combines advanced mining and semantics techniques with interactive socio-metric diagrams (sociograms) to assist users in understanding the publication and patent landscapes at the technology forefront.

  12. Jupiter - Region from the Great Red Spot to the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows a region of the southern hemisphere extending from the Great Red Spot to the south pole. The white oval is seen beneath the Great Red Spot, and several small scale spots are visible farther to the south. Some of these organized cloud spots have similar morphologies, such as anticyclonic rotations and cyclonic regions to their west. The presence of the white oval causes the streamlines of the flow to bunch up between it and the Great Red Spot.

  13. Import risk analysis: A case study of white shrimp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As the culture industry of black tiger shrimp in Thailand has encountered several problems causing unsuccessful shrimp culture over decades, a new non-indigenous marine species, i.e. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei was imported into Thailand as an alternation. However, imported white shrimp may carry some infectious agents which pose serious threats on aquatic species native to Thailand. Therefore, in the present study the import risk analysis (IRA was conducted to identify any hazard and estimate the risk presented by importation of white shrimp. The process involves the risk analysis steps of hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment and risk management. The risks associated with individual diseases and disease agents of white shrimp have been evaluated. Risk assessment conducted using risk evaluation matrix indicated high risk of Taura syndrome virus (TSV, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in imported white shrimp. The iterative process of risk management leads to a set of acceptable measures or strategies for each identified hazard for which the unrestricted risk is considered higher than appropriate level of protection. These measures or strategies will reduce risk to a level that is considered acceptable. Where measures or strategies that reduce the risk associated with a particular hazard to an acceptable level cannot be identified, permission to import the relevant commodity will be denied. The measures implemented in the control of white shrimp imports constitute quarantine and health certificate issued by exporting countries.

  14. A comparison of ectoparasite prevalence and occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus / Una comparación de la prevalencia de ectoparásitos y ocurrencia de virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en el merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamdi, Ogut; Nejmettin, Cavus.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se examinaron 784 individuos del merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus para su análisis virológico y parasitológico para establecer el efecto de la intensidad media de ectoparásitos sobre la ocurrencia del virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en peces del Mar Negro. El homogenizado de órganos in [...] ternos (riñón, bazo e hígado) fue inoculado con células BF-2. Las células que mostraron efecto citopático (CPE) fueron probadas con ELISA para determinar la especie de virus. Las intensidades y prevalencia promedio de los ectoparásitos (Trichodina spp. y Gyrodactylus alviga) fueron determinadas sobre las branquias de los mismos peces. Los peces infectados con VHSV presentaron intensidades similares de Trichodina spp. (10,0 ± 1,8) a aquellos libres de VHSV (7,2 ± 1,0). Las intensidades medias de Gyrodactylus alviga fueron similares en los peces infectados con VHSV (1,8 ± 0,1) que en aquellos no infectados (3,3 ± 0,2). Estos resultados indican que los ectoparásitos no son los únicos responsables de la ocurrencia observada de VHSV. Otros factores, como el estrés del desove, fluctuaciones imprevistas en los parámetros de la calidad del agua por sí solo, o aditivamente con los ectoparásitos, pueden ser responsables de la ocurrencia de VHSV en el merlán. Abstract in english Seven hundred and eighty-four whiting (Merlangius merlangus euxinus) were individually sampled for virological and parasitological examination to assess the effect of ectoparasite mean intensity on the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting in the Black Sea. The pooled h [...] omogenates of internal organs (kidney, spleen and liver) were inoculated onto BF_2 cells. The cells exhibiting cytopathic effect (CPE) were tested with ELISA to determine the virus species. The mean intensities and prevalence of ectoparasites (Trichodina spp. and Gyrodactylus alviga) were also determined on the gills of the same fish. The whiting infected with VHSV contained similar counts of Trichodina spp. (10.0 ± 1.8) than VHSV-free whiting (7.2 ± 1.0). The mean intensities of Gyrodactylus alviga were similar on the VHSV infected (1.8 ± 0.1) than uninfected fish (3.3 ± 0.2). The results indicate that ectoparasites were not alone responsible for the observed occurrence of VHSV. Other factors, such as spawning stress, sudden fluctuations in water quality parameters alone or additively to ectoparasites may be responsible for the occurrence of VHSV in whiting.

  15. WSSV ie1 promoter is more efficient than CMV promoter to express H5 hemagglutinin from influenza virus in baculovirus as a chicken vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Li; Ho YuenFern; He Fang; Kwang Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The worldwide outbreak of influenza A (H5N1) viruses among poultry species and humans highlighted the need to develop efficacious and safe vaccines based on efficient and scaleable production. Results White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early promoter one (ie1) was shown to be a stronger promoter for gene expression in insect cells compared with Cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV) promoter in luciferase assays. In an attempt to improve expression efficiency, a rec...

  16. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

  17. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Post Exposure Antiviral in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Foster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting New Zealand White rabbits from mortality following intradermal infection with rabbitpox virus as a model for smallpox, monkeypox and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Here we extend these studies by exploring different dosing regimens and performing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies. In addition, because rabbitpox virus can be transmitted via naturally generated aerosols (animal to animal transmission, we report on studies to test the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting rabbits from lethal rabbitpox virus disease when infection occurs by animal to animal transmission. In all cases, CMX001 treatment was initiated at the onset of observable lesions in the ears to model the use of CMX001 as a treatment for symptomatic smallpox. The results demonstrate that CMX001 is an effective treatment for symptomatic rabbitpox virus infection. The rabbitpox model has key similarities to human smallpox including an incubation period, generalized systemic disease, the occurrence of lesions which may be used as a trigger for initiating therapy, and natural animal to animal spread, making it an appropriate model.

  18. Analysis of the populations genetic variability of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), virus vector of the rice white leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a monophagous insect of the rice and virus vector of the white leaf (RHBV). It is distributed in America Central, El Caribe, part of the America del Sur and in Costa Rica it is in all the producing zones of rice. The genetic variability was analyzed by means of RAPD-PCR of individuals from three populations of Costa Rica: Parrita, Guanacaste (Liberia) y San Carlos (Santa Clara), that they are found separated geographically. The technique consisted of amplifying regions at random of the genome of these insects utilizing five primers. A total of 72 polymorphic bands were obtained, that upon being analyzed statistically by means of the multivariate analysis program of numerical taxonomy could show a clear genetic distancing among said populations. The genetic distance observed in the molecular analysis can be explained for the climatic and/or geographical isolation of the populations or by the incident of Wolbachia, riquettsia that induces cytoplasmic sterility in insects. These symbionts are transmitted of generation in generation, of the mother to their offspring and they cause reproductive alterations as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. The presence of Wolbachia was determined by means of transmission electronic microscopy being observed in the greasy and muscular weave of the abdomen of T. orizicolus. Rickettsias present pleomorphic morphology and form small groups, that are characterized form small groups, that are characterized for the presence of electrondense material semidetached to the cell wall with an interior electronlucent. Its size in transverse cuts ranged between 520 nm of length X 470 nm of width. In addition, its presence was detected by means of the amplification by PCR of the genomic DNA of the insects; a specific primer for the DNA ribosomal 16S of Wolbachia was utilized for it. A 86% of insects of the San Carlos population were positive, a 96% was determined for Guanacaste, a 37% for Parrita and a 100% for Colombia. Individual insects originating from populations of T. orizicolus of the zones of Parrita and Guanacaste, maintained in greenhouse, they were crossed among them in the greenhouse. Of the crossing infected males with uninfected females progeny was not obtained, what it seems to indicate that is cytoplasmic incompatibility unidirectional. Also, a reduction or a drastic absence of offspring was observed in those crossings where both insects were infected, what could be explained by the incidence of more than a race of the bacterium (bidirectional mutual incompatibility). This last phenomenon could be a head in part of the genetic isolation observed among populations of T. orizicolus originating from different localities. (author)

  19. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus / Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima; Karen Sumire, Kubo; Paulo de Tarso Oliveira, Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de, Alcântara; Alessandra Jesus, Boari; Renata Takassugi, Gomes; Juliana, Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Gilberto José de, Morais; Renato Barbosa, Salaroli.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum) cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas [...] cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB). Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV). Abstract in english Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted vir [...] uses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV).

  20. The morphology and genetic characterization of Iheringascaris goai n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) from the intestine of the silver whiting and spotted catfish off the central west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, A; Jaiswal, N; Malakar, A K; Verma, M S; Singh, H R; Lakra, W S; Malhotra, S K; Shamsi, S

    2012-09-01

    In this study a new species of nematode, Iheringascaris goai n. sp., is reported from two fish hosts, including silver whiting, Sillago sihama, and spotted catfish, Arius maculatus, caught off the Central West Coast of India at Goa. The new species can be differentiated morphologically from I. inquies, the most closely related species collected from cohabiting marine fish. The distinguishing characteristics are distinct cuticular striations, a unilateral excretory system, the presence of dentigerous ridges on the inner margin of the lips and the ratio of oesophagus to body length. In males, the ratio of spicules to body length is higher and the number of pre-anal papillae is less in comparison to those in I. inquies. In addition, the tail curves ventrad in males, while in females, the vulva is post-equatorial. The sequence alignment of 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I with sequences of known species selected from the same superfamily shows a significant difference. The morphological and molecular differences reported here can, therefore, be used to assign the specimen to a new species. PMID:21846431

  1. Neptune - Great Dark Spot, Scooter, Dark Spot 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune was reconstructed from two images taken by Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera, through the green and clear filters. The image shows three of the features that Voyager 2 has been photographing during recent weeks. At the north (top) is the Great Dark Spot, accompanied by bright, white clouds that undergo rapid changes in appearance. To the south of the Great Dark Spot is the bright feature that Voyager scientists have nicknamed 'Scooter'. Still farther south is the feature called 'Dark Spot 2', which has a bright core. Each feature moves eastward at a different velocity, so it is only occasionally that they appear close to each other, such as at the time this picture was taken. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  2. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zindovi?; Nataša Duki?; Aleksandra Bulaji?; Jelena Latinovi?; Ivana ?eki?; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krsti?

    2007-01-01

    Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Potato Virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV), Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV) and Potato Virus X(PVX). This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test w...

  3. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Duduk; Aleksandra Bulaji?; Janoš Berenji; Ivana ?eki?; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krsti?

    2006-01-01

    Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tobacco each virus (TEV) and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV).The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were invest...

  4. Hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of lake water, plant cover, soil and silt in some regions of Lithuania are investigated after the Chernobyl accident. Dependences of certain radionuclide concentration on the depth in the soil are presented. The route of the curves is obviously conditioned by the type of soil and by physico-chemical properties of the isotope. The maximum radionuclide concentration values are observed on the surface of soil and at the depth of up to 1 cm. Radionuclide concentration in the plant cover depends on the height of the given sample above the ground surface. It is shown that a certain radionuclide quantity is deposited in the lake bottom. A spot-like radionuclide accumulation has taken place in certain locations after the Chernobyl accident. 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Penetración de tres adhesivos en lesiones interproximales de caries de mancha blanca: estudio in vitro / Penetration of three adhesives in proximal white- spot carious lesions: an in vitro study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga Lucía, Zarta; Alba Lucía, Zuluaga Valencia; María Cristina, Huertas Díaz; Juan Sebastián, Lara; Ingrid Katherine, Quintero; Marisol, Téllez; Margarita, Úsuga; Stefanía, Martignon.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el tratamiento de lesiones interproximales de caries temprana representa un reto en la concepción moderna de la cariología y la operatoria. Como respuesta, además del diagnóstico temprano, emergen nuevos materiales para controlar la progresión de la caries temprana. El objetivo de este [...] estudio fue evaluar in vitro el grado de penetración de tres adhesivos: Excite (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply) y Single Bond (3M-ESPE), en el sellado de lesiones interproximales no cavitacionales de mancha blanca. MÉTODOS: 117 premolares humanos extraídos con lesión interproximal de mancha blanca Icdas-II 2 montados en yeso, simulando la situación en cavidad oral, fueron asignados aleatoriamente a uno de los tres grupos; se sellaron las lesiones con cada material previamente mezclado con azul de metileno; se obtuvieron secciones longitudinales de 250 µm y se analizaron en fotografías obtenidas bajo estereomicroscopía. Se valoró cubrimiento total de la lesión, profundidad histológica de la lesión en zonas y en micrómetros y, penetración máxima del adhesivo. RESULTADOS: se analizaron 116 dientes. Se encontró cubrimiento total de la lesión en 52,5%; 75% se ubicaron en la mitad interna del esmalte, con profundidad promedio de 854 ± 493 µm. La máxima penetración promedio del adhesivo en la lesión fue de 697 ± 412 µm. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos para las variables (Kruskal Wallis y correlación de Spearman; p > 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: estos tres adhesivos de baja viscosidad, con alto contenido de TEGDMA y HEMA, lograron el cubrimiento y la penetración de material para el sellado de lesiones tempranas de caries interproximal. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the treatment of early proximal carious lesions represents a challenge to modern conceptions of cariology and operative dentistry. The possible solutions include, besides an early diagnosis, development of new materials to control early caries progression. The objective of this in vitr [...] o study was to evaluate the degree of penetration of three adhesives: Excite (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply), and Single Bond (3M-ESPE), in the process of sealing white-spot non-cavitated proximal lesions. METHODS: 117 extracted human premolars with ICDAS 2 white-spot non-cavitated proximal lesions mounted on plaster, to simulate oral cavity conditions, were randomly sorted out in each of the three groups. The lesions were sealed with each of the materials previously mixed with methylene blue; longitudinal sections of 250 µm were obtained, and they were later analyzed on photographs taken with a stereo microscope. These variables were evaluated: total lesion coating, lesion's histologic depth (in micrometers), and the adhesive's maximum penetration. RESULTS: a total of 116 teeth were analyzed. Entire lesion coating was found in 52.5% of the cases; 75% were located in the enamel's internal half, with an average depth of 854 ± 493 µm. The adhesive's maximum average lesion penetration was 697 ± 412 µm. No statistical significant differences were found among the groups (Kruskal Wallis and Spearman correlation; p > 0.05). CONCLUSION:these three low-viscosity adhesives with high amounts of TEGDMA and HEMA effectively achieved covering and penetrating of the material for sealing early proximal carious lesions.

  6. KARAKTERISASI DAN KLONING GEN PENGKODE VP28 WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS ( WSSV) ISOLAT INDONESIA SEBAGAI KANDIDAT VAKSI REKOMBINAN UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BINTIK PUTIH PADA UDANG WINDU (PENAEUS MONODON )

    OpenAIRE

    Sriwulan; Irmawati; Retnoningrum, Debbi S.; Ernawati G.R; Hilal Anshary

    2007-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gen VP28 WSSV dari udang yang terinfeksi WSSV, Karakterisasi dan kloning gen VP 28. Sampel yang digunakan adalah udang yang terinfeksi WSSV pada seluruh sentra produksi udang di Sulawesi Selatan dan ekstrak DNA udang yang positif WSSV dengan IQ 2000. Untuk mendapatkan gen VP28 dilakukan dilakukan ektraksi DNA dengan metode Wizard, karakterisasi dilakukan dengan sekuensing dan kloning dengan menggunakan vektor kloning p-GEMT yang dilakukan untuk memperban...

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main ... carrier of Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever ...

  8. The Tomato spotted wilt virus cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM ) triggers a hypersensitive response in Sw-5-containing resistant tomato lines and in Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with the functional Sw-5b resistance gene copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Mariana; de Oliveira, Athos Silva; de Campos Dianese, Erico; Lohuis, Dick; Boiteux, Leonardo Silva; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko; Resende, Renato O; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Although the Sw-5 gene cluster has been cloned, and Sw-5b has been identified as the functional gene copy that confers resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its avirulence (Avr) determinant has not been identified to date. Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1' plants transformed with a copy of the Sw-5b gene are immune without producing a clear visual response on challenge with TSWV, whereas it is shown here that N.?benthamiana transformed with Sw-5b gives a rapid and conspicuous hypersensitive response (HR). Using these plants, from all structural and non-structural TSWV proteins tested, the TSWV cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM ) was confirmed as the Avr determinant using a Potato virus X (PVX) replicon or a non-replicative pEAQ-HT expression vector system. HR was induced in Sw-5b-transgenic N.?benthamiana as well as in resistant near-isogenic tomato lines after agroinfiltration with a functional cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM ) from a resistance-inducing (RI) TSWV strain (BR-01), but not with NSM from a Sw-5 resistance-breaking (RB) strain (GRAU). This is the first biological demonstration that Sw-5-mediated resistance is triggered by the TSWV NSM cell-to-cell movement protein. PMID:24720811

  9. A possible dominant white gene in Jersey cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponenberg D Phillip

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A white heifer ("Snow" was born in 1991 from coloured registered Jersey parents. She produced six calves sired by coloured Jersey bulls: three white bull calves, two white heifer calves, and one coloured bull calf. One of the white bull calves was mated with 40 Hereford × Friesian yearling heifers (white face, predominantly black body with some white patches. The 38 resulting calves included 16 white and 22 coloured calves. Twelve of the 16 white calves were heifers and four were bulls. Red or black spotting was recorded on some white calves. The results are consistent with an autosomal dominant mutant causing the white phenotype. The mutation appears to have arisen spontaneously in Snow, then passing to her white progeny and white grand-progeny. The white individuals varied from entirely white in a few cases, to most having some residual small areas of red or black pigmentation in patterns not typical of other reported white spotting patterns of cattle.

  10. Association of dual viral infection with mortality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in culture ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otta, S K; Arulraj, R; Ezhil Praveena, P; Manivel, R; Panigrahi, A; Bhuvaneswari, T; Ravichandran, P; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

    2014-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei has been introduced recently for culture practice in India. Though SPF stocks are imported for larval production and thereafter culture practice, these are prone to infection with the existing viruses in the environment. Here we report mortality of L.vannamei in several farms in India with minimum biosecurity. The shrimp were harvested early within 50-72 days of culture due to the onset of disease and consequent mortality. As per the analysis carried out, the shrimp were infected with two virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). About 80 % of the samples collected had either or both of the viruses. A majority of these samples (60 %) had dual infection with WSSV and IHHNV. Infection of shrimp with WSSV and IHHNV could be detected both by PCR and histopathology. Some of the samples had either exclusively WSSV infection or IHHNV infection and were also harvested before the completion of the required culture period. All the samples analyzed were negative for taura syndrome virus, yellow head virus and infectious myonecrosis virus. While it is difficult to point out the exact etiological agent as the cause of mortality, strict biosecurity measures are advisable for the continuity of L. vannamei culture in India. PMID:24426311

  11. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV including the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. The plants for planting pathway is considered the most important one and rated as likely, with medium uncertainty. TSWV, reported in many Member States, has one of the widest host range for plant viruses and has three widely distributed thrips vector species in the risk assessment area. For countries falling under the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII legislation, the probability of establishment is rated as very likely, with low uncertainty. For Finland and Sweden, protected zone under the 2000/29/EC Annex IB legislation, the probability of establishment is rated unlikely to moderately likely. Spread can occur through the activity of thrips vectors and through trade of infected hosts. The probability of spread in Member States under Annex IIAII provisions is evaluated as likely, with low uncertainty. In Finland and Sweden, spread is rated as unlikely to moderately likely, with medium uncertainty. Since TSWV may cause both yield and quality losses in a wide range of hosts, a major impact is predictable in the absence of appropriate control measures, with medium uncertainty. The risk reduction options evaluated by the Panel are those addressing either the sanitary status of the propagation material (including the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII and Annex IB, statutory certification system and the use of voluntary industry standards or those addressing the control of TSWV epidemic development through actions directed at the virus or at its vectors (including cultural methods to reduce crop infestation and chemical or biological control of thrips vectors. Limitations of the current measures and the potential consequences of repealing the current legislation are discussed.

  12. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and died due to infection. The mortality of affected species associated with a causative agent was confirmed in most species, except the mud crab and freshwater prawn (Marcrobrachium rosenbergii. However, viral particles can be still detected in surviving animals 10 days after infection. The results of this study will be a helpful tool employed in establishing measures on disease control and reduction of risk with the importation of white shrimp broodstock.

  13. Isolation of herpesvirus and Newcastle disease virus from White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) maintained at four rehabilitation centres in northern Germany during 1983 to 2001 and failure to detect antibodies against avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 in these birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Erhard F; Kummerfeld, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Herpesvirus isolations from peripheral white blood cells of 253 White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) were obtained during a long-term study (1983 to 2001). The storks lived for a few months to 20 years at four rehabilitation centres. Isolates were obtained from 83 of 253 storks. This herpesvirus is indigenous for storks and unrelated to any other avian herpesvirus. Significantly more herpesvirus isolates were obtained during spring than in autumn samplings. The intervals between the first and last virus isolation ranged from 1 to 15 years. Herpesvirus isolates were simultaneously obtained from white blood cells and from pharyngeal swabs of four of 34 storks but not from cloacal swabs. Neutralizing antibodies to stork herpesvirus were detected in 178 of 191 examined blood plasma samples. Neutralizing antibodies against stork herpesvirus did not correlate with herpesvirus viraemia. The results further substantiate the persistence of herpesvirus in White Storks and underline the previously unrecorded long periods of virus and antibody presence. Virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1; Newcastle disease virus) was isolated from white blood cells during 1992 and 1993 from four healthy migrating storks, and possessed virulence markers on the cleavage site of the H and F genes. These properties resemble the NE type of APMV-1. Haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against APMV-1 were detected in 16 of 191 blood plasma samples. Avian influenza A virus was not isolated and antibodies against subtypes H5 and H7 were not detected. PMID:22834553

  14. Impact of West Nile virus and other mortality factors on American white pelicans at breeding colonies in the northern plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, M.A.; Pietz, P.J.; Converse, K.A.; Tommy, King D.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Scherr, P.; Ip, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial-nesting birds and their breeding sites are concentrated in a few small areas, making this species especially vulnerable to factors that can influence productivity, such as disease, disturbance, predation, weather events and loss of nesting habitat. Nearly half of the American white pelican population breeds at four colonies in the northern plains: Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Dakota, Bitter Lake (Waubay NWR) in South Dakota, Medicine Lake NWR in Montana, and Marsh Lake in Minnesota. Thus, sustained productivity at these colonies is crucial to the health of the entire species. During the latter half of the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons, unusually high mortality of pelican chicks was observed at these colonies. West Nile virus (WNv) was identified as one source of these losses. In 2004-2007 we monitored three major colonies in the northern plains to assess mortality of chicks during the late breeding season. We documented severe weather events, disturbance, and WNv as factors contributing to chick mortality. Before WNv arrived in the region in 2002, chick mortality after mid-July was ???4%, and then jumped to as high as 44% in the years since WNv arrived. WNv kills older chicks that are no longer vulnerable to other common mortality factors (e.g., severe weather, gull predation) and typically would have survived to fledge; thus WNv appears to be an additive mortality factor. Persistence of lower productivity at American white pelican colonies in the northern plains might reduce the adult breeding population of this species in the region.

  15. [Genetic characterization of the Sakhalin virus (SAKV), Paramushir virus (PMRV) (Sakhalin group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae), and Rukutama virus (RUKV) (Uukuniemi group, Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) isolated from the obligate parasites of the colonial sea-birds ticks Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae, White 1852 and I. signatus Birulya, 1895 in the water area of sea of the Okhotsk and Bering sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Full-length genomes of the Sakhalin virus (SAKH) and Paramushir virus (PRMV) (Sakhalin group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) isolated from the ticks Ixodes uriae White 1852 were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing (Genbank ID: KF801659, KF801656). SAKV and PRMV have 81% identity for the part of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) on the nucleotide level and 98.5% on the amino acid level. Full-length genome comparison shows that SAKV have, in average, from 25% (N-protein, S-segment) to 50% (RdRp, L-segment) similarity with the nairoviruses. The maximum value of the amino acid similarity (50.3% for RdRp) SAKV have with the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Dugbe virus (DUGV), which are also associated with the Ixodidae ticks. Another virus studied is Rukutama virus (RUKV) (isolated from ticks I. signatus Birulya, 1895) that recently was classified (based on morphology and antigenic reaction) to the Nairovirus genus, presumably to the Sakhalin group. In this work the genome of the RUKV was sequenced (KF892052-KF892054) and RUKV was classified as a member of the Uukuniemi group (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae). RUKV is closely related (93.0-95.5% similarity) with our previously described Komandory virus (KOMV). RUKV and KOMV form separate phylogenetic line neighbor of Manawa virus (MWAV) isolated from the ticks Argas abdussalami Hoogstraal et McCarthy, 1965 in Pakistan. The value of the similarity between RUCV and MWAV is 65-74% on the amino acid level. PMID:25335413

  16. Characterization of the yeast form symbiant of Togosodes orizicolus (Hemiptera: delphacidae), vector of the rice white leaf virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the yeast forms symbionts of Togo soles Orizicolus (YLSTo), through its morphologic description and locating in situ through microscopy of light, electronic microscopy of transmission and of sweeping and immuno microscopy. Likewise, molecular tests were carried out to classify phylogenetically the symbionts, utilizing partial sequences of the ribosomal DNA 18S. This study will permit to determine, the existence or not of interactions among the YLSTo and the insect vector, in the future. The paper of that interaction in the mechanism of trans ovarial transmission of the virus and the search of alternatives for the control of the disease in the rice. (S. Grainger)

  17. Mongolian blue spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

  18. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  19. Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

    2011-11-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/?g of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/?g in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/?g in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/?g in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

  20. Effect of three innovative culture systems on water quality and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral load in WSSV-fed Penaeus monodon cultured in indoor tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Alapide-tendencia, E. V.; Bosma, R. H.; Rose Sorio, L.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water, abundant supply of natural food such as Chlorella, and the use of the greenwater technology (GW) are some ecological ways of preventing WSSV outbreak. The aim of this study was to investigate the eff...

  1. Combining rapid diagnostic tests and dried blood spot assays for point-of-care testing of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, D; Bekalé, A M; Nagot, N; Mondain, A-M; Ottomani, L; Meda, N; Traoré, M; Ouédraogo, J B; Ducos, J; Van de Perre, P; Tuaillon, E

    2013-12-01

    People screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in Africa remain generally unaware of their status for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections. We evaluated a two-step screening strategy in Burkina Faso, using both HIV RDTs and Dried Blood Spot (DBS) assays to confirm an HIV-positive test, and to test for HBV and HCV infections. HIV counselling and point-of-care testing were performed at a voluntary counselling and testing centre with HBV, HCV status and HIV confirmation using DBS specimens, being assessed at a central laboratory. Serological testing on plasma was used as the reference standard assay to control for the performance of DBS assays. Nineteen out of 218 participants included in the study were positive for HIV using RDTs. A fourth-generation HIV ELISA and immunoblot assays on DBS confirmed HIV status. Twenty-four out of 25 participants infected with HBV were found positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DBS. One sample with a low HBsAg concentration on plasma was not detected on DBS. Five participants tested positive for HCV antibodies were confirmed positive with an immunoblot assay using DBS specimens. Laboratory results were communicated within 7 days to participants with no loss to follow up of participants between the first and second post-test counselling sessions. In conclusion, DBS collection during HIV point-of-care testing enables screening and confirmation of HBV, HCV and HIV infections. Diagnosis using DBS may assist with implementation of national programmes for HBV, HCV and HIV screening and clinical care in middle- to low-income countries. PMID:23902574

  2. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, David S; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Simon-Miller, Amy A

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact...

  3. [Fundus autofluorescence in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollfrank, C; Gamulescu, M A; Prahs, P; Helbig, H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), an entity belonging to the group of white dot syndromes, is characterized by pale spots at the posterior pole as a sign of inflammatory changes in the choroid and pigment epithelium. These spots are sometimes difficult to define by fundoscopy. Besides angiography fundus autofluorescence has been shown to be an excellent, noninvasive method to demonstrate these subretinal spots in MEWDS. PMID:22547127

  4. RNA-Seq analysis reveals genes associated with resistance to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookruksawong, Suchonma; Sun, Fanyue; Liu, Zhanjiang; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2013-12-01

    Outbreak of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is one of the major pathogens of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Although selective breeding for improvement of TSV resistance in L. vannamei has been successfully developed and has led to a great benefit to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the viral resistance in shrimp remain largely unknown. In the present study, we conducted the first transcriptomic profiling of host responses in hemolymph and hemocytes in order to identify the differentially expressed genes associated with resistance to TSV in L. vannamei. High-throughput RNA-Seq was employed, obtaining 193.6 and 171.2 million high-quality Illumina reads from TSV-resistant and susceptible L. vannamei lines respectively. A total of 61,937 contigs were generated with an average length of 546.26 bp. BLASTX-based gene annotation (E-value < 10(-5)) allowed the identification of 12,398 unique proteins against the NCBI non-redundant NR database. In addition, comparison of digital gene expression between resistant and susceptible strains revealed 1374 significantly differentially expressed contigs (representing 697 unigenes). Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed gene set highlighted several putative genes involved in the immune response activity including (1) pathogen/antigen recognition including immune regulator, adhesive protein and signal transducer; (2) coagulation; (3) proPO pathway cascade; (4) antioxidation; and (5) protease. The expression patterns of 22 differentially expressed genes involving immune response were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (average correlation coefficients 0.94, p-value < 0.001). Our results provide valuable information on gene functions associated with resistance to TSV in L. vannamei. PMID:23921257

  5. The Blind Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (1st on the page), learners find their blind spot--the area on the retina without receptors that respond to light. Learners can draw their own blind spot testers, use the provided template or view the images on the webpage. This resource also includes a page of optical illusions that learners can make into bookmarks. The page has links to useful background information about blind spots and the eye.

  6. Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies Anatomy of leaf lesions caused by Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis in different host species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Takassugui Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB, o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV. O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N, mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV, mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV, representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso.The botanical genus Clerodendrum belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes several ornamental species. Necrotic and chlorotic spots on leaves of bleeding heart were observed for the first time in a residential garden from Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, associated with an infestation by the flat mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Tissue section analysis of the leaf lesions under transmission electron microscope showed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type, indicating that the symptoms were caused by a Brevipalpus-transmitted virus (BTV, named Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV. This virus was shown to be transmitted mechanically and by B. phoenicis to several plant species. In order to complete ClCSV characterization, anatomical changes in the leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected leaves were evaluated. Histological sections of healthy, control leaves and leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected plants of C. x speciosum, Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus and Annona muricata were analyzed. ClCSV infection resulted in similar tissue alterations caused by other BTV as Citrus Leprosies Virus Cytoplasmic (CiLV-C and Nuclear (CiLV-N, Coffee Ringspot Virus (CoRSV, Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus (SvRSV and Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV. Such symptoms consisted of hypertrophy and hyperplasia frequently followed by necrosis in palisade and spongy parenchyma tissues.

  7. Finding the Sweet Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Exploratorium

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners will discover how to find the "sweet spots" on a baseball bat. Whenever an object is struck, it vibrates in response. These vibrations travel in waves up and down the length of the object. At one point, called "the node," the waves always cancel each other out. The "sweet spot" is actually a node!

  8. Cherry Red Spot

    OpenAIRE

    Sma, Sajjadieh; Rabbani, A.

    1990-01-01

    Cherry red spot macula is caused usually by transient vascular lesions or mostly permanent metabolic disturbances. Although pediatricians encounter generally cherry red spot caused by metabolic disorders, one should not forget those caused by vascular lesions, as these are mostly curable.

  9. Identification of Potato Virus Y Strains in Tobacco Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zindovi?; Janoš Berenji; Milena Paukovi?; Ivana ?eki?; Aleksandra Bulaji?; Branka Krsti?

    2007-01-01

    Five viruses: Potato Virus Y (PVY), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Alfalfa Mosaic Virus, of which PVY was predominant, were detected by serological testing of tobacco samples collected from many localities in Vojvodina in 2006. Viruses are the most important pathogens in tobacco and PVY causes considerable economic damages all over the world. A PVY population comprises several different strain groups, strain subgroups and recombinant strains. Among ...

  10. Diverse fragment clustering and water exclusion identify protein hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, John L; Kulp, John L; Pompliano, David L; Guarnieri, Frank

    2011-07-20

    Simulated annealing of chemical potential located the highest affinity positions of eight organic probes and water on eight static structures of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) in various conformational states. In all HELW conformations, a diverse set of organic probes clustered in the known binding site (hot spot). Fragment clusters at other locations were excluded by tightly-bound waters so that only the hot-spot cluster remained in each case. The location of the hot spot was correctly predicted irrespective of the protein conformation and without accounting for protein flexibility during the simulations. Any one of the static structures could have been used to locate the hot spot. A site on a protein where a diversity of organic probes is calculated to cluster, but where water specifically does not bind, identifies a potential small-molecule binding site or protein-protein interaction hot spot. PMID:21682273

  11. Spatial point pattern analyses of Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in domestic livestock herds and concomitant seroprevalence in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important disease of domestic cattle that is capable of infecting cervids. A first step in the formulation of a regional BVDV management plan is a local assessment of the likelihood of pathogen transmission from wildlife to domestic livestock. To achieve this, blood samples were collected from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) throughout New York State in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The SVANOVIR BVDV p80-AB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Svanova Biotech AV, Uppsala, Sweden) was used to screen sera for anti-BVDV antibodies. Because this ELISA is not validated for use in white-tailed deer, sera that tested positive were tested again using serum neutralization to verify the presence of antibodies. Spatial data describing the geographic location of BVDV antigen-positive cattle and camelid herds and BVDV-seropositive white-tailed deer were analyzed via the dual kernel density estimation method. In white-tailed deer, 7.48% (80/1,069) were BVDV-seropositive, whereas 3.43% (144/4,195) of tested herds were positive for BVDV antigen. An exploratory cluster analysis revealed 1 significant cluster of BVDV antigen-positive herds and 2 significant clusters of BVDV-seropositive deer. There was no spatial overlap between the clusters. The spatial point pattern and exploratory cluster analyses suggest that BVDV is maintained independently in domestic livestock herds in the western part of the state and in the white-tailed deer population in the northwestern part of the state. PMID:23512919

  12. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  13. White Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the tendency of whites to deflect attention from racism, which is the main problem underlying the need for multicultural education, and suggests a role for whites in examining their own generally unrecognized white racial bonding. To mitigate effects of white racial bonding, advocates of multicultural education must recognize them. (SLD)

  14. PPR Great Red Spot Temperature Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This map shows temperature for the region around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and an area to the northwest. It corresponds to a level in Jupiter's atmosphere where the pressure is 1/2 of the of the Earth's at sea level (500 millibars), the same as it is near 6000 meters (20,000 feet) above sea level on Earth. The center of Great Red Spot appears colder than the surrounding areas, where air from below is being brought up. The 'panhandle' to the northwest is warmer and drier, and the gases there are descending, so it is much clearer of clouds. Compare this map to one released earlier at a higher place in the atmosphere (250 millibars or 12000 meters). The center of the Great Red Spot is warmer lower in the atmosphere, and a white 'hot spot' appears in this image that is not present at the higher place. This map was made from data taken by the Photopolarimeter/Radiometer (PPR) instrument on June 26, 1996.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  15. Disturbed Region West of the Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo from Voyager 2 was taken on June 9, 1979 and is centered over the long-lived disturbed region west of the Great Red Spot (GRS). Note that the White Oval to the lower left of the GRS has a similar chaotic region of clouds to its west. This particular White Oval, which is not the same one as that seen below the GRS by Voyager 1 in March, 1979, is moving to the right relative to the Red Spot. By the time of Voyager 2's closest approach to Jupiter on July 9, 1979 this Oval will lie just south of the Red Spot. At the time this composite was taken the spacecraft was over 24 million kilometers (15 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features which can be seen are roughly 450 kilometers (280 miles) across.

  16. Parasitic crustaceans as vectors of viruses, with an emphasis on three penaeid viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Robin M; Jovonovich, Jean; Ma, Hongwei

    2009-08-01

    Parasitic crustaceans serve as both hosts and vectors of viruses as well as of parasites and other microbial pathogenic agents. Few of the presumably numerous associations are known, but many can be anticipated. Recently, branchiurans and gnathiid isopods have been documented to host helminths and blood parasites. Because the agents can be observed readily with a microscope, these are better recognized than are the smaller viral, bacterial, and fungal agents. Some agents are harmful to the host of the crustacean parasite and others are not. Viruses probably fit both these categories, since viruses that do not appear pathogenic are often seen in ultrastructural images from a range of invertebrate hosts, including crustaceans. Some viruses have been implicated in causing disease in the host, at least under appropriate conditions. For example, lymphocystis virus may possibly be transmitted to the dermis of its fish hosts by copepods and to the visceral organs by a cymothoid isopod. Similarly, argulid branchiurans seem to transmit the viral agent of spring viremia of carp as well as carp pox, and copepods have been implicated in transmitting infectious hematopoietic necrosis, infectious salmon anemia, and infectious pancreatic necrosis to salmon. Other viruses can be vectored to their hosts through an additional animal. We exposed three viruses, Taura syndrome virus (TSV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and yellowhead virus (YHV), all of which cause mortalities in wild and cultured penaeid shrimps, to crustacean parasites on fish and crabs. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we show that TSV in the cyclopoid copepod Ergasilus manicatus on the gill filaments of the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, the acorn barnacle Chelonibia patula on the carapace of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, and gooseneck barnacle Octolasmis muelleri on the gills of C. sapidus, can replicate for at least 2 weeks and establish what should be an infective dose. This result was additionally supported by positive in situ hybridization reactions. All three parasites are the first known non-penaeid hosts in which replication occurs. The mean log copy number of WSSV also suggested that replication occurred in E. manicatus. The mean log copy number of YHV gradually decreased in all three parasites and both hosts over the 2-week period. The vector relationships indicate an additional potential means of transmitting and disseminating the disease-causing agents to the highly susceptible and economically valuable penaeid shrimp hosts. PMID:21669853

  17. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Use Join Us Tours and Events 2015 Easter Egg Roll Jobs with the Administration White House ... Can Use Join Us Tours and Events 2015 Easter Egg Roll Jobs with the Administration White House ...

  18. Temporal lesions and widespread involvement of white matter associated with multi-organ inflammatory disease in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gustavo B; Kalil, Rosangela S; Rosadas, Carolina; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2014-08-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord, characterized by spastic paraparesis, back pain, and sphincter disorders. Involvement of multiple organs and encephalopathy are uncommon in HAM/TSP. Nonspecific small white matter lesions of unknown etiology, mainly in the periventricular and subcortical regions, have been found on brain magnetic resonance imaging of HAM/TSP patients. Bitemporal lesions have rarely been described. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with HAM/TSP who presented subclinical cognitive deficits associated with bitemporal and widespread white matter lesions. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was inflammatory (blood-CSF barrier dysfunction, intrathecal synthesis of total and HTLV-1 IgG). The proviral load was higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The neurological picture was complicated by multi-organ inflammatory disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, uveitis, anemia, and chronic renal failure). This case highlights the potential multisystem inflammatory nature of HTLV-1 infection, with a wide spectrum of manifestations. In cases of HAM/TSP with multi-organ inflammatory disease, encephalic involvement should be investigated, even in the absence of clinical manifestations. Also bitemporal lesions can be the consequence of intense and diffuse inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:24815740

  19. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewert, Uwe [BAM

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One possibility is to use the wires in the ASTM E2002 unsharpness gage and take two orthogonal images. The signal levels in the image need to be linear with radiation exposure and so may need conversion if a nonlinear detector is used to acquire the image.

  20. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  1. Spotting a fake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

  2. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  3. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: Use of GIS to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Kakani, Sravan; Labeaud, A. Desire?e; King, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt,and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighboring regions, RVFV is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat forhumans, livestock, and wildlife in all parts of the world. In...

  4. Vaccine by Chicken Line Interaction Alters the Protective Efficacy against Challenge with a Very Virulent plus Strain of Marek’s Disease Virus in White Leghorn Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Huanmin Zhang; Jiuzhou Song; Ernst, Catherine W.; Lee, Lucy F.; Shuang Chang; Dunn, John R.; Mohammad Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic and highly contagious ?-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine efficacy have continued in both research communities and vaccine industries. We reported the host genetic variation affecting Marek’s disease vaccine-induced immunity in chickens earlier. In t...

  5. Development of a PCR Diagnostic System for Iris yellow spot tospovirus in Quarantine

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yong-gil; Rho, Jae-young

    2014-01-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a plant pathogenic virus which has been reported to continuously occur in onion bulbs, allium field crops, seed crops, lisianthus, and irises. In South Korea, IYSV is a “controlled” virus that has not been reported, and inspection is performed when crops of the genus Iris are imported into South Korea. In this study, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR inspection methods, which can detect IYSV, from imported crops of the...

  6. Monitoreo de Tagosodes Orizicolus M. e incidencia del virus de la hoja blanca "VHB" en el cultivo de arroz en calabozo, estado guárico, Venezuela / Monitoring of sogata Tagosodes Orizicolus M. and incidence of white leaf virus "WLV" in rice in calabozo, guárico, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis E, Vivas C; Dilcia, Astudillo; Judith, Poleo.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la información sobre la incidencia del virus de la hoja blanca (VHB) y poblaciones del insecto sogata, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir) 1926, ejecutada en 10 parcelas comerciales del sistema de riego río Guárico (S.R.R.G.), el cual se dividió en tres (3) sectores durante la época de sequía en [...] tre los años 2003 y 2007. Se presenta la información del VHB en 3 parcelas en las épocas de sequía y lluvias. El objetivo del trabajo fue: Evaluar la incidencia en plantas de arroz del VHB y las poblaciones del insecto vector de la enfermedad en siembras comerciales del S.R.R.G. El porcentaje de plantas afectadas por el virus de la hoja blanca alcanzo niveles muy bajos, comprendidos entre 0,56% y 1,08% y las poblaciones del insecto resultaron en promedio de 3,90 individuos por pase doble de malla Abstract in english The incidence of white leaf virus (WLV) and insect population density of sogata, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir) 1926, was studied in 10 commercial plots of rice located in the Rio Guárico Irrigation System (RG.I.S). The area under the study was divided into three (3) sections during the dry season from [...] 2003 to 2007. The incidence of WLV also was registered in three commercial plots of rice, both in the dry and rainy season. The objective of this study was the evaluation of WLV effect on rice plants as well as the effect of sogata population density as a vector of the disease in commercial plantings (R.G.I.S). The percentage of plants affected by the virus was very low, ranging between 0.56% and 1.08%, and the insect population density of sogata averaged 3.90 individuals per insect net (double pass)

  7. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in the field. This bacterium produced similar symptoms of the disease when inoculated on maize plants in greenhouse. Previous studies carried out by other authors demonstrated that the control of this disease in field conditions has been achieved through the use of fungicides mainly with the Mancozeb in the initial phases of its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of P. ananatis from infected plants in the region of "Londrina, Paraná State" and to reproduce symptoms of the disease through artificial inoculation of maize plants in greenhouse. Using the chemical products tested previously by other authors for the control of this disease in the field, it was also objective of this work to evaluate the potential of these products to inhibit the bacterium, at both in laboratory and in condition of natural infection. The results showed that P. ananatis was successfully isolated from 40% of the young lesions collected in the field and when inoculated in greenhouse (controlled conditions, it reproduced symptoms similar to what was observed in the field. Among the tested chemical products, the fungicide Mancozeb was the best in the control of the disease under field conditions, in agreement with previous reports. This product inhibited completely the bacterium in laboratory, explaining the results found in the field. The others products were not efficient to control the disease and they did not also inhibit the bacterium in laboratory. The results represent additional evidences that the bacterium P. ananatis is the causal agent of the maize white spot disease.

  9. Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis / Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleide Aparecida, Bomfeti; Walter Fernandes, Meirelles; Edneia Aparecida, Souza-Paccola; Carlos Roberto, Casela; Alexandre da Silva, Ferreira; Ivanildo Evódio, Marriel; Luzia Doretto, Paccola-Meirelles.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores real [...] izados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho. Abstract in english A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in the field. This bacterium produced similar symptoms of the disease when inoculated on maize plants in greenhouse. Previous studies carried out by other authors [...] demonstrated that the control of this disease in field conditions has been achieved through the use of fungicides mainly with the Mancozeb in the initial phases of its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of P. ananatis from infected plants in the region of "Londrina, Paraná State" and to reproduce symptoms of the disease through artificial inoculation of maize plants in greenhouse. Using the chemical products tested previously by other authors for the control of this disease in the field, it was also objective of this work to evaluate the potential of these products to inhibit the bacterium, at both in laboratory and in condition of natural infection. The results showed that P. ananatis was successfully isolated from 40% of the young lesions collected in the field and when inoculated in greenhouse (controlled conditions), it reproduced symptoms similar to what was observed in the field. Among the tested chemical products, the fungicide Mancozeb was the best in the control of the disease under field conditions, in agreement with previous reports. This product inhibited completely the bacterium in laboratory, explaining the results found in the field. The others products were not efficient to control the disease and they did not also inhibit the bacterium in laboratory. The results represent additional evidences that the bacterium P. ananatis is the causal agent of the maize white spot disease.

  10. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Martin; Dullemans, Annette; van den Heuvel, Hans; Maris, Paul; van der Vlugt, René

    2010-05-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus. PMID:20229114

  11. Drifting hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclusive reactions N + A ? N' + anything, where N is a light nucleus or an elementary particle and A nucleus, are analyzed in terms of a drifting hot spot. The model describes the spacetime evolution of the excited system in the preequilibrium stage. An approximate, simple, analytical formula for emission in the forward hemisphere is derived, which describes the angular and energy distribution, as well as the target mass dependence of electron, proton and 16O induced reactions in the energy range of a few hundred MeV. We find satisfactory agreement with data. (orig.)

  12. Differential expression profiling of orange-spotted grouper larvae, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), that survived a betanodavirus outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M-S; Chen, C-W; Lin, C-H; Tzeng, C-S; Chang, C-Y

    2012-03-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a piscine nodavirus, has caused serious viral nervous necrosis and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide range of marine teleost species worldwide in the last two decades. Although the mortality of NNV-infected larvae is nearly 100%, there are still some larvae that survive this catastrophe. To comprehensively understand the variations of these survivors at the molecular level, we collected orange-spotted grouper larvae that survived an NNV outbreak in an indoor hatchery in southern Taiwan to study differential gene expression. Healthy larvae with high, medium and low levels of detected NNV were compared with morbid larvae using a 9600-clone-containing grouper larva cDNA microarray, and differential gene expression was further confirmed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significant variation exists in healthy larvae. The following genes were upregulated: adenylate kinase 1-2, myosin binding protein H-like, myosin light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, fast/white muscle troponin T embryonic isoform, and parvalbumin 1 and 2 genes. The following genes were downregulated: apolipoprotein A-I, trypsinogen, pyruvate kinase and astacin-like metalloprotease. Moreover, immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene transcription was significantly higher in healthy larvae that had high virus levels, indicating that humoral immunity might protect organisms from viral infection. These results suggest that some non-immune-related genes may have played important roles in survival during the larval metamorphosis stage, after betanodavirus infection. PMID:22324345

  13. Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

  14. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  15. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  16. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  17. Pome Fruit Viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Loli?; Arben Myrta; Gordana ?uri?; Branka Krsti?

    2007-01-01

    Field surveys and laboratory tests were carried out to assess the sanitary status of pome fruit trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Field surveys were carried out in 10 orchards, two nurseries and one varietal collectione during 2005-2006. A total of 65 apple and 51 pear cultivars were tested for the presence of the four most important pome fruit viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The ...

  18. Correlations between symptoms and DAS - Elisa values in two sources of resistance against tomato spotted wilt virus Correlações entre sintomas de vira-cabeça e o teste serológico ELISA (DAS em duas diferentes fontes de resistência a tospoviroses em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane V. Resende

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, cultivars Ângela Gigante I-5100 and Santa Clara (tospovirus susceptible, the Stevens cultivar, lines and experimental hybrids (tospovirus resistant, were used: a to evaluate two sources of resistance to tospoviruses in tomato (one from L. esculentum/Rey de Los Tempranos, and another one from L. peruvianum/Stevens; and b to verify statistically significant correlation between virus concentration determined through DAS-ELISA and symptomatology. In the Ângela Gigante I-5100 and the Santa Clara cultivars, the correlation coefficient was highly significant and the symptom average level was high, showing that in susceptible cultivars the symptom evolution is related to the virus multiplication in the plant. As for the TOM 547 and TOM 556 lines (background of Ângela Gigante I-5100 and Santa Clara, respectively, there was no statistical correlation between the symptoms and the viral particle concentration. Plants with light virus symptoms showed high absorbance values. Consequently we may assume that the resistance with `Rey de Los Tempranos' background may be of the tolerant kind because the high virus concentration found does not necessarily relate to a high level of symptoms. In the lines BPX320E 3902-01, BPX320E 3905 and BPX320F 7902 (both with Santa Clara background only few plants showed symptoms, which can be explained by incomplete penetrance of Sw-5 gene. In the case of non-symptomatic plants, the diagnosis using DAS-ELISA revealed negative results. That outcome indicates that in some materials, where resistance is obtained from L. peruvianum, the virus multiplication in the tissues seemed not be present.As cultivares comerciais Ângela Gigante I-5100 e Santa Clara (suscetíveis a tospovírus, a cultivar Stevens, e híbridos experimentais F1 (resistentes a tospoviroses, foram utilizadas para: a avaliar duas fontes de resistência a tospovírus em tomate, uma derivada de Lycopersicon esculentum / `Rey de Los Tempranos', e a outra derivada de L. peruvianum/'Stevens'; b verificar se existe uma correlação entre a concentração de partículas, detectadas por ELISA (DAS e sintomatologia. Nas cultivares Ângela Gigante I-5100 e Santa Clara esta correlação foi altamente significativa, e o nível médio de sintomas foi alto indicando que em cultivares suscetíveis a evolução de sintomas acompanha a multiplicação do vírus na planta. Já para as linhagens TOM 547, e TOM 556, (background de Ângela Gigante I-5100 e Santa Clara respectivamente, não houve correlação entre a presença de sintomas e a concentração de partículas: plantas com sintomas leves do vírus, apresentaram altos valores de absorbância. Nas linhagens BPX320E 3902-01, BPX320E 3905 e BPX320E 7902 (background Santa Clara, poucas plantas apresentaram sintomas, o que é explicado pela penetrância incompleta do gene Sw-5. Para as plantas assintomáticas os diagnósticos empregando DAS-ELISA apresentaram resultados negativos, mostrando que em materiais cuja fonte de resistência é obtida de L. peruvianum, parece não haver a multiplicação do vírus nos tecidos, ou se houver a quantidade de partícula seria mínima, insuficiente para ser detectada por esta técnica.

  19. Localization of Pantoea ananatis inside lesions of maize white spot disease using transmission electron microscopy and molecular techniques / Localização da bactéria Pantoea ananatis no interior de lesões da doença mancha branca do milho por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e técnicas moleculares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleide A., Bomfeti; Edneia A., Souza-Paccola; Nelson S., Massola Júnior; Ivanildo E., Marriel; Walter F., Meirelles; Carlos R., Casela; Luzia D., Paccola-Meirelles.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O agente etiológico da mancha branca do milho (MBM) tem sido alvo de discussão e controvérsia. Inicialmente a doença foi descrita como sendo a mancha foliar de Phaeosphaeria causada por Phaeosphaeria maydis. Outros autores sugeriram a existência de diferentes espécies fúngicas provocando sintomas se [...] melhantes. Recentemente a bactéria Pantoea ananatis foi descrita como sendo o agente causal desta doença. O objetivo deste estudo foi oferecer informações adicionais sobre a correta etiologia da doença proporcionando evidências visuais da presença da bactéria no interior de lesões da MBM por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET) e técnicas moleculares. A MET permitiu visualizar um grande número de células bacterianas nos espaços intercelulares em lesões oriundas de plantas naturalmente e artificialmente infectadas. Estruturas fúngicas não foram visualizadas em lesões jovens. Primers bacterianos para os genes 16S rRNA e rpoB foram usados em reações de PCR para amplificar DNA extraído diretamente de lesões jovens e de lesões necróticas. O oligonucleotídeo universal para fungo, ITS4, foi incluído para identificar a possível presença de estruturas fúngicas nas lesões. Amplificação positiva foi obtida com primers bacterianos, a partir de lesões jovens, natural e artificialmente inoculadas, enquanto que nenhuma amplificação foi observada quando o oligonucleotídeo ITS4 foi usado. Amplificação do DNA com o primer ITS4 foi observada quando o DNA foi extraído de lesões em estádio avançado de necrose. Estes resultados reforçam relatos anteriores que descrevem P. ananatis como patógeno primário da doença e a hipótese de que espécies fúngicas podem colonizar lesões pré-estabelecidas pela P. ananatis. Abstract in english The etiological agent of maize white spot (MWS) disease has been a subject of controversy and discussion. Initially the disease was described as Phaeosphaeria leaf spot caused by Phaeosphaeria maydis. Other authors have suggested the existence of different fungal species causing similar symptoms. Re [...] cently, a bacterium, Pantoea ananatis, was described as the causal agent of this disease. The purpose of this study was to offer additional information on the correct etiology of this disease by providing visual evidence of the presence of the bacterium in the interior of the MWS lesions by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular techniques. The TEM allowed visualization of a large amount of bacteria in the intercellular spaces of lesions collected from both artificially and naturally infected plants. Fungal structures were not visualized in young lesions. Bacterial primers for the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were used in PCR reactions to amplify DNA extracted from water-soaked (young) and necrotic lesions. The universal fungal oligonucleotide ITS4 was also included to identify the possible presence of fungal structures inside lesions. Positive PCR products from water-soaked lesions, both from naturally and artificially inoculated plants, were produced with bacterial primers, whereas no amplification was observed when ITS4 oligonucleotide was used. On the other hand, DNA amplification with ITS4 primer was observed when DNA was isolated from necrotic (old) lesions. These results reinforced previous report of P. ananatis as the primary pathogen and the hypothesis that fungal species may colonize lesions pre-established by P. ananatis.

  20. Vaccine by Chicken Line Interaction Alters the Protective Efficacy against Challenge with a Very Virulent plus Strain of Marek’s Disease Virus in White Leghorn Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmin Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marek’s disease (MD is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV, an oncogenic and highly contagious ?-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine efficacy have continued in both research communities and vaccine industries. We reported the host genetic variation affecting Marek’s disease vaccine-induced immunity in chickens earlier. In this study, we evaluated chicken lines, vaccines, and line by vaccine interaction on the protective efficacy of vaccination against MD. Specific pathogen free chickens from the relatively resistant line 63 and the highly susceptible line 72 were primarily used to evaluate the protection by three kinds of vaccines (rMd5?Meq, CVI988/Rispens, and HVT upon challenge with a very virulent plus strain of MDV, vv+648A. Our data confirmed that both the chicken line and the vaccine significantly affected the protective efficacy of vaccination and showed that a chicken line by vaccine interaction, in most of the trials, also altered vaccine protective efficacy. More interestingly, although the protective index of all vaccine strains was higher in resistant than in susceptible line of chickens, the difference for HVT protection was striking and warrants further study. The findings may have important implications for vaccine development as well as for selective use of particular vaccines in specific lines of chickens to achieve maximum protection at minimized costs.

  1. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

  2. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2000 through 2010. Average annual incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever by age-group, 2000 through 2010: ... new category called Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis (including Rocky Mountain spotted fever). This change was made to better ...

  3. Spots on Am stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balona, L. A.; Catanzaro, G.; Abedigamba, O. P.; Ripepi, V.; Smalley, B.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the light variations of 15 Am stars using four years of high-precision photometry from the Kepler spacecraft and an additional 14 Am stars from the K2 Campaign 0 field. We find that most of the Am stars in the Kepler field have light curves characteristic of rotational modulation due to star-spots. Of the 29 Am stars observed, 12 are ? Scuti variables and one is a ? Doradus star. One star is an eclipsing binary and another was found to be a binary from time delay measurements. Two Am stars show evidence for flares which are unlikely to be due to a cool companion. The fact that 10 out of 29 Am stars are rotational variables and that some may even flare strongly suggests that Am stars possess significant magnetic fields. This is contrary to the current understanding that the enhanced metallicity in these stars is due to diffusion in the absence of a magnetic field. The fact that so many stars are ? Scuti variables is also at odds with the prediction of diffusion theory. We suggest that a viable alternative is that the metal enhancement could arise from accretion.

  4. Spots on Am stars

    CERN Document Server

    Balona, L A; Abedigamba, O P; Ripepi, V; Smalley, B

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the light variations of 15 Am stars using four years of high-precision photometry from the Kepler spacecraft and an additional 14 Am stars from the K2 Campaign 0 field. We find that most of the Am stars in the Kepler field have light curves characteristic of rotational modulation due to star spots. Of the 29 Am stars observed, 12 are {\\delta} Scuti variables and one is a {\\gamma} Doradus star. One star is an eclipsing binary and another was found to be a binary from time-delay measurements. Two Am stars show evidence for flares which are unlikely to be due to a cool companion. The fact that 10 out of 29 Am stars are rotational variables and that some may even flare strongly suggests that Am stars possess significant magnetic fields. This is contrary to the current understanding that the enhanced metallicity in these stars is due to diffusion in the absence of a magnetic field. The fact that so many stars are {\\delta} Scuti variables is also at odds with the prediction of diffusion theory. We su...

  5. White LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Georg; Debray, Alexandra; Heidel, Guenther; Hoehn, Klaus; Mueller, Ulrich; Schlotter, Peter

    1999-04-01

    Since several years light emitting diodes are in use to generate white light. Pixels with green, red and blue LED's are arranged to get any coordinate in the CIE--diagram with matched current for each diode. For instance Siemens Opto Semiconductor now OSRAM Opto Semiconductor offers multi chip LED's (LHGB T676) especially for the application above. A far better solution for producing white light represents luminescence conversion. The emitted light of blue diodes is used as a primary source for exciting organic or inorganic fluorescent. By conversion, `Stokes Shift', red, green, yellow and mixed colored light can be generated.

  6. Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-06-01

    In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

  7. Serological and molecular methods for surveillance of influenza A virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wallerstro?m, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    The natural reservoir for influenza A viruses is birds, and numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented. There is a risk of novel subtypes originating from birds infecting humans, and the question of migratory birds as long-distance vectors for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses has also been raised. Areas where migratory flyways meet and birds nest have been suggested as hot spots for influenza A viruses to m...

  8. Programming balanced optical beam splitters in white paint

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, S. R.; Huisman, T. J.; Goorden, S. A.; Mosk, A. P.; Pinkse, P. W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Wavefront shaping allows for ultimate control of light propagation in multiple-scattering media by adaptive manipulation of incident waves. We shine two separate wavefront-shaped beams on a layer of dry white paint to create two enhanced output speckle spots of equal intensity. We experimentally confirm by interference measurements that the output speckle spots are almost correlated like the two outputs of an ideal balanced beam splitter. The observed deviations from the pha...

  9. Hot spots in fiber pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on the behavior of ''bright spots'' in carbon and deuterium fiber Z-pinches using the MAGPIE generator at the I MA current level. The experimental diagnosis was carried out using optical and X-ray framing and streak images, along with Schlieren and shadowgraphy laser probing. After a short (?4 ns) duration formation phase, these bright spots exhibit highly dynamic behavior. Bifurcation of the bright spots gives rise to rapid axial motion at 1-3x105 m/sec. The post-bifurcation bright spots persist for up to 40 ns. The important features of bright spot evolution can be reproduced using a 2-D MHD code incorporating LTE ionization dynamics and cold start conditions. Construction of ''artificial'' diagnostic images from the simulation data allows direct comparison to experiment. From the close agreement between experiment and 2-D simulation we infer that the observed bright spot behavior can be explained entirely in terms of the non-linear evolution of the m=0 instability

  10. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413 Agriculture...Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both,...

  11. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with H? filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  12. Pome Fruit Viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Loli?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys and laboratory tests were carried out to assess the sanitary status of pome fruit trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Field surveys were carried out in 10 orchards, two nurseries and one varietal collectione during 2005-2006. A total of 65 apple and 51 pear cultivars were tested for the presence of the four most important pome fruit viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV. The most frequent viruses of apple were ACLSV (72% and ASPV (69%, whereas for pear those were ASGV (69% and ACLSV (64%. Biological indexing was more reliable than ELISA for virus detection. Multiplex RT-PCR results of 20 randomly selected apple cultivars were in line with biological indexing.This is the first report of the presence of ACLSV, ASPV, ASGV and ApMV in Bosnia and Herzegovina in pome fruits.

  13. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, potato virus Y (PVY, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, tobacco each virus (TEV and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV.The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were investigated for 4 years (2002-2005. During this period many different tobacco growing localities in Vojvodina and central Serbia were monitored and samples showing virus symptoms were collected. The collected samples were tested by DAS ELISA using polyclonal antisera, specific for the detection of PVY, TSWV, TMV, CMV, AMV and TRSV.The results obtained for the tobacco virus distribution during these four years of investigation proved the presence of four economically important viruses in our country, whose frequencies varied from year to year. In 2002, 2003 and 2004, the most frequent was TSWV(86.84%; 79% and 49.56%, respectively, while in 2005 PVY was prevalent (56.16%. All viruses detected in the samples tested were present in single or mixed infections. A corellation was established between the field symptoms on tobacco and the virus causal agents.The results obtained showed that TSWV and PVY were the most important tobacco viruses in our country, so that further research of tobacco virus diseases should be directed towards their more detailed characterization.

  14. Recombinant expression of the coat protein of Botrytis virus X and development of an immunofluorescence detection method to study its intracellular distribution in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boine, Barbara; Kingston, Richard L; Pearson, Michael N

    2012-11-01

    Botrytis cinerea is infected by many mycoviruses with varying phenotypical effects on the fungal host, including Botrytis virus X (BVX), a mycovirus that has been found in several B. cinerea isolates worldwide with no obvious effects on growth. Here we present results from serological and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) studies using antiserum raised against the coat protein of BVX expressed in Escherichia coli fused to maltose-binding protein. Due to the high yield of recombinant protein it was possible to raise antibodies that recognized BVX particles. An indirect ELISA, using BVX antibodies, detected BVX in partially purified virus preparations from fungal isolates containing BVX alone and in mixed infection with Botrytis virus F. The BVX antiserum also proved suitable for IFM studies. Intensely fluorescing spots (presumed to be virus aggregates) were found to be localized in hyphal cell compartments and spores of natural and experimentally infected B. cinerea isolates using IFM. Immunofluorescently labelled sections through fungal tissue, as well as fixed mycelia grown on glass slides, showed aggregations of virions closely associated with fungal cell membranes and walls, next to septal pores, and in hyphal tips. Also, calcofluor white staining of mature cell walls of virus-transfected Botrytis clones revealed numerous cell wall areas with increased amounts of chitin/glycoproteins. Our results indicate that some BVX aggregates are closely associated with the fungal cell wall and raise the question of whether mycoviruses may be able to move through the wall and therefore not be totally dependent on intracellular routes of transmission. PMID:22855784

  15. Polarization from an orbiting spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dov?iak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír; Matt, Giorgio

    2007-04-01

    The polarization from a spot orbiting around Schwarzschild and extreme Kerr black holes is studied. We assume different models of local polarization. Firstly, as a toy model we set local polarization vector either normal to the disc plane, or we assume strictly azimuthal direction. Then we examine more realistic situation with a spot arising due to the emission from the primary source above the disc. We employ either Rayleigh single scattering or Compton multiple scattering approximations. Overall flux, degree and angle of polarization integrated over the whole orbit as well as their time dependence during the spot revolution are examined as functions of the observer's inclination angle. The gravitational and Doppler shifts, lensing effect as well as time delays are taken into account.

  16. Positioning using SunSPOT

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Morten Christian

    2010-01-01

    Dead reckoning is a really hard challenge, that many robot builders will eventually face. A solution to this challenge might be to attach a SunSPOT to the robot, and let it calculate the position. If a large amount of data has to be transmitted back and forth to the SunSPOT, it will have a major impact on the time between each calculation of the position. Because a low time is preferred, the data transmission and the sampling should not happen at the same time. If only a very s...

  17. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  18. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  19. The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Strain George M; Schnabel Robert D; Famula Thomas R; Cargill Edward J; Murphy Keith E

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to de...

  20. IF YOU KNOW ONE VIRUS, YOU DON'T KNOW THEM ALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growers are encountering questions related to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) this season on their petunia, calibrachoa and nemesia crops. Although this is probably the best-known plant virus world-wide, it is not familiar to the average greenhouse grower. Because Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) h...

  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburu?, Mari?a Gabriela; Sa?ez-llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  2. Happy Birthday White House!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Doris; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An integrated elementary teaching package offers interesting facts about presidents and the White House. Cross-curricular activities focus on architecture, presidential birthplaces, portraits, communications, science, technology, touring the White House, children in the White House, a day in the life of the White House, and a White House birthday…

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2338 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2338 ref|NP_477662.1| wsv140 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33144.1| wsv1 ... 40 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89063.1| WSSV195 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477662.1 0.54 32% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1232 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1232 ref|NP_478006.1| wsv484 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33485.1| wsv4 ... 84 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL88879.1| WSSV011 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_478006.1 8.9 27% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1367 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1367 ref|NP_477616.1| wsv094 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33098.1| wsv0 ... 94 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89018.1| WSSV150 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477616.1 1.7 37% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 ref|NP_477758.1| wsv236 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33240.1| wsv2 ... 36 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89160.1| WSSV292 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477758.1 2.4 29% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 ref|NP_477761.1| wsv239 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33243.1| wsv2 ... 39 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89163.1| WSSV295 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] NP_477761.1 7e-05 36% ...

  8. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A Text ...

  9. Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots

    CERN Document Server

    Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

  10. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  11. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC-powered device that is a light source with a red and blue filter intended to test...

  12. Development of a novel baculovirus titration method using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cheng, Tong; Ma, Ke; Xia, Dezhen; Wang, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Du, Hailian; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-03-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the most powerful methods for production of recombinant proteins for research or commercial purposes. Titration of viable virus in insect cell culture is often required when BEVS is used for basic research or bioprocessing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay using monoclonal antibodies against the major capsid protein VP39 of both Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) was developed for baculovirus quantitation at 48h post-infection. The titer was determined by visualizing infected insect cells as blue spots and automated spot counting was achieved with ELISPOT hardware and software. Log-scale comparison of the results between the ELISPOT assay and a conventional end point dilution assay using a fluorescent marker showed a good correlation for both AcMNPV (R(2)=0.9980, pbaculovirus was developed based on the specific immunostaining of infected cells followed by automated spot counting. PMID:23274754

  13. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A. M.; Heuvel, J. F. J. M.; Maris, P. C.; Vlugt, R. A. A.

    2010-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV), both members of the genus Torradovirus. The name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed for this new torradovirus. M. Verbeek and A. Dullemans contributed to this re...

  14. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423 Agriculture ...Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented...

  15. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture ...Spotted Cotton § 28.425 Low Middling Spotted Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented...

  16. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture...Spotted Cotton § 28.422 Strict Middling Spotted Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented...

  17. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture ...Spotted Cotton § 28.421 Good Middling Spotted Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling...

  18. The Bandana Game: Spotted Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    In the open ocean around the Bahamas, pods of wild Spotted Dolphins frolic in the sunshine. Sometimes, they get bored and approach boats. In this educational video, Jonathan joins dolphin expert Wayne Scott Smith to learn how dolphins interact with each other. Jonathan learns how to play the Bandana Game, a game of -keep away- that the dolphins invented and like to play with Scott. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  19. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  20. RASPBERRY MOSAIC DISEASE, AN EXPANDING VIRUS UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberries are susceptible to multiple viruses, some of unknown etiology. Four of them are spread almost exclusively by aphids in the genus Amphorophora and make up the raspberry mosaic complex, which consists of Black raspberry necrosis, Rubus yellow net, Raspberry leaf spot, and Raspberry leaf m...

  1. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. WSSV ie1 promoter is more efficient than CMV promoter to express H5 hemagglutinin from influenza virus in baculovirus as a chicken vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The worldwide outbreak of influenza A (H5N1 viruses among poultry species and humans highlighted the need to develop efficacious and safe vaccines based on efficient and scaleable production. Results White spot syndrome virus (WSSV immediate-early promoter one (ie1 was shown to be a stronger promoter for gene expression in insect cells compared with Cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV promoter in luciferase assays. In an attempt to improve expression efficiency, a recombinant baculovirus was constructed expressing hemagglutinin (HA of H5N1 influenza virus under the control of WSSV ie1 promoter. HA expression in SF9 cells increased significantly with baculovirus under WSSV ie1 promoter, compared with CMV promoter based on HA contents and hemagglutination activity. Further, immunization with baculovirus under WSSV ie1 promoter in chickens elicited higher level anti-HA antibodies compared to CMV promoter, as indicated in hemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. By immunohistochemistry, strong HA antigen expression was observed in different chicken organs with vaccination of WSSV ie1 promoter controlled baculovirus, confirming higher efficiency in HA expression by WSSV ie1 promoter. Conclusion The production of H5 HA by baculovirus was enhanced with WSSV ie1 promoter, especially compared with CMV promoter. This contributed to effective elicitation of HA-specific antibody in vaccinated chickens. This study provides an alternative choice for baculovirus based vaccine production.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of extracellular copper zinc superoxide dismutase from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei following Vibrio alginolyticus and WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianxiao; Chen, Juan; Jiang, Dan; Liao, Shaoan; Wang, Anli

    2011-01-01

    The cDNA encoding an extracellular copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvECSOD) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. It consisted of 915 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 178 amino acids. The LvECSOD contains a putative signal peptide of 16 amino acids, two potential N-linked glycosylation sites (N(115)GTA and N(135)ITG) and a copper zinc superoxide dismutase family signature sequence (G(162)NAGaRvACctI(173)). It was found that four copper binding sites, four zinc binding sites and two cysteines involving in the formation of the disulfide bridge were conserved in the protein. LvECSOD shared 33-58% identity to ECSODs from other organisms. Expression analysis revealed that LvECSOD mRNA was widely distributed in all the tissues examined. When the shrimp challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), expression of LvECSOD mRNA in the hepatopancreas and hemocytes was mediated responsively. Our results suggested that LvECSOD was implicated in the immune response induced by V. alginolyticus and WSSV. PMID:20974259

  4. Oligonucleotide microarray-based detection and identification of 10 major tomato viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberini, Antonio; Tomassoli, Laura; Barba, Marina; Hadidi, Ahmed

    2010-09-01

    A DNA microarray chip was developed for screening 10 major economically important tomato viruses from infected plants using "Combimatrix" platform 40-mer oligonucleotide probes. A total of 279 oligonucleotide virus probes were specific for simultaneous multiple detection, identification, differentiation and/or genotyping of each of the following tomato RNA viruses and/or strains and a virus satellite: Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA, Tomatoinfectiouschlorosisvirus, Tomato chlorosisvirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Pepino mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus and Tomato mosaic virus. This selection included both positive and negative single-stranded RNA viruses. The single-stranded DNA viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus were detected but were not differentiated using probes designed from their coat protein genes. A sectored oligonucleotide microarray chip containing four sets of 2000 features (4 x 2 K) was designed. In this way, four samples were tested simultaneously in a hybridization event and 16 samples were analyzed by re-using the chip four times. The hybrids had low background signals. Many of the 40-mer oligonucleotide probes were specific for the detection and identification of each RNA viral species, RNA viral satellite and genotyping strains of Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepino mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Universal probes were developed for strains of the last three viruses and also for the genus Tobamovirus which includes both Tobacco mosaicvirus and Tomato mosaic virus. PMID:20470828

  5. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  6. Symbol Spotting in Digital Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Rusinol, Marcal

    2010-01-01

    The specific problem of symbol recognition in graphical documents requires additional techniques to those developed for character recognition. The most well-known obstacle is the so-called Sayre paradox: correct recognition requires good segmentation, yet improvement in segmentation is achieved using information provided by the recognition process. This dilemma can be avoided by techniques that identify sets of regions containing useful information. Such symbol-spotting methods allow the detection of symbols in maps or technical drawings without having to fully segment or fully recognize the e

  7. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F. [Foundation Joint Implementation Network JIN, Paterswolde (Netherlands); Overmars, P. (ed.) [Energy Delta Institute EDI, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection.

  8. Photometric variability of the unique magnetic white dwarf GD356

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkworth, C S; Wynn, G A; Marsh, T R

    2004-01-01

    GD356 is a magnetic white dwarf (B = 13MG) that uniquely displays weak resolved Zeeman triplets of Halpha and Hbeta in emission. As such, GD356 may be the only known white dwarf with some kind of chromosphere, although accretion from the interstellar medium or more exotic mechanisms cannot be ruled out. Here, we report the detection of low amplitude (+/-~0.2%) near-sinusoidal photometric (V-band) variability in GD356, with a period of 0.0803 days (~115 minutes). We interpret this as the rotation period of the star. We model the variability with a dark spot (by analogy with star spots) covering 10% of the stellar surface. It seems likely that this spot is also the site of the Zeeman emission, requiring the presence of a temperature inversion. We show that the spot is never totally visible or obscured, and that both polar and equatorial spots produce good fits to the data when viewed at high and low inclination respectively.

  9. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  10. Integrating Plant Essential Oils and Kaolin for the Sustainable Management of Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is one of the most devastating pest complexes affecting tomato in the southern USA and elsewhere. Field trials were conducted over two years to determine the effects of volatile plant essential oils and kaolin based particle films on the incidence of Tomato...

  11. New approaches for the management of tomato spotted wilt on tomatoes with plant essential oils and particle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus is a limiting factor in tomato production in the southern USA. Because insecticides do not effectively control primary infection by thrips immigrating into crop fields, we are investigating alternatives that would be effective and environmentally non-dis...

  12. X-ray spot filmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray apparatus is described which includes a spot filmer for feeding sheets of unexposed film one at a time into a vacuum evacuable cassette for exposure, and for returning exposed film sheets to an exposed film magazine. The spot filmer has a housing defining a light-tight enclosure. The film magazines are insertable through a door into the housing and into a film feed mechanism. The film feed mechanism unlatches, opens and positions the magazines; it then feeds a sheet of unexposed film into the vacuum evacuable cassette, releases the film sheet so the cassette can position the film sheet for exposure, and closes the film magazines. An orthogonal drive system positions the vacuum evacuable cassette to expose selected film sheet portions and returns the cassette to a retracted position. The film feed mechanism opens the magazines, feeds the exposed film sheet into the exposed film magazine, and closes the magazines. A film identification system is provided for forming an identifying image on a marginal portion of each film sheet

  13. Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivitz, Robert; Kendrick, Richard; Mason, James; Bold, Matthew; Kubo, Tracy; Bock, Kevin; Tyler, David

    2014-07-01

    Lockheed Martin has built a Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility at our Santa Cruz test site in Northern California. SPOT consists of three 1 meter optical telescopes controlled by a common site management system to individually or cooperatively task each system to observe orbital debris and earth orbiting satellites. The telescopes are mounted in Az/El fork mounts capable of rapid repointing and arc-sec class open loop tracking. Each telescope is installed in a separate clam shell dome and has aft mounted benches to facilitate installing various instrument suites. The telescope domes are mounted on movable rail carts that can be positioned arbitrarily along tracks to provide variable baselines for sparse aperture imaging. The individual telescopes achieved first light in June 2012 and have been used since to observe satellites and orbital debris. Typical observations consist of direct photometric imaging at visible and near infrared wavelengths, and also include spectroscopic and hypertemporal measurements. Rayleigh beacon adaptive optical systems for atmospheric aberration correction and high rate J-Band trackers for each telescope will be added in 2015. Coherent combinations of the three telescopes as an interferometric imaging array using actively stabilized free space variable delay optical paths and fringe tracking sensors is also planned. The first narrow band (I band) interferometric fringes will be formed in the summer of 2014, with wide band (R, I, H) interferometric imaging occurring by early 2015.

  14. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the white dwarfs through the formation of strong radiating shock waves. A comparative study of the IPS and Polars can elucidate the primary effects of the magnetic fields on the dynamics and thermodynamics in accreting white dwarf systems.

  15. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  16. Virological monitoring of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) for avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T; Hlinak, A; Freuling, C; Mühle, R U; Engelhardt, A; Globig, A; Schulze, C; Starick, E; Eggers, U; Sass, B; Wallschläger, D; Teifke, J; Harder, T; Conraths, F J

    2009-12-01

    Between 2003 and 2008, more than 600 white stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings in the German federal state of Brandenburg were ringed and examined for influenza A viruses. With the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 among wild birds in Germany in spring 2006, dead wild birds, including 88 white storks, were tested for infection with HPAIV. Furthermore, fresh fecal samples were examined by RT-PCR to monitor the occurrence of HPAIV in adult storks. While the monitoring of nestlings and adult white storks failed to yield evidence of influenza A virus infections in these birds, two storks found dead in April 2006 in the same location tested positive for HPAIV H5N1. Sequence analysis revealed that the virus isolated from one of the storks belonged to clade 2.2, which was commonly found in wild birds in the north of Germany and other European countries during the epidemic in 2006. Despite these two cases, white storks seemed to serve as neither a vector nor as a reservoir for HPAIV in Germany. The risk of white storks transmitting HPAIV to domestic poultry and humans is low. PMID:20095160

  17. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m-1. For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m-1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  18. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zindovi?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV, Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, Potato Virus Y (PVY, Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV, Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV and Potato Virus X(PVX. This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test with specific monoclonal antibodies.Serological results proved the presence of four tobacco viruses (TMV, CMV, PVY and AMV, while TSWV, TRSV and PVX were not found in the tested samples of tobacco crops in Montenegro. The results also showed that TMV and CMV were the most frequent (44.6% and 41.5% of tested samples, respectively followed by PVY (15.4% and the least frequent AMV (3.1%. Most samples were infected with one of the examined viruses. In the PVY population found in Montenegro, its necrotic strain (PVYN was absolutely predominant.The results indicated the significance of TMV and CMV concerning tobacco viral infections in Montenegro, as well as a necessity of their detailed characterization at biological and molecular level.

  19. A comparison of the Great Red Spot with temporary spots on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, G. C.; Meadows, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The International Planetary Patrol collection of Jupiter photographs is used to examine the development of a temporary spot that was visible in the northern equatorial zone for a total of 211 days. The motion and color of this spot are compared with those of the Great Red Spot. It is shown that the temporary spot was bluer than the Great Red Spot and has a longitudinal oscillation of approximately 4 deg with a period of about 45 days, implying that it may have possessed a significant dynamical property in common with other temporary spots and the Great Red Spot. It is concluded that the present spot is more likely to have been associated with a hole in the cloud deck rather than with an elevated surface feature.

  20. Virus Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in gen...

  1. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  2. Time-Domain Interferometry of Surface Plasmons at Nonlinear Continuum Hot Spots in Films of Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Philippe; Haug, Tobias; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear continuum generation from diffraction-limited hot spots in rough silver films exhibits striking narrow-band intensity resonances in excitation wavelength. Time-domain Fourier spectroscopy uncovers how these resonances arise due to the formation of a "plasmon staircase", a discreteness in the fundamental oscillation of the plasmon excitations responsible for generating the white-light continuum. Whereas multiple scattering from discrete antennas can be invoked to explain hot spot formation in random assemblies of isolated particles, hot spots in films of fused nanoparticles are excited by interfering propagating surface plasmons, launched by scattering from individual nanoparticle antennas. For closed films, discrete propagating plasmons interact coherently over distances of tens of microns to pump the hot spot.

  3. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  4. Hot White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Sion, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    The article covers the physical properties and evolution of single white dwarfs ranging in temperature from 20,000K to 200,000 and higher, the hottest know electron-degenerate stars. After discussing the classification of their spectra, the author reviews the known properties, parameters, evolutionary state, as well as persisting and new puzzles regarding all spectroscopic subclasses of hot white dwarfs: the hot DA white dwarfs, the DAO white dwarfs, the PG1159 degenerates, ...

  5. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  6. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  7. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  8. Modelling of the Resistance Spot Welding Process

    OpenAIRE

    Govik, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A literature survey on modelling of the resistance spot welding process has been carried out and some of the more interesting models on this subject have been reviewed in this work. The underlying physics has been studied and a brief explanation of Heat transfer, electrokinetics and metallurgy in a resistance spot welding context have been presented.\

  9. Genome Areas with High Gene Density and CpG Island Neighborhood Strongly Attract Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus for Integration and Favor the Formation of Hot Spots? †

    OpenAIRE

    Moalic, Y.; Fe?lix, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Jestin, A.; Blanchard, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are members of the gammaretrovirus genus and display integration preferences around transcription start sites, a finding which is similar to the preferences of the murine leukemia virus (MLV). Our new genome-wide analysis of the integration profile of a recombinant PERV (PERV A/C), enabled us to examine more than 1,900 integration sites and identify 224 integration hot spots. Investigation of the possible genome features involved in hot-spot formation re...

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses. PMID:18385370

  11. Colors and luminosities of stars with spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, H. C.; Weiss, A.

    1986-09-01

    Theoretical zero-age main sequence models from 0.2 to 1.9 solar masses have been made for stars with large sunspot-like spots, and their black body UBVRIJK colors calculated. The effect of spots is different on long and short time scales (compared with the thermal time scale of the convection zone) and differs between mainly convective and mainly radiative stars. During a short term increase in spot area the stars always become redder in all color indices, but the long term change can be either to the blue or the red, depending on stellar mass and the color index used. The anomalies in color diagrams predicted for Hyades stars are much smaller than those discussed by Campbell (1984), unless a spot coverage factor close to unity is assumed. It is suggested that these color anomalies may reflect the brightening in short wavelength bands due to chromospheric emission rather than the effect of spots themselves.

  12. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T; Almond, D P; Rees, D A S; Weekes, B, E-mail: D.P.Almond@bath.ac.u

    2010-03-01

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  13. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  14. Element spots in HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade now the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are known to be distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Temporal evolution of these elemental spots have been reported in a few HgMn stars, first secular evolution of the mercury spots in alpha And, and recently also a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the affected elements. In this paper I review what is known of elemental spots in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

  15. The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to determine the underlying genes involved in coat color determination in the dog, e.g., in the Labrador Retriever, but none to date have addressed black versus liver in the Dalmatian. Results A genome scan was conducted in a multi-generational kindred of Dalmatians segregating black and liver spot color. Linkage analysis was performed using a total of 113 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the kindred. Linkage was found between spot color and a single microsatellite marker, FH2319 (LOD = 12.5 on chromosome 11. Conclusion The TYRP1 (Brown locus is located at position 50.1 Mb on chromosome 11, which is approximately 0.4 Mb from marker FH2319. Given the recent characterization of TYRP1 genetic variations in the dog and the linkage evidence reported here, TYRP1 is likely responsible for the spot color variation of black versus liver seen in the Dalmatian.

  16. Probabilistic modelling of the high-pressure arc cathode spot displacement dynamic

    CERN Document Server

    Coulombe, S

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic modelling approach for the study of the cathode spot displacement dynamic in high-pressure arc systems is developed in an attempt to interpret the observed voltage fluctuations. The general framework of the model allows to define simple, probabilistic displacement rules, the so-called cathode spot dynamic rules, for various possible surface states (un-arced metal, arced, contaminated) and to study the resulting dynamic of the cathode spot displacements over one or several arc passages. The displacements of the type-A cathode spot (macro-spot) in a magnetically rotating arc using concentric electrodes made up of either clean or contaminated metal surfaces is considered. Experimental observations for this system revealed a 1/f sup - sup t sup i sup l sup d sup e sup 1 signature in the frequency power spectrum (FPS) of the arc voltage for anchoring arc conditions on the cathode (e.g. clean metal surface), while it shows a 'white noise' signature for conditions favouring a smooth movement (e.g. ox...

  17. AY Ceti: A flaring, spotted star with a hot companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, T.; Fekel F.C. Jr.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-08-01

    AY Ceti is a late-type single-line spectroscopic binary, a bright X-ray source (L/sub x/roughly-equal1.5 x 10/sup 31/ ergs s/sup -1/), and a spotted star, as evidenced by its prominent photometric wave. In this paper, we report on observations made with the IUE satellite and the VLA radio interferometer. The 1200--2000 A UV spectrum of AY Cet shows a hot stellar continuum and a very broad Ly..cap alpha.. absorption line from a previously unobserved white dwarf secondary. The UV spectrum can be matched to the energy distribution of a (T/sub eff/ = 18,000 K, log g = 8) model atmosphere. Superposed on this hot continuum are high-excitation emission lines typical of chromospheres and transition regions of active late-type stars, e.g., the spotted RS CVn binaries. We conclude that the bright lines and soft X-ray emission of AY Cet arise from the cool primary star, rather than from mass transfer and accretion onto the secondary as has recently been proposed for the similar system 56 Peg. Two strong radio flares on AY Cet were observed. The second was rapidly variable and left-hand circularly polarized at levels up to ..pi../sub c/ = 86 +- 5% at 20 cm wavelength. The most likely radio emission mechanism is an electron-cyclotron maser.

  18. Spot them in the spot: analysis of abused substances using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadones, Nele; Capiau, Sara; De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2014-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and DBS analysis have increasingly received attention during recent years. Furthermore, a substantial number of DBS methods has recently become available in clinical, forensic and occupational toxicology. In this review, we provide an overview of the different DBS-based methods that have been developed for detecting (markers of) abused substances. These include both legal and illegal drugs belonging to different categories, including cannabinoids, cocaine and metabolites, opioids, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, amphetamines and analogs, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, ketamine and novel psychoactive substances such as cathinones. Markers of ethanol consumption and tobacco use are also covered in this review. Since the majority of published methods has shown promising results overall, an interesting role for DBS analysis in diverse toxicological applications can be envisaged. For the distinct applications, we discuss the specific potential and benefits of DBS, the associated limitations and challenges, as well as recent developments and future perspectives. PMID:25383733

  19. A mammalian spot test: induction of genetic alterations in pigment cells or mouse embryos with X-rays and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryos heterozygous for five recessive coat-color genes from the cross C57 BL/6 J Han x T-stock were X-irradiated with 100 r or treated in utero with 50 mg/kg methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), respectively. Controls consisted of irradiated embryos of C57 BL x C57 BL matings homozygous wild-type for the genes under study, and non-treated offspring of both types of mating. The colors of the spots observed in the adult fur were either due to expression of the recessive coat genes or were white. 1) Irradiated and mutagen-treated offspring of C57 BL x T-stock matings had almost exclusively nonwhite spots, distributed randomly over the mouse surface. 2) Irradiated offspring of C57 BL x C57 BL matings had only white spots which were always midventral. 3) In non-treated offspring of both types of mating no spot could be observed. It is discussed that the white midventral spots are preferentially the result of pigment cell killing, while the nonwhite spots are preferentially the result of gene mutations or recombinational processes like mitotic crossing over and mitotic gene conversion. (orig./BSC)

  20. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are {\\it not} particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below $c$, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above $c...

  1. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture...Cotton § 28.424 Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range...

  2. Análise ultra-estrutural de folhas de três espécies de Solanaceae após inoculação com o vírus da necrose branca do tomateiro (VNBT - Tymovirus) / Ultrastructural analysis of leaves from three species of Solanaceae after inoculation with the tomato white necrosis virus (TWNV - Tymovirus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FRANCISCO ANDRÉ OSSAMU, TANAKA; SÍLVIA RODRIGUES, MACHADO; MARIA MÉRCIA, BARRADAS.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ultra-estrutura foliar das solanáceas Nicotiana glutinosa L., Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium L. e Physalis angulata L. inoculadas com o vírus da necrose branca do tomateiro (VNBT - Tymovirus). As plantas mantidas em casa-de-vegetação com temperatura constante de 25 °C foram inoculadas [...] quando apresentavam três a quatro folhas totalmente expandidas. Quinze dias após a inoculação, foram coletadas amostras do terço médio do limbo da 3ª ou da 4ª folha a partir do ápice. As amostras foram preparadas para análise em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão segundo técnicas convencionais. A análise ultra-estrutural das células do clorênquima revelou principalmente vesiculação e vacuolação dos cloroplastos e de mitocôndrias, além da ocorrência de corpos multivesiculares e ligeira dilatação dos plasmodesmos em N. glutinosa e L. pimpinellifolium. Nestas duas espécies foram observadas "virus-like-particles" no citoplasma e nos vacúolos. Plantas de P. angulata não mostraram alterações de ultra-estrutura. As observações macroscópicas, os testes de retroinoculação e as análises ultra-estruturais revelaram sintomas locais e sistêmicos em N. glutinosa, latência em L. pimpinellifolium e imunidade em P. angulata. Abstract in english The leaf ultrastructure of Nicotiana glutinosa L., Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium L., and Physalis angulata L. inoculated with the tomato white necrosis virus (TWNV - Tymovirus) was analysed. Plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25 °C and inoculated with the virus when tree to four leaves were totally [...] developed. Fifteen days after inoculation, samples were collected from the median third of the 3rd or 4th leaf from the apex. The samples were prepared for analysis using conventional transmission electron microscope techniques. The ultrastructural analysis of the chlorenquima cells showed vesiculation and vacuolation of the chloroplasts and mitochondria, presence of multivesicular bodies, and a slight dilation of the plasmodesmata in N. glutinosa and L. pimpinellifolium. In these two species, virus-like particles were seen in the cytoplasm and vacuoles. P. angulata plants did not show subcellular alterations. Macroscopic observations, retroinoculation tests, and ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of local and systemic symptoms in N. glutinosa, latency in L. pimpinellifolium, and immunity in P. angulata.

  3. Fundus Autofluorescence in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Michel Eid Farah; Eduardo Vitor Navajas; Amp Bio Bom Aggio, F.; Fernando Marcondes Penha

    2011-01-01

    A patient complained of photopsia and vision loss in the left eye for two days, with visual acuity of 20/32. Right eye was normal. Funduscopy revealed foveal granularity and gray-white lesions in the posterior pole, mainly temporal to the fovea. The lesions (dots and spots), along with a few other areas surrounding them, showed hyperautofluorescence on autofluorescence imaging. Fluorescein angiogram (FA) depicted some early hyperfluorescent dots with late staining. Indocyanine green angiogram...

  4. ASTRO-H White Paper - White Dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, K.; Yuasa, T.; Harayama, A.; Hayashi, T.; Ishida, M.; Long, K. S.; Terada, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Group, On Behalf Of The Astro-h Science Working

    2014-01-01

    Interacting binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion --- cataclysmic variables (CVs) in which the mass loss is via Roche-lobe overflow, and symbiotic stars in which the white dwarf captures the wind of a late type giant --- are relatively commonplace. They display a wide range of behaviors in the optical, X-rays, and other wavelengths, which still often baffles observers and theorists alike. They are likely to be a significant contributor to the Gal...

  5. Modelling turbulent spots in swept boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A linear perturbation method can capture the important flow features within a turbulent spot. • The horseshoe vortex in the perturbed velocity field is the dominant flow feature. • Sweep leads to skewing of the turbulent spot and calmed region. • The effects of pressure gradient are generally reduced by sweep. -- Abstract: A computational technique is presented for determining the fully 3-d viscid unsteady perturbation to a non-developing laminar swept boundary layer. For zero pressure gradient, unswept boundary layers, the perturbation method reveals a strongly three dimensional flow within the turbulent spot and its associated calmed region which is very similar to that observed in experiments and full DNS calculations. The perturbation method cannot predict turbulent motion but nevertheless provides a simple yet accurate means of studying and understanding the development of turbulent spot geometry. The most influential flow feature is the horseshoe vortex observed in the fluctuation velocity field, which is responsible for delivering the fluid found in the calmed region between its trailing legs. The upwards flow around the outer periphery of the vortex is also responsible for delivering low momentum fluid to the spot, but additional high momentum fluid also enters the spot from its rear through the downward sweeping motion of fluid between the vortex legs. The effect of an adverse streamwise pressure gradient is to increase the size of the spot and calmed region whereas a favourable pressure gradient has the opposite effect. When sweep is introduced to the boundary layer the spot is skewed for all non-zero pressure gradients, but the changes in size of the spot and calmed region due to pressure gradient are reduced. For favourable pressure gradients the skew increases monotonically with sweep, but this is not the case for adverse pressure gradients where the effect of sweep is more complex

  6. Development of a PCR Diagnostic System for Iris yellow spot tospovirus in Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Gil; Rho, Jae-Young

    2014-12-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a plant pathogenic virus which has been reported to continuously occur in onion bulbs, allium field crops, seed crops, lisianthus, and irises. In South Korea, IYSV is a "controlled" virus that has not been reported, and inspection is performed when crops of the genus Iris are imported into South Korea. In this study, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR inspection methods, which can detect IYSV, from imported crops of the genus Iris at quarantine sites, were developed. In addition, a modified positive plasmid, which can be used as a positive control during inspection, was developed. This modified plasmid can facilitate a more accurate inspection by enabling the examination of a laboratory contamination in an inspection system. The inspection methods that were developed in this study are expected to contribute, through the prompt and accurate inspection of IYSV at quarantine sites to the plant quarantine in South Korea. PMID:25506310

  7. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Grassi; Giancarlo Rufino

    2012-01-01

    The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the...

  8. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kola?ík; Miroslav Sahul; Marie Kola?íková; Martin Sahul; Milan Tur?a; Michal Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA). Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to e...

  9. Spot scanning system for proton radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, T; Kawachi, K; Kumamoto, Y; Ogawa, H; Yamada, T; Matsuzawa, H; Inada, T

    1980-01-01

    In order to provide a uniform and desirable dose distribution over a large radiation field, spot beam scanning is one of the most useful methods. A new spot beam scanning system was constructed for a 70 MeV proton beam. The lateral dose distribution was uniform with +/- 2.5% for an 18 cm square field. It was possible to control the dose at each point in the radiation field by this spot scanning method. This system has been confirmed to be satisfactory for delivering a proton beam in the desired field shape and dose level. PMID:6248752

  10. Obesity Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2007-06-12

    Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

  11. Formation of white-eye pattern with microdischarge in an air dielectric barrier discharge system

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yafeng; Dong, Lifang; Liu, Weili; Wang, Hongfang; Zhao, Zengchao; Fan, Weili

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first observation of white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as following: random spots - quasihexagonal pattern - hexagonal pattern (type I) - hexagonal pattern (type II) - white-eye pattern - chaos as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of patterned discharges are investigated by using an optical method. Results show that the two discharge modes, uniform mode and fila...

  12. Does an Average White Dwarf Have Enough Mass to Prevent an Accretion Disk Tilt?

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent publication, we introduce the lift force as a common source to accretion disk tilt that is likely relevant to accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether the average white dwarf has enough mass to prevent a disk tilt in non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) with accretion disks. Assuming a white dwarf mass of 0...

  13. Detection and identification of the first viruses in chia (Salvia hispanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Marcos G; Perotto, Maria C; Martino, Julia A; Flores, Ceferino R; Conci, Vilma C; Pardina, Patricia Rodriguez

    2014-09-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina. PMID:25243369

  14. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Celli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica, an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  15. Jupiter' high-latitude storms: a Little Red Spot tracked through a Jovian year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.; Adamoli, G.; Mettig, H.-J.

    2011-02-01

    As well as the Great Red Spot, Jupiter sometimes presents one or more Little Red Spots (LRSs) in various latitudes. An LRS is often seen in the North North Temperate Zone (NNTZ), but the frequency and properties of these ovals have never been studied in detail. Here we review all our records of the red, white, and methane-bright anticyclonic ovals in the NNTZ. There is a simple conclusion: A single LRS, which we name NN-LRS-1, has persisted from 1993 to 2009. It has varied in colour between red and off-white, but has been methane-bright throughout these years. This now ranks among the most long-lived spots ever recorded on the planet. There is always at least one other oval in this latitude. This was a second methane-bright LRS from 1994-1997, and there was also a smaller LRS in 2006. The other ovals are all white; two have lasted for four years or more and were sometimes methane-bright; others have had shorter lives and were not. These results suggest that red colour, and the high-level haze that accompanies it, are correlated with the size and longevity of the oval. All these ovals have variable speeds, alternating irregularly between slow (~ 1°/month in System II longitude) and fast (~ 12°/month). The latitudes of the ovals range from 40 to 41.5°N, and correlate closely with their instantaneous speeds. However the larger, longer-lived ovals (especially the LRS) are centred systematically further south than the smaller white ovals, because they distort the retrograding jetstream more deeply. Similar behaviour in other domains on the planet explains how ovals of different sizes move with a single slow current while also being sensitive to the zonal speed gradient. An oval at 60°S shows very similar behaviour and has probably existed since 1994 or earlier.

  16. The sweet spot of a baseball bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    1998-09-01

    The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the "feel" of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

  17. How the Mushroom Got Its Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    In this activity (p.26 of PDF), learners discover why mushrooms have spots. Learners use a balloon, toilet paper, and water to simulate what happens as mushrooms grow. This activity can also function as a group demonstration.

  18. Scientists Spot Gene Linked to Tanning 'Addiction'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Scientists Spot Gene Linked to Tanning 'Addiction' Understanding biology behind dependence important because of rising ... variant may be more likely to develop an "addiction" to tanning, a preliminary study suggests. The idea ...

  19. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-07-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H{sub 2} gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs.

  20. Epidemiology of apple leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRUSIUS LUCIANO U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple leaf spot (ALS caused by Colletotrichum spp. is a major disease of apple (Malus domestica in Southern Brazil. The epidemiology of this disease was studied in experiments carried out in the counties of Passo Fundo and Vacaria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, from February 1998 to October 2000. The disease was found in all the six apple orchards sampled in the growing seasons of 1997/98 and 1998/99. The fungus isolates associated with ALS fit the characteristics of C. gloeosporioides (75%, C. acutatum (8%, and Colletotrichum sp. (17%. The pathogen overwintered in dormant buds and twigs but not in dropped leaves or fruit mummies. Two sprays of copper oxychloride (at 0.3% reduced the fungus initial inoculum by 65-84.6% in buds and 85.6-93.7% in twigs, but had no effect on the early season progress of the disease. Disease severity increased proportionally to elevation of temperature from 14 to 26-28 °C. At 34 °C, however, infection was completely inhibited. The duration of leaf wetness required for infection ranged from two hours at 30 °C to 32 h at 16 °C. The relationship of temperature (T and leaf wetness (W to disease severity (Y was represented by the model equation Y = 0.00145[((T-131.78((34.01-T 1.09] * 25/[1+14 exp(-0.137W], R² = 0.73 and P < 0.0001. Currently, this information is being used to manage the disease and to validate a forecast system for ALS.

  1. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Akinci, Adrian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leichty, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaffer, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murphy, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munger, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Keith A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to see a three region response as the results from the smaller spot size Type C detonators are completed.

  2. Actor based framework for SunSPOTs

    OpenAIRE

    Askirk, David Christian

    2009-01-01

    This project covers the development of an actor-based framework for the SunSPOT platform, a wireless sensor from Sun Microsystems. It covers the possibility for implementing a framework, given a hardware unit with built in communication stack. Different languages will be compared to the actor definition and whether they can be used on the J2ME platform. Implementation of load balancing will be attempted. Communication on the SunSPOT is tested and the results show that once a...

  3. Power Spot Price Models with negative Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Negative prices for electricity are a novelty in European power markets. At the German EEX spot market negative hourly prices have since occurred frequently, down to values as extreme as minus several hundred €/MWh. However, in some non-European markets as USA, Australia and Canada, negative prices are a characteristic for a longer period already. Negative prices are in fact natural for electricity spot trading: plant flexibility is limited and costly, thus, incurring a negative price for a...

  4. Price dynamics in electricity spot markets

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Paraschiv; Michael Schürle

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel regime-switching approach for the simulation of electricity spot prices that is inspired by the class of fundamental models and takes into account the relation between spot and forward prices. Additionally the model is able to reproduce spikes and negative prices. Market prices are derived given an observed forward curve. We distinguish between a base regime and an upper as well as a lower spike regime. The model parameters are calibrated using historical hourly price forwa...

  5. White Men Write Now

    OpenAIRE

    Manson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary literature by white men in the United States about the identity "white man" largely focuses on two themes: destabilized structures of identity and their reinforcement. This concern with the threat to identity structures of race and gender is an old one in American literature. However, it takes on a new meaning in the present postmodern climate that challenges master narratives and their reinscription by forces which sustain them. White Men Write Now repeatedly returns to the thes...

  6. Accreting white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hernanz, Margarita; Jose?, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Thermonuclear (type Ia) supernovae are explosions in accreting white dwarfs, but the exact scenario leading to these explosions is still unclear. An important step to clarify this point is to understand the behaviour of accreting white dwarfs in close binary systems. The characteristics of the white dwarf (mass, chemical composition, luminosity), the accreted material (chemical composition) and those related with the properties of the binary system (mass accretion rate), are...

  7. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica)

    OpenAIRE

    Celli, Marcos G.; Perotto, Maria C.; Martino, Julia A.; Flores, Ceferino R.; Conci, Vilma C.; Patricia Rodriguez Pardina

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICT...

  8. Spots, spot-cycles, and magnetic fields of late-type dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of observational knowledge concerning spots, spot-cycles and surface magnetic fields on active late-type dwarfs is reviewed. The discussion centers primarily on the physical characteristics of starspots on BY Dra-type stars, including spot sizes, temperatures, structural morphology, migratory motions, and activity cycles. The discussion will also include some references to similar spot phenomena on the RS CVn stars. Observational evidence for surface magnetic fields on these stars, and on chromospherically-active G and K dwarfs, is also reviewed. (Auth.)

  9. An Unusual Strain of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Detected in Crotalaria L. Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    A G Gillaspie, Jr; Barkley, N. A.; Morris, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Virus isolates from Crotalaria plants in germplasm regeneration plots in Griffin, GA were found to produce an unexpected wilting and necrosis on Nicotiana benthamiana. DAC-ELISA tests produced positive results for alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) and a mixture of viruses including cucumber mosaic, blackeye cowpea mosaic, peanut stunt and white clover mosaic viruses. After serial transfer of an isolate from C. juncea in N. benthamiana in the greenhouse, only AlMV could be detected by ELISA while th...

  10. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28.411 Agriculture...Cotton § 28.411 Good Middling Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both,...

  11. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28.412 Agriculture...Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both,...

  12. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28.415 Agriculture...Cotton § 28.415 Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both,...

  13. White Dwarf Convection Preceding Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    In the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae, a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf `simmers' for centuries preceding the ultimate explosion. During this period, reactions near the center drive convection throughout most of the interior of the white dwarf. The details of this convective flow determine how the first flames in the white dwarf ignite. Simulating this phase is difficult because the flows are highly subsonic. Using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, we present 3-d, full star models of the final hours of this convective phase, up to the point of ignition of a Type Ia supernova. We discuss the details of the convective velocity field and the locations of the initial hot spots. Finally, we show some preliminary results with rotation. Support for this work came from the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 (Stony Brook), the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and the DOE SciDAC program, under grant No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC). We made use of the jaguar machine via a DOE INCITE allocation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computational Facility.

  14. Serial Transmission of Plant Viruses by Cutting During Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reciprocal grafts of two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars were made by hand using commercial grafting techniques. The razor blade used to cut rootstock or scion was first contaminated by making a single cut on tomato plants infected with either tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) or tomato m...

  15. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  16. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. erential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  17. Are hot-spots occluded from water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Irina Sousa; Ramos, Rui Miguel; Martins, Joao Miguel; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are the basis of many biological processes and are governed by focused regions with high binding affinities, the warm- and hot-spots. It was proposed that these regions are surrounded by areas with higher packing density leading to solvent exclusion around them - "the O-ring theory." This important inference still lacks sufficient demonstration. We have used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the validity of the O-ring theory in the context of the conformational flexibility of the proteins, which is critical for function, in general, and for interaction with water, in particular. The MD results were analyzed for a variety of solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) features, radial distribution functions (RDFs), protein-water distances, and water residence times. The measurement of the average solvent-accessible surface area features for the warm- and hot-spots and the null-spots, as well as data for corresponding RDFs, identify distinct properties for these two sets of residues. Warm- and hot-spots are found to be occluded from the solvent. However, it has to be borne in mind that water-mediated interactions have significant power to construct an extensive and strongly bonded interface. We observed that warm- and hot-spots tend to form hydrogen bond (H-bond) networks with water molecules that have an occupancy around 90%. This study provides strong evidence in support of the O-ring theory and the results show that hot-spots are indeed protected from the bulk solvent. Nevertheless, the warm- and hot-spots still make water-mediated contacts, which are also important for protein-protein binding. PMID:23384183

  18. Spotted Star Light Curves with Enhanced Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-09-01

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  19. White-Eye Hexagonal Pattern in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Dong, Lifang; Wang, Yongjie; Fu, Hongyan; Gao, Yenan

    2014-12-01

    The white-eye hexagonal pattern (WEHP) is firstly observed in a dielectric barrier discharge system and its structure is investigated using a high speed framing camera and a lens-aperture photomultiplier tube system. It bifurcates from a honeycomb pattern as the applied voltage is increased. A phase diagram of the pattern types as a function of gas pressure and gas content is presented. The frames integrated 15 and 100 of voltage cycles respectively show that the WEHP is an interleaving of two hexagonal sub-structures, one of which consists of central spots and the other consists of diffusion rings. The frame corresponding to the second current pulse in each half voltage cycle indicates that the diffusion ring is composed of several filaments, which is further confirmed by the light signals of the white-eye. The results show that wall charges play an important role in the formation of the white-eye hexagonal pattern.

  20. Emerging Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy.

    Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

  1. MR imaging of white matter lesions in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autopsy reports have shown white-matter abnormalities from infection of the brain by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors observed abnormal signal on T2-weighted images in the white matter of approximately one third of all AIDS patients. Of 50 patients with white-matter lesions, approximately two thirds had no clinical or biopsy evidence of cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, PML, or lymphoma. Several patients were shown at autopsy to have isolated evidence of HIV encephalitis. The authors conclude that white-matter lesions are common in AIDS and are frequently caused by infection with HIV. Some MR findings may be helpful in characterizing these lesions, but the various etiologies are often indistinguishable

  2. Formation of white-eye pattern with microdischarge in an air dielectric barrier discharge system

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yafeng; Liu, Weili; Wang, Hongfang; Zhao, Zengchao; Fan, Weili

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first observation of white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as following: random spots - quasihexagonal pattern - hexagonal pattern (type I) - hexagonal pattern (type II) - white-eye pattern - chaos as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of patterned discharges are investigated by using an optical method. Results show that the two discharge modes, uniform mode and filamentary mode, are actually two different spatial presentations of the same origin: the microdischarge. From the viewpoint of pattern dynamics, the white-eye pattern results from a 3-wave resonance interaction.

  3. Auroral bright spots on the dayside oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global auroral images from the ultraviolet imager on the Viking spacecraft are used to investigate spatially periodic bright spots on the dayside auroral oval that resemble beads on a string. The newly achieved temporal resolution of 1 min. or less in monitoring worldwide auroral distributions by the Viking imager contributes significant to the capability of observing this phenomenon. It is found that these are frequently seen in the 1,400-1,600 MLT sector. The series of bright spots are not, however, limited to this unique local time sector, since they are seen to extend into the prenoon sector on some occasions. They occur often during substorm intervals but are also seen unaccompanied by substorm activities in the nightside. There is neither a consistent north-south nor east-west direction of motion for all the dayside bright spots observed so far. The observation of the time scales for the transient intensifications of bright spots and the lack of consistent directions of their motion are consistent with the characteristics expected from the suggestion that these bright spots are related to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability occurring within the magnetosphere

  4. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  5. Tests of fixity of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Emilia A.; Andrews, David L.; Gordon, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of inter-hot spot motion have been debated for decades. Herein we present updated predictions for the tracks of the Tristan da Cunha, Réunion, and Iceland hot spots assuming them to be fixed relative to Pacific hot spots. Uncertainties in Pacific hot spot rotations, which include uncertainties in the current locations of hot spots of 100-200 km, are combined with uncertainties in relative plate motions accumulated through the plate circuit to obtain the final uncertainty in the predicted positions (including uncertainties of 150-200 km in the current locations of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots). Improvements to reconstruction methods, to relative plate reconstructions, to age dates along the tracks, and to the geomagnetic reversal timescale lead to significant changes from prior results. When compared with the observed tracks, the predicted tracks indicate nominal rates of motion of only 2-6 mm a-1 of these Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots over the past 48 Ma. Within the uncertainties, the rates range from no motion to rates as high as 8-13 mm a-1. For reconstructions prior to 48 Ma B.P., however, the apparent rates of inter-hot spot motion are much larger, 46-55 ± 20 mm a-1, if the motion occurred entirely between 68 Ma B.P. and 48 Ma B.P. Either hot spots moved rapidly before 48 Ma B.P., and slowed drastically at ? 48 Ma B.P., or global plate circuits through Antarctica become less reliable as one goes increasingly further into the past. Most paleomagnetic data favor the latter explanation.

  6. Note: Resistance spot welding using a microgripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Podrzaj, P.; Hashimoto, H.

    2013-10-01

    Interest in thin-film nanostructures as building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is increasing. Resistance spot welding (RSW) on a nano or micro scale can play a significant role; similar to that of its macro counterpart for forming connections in device assembly processes. This Note presents a novel micron scale RSW technique using a microgripper as mobile spot welding electrodes to assemble ultra-thin film nanostructures. As an example, assembly of three-dimensional helical nanobelt (HNB) based device was successfully demonstrated using the proposed system. The spot-welding process was fully monitored by the built-in capacitive micro force sensor of the microgripper. Experiments show that RSW, using the microgripper, provides a stable electrical contact with sufficient mechanical strength for the construction of devices such as HNB based devices demonstrated here.

  7. Case for image querying through image spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Peter; de Vries, Arjen P.; Nes, Niels; Kersten, Martin

    2001-01-01

    We present an image spot query technique as an alternative for content-based image retrieval based on similarity over feature vectors. Image spots are selective parts of a query image designated by users as highly relevant for the desired answer set. Compared to traditional approaches, our technique allows users to search image databases for local characteristics rather than global features. When a user query is presented to our search engine, the engine does not impose any policy of its own on the answer set; it performs an exact match based on the query terms against the database. Semantic higher concepts such as weighing the relevance of query terms, is left to the user as a task while refining their query to reach the desired answer set. Given the hundreds of feature terms involved in query spots, refinement algorithms are to be encapsulated in separate applications, which act as an intermediary between our search engine and the users.

  8. Simulating acoustic waves in spotted stars

    CERN Document Server

    Papini, Emanuele; Gizon, Laurent; Hanasoge, Shravan M

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic modes of oscillation are affected by stellar activity, however it is unclear how starspots contribute to these changes. Here we investigate the non-magnetic effects of starspots on global modes with angular degree $\\ell \\leq 2$ in highly active stars, and characterize the spot seismic signature on synthetic light curves. We perform 3D time-domain simulations of linear acoustic waves to study their interaction with a model starspot. We model the spot as a 3D change in the sound speed stratification with respect to a convectively stable stellar background, built from solar Model S. We perform a parametric study by considering different depths and perturbation amplitudes. Exact numerical simulations allow investigation of the wavefield-spot interaction beyond first order perturbation theory. The interaction of the axisymmetric modes with the starspot is strongly nonlinear. As mode frequency increases, the frequency shifts for radial modes exceed the value predicted by linear theory, while the shifts for...

  9. Dried blood spot UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of oseltamivir and oseltamivircarboxylate—a validated assay for the clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Hooff, G. P.; Meesters, R. J. W.; Kampen, J. J. A.; Huizen, N. A.; Koch, B.; Al Hadithy, A. F. Y.; Gelder, T.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Gruters, R. A.; Luider, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is currently the first-line therapy for patients with influenza virus infection. Common analysis of the prodrug and its active metabolite oseltamivircarboxylate is determined via extraction from plasma. Compared with these assays, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis provides several advantages, including a minimum sample volume required for the measurement of drugs in whole blood. Samples can easily be obtained via a simple, non-invasive finger ...

  10. HIV virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

    2005-12-09

    HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

  11. Rotation of the sun measured from Mount Wilson white-light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.; Gilman, P. I.; Gilman, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumentation, data and data reduction procedures used in white light observations of sunspot rotation rates are described. The study covered 62 yr of rotation observations. The data were all gathered using the same Mt. Wilson telescope, which has had three different main lenses in the interval 1981-82. Details of the exposure calibration and lens operation procedures are provided. The data were treated in terms of eight evenly space determinations of the solar limb and account was taken of all sunspots within 60 deg of the central meridian. Spot movements were traced in terms of groups of contiguous individual spots. Large spots rotated slower than small spots, a condition attributed to greater viscous drag in the larger flux tubes in the photosphere. The data tend to confirm theories that the photospheric gas revolves at a different rate than the sunspots.

  12. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2014-01-24

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded. PMID:24458659

  13. Pulsed thermographic inspection of spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Steven M.; Chaudhry, Bharat B.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Zaluzec, Matthew J.

    1998-03-01

    In automotive manufacturing, the lack of nondestructive methods for assessment of spot weld integrity has been a critical shortcoming, with enormous economic consequences for both domestic and foreign auto makers. At present, auto body welds are subjectively evaluated using destructive pull tests, or visual examination after the weld has been mechanically separated using an impact tool. Pulsed thermographic evaluation of spot welds offers a fast, noncontact method for quantitative assessment of the weld nugget. The technique can be applied using either one or both faces of the weld. Results on steel resistance welds will be presented, along with correlation to weld process parameters.

  14. Illiquidity transmission from spot to futures markets

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Olaf; Krischak, Paolo; Theissen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model of the illiquidity transmission from spot to futures markets that formalizes the derivative hedge theory proposed by Cho and Engle (1999). The model shows that spot market illiquidity does not translate one-to-one to the futures market, but rather interacts with price risk, liquidity risk, and the risk aversion of the market maker. The predictions of the model are tested empirically with data from the stock market and the market for single-stock futures. The results support...

  15. Can a supervoid explain the Cold Spot?

    OpenAIRE

    Nadathur, Seshadri; Lavinto, Mikko; Hotchkiss, Shaun; Ra?sa?nen, Syksy

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of a void of size $\\sim200\\;h^{-1}$Mpc and average density contrast of $\\sim-0.1$ aligned with the Cold Spot direction has been recently reported. It has been argued that, although the first-order integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect of such a void on the CMB is small, the second-order Rees-Sciama (RS) contribution exceeds this by an order of magnitude and can entirely explain the observed Cold Spot temperature profile. In this paper we examine this surprising c...

  16. Analysis of reproduction and litter performance of the Zlotnicka Spotted breed and its different crossbreeds

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis?awski, D.; Zbigniew Sobek; Anna Jankowska; Damian Knecht; Anna Panek; Ewa Skrzypczak; Karolina Szulc

    2011-01-01

    Zlotnicka Spotted (ZS) is a native Polish pig breed. It is characterized by low reproduction and litter performance. This study aimed to determine the suitability of ZS pigs when crossed with Duroc and Polish Large White (PLW) according to reproduction and litter performance. Data concerning the number of piglets in the litter, litter weight, litter balance and piglet wastage were evaluated at birth, on the 7th and 21st days, and during weaning. ZS sows in purebred litters had 8.82 piglets at...

  17. Radiometric calibration of SPOT 2 HRV - A comparison of three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, Stuart F.; Dinguirard, Magdeleine C.; Gellman, David I.; Henry, Patrice; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Slater, Philip N.

    1991-01-01

    Three methods for determining an absolute radiometric calibration of a spacecraft optical sensor are compared. They are the well-known reflectance-based and radiance-based methods and a new method based on measurements of the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the ground. The latter will be described in detail and the comparison of the three approaches will be made with reference to the SPOT-2 HRV cameras for a field campaign 1990-06-19 through 1990-06-24 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.

  18. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  19. SPOT series camera improvement for the HRG: very high resolution instrument of SPOT 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Frederic; Bettes, A.; Toulemont, Y.; Costeraste, Josiane; Rosak, A.

    1999-08-01

    Derived from the SPOT series, the new SPOT-5 instrument, called HRG, is now in development phase for a launch in 2001. The HRG instrument will perform Earth mapping still with 60km swath, but with considerably improved resolutions: 5m and 3.5m in the panchromatic band, and 10m multispectral, to be compared with 10m, respectively 20m for the SPOT-1 to SPOT-4 camera series. This improvement is obtained by the implementation of a new focal pane concept and also by a telescope MTF significant enhancement. This paper describes how the optical quality of the SPOT-5 camera has been improved for meeting the new resolution requirements, while still using the same type of telescope as in SPOT-1 to SPOT- 4. First the technique of computer assisted polishing of the mirrors has been adopted to reach a telescope image quality compatible with the demanding resolution. Moreover, for reducing mirror optical surface distortion, specific isostatic fixation devices have been developed. The telescope structure has been also optimized in terms of thermo-elastic and hydro-elastic behavior to ensure stable performances.Lastly, significant progresses have been made in telescope alignment and testing.

  20. Evaluation of the Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination assay when used with dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V; Sudha, T; Bhanurekha, M; Dandona, L

    2007-11-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination assay to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in 12 617 dried blood spots (DBSs) on filter paper. The assay had an overall sensitivity of 99.6% and a specificity of 99.9%. In view of its ability to detect p24 antigen and both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies in samples collected in the form of DBSs, the Murex Ag/Ab Combination assay is suitable for use as a standard screening assay for seroprevalence studies, as well as for routine diagnostic use in clinical laboratories. PMID:17725648

  1. A comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of rMd5deltaMeq and CVI988/ Rispens against a vv+ strain of Marek's disease virus infection in a series of recombinant congenic strains of White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuang; Ding, Zhuang; Dunn, John R; Lee, Lucy F; Heidari, Mohammad; Song, Jiuzhou; Ernst, Catherine W; Zhang, Huanmin

    2011-09-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus known as Marek's disease virus (MDV). MD is presently controlled by vaccination. Current MD vaccines include attenuated serotype 1 strains (e.g., CVI988/Rispens), avirulent serotype 2 (SB-1), and serotype 3 (HVT) MDV strains. In addition, recombinant MDV strains have been developed as potential new and more efficient vaccines to sustain the success of MD control in poultry. One of the candidate recombinant MDV strains, named rMd5deltaMeq, was derived from Md5, a very virulent strain of MDV lacking the MDV oncogene Meq. Our earlier reports suggest that rMd5deltaMeq provided protection equally well or better than commonly used MD vaccines in experimental and commercial lines of chickens challenged with very virulent plus (vv+) strains of MDV. In this study, maternal antibody-positive (trial 1) and negative (trial 2) chickens from a series of relatively MD resistant lines were either vaccinated with the rMd5deltaMeq or CVI988/Rispens followed by infection of a vv+ strain of MDV, 648A, passage 10. This report presents experimental evidence that the rMd5deltaMeq protected significantly better than the CVI988/Rispens (P < 0.01) in the relatively resistant experimental lines of chickens challenged with the vv+ strain of MDV. Together with early reports, the rMd5deltaMeq appeared to provide better protection, comparing with the most efficacious commercially available vaccine, CVI988/Rispens, for control of MD in lines of chickens regardless of their genetic background. PMID:22017035

  2. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Lymphocytic Leukocytosis Monocyte Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Basophilic Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > White Blood Cell ...

  3. The white dot syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoko; Haen, Sebastian P; Spaide, Richard F

    2007-01-01

    The white dot syndromes are a heterogeneous group of rare inflammatory disorders affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Not all of these diseases actually cause white dots, but they all have unique lesions in the fundus. We describe acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, serpiginous choroiditis, birdshot chorioretinopathy, multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, diffuse subretinal fibrosis syndrome, punctate inner choroidopathy, multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis as the white dot syndromes in this review. Some of these conditions share an association with systemic infectious diseases. In addition, treatment of these diseases is similar. Some can be treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Other treatment options include laser photocoagulation, topical or systemic steroid therapy, photodynamic therapy, and, most recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. The new development in treatment may alter the visual prognosis of the patients, leading to a better outcome in visual acuity. PMID:17999832

  4. [White dot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, W

    2008-01-01

    The white dot syndromes comprise a group of diseases with a suspected immunological background, which show no systemic manifestations. The characteristic inflammatory changes of the choroid and the retinal pigment epithelium are typically yellow-white foci beneath the retina. Diseases belonging to the white dot syndromes which will be discussed in this article are acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (AMPPE), multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC), multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis (MFC/MCP), punctuate inner choroidopathy (PIC), acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) and serpiginous choroiditis, Neither the trigger mechanism nor the pathogenetic development is known with certainty for any of these diseases. Immunological reactions to previous viral infections coupled with a genetic predisposition seem to be a common denominator. Transitions between the individual diseases have also been described. PMID:18210124

  5. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  6. Atlantic White Cedar Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimlee Laderman

    This website, created by Dr. Aimlee Laderman, is dedicated to the knowledge and awareness of Atlantic White Cedar (AWC) Swamps. It includes an image of Atlantic White Cedar and links to two online resources: The Ecology of Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands: A Community Profile; and AWC Flora: Flora Associated with Atlantic White Cedars. The Community Profile describes the AWC and the bogs and swamps it dominates or co-dominates throughout its range. Topics discussed include interrelationships with other habitats, putative origins and migration patterns, substrate biogeochemistry, associated plant and animal species, and impacts of both natural and anthropogenic disturbance. The AWC Flora is a database that records the taxonomy, accepted scientific and common genus, species, and family names; synonomy, habit, habitat types, and the states in which each species is known to have been found in AWC wetlands. Filemake Pro is needed to view this resource.

  7. White-Black Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, William F.; Grimsted, David

    1975-01-01

    Notes that Robert Toll's study of American minstrelsy is weakest where it is most important, in his consideration of the characteros of minstrelsy as reflective not of black life but of white images of blacks. (Author/AM)

  8. When White Dwarfs Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wendy Phyllis

    3D models of white dwarf collisions are used to assess the likelihood of double-degenerate mergers as progenitors for Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNIa) and to identify observational signatures of double-degenerate collisions. Observations of individual SNIa, SNIa rates in different galaxy types, and double white dwarf binary systems suggest that mergers or collisions between two white dwarfs play a role in the overall SNIa population. Given the possibility of two progenitor systems (single-degenerate and double-degenerate), the sample of SNIa used in cosmological calcula- tions needs to be carefully examined. To improve calculations of cosmological parameters, the development of calibrated diagnostics for double-degenerate progenitor SNIa is essential. Head-on white dwarf collision simulations are used to provide an upper limit on the 56Ni production in white dwarf collisions. In chapter II, I explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs using the Eulerian grid code FLASH. The initial 1D white dwarf profiles are created assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and a uniform composition of 50% 12C and 50% 16O. The masses range from 0.64 to 0.81 solar masses and have an isothermal temperature of 107 K. I map these 1D models onto a 3D grid, where the dimensions of the grid are each eight times the white dwarf radius, and the dwarfs are initially placed four white dwarf radii apart (center to center). To provide insight into a larger range of physical possibilities, I also model non-zero impact parameter white dwarf collisions (Chapter III). Although head-on white dwarf collisions provide an upper limit on 56Ni production, non-zero impact parameter collisions provide insight into a wider range of physical scenarios. The initial conditions (box size, initial separation, composition, and initial temperature) are identical to those used for the head-on collisions (Chapter II) for the same range of masses. For each mass pair- ing, collision simulations are carried out at impact parameters b=1 and b=2 (grazing). Finally, I will address future work to be performed (Chapter IV).

  9. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  10. ‘No Blue’ White LED

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul Michael; Friis, Dan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explored the feasibility of making a white LED light source by color mixing method without using the blue color. This ‘no blue’ white LED has potential applications in photolithography room illumination, medical treatment and biophotonics research. A no-blue LED was designed, and the prototype was fabricated. The spectral power distribution of both the LED bulb and the yellow fluorescent tube was measured. Based on that, colorimetric values were calculated and compared on terms...

  11. Neurophysiological Correlates of Colour Induction on White Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Sabine; Crook, John M.; Pei, Xing; Creutzfeldt, Otto D.

    1992-10-01

    Coloured light surrounding a white surface of about equal luminance makes the white surface appear illuminated with an unsaturated light of the complementary colour. In an attempt to discover the neurophysiological basis of such colour induction, we recorded from spectrally opponent cells of the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (P-LGN) of anaesthetized macaques. Only cells with wide-band (W) spectral sensitivity in the short (S) or long wavelength (L) part of the spectrum (WS, WL) are excited by white spots of light centred on their receptive field. Cells with narrow-band (N) spectral sensitivity (NS, NL) and light-inhibited (LI) cells are inhibited by white light. Therefore, it is likely that the code for white is contained in a balanced excitation of the W cells. The effects of continuous illumination of remote surrounds with different wavelengths on the responses to achromatic light stimuli were investigated. Responses [on minus maintained discharge rate (MDR) or on-minus-off] were determined for white spots (1 - 3 degrees diameter) flashed on the receptive field centre, presented either alone or in the presence of an annular surround of equal luminance (inner diameter 5 degrees; outer diameter 20 degrees ). During red surround illumination the responses of WL cells to white spots tended to be reduced as were those of WS cells during blue surround illumination. Surround illumination with the opponent colour had more variable effects, neither WS nor WL cells showing a significant alteration of their mean response to white during surround illumination with opponent light. Response alterations were to a large extent due to changes in MDR, which increased in WS cells during blue surround illumination and in WL cells during red surround illumination. It is argued that the surround effects on centre responses are due to intraocular stray light rather than lateral connections in the retina. The surround effects also depended to some extent on the size of the test spot. LI cells and the very rare parvocellular panchromatic on-cells showed no chromatic response changes during coloured surround illumination. Inasmuch as the excitation of WS cells, either alone or in combination with NS cell activation, is involved in coding for green and blue, and that of WL cells, in combination with NL cell activation, is involved in coding for red and yellow in perception, the shift of excitation towards one or the other W cell group indicates relatively more red or green signals in the white response, consistent with and in the same direction as colour induction. In addition, the summed population response of WS and WL cells is decreased during surround illumination with any colour including white. This is related to brightness decrease during surround illumination in perception. PMID:12106413

  12. Autoradiographic localization of the synthetic sites of tomato spoted wilt virus and potato virus Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis sites were investigated of two morfologically different viruses - the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-spherical particle) and the Potato Virus Y (PVY - long and flexuous particle) in order to discuss the hypothesis of De Zoeten and Schlegel about the relationship between virus morphology and the location of the viral biosynthesis. Samples from uninfected or infected leaves were immersed in distilled water or an aqueous solution and transfered to uridine tritiated solution. After washing in distilled water the samples were fixed, dehydrated and embedded in Epon 812 for electron microscopy conventional techniques. Ultrathin sections were covered with Ilford L-4 photographic emulsion and exposed for two months before photographic development, staining and examinated in the electron microscope. The number of silver grains per unit areas (grain density) in the electronphotomicrographs was used to compare the grains densities of some cells regions of tissues treated or not with AMD. The result indicated the endoplasmic reticulum as the most likely location of the TSWV-RNA replication. The same comparison made with tobacco cells infected with PVY showed that the cytoplasmic area is the most probable site of the PVY-RNA replication. The results obtained seem to show that the rule proposed by De Zoeten and Schlegel cannot be used for all plant viruses because the TSWV replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cell. These viruses seem to be exceptions to that rul viruses seem to be exceptions to that rule. (Author)

  13. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, Anto?nio; AL-Tam, Faroq

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This article contributes to solving one of the greatest bottlenecks in the 2-DE analysis pipeline.

  14. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, Marcelo B.; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C.; Pacheco, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  15. TSH IRMA of dried blood spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TSH determination is most useful for screening of neonatal hypothyroid in the population in iodine deficient areas. The NETRIA IRMA method for serum TSH was applied for blood-spot TSH. Cord blood on SS No. 903 filter paper was left dry overnight. The spot of 6 mm diameter, one/tube, was mixed with an assay buffer, diluted labelled m-anti-TSH, and diluted anti-TSH-solid phase. The mixture was rotated for 22-24 hours. After washing twice with wash buffer, it was counted for 1 minute. The standard curve with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mIU/L whole blood was obtained with the maximum binding of 25%. The precision profile was satisfactory with %CV of 0C) or 40 C or -200C. The correlation between serum and blood-spot TSH values (n=120) showed r of 0.9541 and y=1.6123 (BS-TSH) +1.382. The mean of normal cord blood spot TSH (n=142) was 5.27 mIU/L. The technique was found to be precise, sensitive and easy to perform. Mass screening with this developed method is underway

  16. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  17. Electricity spot price dynamics: Beyond financial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reveal properties of electricity spot prices that cannot be captured by the statistical models, commonly used to model financial asset prices, that are increasingly used to model electricity prices. Using more than eight years of half-hourly spot price data from the New Zealand Electricity Market, we find that the half-hourly trading periods fall naturally into five groups corresponding to the overnight off-peak, the morning peak, daytime off-peak, evening peak, and evening off-peak. The prices in different trading periods within each group are highly correlated with each other, yet the correlations between prices in different groups are lower. Models, adopted from the modeling of security prices, that are currently applied to electricity spot prices are incapable of capturing this behavior. We use a periodic autoregression to model prices instead, showing that shocks in the peak periods are larger and less persistent than those in off-peak periods, and that they often reappear in the following peak period. In contrast, shocks in the off-peak periods are smaller, more persistent, and die out (perhaps temporarily) during the peak periods. Current approaches to modeling spot prices cannot capture this behavior either

  18. Electricity spot price dynamics: Beyond financial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reveal properties of electricity spot prices that cannot be captured by the statistical models, commonly used to model financial asset prices, that are increasingly used to model electricity prices. Using more than eight years of half-hourly spot price data from the New Zealand Electricity Market, we find that the half-hourly trading periods fall naturally into five groups corresponding to the overnight off-peak, the morning peak, daytime off-peak, evening peak, and evening off-peak. The prices in different trading periods within each group are highly correlated with each other, yet the correlations between prices in different groups are lower. Models, adopted from the modeling of security prices, that are currently applied to electricity spot prices are incapable of capturing this behavior. We use a periodic autoregression to model prices instead, showing that shocks in the peak periods are larger and less persistent than those in off-peak periods, and that they often reappear in the following peak period. In contrast, shocks in the off-peak periods are smaller, more persistent, and die out (perhaps temporarily) during the peak periods. Current approaches to modeling spot prices cannot capture this behavior either. (author)

  19. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques. PMID:21645437

  20. Breath Test Might Spot Stomach Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Breath Test Might Spot Stomach Cancer Risk Compounds in breath may signal chances of ... April 14, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Screening Stomach Cancer MONDAY, April 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new ...

  1. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Pfeffer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    To explore increased risk for human Rickettsia spp. infection in Germany, we investigated recreational areas and renatured brown coal surface-mining sites (also used for recreation) for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks. R. raoultii (56.7%), R. slovaca (13.3%), and R. helvetica (>13.4%) were detected in the respective tick species.

  2. Jorge Rivera congratulated for spotting misplaced pin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Jorge Rivera (with microphone) shares his thoughts after receiving congratulations for his observatory powers from NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (right). A NASA external tank mechanical engineer, Rivera is the one who spotted the misplaced lock pin on Shuttle Discovery Oct. 10, shortly before the intended launch of mission STS-92, causing a scrub for safety reasons.

  3. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the related intensity level are largely variable. To this end, a reliable and robust image acquisition procedure based on a variable shutter time has been considered as well as a calibration function exploiting also the knowledge of the sun-spot array size. Main focus of the present paper is the experimental validation of the wide field of view operation of the sensor by using a sensor prototype and a laboratory test facility. Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles.

  4. Comparison of outcomes between overlapping-spot and single-spot photodynamic therapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-An Su; Xia-Jing Tang; Li-Xia Zhang; Xiao-Hong Su

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with overlapping multiple spots and single spot for treating circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.METHODS:Twenty-two patients (22 eyes) with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma received PDT treatment. Fourteen patients received overlapping spots (two to three spots) PDT, whereas eight patients received single-spot PDT. Laser was used at 50J/cm2 for 83s in the overlapping-spot group and 50J/cm2 for 166s in the single...

  5. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Vemana, K.; Jain, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula off...

  7. Gene : CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 Novel UN D UNKNOWN EXTN_TOBAC 0.004 34% ref|NP_477761.1| wsv239 [Shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33243.1| wsv239 [shrimp white ... spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89163.1| WSSV295 [shrim ... p white ... spot syndrome virus] 7e-05 36% MALDVKTKVLTMTLKTLHA ...

  8. Automated spot-by-spot inspection of arbitrary curved dielectric structures for quality and process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Richard D.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Tellakula, Anikumar R.; Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2000-07-01

    A novel approach is presented for the nondestructive, non- contact and in-situ inspection of curved dielectric objects using a spot focused free space measurement system. The use of a focused antenna permits spot by spot plane wave illumination of approximately one-wavelength diameter spots on a curved body to facilitate near field scanning. Benchmarking measurements were made on curved Plexiglas and glass samples of convex-concave shape with different radii of curvature and the complex permittivities were computed from the measured transmission coefficients. Comparing the results with planar samples show that the curvature does not significantly affect the accuracy of the measured permittivity of cylindrical surfaces if the local radii of curvature are larger than the spot size. Applications of the computer controlled, automated system for characterizing surface resistivity, radome IPD and transmission efficiency as well as potential uses in quality and process control during the manufacture of complex structures will be addressed. Variation in material properties, trapped moisture, manufacturing defects, etc. can be identified and located with precision. The other benefit of this approach is the non-contact nature of the method, which permits measurement of solids and liquids in high/low temperature environments. The spot focused beam permits characterization of small or large samples.

  9. Identification of genes expressed in response to yellow head virus infection in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavorarat, Adisak; Pongsomboon, Siriporn; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2010-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify yellow head virus (YHV)-responsive genes from the hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two SSH cDNA libraries were constructed to identify viral responsive genes in the early (24I) and late (48/72I) phases of YHV infection. From 240 randomly selected clones from each library, 155 and 30 non-redundant transcripts were obtained for the early and late libraries, respectively. From these clones, 72 and 16, respectively, corresponded to known genes (E-values Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor and antimicrobial peptides. Among these YHV-responsive genes, several have been previously reported to participate in defense against white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) implying that YHV infection in shrimp induces similar host immune responses as observed during WSSV infection. The expression of four apparently upregulated immune-related genes identified from the two SSH libraries, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 6 (ALFPm6), crustin isoform 1 (crustinPm1), transglutaminase and Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor isoform 2 (SPIPm2), was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR to reveal differential expression in response to YHV infection at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. The results confirmed their differential expression and upregulation, and thus verified the success of the SSHs and the likely involvement of these genes in shrimp antiviral mechanisms. PMID:20067803

  10. Molecular cloning of a C-type lectin with one carbohydrate recognition domain from Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and its expression upon challenging by pathogenic bacterium or virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepnarong, Supattra; Runsaeng, Phanthipha; Rattanaporn, Onnicha; Utarabhand, Prapaporn

    2015-02-01

    Lectins, one type of pattern recognition proteins, play important roles in an innate immunity of crustaceans including shrimp. A new C-type lectin designated FmLC1 was cloned from the hepatopancreas of banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by procedures of PCR and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA is composed of 706bp with a single open reading frame of 477bp, encoding a peptide of 158 amino acid residues. Its deduced amino acid sequence comprises a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids and has an estimated molecular mass of 17,934Da with a theoretical pI of 4.46. The primary sequence of FmLC1 contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with an EPS (Glu-Pro-Ser) motif and one Ca(2+) binding site, stabilized by two disulfide bonds. FmLC1 mRNA was detected to express specifically in the hepatopancreas, a master organ in shrimp. Its expression in the hepatopancreas was up-regulated to reach the maximum at 12 or 48h following challenge of shrimp with Vibrio harveyi or white spot syndrome virus, respectively. These results suggest that FmLC1 may participate in recognition of invading pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, and play roles in the immune response of shrimp even at different stages of the clearance of pathogens. PMID:25542510

  11. Visual Search skills in Task of Spot Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe Takayuki; Miyazaki Masami; Sato Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    There were few data for spot of the difference searching skilled on eye movement. Especially, it was unknown how to view and recognition of spot difference quickly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of spot the difference due to the time pressure tasks. Twelve students participated in this study (average 21years old). Every subject equipped eye movement apparatus recorder (NAC EMR-9, Tokyo Japan), it was displayed gaze point of spot the difference as the stimulus pictu...

  12. Antiviral effects of ?-defensin derived from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-05-01

    Defensins are a group of small antimicrobial peptides playing an important role in innate host defense. In this study, a ?-defensin cloned from liver of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, EcDefensin, showed a key role in inhibiting the infection and replication of two kinds of newly emerging marine fish viruses, an enveloped DNA virus of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), and a non-enveloped RNA virus of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). The expression profiles of EcDefensin were significantly (P Grouper spleen cells over-expressing EcDefensin (GS/pcDNA-EcDefensin) support the inhibition of viral infection and the upregulation of the expression of host immune-related genes, such as antiviral protein Mx and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?. EcDefensin activated type I IFN and Interferon-sensitive response element (ISRE) in vitro. Reporter genes of IFN-Luc and ISRE-Luc were significantly up-regulated in cells transfected with pcDNA-EcDefenisn after infection with SGIV and VNNV. These results suggest that EcDefensin is importantly involved in host immune responses to invasion of viral pathogens, and open the new avenues for design of antiviral agents in fisheries industry. PMID:22343108

  13. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Detlev

    White dwarfs are the final stage for more than 95% of all stars. Their population statistics and properties contain a wealth of information about the history of star formation in our galaxy, the ages of stellar systems, and the relation between original mass at birth and that of the final remnant. They are also interesting individually as laboratories for physical conditions not easily reached in terrestrial labs: macroscopic manifestation of the Pauli principle, high densities and pressures, and extremely high magnetic fields. After a brief introduction with some historical milestones the observational status is reviewed: spectroscopic classification, determination of stellar parameters from spectroscopic and photometric observations, effective temperatures, surface gravities, radii, and masses. The next sections deal with the physics of the interior and evolution of white dwarfs, leading to the mass-radius relation and cooling times. Going back closer to the observations again, the physical processes in the outer layers are discussed: gravitational separation, diffusion, radiative levitation, accretion, and convective mixing. This leads to a review of our current understanding of the origin of spectral types and their interrelation. A final section gives brief introductions to topics at the center of current research: white dwarfs in open and globular clusters, debris disks, the origin of accreted metals in the atmospheres, magnetic fields and their origin, variable white dwarfs, and white dwarfs in binaries. This chapter was finished in February 2010 and reflects the status of knowledge at that time.

  14. White coat, patient gown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. PMID:24687912

  15. Spot-Welding Gun With Pivoting Twin-Collet Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Francis; Simpson, Gareth; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Modified spot-welding gun includes pivoting twin-collet assembly that holds two spot-welding electrodes. Designed to weld highly conductive (30 percent gold) brazing-alloy foils to thin nickel alloy workpieces; also suitable for other spot-welding applications compatible with two-electrode configuration.

  16. Trapping of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other plant viruses with a GroEL homologue from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akad, F; Dotan, N; Czosnek, H

    2004-08-01

    To avoid destruction in the haemolymph of their vector, many plant circulative viruses interact with GroEL homologues produced by insect endosymbiotic bacteria. We have exploited this phenomenon to devise tools allowing trapping of plant viruses by either GroEL purified from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci or by whitefly GroEL over-expressed in E. coli. PCR tubes or 96-well plates coated with a GroEL preparation were incubated with cleared sap of virus infected plant leaves or insect vectors. GroEL-bound viruses were then identified by PCR or RT-PCR using virus-specific primers or by ELISA with virus specific antibodies. In this way Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) - a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus - was detected in plant sap, in extracts of leaf squashes and in homogenates of individual viruliferous whiteflies. Anti-GroEL antibody prevented TYLCV binding to GroEL. GroEL-bound virus was also detected by ELISA. GroEL was much more potent in binding TYLCV than commercial anti-TYLCV antibodies. In addition to several other geminiviruses, these procedures allowed detecting a variety of RNA viruses such as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Tomato spotted wilt (TSWV), but not Potato virus X and Potato virus Y (PVX and PVY), Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Predictions pertaining to viruses that do, or do not bind to GroEL, and applications in plant virus diagnosis, are presented. PMID:15290375

  17. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma debido a que el diámetro del punto de soldadura es en el primer caso mayor. La resistencia en los dos tipos de soldaduras es aproximadamente igual.

  18. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-yeol; Yea, Mi-chi; Back, Chang-gi; Choi, Kwang-shik; Kang, In-kyu; Lee, Su-heon; Jung, Hee-young

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT...

  19. Acute myelopathy associated with primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, D. W.; Anderson, J.; Rudge, P.; Smith, H.

    1987-01-01

    A 29 year old white homosexual man presented with a two and a half week history of severe sore throat, fever, and extreme fatigue. His symptoms did not respond to antibiotics. He had mild bilateral conjunctivitis, a rash over his chest and back, and enlarged lymph nodes, but examination of the nervous system yielded normal results. He had low total white cell and platelet counts. The results of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were equivocal when HIV Ig...

  20. Experimental infection of vertebrates of the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp, Maryland with Keystone and Jamestown Canyon viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D M; Tammariello, R F; Dalrymple, J M; Eldridge, B F; Russell, P K; Top, F H

    1979-03-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) to Jamestown Canyon (JC) and/or Keystone (KEY) virus infection. Viremia occurred in 5 of 6 deer inoculated with JC virus; however, all deer developed KEY virus neutralizing antibody. Based on the observation that antibody elicited by primary infection of deer with either KEY or JC virus exhibited partial heterologous neutralization in vitro, cross-challenge experiments were performed in these animals. Keystone virus failed to infect deer 30 days post primary JC virus infection; however, deer became infected when challenged with KEY virus 80 days after the initial JC virus infection as indicated by a substantial increase in antibody titer. Similarly, JC virus failed to produce viremia in immune animals infected with KEY virus 80 days previously, although 2 of the 3 animals challenged had serological evidence of infection. Three field-collected cottontail rabbits with no evidence of KEY antibody were readily susceptible to KEY virus infection and developed viremias of 1-4 days' duration; rabbits with KEY virus antibody did not develop viremia upon KEY virus challenge. Eight antibody-negative field-collected gray squirrels became viremic following injection with KEY virus; however, a comparable group of squirrels did not become viremic when injected with JC virus. PMID:453437

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Powassan virus in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Pesko, Kendra N.; Torres-perez, Fernando; Hjelle, Brian L.; Ebel, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Powassan virus (POW) is a tick-borne flavivirus distributed in Canada, the northern USA and the Primorsky region of Russia. POW is the only tick-borne flavivirus endemic to the western hemisphere, where it is transmitted mainly between Ixodes cookei and groundhogs (Marmota monax). Deer tick virus (DTV), a genotype of POW that has been frequently isolated from deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis), appears to be maintained in an enzootic cycle between these ticks and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leu...

  2. Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Mosqueda, Juan; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Mexico. Deer (n=521) were captured from helicopter using a netgun on 15 ranches covering 62,114 ha in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during spring 2004. The prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, BVDV, and brucellosis were 5.6, 41.1, 63.5, and 0%, respectively, indicating that white-tailed deer and cattle may share disease agents when cohabiting in northeastern Mexico. PMID:18957659

  3. White dwarf pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DA white dwarfs are those which show only the Stark-broadened lines of hydrogen in their spectra. They comprise about 80% of the total white dwarf population. A subset of the DA dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti stars, form a highly homogeneous class of nonradially pulsating variable stars. In this paper we shall review the observations from which both the physical properties of the stars and the characteristics of the pulsations have been derived. Data obtained since the last review of these variables (Robinson 1979) is stressed, as these data are forcing a somewhat revised understanding of the ZZ Ceti stars and their relationship to investigations of white dwarfs and to pulsating variable stars, in general. (orig.)

  4. Identification of the Solanum nigrum extract component involved in controlling cabbage black leaf spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Chun; Fan, Mi-Chen; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Jenn-Wen

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we discovered that an ethanol (EtOH) extract of Solanum nigrum inhibited spore germination of Alternaria brassicicola, the causative agent of cabbage black leaf spot disease. At a concentration of 500 mg/L, this ethanol extract also caused the germ tubes to become completely swollen. Detached cabbage leaves were then used to evaluate the effects of the extract in controlling the disease. It was observed that the extract-induced swelling of A. brassicicola germ-tube spores did not cause the symptoms of black spot disease on cabbage leaves. Furthermore, an n-butanol fraction of the EtOH extract exhibited strong antifungal activity; at a concentration of 25 mg/L, a derived subfraction (Bu-11-13) showed complete inhibition of spore germination. A white powder was collected from fraction Bu-11-13, and its minimum inhibitory concentration was determined to be 8 mg/L. Using NMR and LC-MS/MS analysis, this white powder compound was identified as degalactotigonin. PMID:21294509

  5. Dealing in practice with hot-spots

    CERN Document Server

    Moretón, Rodrigo; Leloux, Jonathan; Carrillo, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The hot-spot phenomenon is a relatively frequent problem occurring in current photovoltaic generators. It entails both a risk for the photovoltaic module's lifetime and a decrease in its operational efficiency. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of widely accepted procedures for dealing with them in practice. This paper presents the IES-UPM observations on 200 affected modules. Visual and infrared inspection, electroluminescence, peak power and operating voltage tests have been accomplished. Hot-spot observation procedures and well defined acceptance and rejection criteria are proposed, addressing both the lifetime and the operational efficiency of the modules. The operating voltage has come out as the best parameter to control effective efficiency losses for the affected modules. This procedure is oriented to its possible application in contractual frameworks.

  6. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall geometry, stiffness and load-elongation curves are presented.

  7. SPS remanent radiation the warm spots

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R

    1998-01-01

    The remanent radiation in the SPS ring is measured after each operational period. We all know very well the "hot spots" in the dedicated regions for particle injection and extraction. So far, not a lot of attention has been paid to those regions where there are clear traces of radiation, without an obvious reason. From an operational point of view, these regions might be quite important, since they could reveal a specific problem. This paper will look into those "warm spots", their location in the SPS ring and the transverse plane in which the radiation originates. Some classification of typical problem classes is made, as well as hints to the possible origins of the radiation problems.

  8. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  9. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae)for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies, which are notorious pests of cattle and other livestock, were suspected of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) among American white pelicans at the Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Montana in 2006-2007. However the ability of stable flies to transmit the virus was unknown. ...

  10. Susceptibility of Ten Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Cultivars to Six Viruses after Artificial Inoculation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Jakešová, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 3 (2014), s. 113-118. ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Red clover mottle virus * White clover mosaic virus * DAS-ELISA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-02-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events-they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below c, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above c. Superluminal spot pair events might be found angularly, photometrically, or polarimetrically, and might carry useful geometry or distance information. Two example scenarios are briefly considered. The first is a beam swept across a scattering spherical object, exemplified by spots of light moving across Earth's Moon and pulsar companions. The second is a beam swept across a scattering planar wall or linear filament, exemplified by spots of light moving across variable nebulae including Hubble's Variable Nebula. In local cases where the sweeping beam can be controlled and repeated, a three-dimensional map of a target object can be constructed. Used tomographically, this imaging technique is fundamentally different from lens photography, radar, and conventional lidar.

  12. Transient multifocal electroretinogram dysfunction in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David; Martidis, Adam; Baumal, Caroline R

    2002-01-01

    A 22-year-old female patient with acute monocular scotomata after an upper respiratory infection and the fluorescein angiographic findings consistent with the diagnosis of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is described. Unlike full-field ERG, which shows a generalized depressed signal in MEWDS, the authors showed areas of depressions corresponding to the scotomata using multifocal electroretinogram (MFERG). The MFERG abnormalities seen at presentation resolved with the resolution of clinical symptoms after 6 weeks, in contrast to a previous report. The MFERG may be a useful tool to further characterize MEWDS and other blind-spot enlarging syndromes. PMID:12027109

  13. CMB Cold Spot from Inflationary Feature Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Ma, Yin-zhe

    2015-01-01

    We propose a "feature-scattering" mechanism to explain the cosmic microwave background cold spot seen from {\\it WMAP} and {\\it Planck} maps. If there are hidden features in the potential of multi-field inflation, the inflationary trajectory can be scattered by such features. The scattering is controlled by the amount of isocurvature fluctuations, and thus can be considered as a mechanism to convert isocurvature fluctuations into curvature fluctuations. This mechanism predict...

  14. Does alprostadil cream hit the spot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Alprostadil, a prostaglandin, has been marketed for many years as a urethral stick and an intracavernous injection for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.(1) It is now available in the form of a cream (Vitaros-Takeda). Adverts for the product declare: "Sex with no pills, pellets or needles. Spot on." In this article, we consider the evidence for alprostadil cream, and its place in the management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:25678352

  15. Bitot's Spots: Look at the Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Aggarwal, Sourabh; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can cause a range of ocular manifestations, including night blindness, conjunctival and corneal xerosis and keratomalacia. It is an important cause of preventable blindness. Although usually a result of malnutrition, VAD can accompany malabsorption syndrome. We report a case of VAD as manifested by Bitot's spots and eventually diagnosed to have celiac disease. It is, therefore, important to consider gastrointestinal diseases causing malabsorption in the evaluation of VAD. PMID:25489456

  16. Atypical Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever

    OpenAIRE

    João Figueira-Coelho; Teresa Martins; João Machado; Fernando Maltez

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a case of atypical severe (malignant) Mediterranean spotted fever, with a brief review on the subject. Although not previously described in Brazil, the possibility of imported cases, especially from Portuguese tourists, is real. This case report highlights the severe form of the disease and the possibility of atypical presentation with confounding differential diagnosis. A brief review of classical presentation is also done. The authors believe it is a valid paper an...

  17. GTA remelting of surface spot defects

    OpenAIRE

    Kik, T.; Luksa, K.; Klimpel, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A statistical model that explains the interaction between cross-section dimensions of a GTA remelted spot area and remelting parameters is presented. It will be utilized in the repair of an investment casting made of nickel-based superalloys.Design/methodology/approach: An experimental design of response surface was used to elaborate the model of GTA remelting. Results of experiments were verified experimentally.Findings: The dimensions and volume of a remelted area are a linear func...

  18. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved x-ray spot film device was developed for use with an x-ray table to make radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. The new features minimize operational noise and vibration and simplify construction and operation. The main carriage of the spot film device is advanced and retracted to radiographic position with reversible servo motors. Field-defining masks, an x-ray grid and a palpator cone device are also provided. Stops arrest travel of the masks and grid. The motor maintains the mask in the correct final position regardless of the angular attitude of the spot film device. The independently-translatable anti-scatter x-ray grid may be selectively inserted in or retracted from the beam during operation. A radiographic grid that has a higher ratio and different orientation from the fluoroscopic grid may be moved into or out of the beam path. Light-weight masks which can be advanced and retracted at high speed are laminations of heavy lead sheets and light-weight stronger metal sheets. (D.N.)

  19. DNA-nanostructure-assembly by sequential spotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitenstein Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to create nanostructures with biomolecules is one of the key elements in nanobiotechnology. One of the problems is the expensive and mostly custom made equipment which is needed for their development. We intended to reduce material costs and aimed at miniaturization of the necessary tools that are essential for nanofabrication. Thus we combined the capabilities of molecular ink lithography with DNA-self-assembling capabilities to arrange DNA in an independent array which allows addressing molecules in nanoscale dimensions. Results For the construction of DNA based nanostructures a method is presented that allows an arrangement of DNA strands in such a way that they can form a grid that only depends on the spotted pattern of the anchor molecules. An atomic force microscope (AFM has been used for molecular ink lithography to generate small spots. The sequential spotting process allows the immobilization of several different functional biomolecules with a single AFM-tip. This grid which delivers specific addresses for the prepared DNA-strand serves as a two-dimensional anchor to arrange the sequence according to the pattern. Once the DNA-nanoarray has been formed, it can be functionalized by PNA (peptide nucleic acid to incorporate advanced structures. Conclusions The production of DNA-nanoarrays is a promising task for nanobiotechnology. The described method allows convenient and low cost preparation of nanoarrays. PNA can be used for complex functionalization purposes as well as a structural element.

  20. Mongolian spots: How important are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Mongolian spots (MS) are congenital birthmarks seen most commonly over the lumbosacral area. They are bluish-green to black in color and oval to irregular in shape. They are most commonly found in individuals of African or Asian ethnic background. Although these lesions resolve by one to two years of age, widespread, extrasacral and dark colored MS sometimes persist into adulthood. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although traditionally believed to be benign in nature, they have now been shown to co-exist with inborn errors of metabolism, most commonly GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type?I?(Hurler’s disease), followed by mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter’s syndrome), mucolipidosis, Niemann-Pick disease and mannosidosis. They have also been seen to co-exist with various vascular or other pigmented birthmarks like café-au-lait macules. Co-existing Mongolian spots and vascular birthmarks like nevus flammeus, nevus anemicus or nevus spilus is termed as phakomatosis pigmentovascularis. This review focuses on the important associations of Mongolian spots and stresses upon the importance of screening babies with extensive MS. PMID:24340274

  1. Hot spot conditions during cavitation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenko, Y.T.; McNamara, W.B. III; Suslick, K.S.

    1999-06-23

    Liquids irradiated with high-intensity ultrasound undergo acoustic cavitation--the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles. The energy stored during the growth of the bubble in the rarefaction phase of the acoustic field is released when the bubble violently collapses in the compression phase of the acoustic field, as acoustic noise, shock waves, chemical reactions, and the emission of light (sonoluminescence, SL). This violent collapse is predicted to generate a hot spot of thousands of Kelvin within the bubble, but, to date, there have been only a limited number of experimental measurements of the temperature of this hot spot. Although the SL of water has been studied for more than 50 years, the effective hot spot temperature during aqueous cavitation remains unresolved. Given the importance of aqueous cavitation (sonography and bioeffects of ultrasound, sonochemical remediation of aqueous pollutants, synthetic applications of sonochemistry, etc.), the authors decided to apply previous spectroscopic analysis of SL of nonaqueous liquids to aqueous solutions doped with small amounts of hydrocarbons. The authors have collected and analyzed excited-state C{sub 2} NBSL (multi-bubble sonoluminescence, light emission from the clouds of cavitating bubbles) spectra from mixtures of organic liquids in water at 20 kHz and find an effective emission temperature of 4,300 {+-} 200 K.

  2. Note: Implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  3. The heating sources of spots on the vacuum arc cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have considered two stages in the development of a spot on the surface of a vacuum arc cathode: the stage of ignition and the stage of the remaining arc lifetime which consists of arc spot operation until ultimately it is extinguished. A model for the near cathode region of electric arc has been applied to obtain different parameters involved in the cathode spot region during the spot ignition stage. This model is based on the construction of a thin sheath near the cathode wall and electron emission upon the thermo-field theory of electron emission. The model is time-dependent and hence the different parameters of the cathode, plasma and sheath can be derived as a function of time. In particular, we determine the required values of the plasma and sheath parameters for spot ignition on the smooth cathode surface. Based on these calculations and taking into consideration the fluctuation in plasma and sheath parameters, the contribution of different heating mechanisms at the spot initiation stage is evaluated. After spot ignition, some spot parameters such as temperature and mass density of spot material, electron current density and vapour pressure considerably increase. High values of the electron current density and low values of the electrical conductivity of the dense plasma in the spot region significantly increase Joule heating during the evolution stage of spot operation.

  4. The heating sources of spots on the vacuum arc cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, S; Minoo, H [Department of Physics, KNT University, Tehran, 19697 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-04-07

    We have considered two stages in the development of a spot on the surface of a vacuum arc cathode: the stage of ignition and the stage of the remaining arc lifetime which consists of arc spot operation until ultimately it is extinguished. A model for the near cathode region of electric arc has been applied to obtain different parameters involved in the cathode spot region during the spot ignition stage. This model is based on the construction of a thin sheath near the cathode wall and electron emission upon the thermo-field theory of electron emission. The model is time-dependent and hence the different parameters of the cathode, plasma and sheath can be derived as a function of time. In particular, we determine the required values of the plasma and sheath parameters for spot ignition on the smooth cathode surface. Based on these calculations and taking into consideration the fluctuation in plasma and sheath parameters, the contribution of different heating mechanisms at the spot initiation stage is evaluated. After spot ignition, some spot parameters such as temperature and mass density of spot material, electron current density and vapour pressure considerably increase. High values of the electron current density and low values of the electrical conductivity of the dense plasma in the spot region significantly increase Joule heating during the evolution stage of spot operation.

  5. A Subgenomic Segment of Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus RNA Causes Demyelination?

    OpenAIRE

    Baida, Gleb; Popko, Brian; Wollmann, Robert L.; Stavrou, Spyridon; Lin, Wensheng; Tretiakova, Maria; Krausz, Thomas N.; Roos, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    The DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes a persistent central nervous system (CNS) infection of mice with a restricted virus gene expression and induces an inflammatory demyelinating disease that is thought to be immune mediated and a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The relative contribution of virus vis-à-vis the immune system in the pathogenesis of DA-induced white matter disease remains unclear, as is also true in MS. To clarify the pathogenesis of DA-indu...

  6. Three-dimensional structure of Theiler virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, R. A.; Filman, D. J.; Fujinami, R. S.; Icenogle, J. P.; Hogle, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus strains are categorized into two groups, a neurovirulent group that rapidly kills the host, and a demyelinating group that causes a generally nonlethal infection of motor neurons followed by a persistent infection of the white matter with demyelinating lesions similar to those found in multiple sclerosis. The three-dimensional structure of the DA strain, a member of the demyelinating group, has been determined at 2.8 A resolution. As in other picornaviru...

  7. Dynamic focal spots registration algorithm for freeform surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenjiang; Zhao, Liping; Chen, I.-Ming

    2013-06-01

    In a wavefront sensing system, the raw data for surface reconstruction, either the slope matrix or curvature matrix, is obtained through centroiding on the focal spot images. Centroiding is to calculate the first moment within a certain area of interest, which encloses the focal spot. As the distribution of focal spots is correlated to the surface sampling condition, while a uniform rectangular grid is good enough to register all the focal spots of a uniformly sampled near flat surface, the focal spots of aspherical or freeform surfaces have varying shapes and sizes depending on the surface geometry. In this case, the normal registration method is not applicable. This paper proposed a dynamic focal spots registration algorithm to automatically analyze the image, identify and register every focal spot for centroiding at one go. Through experiment on a freeform surface with polynomial coefficients up to 10th order, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is proved.

  8. November 13, 1898 earthquake in Western Transbaikalia: a ``white spot'' in seismic history of East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziminovich, Yan B.

    2014-01-01

    The parametric catalogues of historical earthquakes in East Siberia contain large data gaps. Among these is a 15-year period in the late nineteenth century (1886-1901). This period was not covered by any of macroseismic catalogues known; neither acquisition nor systematization of macroseismic data was ever performed for that purpose. However, 15 years is a rather long period in which large seismic events may have occurred. The present paper deals with the previously unknown earthquake that occurred on November 13, 1898. The primary macroseismic data were taken from regional periodicals. On the strength of all the evidence obtained, the earthquake epicenter is localized in Western Transbaikalia, near the western end of the Malkhansky Range; the magnitude is estimated at M = 5.9. The information about the large earthquake of November 13, 1898 provides filling significant gaps in knowledge for seismicity in Western Transbaikalia and a better understanding of seismic potential of faults therein. The obtained results show that the periods of seismic quiescence in catalogues may be related to insufficient information on seismicity of Eastern Siberia in the historical past rather than to the absence of large earthquakes.

  9. A longitudinal laser fluorescence study of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, S; Forsberg, C M; de Josselin de Jong, E; Angmar-Månsson, B

    1998-06-01

    Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances increases the caries risk in young persons. The aim of this study was to apply a new caries diagnostic method, quantitative laser fluorescence, for longitudinal in vivo quantification of changes in incipient enamel lesions related to fixed orthodontic appliances. Seven young patients with active caries lesions disclosed at removal of the orthodontic brackets and bands were enrolled in the study. Caries preventive measures were intensified, including dietary advice, oral hygiene instructions, and the regular use of a fluoride dentifrice. The caries lesions were monitored with the quantitative laser fluorescence method after removal of the brackets and once a month thereafter. For each lesion, three quantities were measured: lesion area (mm2), mean fluorescence loss (%) over the lesion, and maximum loss of fluorescence (%) in the lesion. During a 1-year follow-up period, the areas of the lesions decreased and the enamel fluorescence lost was partly regained indicating that a remineralization process had occurred. It was concluded that quantitative laser fluorescence seems suitable for in vivo monitoring of mineral changes in incipient enamel lesions, and useful for the evaluation of preventive measures in caries prone persons, such as orthodontic patients. PMID:9637561

  10. Ryan White Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assistance View Older Posts from drew altman At Tax Time, No Public Backlash Over Obamacare’s Individual Mandate ... Private Health Insurance on Controlling Spending Why Low Growth in Health Costs ... and health system. Recent economic conditions have meant increased demands on Ryan White ...

  11. Multilayer white beam study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.; Morawe, Ch.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Osterhoff, M.

    2011-06-01

    The degradation mechanisms are a critical issue if multilayers are used as monochromators for white beam synchrotron applications. To quantify the radiation impact x-ray reflectivity measurements before, during, and after white beam exposure were performed. For the in-situ irradiation study a versatile vacuum chamber was developed and tested using a high power undulator source. The device is equipped with a cooling system for the multilayer samples to distinguish thermal effects from pure radiation induced ones. The x-ray reflectivity was measured at fixed angle of incidence in an energy dispersive mode and as a function of time. The energy dispersive detection allows for the simultaneous observation of the multilayer reflectivity spectrum over a wide range. The white beam study includes various long-term exposures with an incoming load up to 250 W. Ex-situ x-ray reflectivity measurements and beam imaging were carried out with monochromatic radiation at 8 keV before and after the white beam exposure. TEM analysis provides complementary information on the layer structure in the stack. Depending on the material system, the total radiation dose, and the sample environment, different degrees of modifications in the multilayer structure were observed.

  12. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  13. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in WDs, causing an overestimated surface gravity, and ultimately determine if these magnetic fields are likely developed through the star's own surface convection zone, or inherited from massive Ap/Bp progenitors. We discovered around 20 000 spectroscopic white dwarfs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with a corresponding increase in relatively rare varieties of white dwarfs, including the massive ones (Kleinman et al. 2013, ApJS, 204, 5, Kepler et al. 2013, MNRAS, 439, 2934). The mass distributions of the hydrogen-rich (DA) measured from fitting the spectra with model atmospheres calculated using unidimensinal mixing lenght-theory (MLT) shows the average mass (as measured by the surface gravity) increases apparently below 13 000K for DAs (e.g. Bergeron et al. 1991, ApJ, 367, 253; Tremblay et al. 2011, ApJ, 730, 128; Kleinman et al. 2013). Only with the tridimensional (3D) convection calculations of Tremblay et al. 2011 (A&A, 531, L19) and 2013 (A&A, 552, 13; A&A, 557, 7; arXiv 1309.0886) the problem has finally been solved, but the effects of magnetic fields are not included yet in the mass determinations. Pulsating white dwarf stars are used to measure their interior and envelope properties through seismology, and together with the luminosity function of white dwarf stars in clusters and around the Sun are valuable tools for the study of high density physics, and the history of stellar formation.

  14. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a condition in which there is an extra electrical pathway of the heart. The ... to periods of rapid heart rate ( tachycardia ). Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is one of the most common ...

  15. White matter of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    White matter is tissue found in the brain. It contains nerve fibers. Many of these nerve fibers (axons) are ... fat called myelin. The myelin gives the white matter it's color. Myelin acts as an insulator. It ...

  16. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

    2014-11-01

    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young. PMID:25327247

  17. Direct detection of molluscum contagiosum virus in clinical specimens by dot blot hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, J. W.; Forghani, B.; Chan, C. S.; Oshiro, L.; Darai, G.

    1991-01-01

    A dot blot hybridization protocol was developed for the direct detection of molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA in clinical specimens submitted for virus isolation. Samples were concentrated by high-speed centrifugation and treated with proteinase K; this was followed by a single phenol-chloroform extraction step. The DNA was denatured, and the entire volume was spotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane. A biotinylated DNA probe specific for the BamHI-C region of MCV type 1 was used for hybrid...

  18. Virus Ebola Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono Wuryadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  19. Measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Hussein Y

    2015-01-01

    Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of the virus and its pathogenesis. Subsequently these technologies facilitated the development of novel vaccine candidates that induce immunity against measles and other pathogens. Based on the promising prospective, the use of MV as a recombinant vaccine and a therapeutic vector is addressed. PMID:25483511

  20. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Viviana R; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2008-05-01

    A majority of illnesses caused by foodborne viruses are associated with fresh produce. Fruits and vegetables may be considered high-risk foods, as they are often consumed raw without a specific inactivation step. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate nonthermal treatments for the inactivation of foodborne pathogens. This study investigates the UV inactivation of three viruses: feline calicivirus (a surrogate for norovirus), and two picornaviruses, hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus. Three produce types were selected for their different surface topographies and association with outbreaks. Green onions, lettuce, and strawberries were individually spot inoculated with 10(7) to 10(9) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of each virus per ml and exposed to UV light at various doses ( 0.05) for virus inactivation were observed among the three doses applied (40, 120, and 240 mW s/cm2) on the produce, with the exception of hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus inactivation on green onions, where inactivation continued at 120 mW s/cm2 (P < 0.05). PMID:18522022