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White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation  

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The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

2014-09-01

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THE WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV LOAD IN Dendronereis spp.  

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Full Text Available The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative agent of White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD, is a major shrimp pathogen in Indonesia. Dendronereis spp. is a ubiquitous Polychaetes and natural food of shrimp raised in brackishwater pond in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to determine the occurrence of WSSV and the viral load in Dendronereis spp. obtained from the shrimp pond. Dendronereis spp. was obtained with PVC (10 cm in diameter from a traditional shrimp pond in Semarang vicinity. As acomparison, healthy looking Penaeus monodon was also obtained from the same pond. The occurrence of WSSV in Dendronereis spp. was determined with 1-step and nested PCR using primer for WSSV major envelope protein, VP 28. The viral load was counted with 1-step Real Time PCR. The WSSV was detected in Dendronereis spp. with 1-step and nested PCR. The point prevalence of WSSV infection in Dendronereis spp. is 90 %. The viral load ranged from 0 to 1.9 x 104 copy of DNA/µg total DNA. The viral load in Dendronereis is comparable with that of naturally infected and at carrier state P.monodon from the same pond. This is the first report of WSSV load in naturally infected Dendronereis spp.

Desrina

2012-06-01

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Genomic instability of prawn white spot bacilliform virus (WSBV) and its association to virus virulence.  

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Prawn White Spot Bacilliform Virus (WSBV) is a major pathogen that causes prawn diseases. In this study, we examined the sequence of WSBV genome DNA in the shrimp Penaeus japonicus, P. vannamei, P. Monodon, P. chinensis and Metapenaeus ensis through successive PCR amplification of the DNA fragments in the whole WSBV genome. We found a sequence deletion hotspot in the WSBV genome that is 305107 bp in length. The sizes of the deleted fragments were 4.6, 4.8 or 8.1 kbp depending on the species of prawn. Since the mortality of shrimp infected by the intact WSBV was always significantly higher than that of shrimp infected by DNA fragment-deleted WSBV, we suggest that this deletion be somehow linked to the virulence of the virus itself. This result may lead to the discovery of the molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of WSBV in shrimps. PMID:12457981

Lan, Yongsheng; Lu, Wei; Xu, Xun

2002-12-01

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Membrane Binding Activity with Virus in White Spot Syndrome Virus-Infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is one of the most disastrous pathogens in shrimp culture, having caused high mortality in many cultured shrimp species. It is well known that the most important step of viral infection is cell attachment. Approach:Therefore determining the binding activity of shrimp cells to WSSV is an important to evaluate anti-infection ability and understanding the procedure of a viral infection. So this study aims to analyze binding activity of cell membrane with WSSV in shrimp of Fenneropenaeus chinensis (F. chienesis. WSSV was used to stimulate F. chinensis and binding activity in gills, muscle and hepatopancreas with virus within the procession of WSSV was measured. Results:The results showed that binding activity in gills with WSSV within infection stage (0-96 h had no significant change. The highest binding activity was attained after infection 24-48 h in muscle. The binding activity in hepatopancreas with WSSV was lower during infection stage (0-96 h. Conclusion/Recommendation: The higher binding activity of WSSV to gills and muscle indicated that gills and muscle are the importance target tissue for WSSV infection. This suggested that receptor of WSSV existed in gills and muscle.

Liu Qing-hui

2009-01-01

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Effects of Water Temperature on the White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei  

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This study evaluated the effects of high water temperature (32 ± 1 °C) on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL15). WSSV challenge was done by immersion. One group of PL15 was continuously maintained at 32 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge and a control group of PL15 was constantly maintained at 28 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge. Other groups were kep...

Chuchird, Niti; Thongkao, Kanittada; Prompamorn, Piyanuch; Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Limsuwan, Chalor

2010-01-01

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Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection. PMID:24486504

Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-04-10

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Pathology Associated with White Spot Virus (WSV) Infection in Wild Broodstock of Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon).  

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A total of six wild broodstocks of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, were found positive for White Spot Virus (WSV) with an IQ2000 detection kit. Using histopathology, the intranuclear inclusion of haemocyte due to WSV infection was observed in the epithelium cells of the antennal gland, stomach and gills. This result confirmed that the wild broodstocks were positive with WSV without showing any white spot. Additionally, histopathological examination also revealed an accumulation of haemocytes around the hepatopancreatic tubules resulting from bacterial infection. Encapsulation and nodule formation, as well as related necrosis, were also observed around the hepatopancreatic tubules infected with a metazoan parasite. Encysted tylocephalum larval cestodes were observed in the hepatopancreas, with haemocytic aggregation being observed around the infected tubules. These findings showed some bacterial and parasitic infections which, in addition to the viral infection itself, could contribute to the 80% mortality rate in wild broodstocks infected with WSV. PMID:24575228

Kua, Beng Chu; Rashid, Noraziah Mat

2012-05-01

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

2014-09-01

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Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

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Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

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Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in recognition of beta-integrin.  

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The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that beta-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of beta-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed that envelope proteins VP26, VP31, VP37, VP90 and nucleocapsid protein VP136 interacted with LvInt. RGD-, YGL- and LDV-related peptide functioned as motifs of WSSV proteins binding with beta-integrin. The beta-integrin ligand of RGDT had better blocking effect compared with that of YGL- and LDV-related peptides. In vivo assay indicated that RGD-, LDV- and YGL-related peptides could partially block WSSV infection. These data collectively indicate that multiple proteins were involved in recognition of beta-integrin. Identification of proteins in WSSV that are associated with beta-integrin will assist development of new agents for effective control of the white spot syndrome. PMID:24845502

Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Qing-Hui; Huang, Jie

2014-06-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus Orf514 Encodes a Bona Fide DNA Polymerase  

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Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is the causative agent of white spot syndrome, one of the most devastating diseases in shrimp aquaculture. The genome of WSSV includes a gene that encodes a putative family B DNA polymerase (ORF514, which is 16% identical in amino acid sequence to the Herpes virus 1 DNA polymerase. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the activity of the WSSV ORF514-encoded protein as a DNA polymerase and hence a putative antiviral target. A 3.5 kbp fragment encoding the conserved polymerase and exonuclease domains of ORF514 was overexpressed in bacteria. The recombinant protein showed polymerase activity but with very low level of processivity. Molecular modeling of the catalytic protein core encoded in ORF514 revealed a canonical polymerase fold. Amino acid sequence alignments of ORF514 indicate the presence of a putative PIP box, suggesting that the encoded putative DNA polymerase may use a host processivity factor for optimal activity. We postulate that WSSV ORF514 encodes a bona fide DNA polymerase that requires accessory proteins for activity and maybe target for drugs or compounds that inhibit viral DNA replication.

Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo

2011-01-01

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Rapid Detection of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus by Real Time, Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41±0.17 min at 39°C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

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The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.  

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The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

2014-06-01

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Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant (nr database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at http://xbio.lifescience.ntu.edu.tw/pm/. Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

Juan Hsueh-Fen

2007-05-01

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Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle.  

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We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a "vital factor" and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. Importance: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus "hijacks" host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2014-07-01

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Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico  

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Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

González-Galaviz José Reyes

2013-01-01

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Endocytic pathway is indicated for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) entry in shrimp.  

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The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has had a serious economic impact on the global shrimp aquaculture industry in the past two decades. Although research has clarified a lot about its genome and structure, the mechanism of how WSSV enters a cell is still unclear. In this study to determine this mechanism, primary cultured hemocytes were used as an experimental model to observe the process of WSSV entry because the stable shrimp cell lines for WSSV infection are lacking. After labeling virions and endosomes with fluorescent dyes followed by observation with a confocal microscope, the results show that the WSSV colocalizes with early endosomes. Hemocytes are further treated with different endocytic inhibitors, methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) and chlorpromazine (CPZ). WSSV still can be detected in the hemocytes treated with CPZ, but not in the hemocytes treated with M?CD. Thus, we conclude that WSSV adopts the caveolae-mediated endocytosis to enter the shrimp cell. PMID:23747417

Huang, Zih-Jhan; Kang, Shih-Ting; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chen, Li-Li

2013-09-01

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White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.  

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In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. PMID:24795080

Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

2014-07-01

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Detection and Quantification of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus and White Spot Virus in Shrimp Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and SYBR Green Chemistry  

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A rapid and highly sensitive real-time PCR detection and quantification method for infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), a single-stranded DNA virus, and white spot virus (WSV), a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus infecting penaeid shrimp (Penaeus sp.), was developed using the GeneAmp 5700 sequence detection system coupled with SYBR Green chemistry. The PCR mixture contains a fluorescence dye, SYBR Green, which upon binding to dsDNA exhibits fluorescence enhancement....

Dhar, Arun K.; Roux, Michelle M.; Klimpel, Kurt R.

2001-01-01

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First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from Lagoa dos Patos estuary, southern Brazil  

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In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul.

Lissandra Souto Cavalli; Luis Alberto Romano; Luis Fernando Marins; Paulo César Abreu

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from Lagoa dos Patos estuary, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul. [...

Lissandra Souto, Cavalli; Luis Alberto, Romano; Luis Fernando, Marins; Paulo César, Abreu.

1176-11-01

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First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from Lagoa dos Patos estuary, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul.

Lissandra Souto Cavalli

2011-09-01

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In silico identification of putative promoter motifs of White Spot Syndrome Virus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background White Spot Syndrome Virus, a member of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustacean species. Although limited information is available on the mode of transcription, previous data suggest that WSSV gene expression occurs in a coordinated and cascaded fashion. To search in silico for conserved promoter motifs (i the abundance of all 4 through 8 nucleotide motifs in the upstream sequences of WSSV genes relative to the complete genome was determined, and (ii a MEME search was performed in the upstream sequences of either early or late WSSV genes, as assigned by microarray analysis. Both methods were validated by alignments of empirically determined 5' ends of various WSSV mRNAs. Results The collective information shows that the upstream region of early WSSV genes, containing a TATA box and an initiator, is similar to Drosophila RNA polymerase II core promoter sequences, suggesting utilization of the cellular transcription machinery for generating early transcripts. The alignment of the 5' ends of known well-established late genes, including all major structural protein genes, identified a degenerate motif (ATNAC which could be involved in WSSV late transcription. For these genes, only one contained a functional TATA box. However, almost half of the WSSV late genes, as previously assigned by microarray analysis, did contain a TATA box in their upstream region. Conclusion The data may suggest the presence of two separate classes of late WSSV genes, one exploiting the cellular RNA polymerase II system for mRNA synthesis and the other generating messengers by a new virus-induced transcription mechanism.

Sandbrink Hans

2006-06-01

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Construction and application of a protein interaction map for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is currently the most serious global threat for cultured shrimp production. Although its large, double-stranded DNA genome has been completely characterized, most putative protein functions remain obscure. To provide more informative knowledge about this virus, a proteomic-scale network of WSSV-WSSV protein interactions was carried out using a comprehensive yeast two-hybrid analysis. An array of yeast transformants containing each WSSV open reading frame fused with GAL4 DNA binding domain and GAL4 activation domain was constructed yielding 187 bait and 182 prey constructs, respectively. On screening of ?28,000 pairwise combinations, 710 interactions were obtained from 143 baits. An independent coimmunoprecipitation assay (co-IP) was performed to validate the selected protein interaction pairs identified from the yeast two-hybrid approach. The program Cytoscape was employed to create a WSSV protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The topology of the WSSV PPI network was based on the Barabási-Albert model and consisted of a scale-free network that resembled other established viral protein interaction networks. Using the RNA interference approach, knocking down either of two candidate hub proteins gave shrimp more protection against WSSV than knocking down a nonhub gene. The WSSV protein interaction map established in this study provides novel guidance for further studies on shrimp viral pathogenesis, host-viral protein interaction and potential targets for therapeutic and preventative antiviral strategies in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:24217020

Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chu, Yu-Fei; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Senapin, Saengchan; Huang, Wei-Pang; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Flegel, Timothy W; Lo, Chu-Fang

2014-01-01

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OIE white spot syndrome virus PCR gives false-positive results in Cherax quadricarinatus.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an intranuclear bacilliform virus (IBV) that is a serious, notifiable crustacean pathogen. The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) PCR protocol for WSSV uses primer sets initially developed by Lo et al. (1996). It yields a first-step PCR amplicon of 1441 bp and a nested PCR amplicon of 941 bp. An amplicon (941 bp) purported to specifically detect WSSV was obtained when using template DNA extracted from Cherax quadricarinatus in a WSSV PCR detection protocol recommended by the OIE. Sequencing and analysis of the 941 bp amplicon and an occasional 550 bp amplicon from C. quadricarinatus revealed no phylogenetic relationship with WSSV, and suggested a possible lack of sufficient primer specificity for WSSV in the OIE test. This suggestion was supported by the fact that the OIE outer primer sequence (146F1) was present in both the forward and reverse position of the 941 bp and the forward position of the 550 bp nested amplicons from C. quadricarinatus. As WSSV is a notifiable pathogen, the consequences of false-positive results are harsh in WSSV-free zones and can lead to incorrect quarantine and unnecessary destruction of animals. Therefore, urgent attention and revision is necessary for the current OIE PCR protocol for WSSV detection. PMID:15672884

Claydon, Kerry; Cullen, Bradford; Owens, Leigh

2004-12-13

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Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single-challenge and serial challenge results, and on previous published work showing that S. serrata is relatively unaffected by WSSV infection, we propose that susceptibility to white spot disease in the genus Scylla is species-dependent and may also be dose-history dependent. In practical terms for shrimp farmers, it means that S. olivacea and S. paramamosain may pose less threat as WSSV carriers than S. serrata. For crab farmers, our results suggest that rearing of S. serrata would be a better choice than S. paramamosain or S. olivacea in terms of avoiding losses from seasonal outbreaks of white spot disease.

Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

2010-11-01

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Development of an immuno-based colorimetric assay for white spot syndrome virus.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major cause of infectious disease in cultured shrimp. A fast and reliable method for detecting and monitoring the amount of WSSV during farming would be extremely useful. This work describes a sandwich immunoassay that uses anti-GST-VP26, a WSSV-binding protein (WBP), and modified streptavidin magnesphere paramagnetic particles (SMPPs) to develop the technique. The WBP was immobilized on SMPPs and later bound to different copies of WSSV. The binding was detected using anti-GST-VP26 conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. This enzymatic reaction successfully changed the test solution to a concentration-dependent yellow color that was measured at 405 nm. The sensitivity of this method was between 1.6 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(7) copies µL(-1) of WSSV. In this study, the color for detection and semiquantitative analysis is easily observed and measured and can lead to the development of a test kit for screening WSSV during shrimp farming. PMID:24131426

Loyprasert-Thananimit, Suchera; Saleedang, Akrapon; Deachamag, Panchalika; Waiyapoka, Thanyaporn; Neulplub, Maitee; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

2014-01-01

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Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

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Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

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The role of Litopenaeus vannamei p38 in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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p38 as a member of MAPK family, has been conversed from yeast to mammals. It has been implicated in numerous biological processes, including the responses to stress and inflammation. In this study, three closely related p38 MAPK homologs, lvp38a, lvp38b and lvp38c, which differ only in an internal 25-amino acid sequence, have been cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei. Three isoforms shared p38 conserved TGY motif and catalytic center, as well as had maximum identities to human p38? and Drosophila p38b. Tissue distribution revealed that lvp38a and lvp38b were ubiquitously expressed in most tissues, while lvp38c showed at relatively low levels and in a tissue-specific manner. Western blotting analysis showed that lvp38 was activated by phosphorylation during WSSV infection. Furthermore, silencing lvp38 mediated by specific dsRNA in shrimps promoted white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication and viral gene transcription at the early stage. These results demonstrated that lvp38 was involved in WSSV infection and might participate in host defense at the early stage. PMID:24361691

Shi, Hong; Ruan, Lingwei; Yan, Xinfu; Yao, Defu; Xu, Xun

2014-05-01

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White spot syndrome virus VP12 interacts with adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei.  

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White spot syndrome virus VP12 contains cell attachment motif RGD which is considered to be critical for host cell binding. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP12 with host cells. A new shrimp protein (adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvANT) is selected by far-western overlay assay. Tissue distribution of adenine nucleotide translocase mRNA showed that it was commonly spread in all the tissues detected. Cellular localization of LvANT in shrimp hemocytes showed that it was primarily located in the cytoplasm of hemocytes and colocalized with mitochondria. ELISA and far-western blot assay confirmed that VP12 interacted with LvANT. In vivo neutralization assay showed that anti-LvANT antibody can significantly reduce the mortality of shrimp challenged by WSSV at 48h post-treatment. Our results collectively showed that VP12 is involved in host cell binding via interaction with adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:24607653

Ma, Fang-fang; Chou, Zhi-guang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guangkuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-05-01

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Transcriptional analysis of the ribonucleotide reductase genes of shrimp white spot syndrome virus.  

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The causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, WSSV, which is probably a representative of a new genus, provisionally called Whispovirus. From previously constructed WSSV genomic libraries of a Taiwan WSSV isolate, clones with open reading frames (ORFs) that encode proteins with significant homology to the class I ribonucleotide reductase large (RR1) and small (RR2) subunits were identified. WSSV rr1 and rr2 potentially encode 848 and 413 amino acids, respectively. RNA was isolated from WSSV-infected shrimp at different times after infection and Northern blot analysis with rr1- and rr2-specific riboprobes found major transcripts of 2.8 and 1.4 kb, respectively. 5' RACE showed that the major rr1 transcript started at a position of -84 (C) relative to the ATG translational start, while transcription of the rr2 gene started at nucleotide residue -68 (T). A consensus motif containing the transcriptional start sites for rr1 and rr2 was observed (TCAc/tTC). Northern blotting and RT-PCR showed that the transcription of rr1 and rr2 started 4-6 h after infection and continued for at least 60 h. The rr1 and rr2 genes thus appear to be WSSV "early genes." PMID:11062039

Tsai, M F; Lo, C F; van Hulten, M C; Tzeng, H F; Chou, C M; Huang, C J; Wang, C H; Lin, J Y; Vlak, J M; Kou, G H

2000-11-10

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Effects of Water Temperature on the White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of high water temperature (32 ± 1 °C on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection in Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL15. WSSV challenge was done by immersion. One group of PL15 was continuously maintained at 32 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge and a control group of PL15 was constantly maintained at 28 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment after challenge. Other groups were kept at 32 ± 1 °C until temperature was altered from 32 ± 1 °C to 28 ± 1 °C at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after infection. Gross signs and mortality were monitored every 12 h until the end of the experiment. WSSV infections were confirmed by nested-PCR, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and bioassay methods. Challenged shrimp were kept at 32 ± 1 °C for 0, 1, 3 and 5 days before the temperature was reduced to 28 ± 1 °C revealing that maintaining the temperature at 32 ± 1 °C for a longer period could delay clinical signs and onset of mortalities. Nevertheless, 100 % mortalities occurred in all groups and the control group within 7 days. All moribund PL15 were WSSV-positive by nested-PCR assay as well as histopathology, immunohistochemistry and bioassay methods. In contrast, PL15 constantly maintained at 32 ± 1 °C until the end of the experiment, and for 7 days after challenge before switching to 28 ± 1 °C did not show clinical signs and mortality. Surviving PL15 from both groups were WSSV-negative by nested-PCR assay as well as histopathology, immunohistochemistry and bioassay methods. This study clearly indicated that postlarvae maintained constantly at 32 ± 1 °C for 7 days were able to eliminate/clear WSSV infection.

Sutee WONGMANEEPRATEEP

2010-06-01

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The Role of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and Hsp70 in Suppression of White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication at High Temperature?  

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High temperature (32 to 33°C) has been shown to reduce mortality in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimps, but the mechanism still remains unclear. Here we show that in WSSV-infected shrimps cultured at 32°C, transcriptional levels of representative immediate-early, early, and late genes were initially higher than those at 25°C. However, neither the IE1 nor VP28 protein was detected at 32°C, suggesting that high temperature might inhibit WSSV protein synthesis. Two-dimensional...

Lin, Ying-ru; Hung, Hsiao-chun; Leu, Jiann-horng; Wang, Hao-ching; Kou, Guang-hsiung; Lo, Chu-fang

2011-01-01

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Role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide against Vibrio penaeicida and white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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Crustins are important AMP that has been identified in crustaceans. In this study, the role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide (MjCRS) was examined in vivo by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Tissue expression analysis revealed that MjCRS transcripts are expressed in different tissues tested with the highest expression observed in hemocytes. Treatment with double-stranded RNA specific to MjCRS led to a significant reduction of MjCRS transcripts within the hemocytes. When MjCRS was silenced and subsequently infected with Vibrio penaeicida final mortality was significantly higher compared with PBS and dsGFP treated groups. On the other hand, final mortalities of MjCRS silenced and PBS injected groups were not significantly different after infection with white spot virus, however, both are significantly higher compared with dsGFP treated group. V. penaeicida infection significantly decreased MjCRS expression at 3, 6, 12 and 24h followed by significant increase at 48 h post-infection. On the contrary, white spot infection significantly increased MjCRS expression at 6 and 12h and decreased at 48 h post-infection. dsRNA treatment alone decreased total hemocyte counts (THCs) and subsequent V. penaeicida or white spot virus infection further decreased THCs. VP28 gene expression was both similarly increased in PBS injected group and MjCRS silenced group at 24 and 48 h-post infection. Results suggest that MjCRS is involved in antibacterial defense and might not have critical function against viral infection. PMID:24929027

Hipolito, Sheryll Grospe; Shitara, Aiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

2014-10-01

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Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology. PMID:25144114

Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

2014-08-21

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Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp  

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Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter

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Transcription and identification of a novel envelope protein (VP124) gene of shrimp white spot syndrome virus.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most virulent pathogens in shrimp culture worldwide. Combining SDS-PAGE with mass spectrometry, a novel envelope protein from WSSV was identified to match an open reading frame (ORF) of WSSV genome. This ORF contained 3582nt, encoding 1194 aa, and was termed the vp124 gene. One part of the whole gene (named vp124p) was cloned into pET-GST vector and expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Specific antibodies were raised using the purified fusion protein (GST-VP124P). Temporal transcription analysis revealed that the vp124 gene was a late gene. Western blot analysis showed that the mouse anti-GST-VP124P antibodies reacted specifically with VP124 present either in the WSSV virions or in the viral envelopes, and did not react with the proteins of the viral nucleocapsids. VP124 was located in the WSSV virions as an envelope protein using immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:15955586

Zhu, Yanbing; Xie, Xixian; Yang, Feng

2005-11-01

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Label free detection of white spot syndrome virus using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate piezoelectric microcantilever sensors.  

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We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 ?m long and 850-485 ?m wide constructed from 8 ?m thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100virions(nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions(nucleocapsids)/100 ?l, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label free, in situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

Capobianco, Joseph A; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y

2010-11-15

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Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Molecular characterization, immune response against white spot syndrome virus infection of peroxiredoxin 4 in Fenneropenaeus chinensis and its antioxidant activity.  

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Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins and perform important functions in intracellular signal transduction. Here, we report a Prx gene from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The full-length cDNA of FcPrx gene contained an open reading frame of 735 bp encoding a polypeptide of 275 amino acids. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid of FcPrx is 27445.43 Da with an estimated pI of 5.71. Sequence comparison showed that the FcPrx shares high identities with Prx IVs and it was named FcPrx4. A real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to assess the mRNA expression of FcPrx4 in different tissues and temporal expression in hemocytes and hepatopancreas of F. chinensis challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Transcripts of FcPrx4 can be detected in all tissues examined. The expression of FcPrx4 showed significant up-regulation in shrimp hemocytes and hepatopancreas after artificial infection with WSSV. A fusion protein containing FcPrx4 was produced in vitro and was confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) assay. And activity analysis indicated that the recombinant FcPrx4 proteins can reduce H2O2 in the presence of dithiothreitol. PMID:24418456

Zhang, Qingli; Huang, Jie; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Qinghui; Wei, Jiankai; Liang, Gaofeng; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-03-01

42

ORF390 of white spot syndrome virus genome is identified as a novel anti-apoptosis gene.  

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Apoptosis serves as an important defense strategy employed by host cells against viral invasion. Many viruses contain the anti-apoptotic genes to block the defense-by-death response of host cells. In this study, we tried to identify the putative anti-apoptotic genes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome. We confirmed that actinomycin D could induce apoptosis of shrimp primary cells. However, the apoptosis triggered by actinomycin D was inhibited by WSSV infection. As mutants of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), AcMNPVDelta35k/pol+ lacks a functional P35 gene undergoing apoptosis and its infection could induce Sf9 cell apoptosis. To identify the putative apoptotic suppressor gene of WSSV, overlapping cosmid clones representing the entire WSSV genome were individually cotransfected along with genome DNA of AcMNPVDeltaP35k/pol+. Using this marker rescue assay, a WSSV DNA fragment that was able to rescue AcMNPVDeltaP35k/pol+ infection in Sf9 cells was isolated. By further sequence analysis and rescue assay, the ORF390 was identified as a novel anti-apoptotic gene. The ORF displays two putative caspase9 cleavage sites LLVETDGPS, VKLEHDGSK, and a caspase3 cleavage site EEDEVDGVP. The ORF was cloned into the pIE1 vector and then the recombinant vector was transfected into Sf9 cells. The Sf9 cells did not show obvious characteristics of apoptosis when infected with AcMNPVDeltaP35k/pol+. And the transient expression of ORF390 allowed AcMNPVDeltaP35k/pol+ replication in Sf9 cells and resulted in the formation of polyhedra successfully. The results indicate that function of ORF390 in WSSV is a kind of apoptotic suppressor like P35 in AcMNPV. PMID:15541375

Wang, Zhimin; Hu, Longbo; Yi, Guohua; Xu, Hua; Qi, Yipeng; Yao, Lunuang

2004-12-17

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Increased tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection after oral application of the viral envelope protein VP28  

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It has been generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response system comparable to that of vertebrates. However, in the last few years, several studies have suggested the existence of such a response in invertebrates. In one of these studies, the shrimp Penaeus monodon showed increased protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a recombinant VP28 envelope protein of WSSV. In an effort to further investigate whether this increased prote...

Witteveldt, J.; Vlak, J. M.; Hulten, M. C. W.

2006-01-01

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PCR detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV from farmed Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in selected sites of the Philippines  

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Full Text Available Great losses caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV in shrimp culture have beenattributed to poor screening procedures in farms and the lack of sufficient access to specific pathogenfree brood stock. Thus, early detection of the virus is considered the best option for shrimp farmers. Thestudy, thus, assessed viral incidence in the Philippines and partially sequenced and characterized thePhilippine WSSV isolate with regards to other isolates in GenBank. Developed primers for PCR can detecttarget genes from 0.4 pg of DNA extract from shrimp samples. PCR detection revealed that 6.67 %(1/15 of market samples from Zambales are infected with WSSV. Shrimp samples from a local shop anda public market in General Santos City showed 46.67% (7/15 and 20% (3/15 WSSV-positive samplesrespectively. Shrimp sources from Capiz and Batangas, however, showed negative detection for WSV. Nosignificant difference in the number of infected samples from the sampling sites was found. Combineddetections reveal that the Philippines has a low infection rate of 14.67%. The study has partiallysequenced and characterized Philippine isolate. During the sampling period, most shrimps in GeneralSantos City were WSSV-positive by PCR detection.

Mary Beth B. Maningas

2011-10-01

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Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.  

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Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2) copies ?L(-1)), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1), suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. PMID:24127689

Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

2014-10-01

46

Effects of white spot syndrome virus infection on immuno-enzyme activities and ultrastructure in gills of Cherax quadricarinatus.  

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In this study, we explored the pathogenic mechanism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, by investigating activities of enzymes related to innate immune function during infection. After 6-12 h of exposure to WSSV, the activities of four enzymes, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LSZ), increased in the gills of C. quadricarinatus but then sharply decreased during longer infection times. Except for PO, the activities of other enzymes in the WSSV-infected crayfish (Group II) were significantly lower than those of the controls at 72 h post-exposure (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the enzyme activities in the group treated with polysaccharides before challenge with WSSV (Group III) were higher than those in Group II. This phenomenon demonstrated that the polysaccharides could improve the immuno-enzyme activities and enhance the organism's antiviral defenses. Morphological examination by transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant WSSV particles and significant damage in the gills of infected crayfish. WSSV infection caused parts of the gill epithelium and microvilli to be reduced in number and size or damaged; meanwhile, the mitochondria morphology changed, with parts of the cristae diminished leaving large vacuoles. Moreover, electron dense deposits appeared and heterochromatinized nuclei could be seen in blood cells with ruptured nuclear membranes and outflow of nucleoplasm. The findings of this study furthers our understanding of the biochemical alterations induced by viral infections, including changes in the antioxidant status, oxidative stress and lysozyme activity, which could help to advance strategies for control of WSSV in crayfish. PMID:22281607

Wang, Dan-Li; Zuo, Di; Wang, Lan-Mei; Sun, Ting; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yun-Long

2012-05-01

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Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

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As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID?? ml?¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD?? ml?¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence. PMID:22968789

Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

2012-09-12

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[Comparative analysis of variable region of white spot syndrome virus genome in Penaeus vannamei in Guangxi, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative analysis of variable region ORF14/15 genes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome in Guangxi Penaeus vannamei (P. vannamei) could provide useful information for the evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic evolutionary relationship among WSSV isolates from Guangxi, China and other places. Based on geographical and temporal considerations, 40 WSSV-positive P. vannamei samples were collected during the period between May 2010 and July 2013 from Beihai, Qinzhou, and Fangchenggang, which were the main P. vannamei production areas in Guangxi, and the variable region ORF14/15 genes of the WSSV genome from all infected samples were amplified by PCR and then subjected to cloning and sequence analysis. Pairwise and multiple alignment analysis was then conducted to evaluate the degree of genetic divergence between different strains. The variable region ORF14/15 genes from 25 of 40 WSSV positive samples were successfully cloned and sequenced; among the ORF14/15 genes of 25 WSSV-positive strains, 22 was 619 bp in length and 3 was 620 bp. All the 25 Guangxi strains carried a 5949-bp deletion in the ORF14/15 region relative to TH-96-II, which has the longest nucleotide sequence in this region; the deletion of Guangxi strains occurred in the middle region of ORF14/15 gene, with only 190 bp and 429 bp/ 430 bp at 5' and 3' ends, respectively, which were coincident with WSSV-IN-05-I in deletion length and position. Sixteen of 25 Guangxi strains had completely identical nucleotide sequences in the variable re gion, and the homology between other strains also exceeded 97.9%. There were single nucleotide substi tution, deletion, and insertion in the ORF14/15 region of Guangxi strains compared with other strains in GenBank. In the phylogenetic tree based on WSSV variable region ORF14/15, the Guangxi strains were closely related and formed a separate branch with Indian strain IN-05-I, but far from other strains in GenBank. The ORF14/15 gene of WSSV isolates in cultured P. vannamei in Guangxi has a large deletion in the middle of the variable region, and the Guangxi WSSV strains show no significant spatio-temporal differences; the Guangxi strains are closer in genetics to Indian strain IN-05-I than other strains in GenBank. PMID:24772898

Tong, Gui-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Zheng; Wei, Xin-Xian; Ye, Xin-Yu; Wu, Ming-Yuan; Qin, Zhen-Fa; Lan, Liu-Chun; Zhou, Jing-Jing

2014-01-01

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Protection of Penaeus monodon from Infection of White spot syndrome virus by DNA Construct Expressing Long Hairpin-RNA Against ICP11 Gene  

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A plasmid construct (pICP11-LH) was designed to constitutively express long-hairpin RNA (lhRNA) against icp11 gene, which is reportedly the most highly expressed gene of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and likely to have an important role in viral pathogenesis. The construct was used singly and in combination with other similar constructs designed against vp28 and vp19. A total of 6 treatments, T1 (pICP11-LH; 35 ?g), T2 (pVP28-LH; 35 ?g), T3 (pVP28-LH and pVP19-LH; 17.5 ?g each), T4 (p...

Das, Rekha; Karthireddy, Syamala; Gireesh-babu, P.; Reddy, A. K.; Krishna, Gopal; Chaudhari, Aparna

2010-01-01

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Passive protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using specific antibody from egg yolk of chickens immunized with inactivated virus or a WSSV-DNA vaccine.  

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White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality and large economic losses in cultured shrimp. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. In this study, hens were immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28/VP19/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, which used CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund's adjuvant as adjuvant, respectively. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from hens immunized with inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine was obtained, purified and used for protection of Metapenaeus ensis shrimp against WSSV. The data showed that the antibody response of the hens immunized with the DNA vaccine was improved by CpG ODNs as adjuvant, but was still inferior to inactivated WSSV in both sera and egg yolks. Using specific IgY from hens immunized with inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine to neutralize WSSV, the challenged shrimp showed 73.3% and 33.3% survival, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that passive immunization strategy with IgY will be a valuable method against WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:18805492

Lu, Yanan; Liu, Junjun; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhen, Yuhong; Xue, Hongyu; You, Jiansong; Xu, Yongping

2008-11-01

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The DNA virus white spot syndrome virus uses an internal ribosome entry site for translation of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35.  

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Although shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus (?300 kbp), it expresses many polycistronic mRNAs that are likely to use internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements for translation. A polycistronic mRNA encodes the gene of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35, and here we use a dual-luciferase assay to demonstrate that this protein is translated cap independently by an IRES element located in the 5' untranslated region of icp35. A deletion analysis of this region showed that IRES activity was due to stem-loops VII and VIII. A promoterless assay, a reverse transcription-PCR together with quantitative real-time PCR analysis, and a stable stem-loop insertion upstream of the Renilla luciferase open reading frame were used, respectively, to rule out the possibility that cryptic promoter activity, abnormal splicing, or read-through was contributing to the IRES activity. In addition, a Northern blot analysis was used to confirm that only a single bicistronic mRNA was expressed. The importance of ICP35 to viral replication was demonstrated in a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) interference knockdown experiment in which the mortality of the icp35 dsRNA group was significantly reduced. Tunicamycin was used to show that the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is required for icp35 IRES activity. We also found that the intercalating drug quinacrine significantly inhibited icp35 IRES activity in vitro and reduced the mortality rate and viral copy number in WSSV-challenged shrimp. Lastly, in Sf9 insect cells, we found that knockdown of the gene for the Spodoptera frugiperda 40S ribosomal protein RPS10 decreased icp35 IRES-regulated firefly luciferase activity but had no effect on cap-dependent translation. PMID:24089551

Kang, Shih-Ting; Wang, Han-Ching; Yang, Yi-Ting; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2013-12-01

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Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

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A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 ?g mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 °C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions. PMID:23617699

Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N

2013-09-01

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Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon  

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Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

Hemtanon, P.

2005-02-01

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Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was [...] purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolated in Brazil.

Patricia, Braunig; Rafael Diego da, Rosa; Caroline Heidrich, Seibert; Mariana, Borsa; Patricia Hermes, Stoco; Edmundo Carlos, Grisard; Aguinaldo Roberto, Pinto.

2011-04-01

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Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was [...] purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolated in Brazil.

Patricia, Braunig; Rafael Diego da, Rosa; Caroline Heidrich, Seibert; Mariana, Borsa; Patricia Hermes, Stoco; Edmundo Carlos, Grisard; Aguinaldo Roberto, Pinto.

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Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate  

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Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

Patricia Braunig

2011-04-01

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Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei  

Science.gov (United States)

Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

2014-01-01

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Transcriptional upregulation of fortilin in shrimp, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus fed diets containing recombinant VP28, an antigenic protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV  

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Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is considered as one of the serious viral pathogens ofshrimp. There are several preventive measures that have been developed to curb the devastating effectsof this virus in shrimp aquaculture. Juvenile shrimps, Penaeus (Metapenaeus japonicus were fed withcommercial feeds that were mixed with recombinant VP28, a structural protein antigen of WSSV for aperiod of 14 days. The immune response of the shrimp during oral administration of the medicated feedwas determined by expression analysis of fortilin, a gene that is involved in the antiviral response. Therewas a significant increase in the level of expression of fortilin both in the gut and the gills in the fedgroup during the duration of feeding. The level of expression gradually decreased in the fed group,whereby at the 7th and 14th day after the last day of feeding with medicated feeds, no significantdifferences were observed between the fed and control groups in the expression at the gills and gut,respectively.

Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

2013-07-01

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PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ? 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ? 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication. PMID:24076066

Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-02-01

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White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

Mohammad M. Monwar

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Advances in the processing of policromat images as diagnostic method to determine white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

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White spot syndrome (WSSV) is a viral disease which affects many crustacean species including commercial shrimps. Adequate, precise and quick methods to diagnose on time the presence of the disease in order to apply different strategies to avoid the dispersion and to reduce mortalities is necessary. Histopathology is an important diagnostic method. However, histopathology has the problem that requires time to prepare the histological slides and time to arrive to some diagnosis because this depend on the nature of the tissues, the pathogen(s) to find, the number of organisms, number of slides to analyze and the skill of the technician. This paper try to demonstrate the sensibility of one digital system of processing and recognition of images using color correlation with phase filters, to identify inclusion bodies of WSSV. Infected tissues were processed to obtain histological slides and to verify that the inclusion bodies observed were of WSV, in situ hybridization were carried out. The sensibility results of the recognition of the inclusion bodies of WSSV with the color correlation program was 86.1%. The highest percentage of recognition was in nervous system and tegument glands with 100%. The values in the stomach epithelium and heart tissue was 78.45% of recognition. Tissues with the lowest recognition values were lymphoid organ and hematopoietic tissue. It is necessary further studies to increase the sensibility and to obtain the specificity.

Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina M.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Montoya-Rodriguez, L.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Fajer Avila, Emma J.; Pacheco-Marges, R.

2004-10-01

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Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).  

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Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication. PMID:24881625

Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan

2014-10-01

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Immunostimulatory activity of sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri and development of resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.  

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Sulfated galactans (SG) were isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri). Chemical analysis revealed SG contains sulfate (12.7%) and total carbohydrate (42.2%) with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kDa. Structure analysis by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that SG is a complex structure with a linear backbone of alternating 3-linked ?-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose units with partial 6-O-methylate-?-D-galactopyranose and with sulfation occurring on C4 of D-galactopyranose and C6 of L-galactopyranose units. SG treatment enhanced immune parameters including total haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anions and superoxide dismutase in shrimp Penaeus monodon. Shrimp fed with Artemia salina enriched with SG (100 and 200 ?g ml(-1)) and inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) showed a significantly lower mortality rate and lower viral VP 28 amplification and expression than control. The results suggest that SG from G. fisheri exhibits immune stimulatory and antiviral activities that could protect P. monodon from WSSV infection. PMID:24161778

Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Rudtanatip, Tawut; Praiboon, Jantana

2014-01-01

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Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV

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Cloning and characterization of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain in Fenneropenaeus chinensis and its essential role in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

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To investigate the role of cytoplasmic dynein in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, the full-length cDNA of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain (FcDYNCI) was cloned in Fenneropenaeus chinensis, which consists of 2582 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 660 amino acids. Sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment displayed that FcDYNCI was a member of cytoplasmic dynein 1 family. The FcDYNCI mRNA was most highly expressed in hemocytes, which was significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. At 12 h post infection (hpi), confocal microscopic observation showed that WSSV could be co-localized with cytoplasmic dynein in hemocytes. After silencing by specific FcDYNCI dsRNA, the FcDYNCI mRNA level and the protein amount of FcDYNCI in hemocytes both exhibited a significant reduction, and the expression levels of three WSSV genes ie1, wsv477 and vp28 all exhibited the greatest decreases at 24 hpi. These results suggested that cytoplasmic dynein was involved in WSSV infection. PMID:24925758

Feng, Jixing; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

2014-08-01

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Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Brazil using Negative Staining, Immunoelectron Microscopy and Immunocytochemistry Techniques Detección del Virus del Síndrome de Mancha Blanca en el Brasil Utilizando Inmunomicroscopía e Inmunomarcación con Partículas de Oro Coloidal  

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Full Text Available In this study thirty shrimp samples from commercial marine shrimp (L. vannamei farms of southern region of Brazil were obtained. Hepatopancreas and shell scrapings fragments collected in these animals were processed by transmission electron microscopy using negative staining (rapid preparation, immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles techniques. On the transmission electron microscopy a great number of white spot virus particles, ovoid or bacilliform-to-ellipsoid, measured 230-290 nm in length and 80-160 nm in diameter with intra-nuclear projections were visualized by the negative staining technique in 27 (90% out of 30 samples examined. Using immunoelectron microscopy technique, the anti-VP 664 serum agllutinated a large number of particles formed by antigen-antibody interaction. In the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody reaction was styrongly marked by the particles of colloidal gold over the virus. Notably, this is the first report, to our knowledge, describing use of these microscopy techniques to study Brazilian L. vannamei marine shrimp samples; moreover, this methodology also appears to be a viable complementary tool for diagnosing the presence of the white spot virus within shrimp tissues. Importantly, these are the first photoelectron micrographs of the WSSV in Brazil.Se obtuvieron para el estudio 30 muestras de camarones marinos comerciales (L. vannamei de las granjas de la región sur de Brasil. Fueron procesados fragmentos de hepatopáncreas y raspados internos del cefalotórax recogidos en estos animales por microscopía electrónica de transmisión con tinción negativa (preparación rápida, inmunomicroscopía y técnicas de inmunocitoquímica (inmunomarcación con partículas de oro coloidal. En la microscopía electrónica de transmisión de un gran número de partículas de virus de la mancha blanca, ovoide o elipsoidal a baciliformes, medían 230-290 nm de longitud y 80-160 nm de diámetro. En 27 (90% de las 30 muestras examinadas intra-nuclear proyecciones se visualizaron mediante la técnica de tinción negativa. Utilizando una técnica de inmunomicroscopía electrónica, el anti-suero VP 664 reunió a un gran número de partículas formadas por la interacción antígeno-anticuerpo. En la técnica de inmunocitoquímica, la reacción antígeno-anticuerpo fue fuertemente reforzada por las partículas de oro coloidal en los virus. En particular, en Brasil este es el primer informe, a nuestro entender, que describe el uso de estas técnicas de microscopía en muestras de camarón marino L. vanamei. Además, esta metodología también parece ser una herramienta complementaria viable para diagnosticar la presencia del virus de la mancha blanca en tejidos de camarón. Es importante destacar que estas son las primeras fotos en microscopia electrónica del WSSV obtenidas en Brasil.

M Hipolito

2012-06-01

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Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Brazil using Negative Staining, Immunoelectron Microscopy and Immunocytochemistry Techniques / Detección del Virus del Síndrome de Mancha Blanca en el Brasil Utilizando Inmunomicroscopía e Inmunomarcación con Partículas de Oro Coloidal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se obtuvieron para el estudio 30 muestras de camarones marinos comerciales (L. vannamei) de las granjas de la región sur de Brasil. Fueron procesados fragmentos de hepatopáncreas y raspados internos del cefalotórax recogidos en estos animales por microscopía electrónica de transmisión con tinción ne [...] gativa (preparación rápida), inmunomicroscopía y técnicas de inmunocitoquímica (inmunomarcación con partículas de oro coloidal). En la microscopía electrónica de transmisión de un gran número de partículas de virus de la mancha blanca, ovoide o elipsoidal a baciliformes, medían 230-290 nm de longitud y 80-160 nm de diámetro. En 27 (90%) de las 30 muestras examinadas intra-nuclear proyecciones se visualizaron mediante la técnica de tinción negativa. Utilizando una técnica de inmunomicroscopía electrónica, el anti-suero VP 664 reunió a un gran número de partículas formadas por la interacción antígeno-anticuerpo. En la técnica de inmunocitoquímica, la reacción antígeno-anticuerpo fue fuertemente reforzada por las partículas de oro coloidal en los virus. En particular, en Brasil este es el primer informe, a nuestro entender, que describe el uso de estas técnicas de microscopía en muestras de camarón marino L. vanamei. Además, esta metodología también parece ser una herramienta complementaria viable para diagnosticar la presencia del virus de la mancha blanca en tejidos de camarón. Es importante destacar que estas son las primeras fotos en microscopia electrónica del WSSV obtenidas en Brasil. Abstract in english In this study thirty shrimp samples from commercial marine shrimp (L. vannamei) farms of southern region of Brazil were obtained. Hepatopancreas and shell scrapings fragments collected in these animals were processed by transmission electron microscopy using negative staining (rapid preparation), im [...] munoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles) techniques. On the transmission electron microscopy a great number of white spot virus particles, ovoid or bacilliform-to-ellipsoid, measured 230-290 nm in length and 80-160 nm in diameter with intra-nuclear projections were visualized by the negative staining technique in 27 (90%) out of 30 samples examined. Using immunoelectron microscopy technique, the anti-VP 664 serum agllutinated a large number of particles formed by antigen-antibody interaction. In the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody reaction was styrongly marked by the particles of colloidal gold over the virus. Notably, this is the first report, to our knowledge, describing use of these microscopy techniques to study Brazilian L. vannamei marine shrimp samples; moreover, this methodology also appears to be a viable complementary tool for diagnosing the presence of the white spot virus within shrimp tissues. Importantly, these are the first photoelectron micrographs of the WSSV in Brazil.

M, Hipolito; M. H. B, Catroxo; A. M. C. R. P. F, Martins; N.A, Melo; E. M, Pituco; N.T.C, Galleti; M. J. T, Ranzani-Paiva; J.L.P, Mouriño; C.M, Ferreira.

2012-06-01

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Revisión de patogénesis y estrategias moleculares contra el virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca en camarones peneidos / A review of pathogenesis and molecular strategies against white spot syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN El virus del síndrome de mancha blanca (WSSV) provoca graves mortandades en granjas de cultivo de camarones peneidos y serias pérdidas económicas. La secuencia y estructura genética excepcionales de WSSV lo colocan en su propia nueva familia, Nimaviridae. Recientemente, novedosas técnicas mo [...] leculares de alto rendimiento han permitido identificar y caracterizar varias proteínas estructurales de WSSV. Estas incluyen la secuenciación por `shotgun' y marcadores isobáricos para cuantificación absoluta y relativa (iTRAQ). Dichas técnicas han permitido caracterizar 14 nuevas proteínas de WSSV. La caracterización y localización de proteínas estructurales pueden ayudar a conocer la morfogénesis y patogénesis de WSSV. Ambos procesos son esenciales para entender el mecanismo de infección y para desarrollar nuevos métodos de control. Hasta ahora no existen tratamientos efectivos para combatir este virus en campo. Proteínas estructurales de WSSV como VP28 y VP19 han sido evaluadas para reducir el impacto de WSSV. Estas moléculas son esenciales en las etapas tempranas de infección. Bioensayos de neutralización usando anticuerpos específicos contra proteínas estructurales de WSSV han aumentado la supervivencia de camarones tratados. Recientemente, construcciones de RNA de interferencia (RNAi) dirigidos contra proteínas estructurales han sido usadas como una nueva herramienta para reducir/inhibir la replicación de WSSV. Una mejor comprensión de las interacciones hospedero-patógeno permitirá desarrollar nuevos métodos para controlar este virus. La localización y función de proteínas estructurales usando métodos de alto rendimiento contribuirá a implementar nuevas estrategias contra la infección. Métodos de intervención para bloquear la entrada del virus a la célula podrían ser valiosos productos de este tipo de investigaciones. Abstract in english ABSTRACT White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality to farmed shrimp and serious economic losses. Its unique sequence and genome structure has placed WSSV in its own new family Nimaviridae. Recently, high performance molecular techniques have made it possible to identify and characterize [...] several WSSV structural proteins. These include `shotgun' sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Such techniques have made it possible to characterize 14 new WSSV proteins. Location and characterization of structural proteins can help to understand WSSV morphogenesis and pathogenesis. Both processes are essential to understand the mechanism of infection and to develop novel control methods. At present no effective treatments exist to fight WSSV in the field. WSSV structural proteins such as VP28 and VP19 have been evaluated to reduce the impact of WSSV. These molecules are essential early in the infection. Neutralization assays using specific antibodies against WSSV structural proteins have shown an increased survival of treated shrimp. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi) constructs directed against structural proteins have been used as a new tool to reduce/inhibit WSSV replication. A better comprehension of the host-pathogen interaction would allow the development of new methods to control WSSV. The use of high throughput techniques to determine the location and function of structural proteins will contribute to develop new strategies against infection. Intervention strategies aimed to block virus entry into the host cells may be a valuable output from these studies.

Martin I, Bustillo-Ruiz; César M, Escobedo-Bonilla; Rogerio R, Sotelo-Mundo.

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The protection of CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against White spot syndrome virus infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The white spot syndrome is one of the most serious disease which has caused high mortalities and huge economic losses to shrimp culture. In the present study, the oral administrations with CpG ODNs and Yarrowia lipolytica harboring VP28 (rVP28-yl as dietary supplement for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were conducted to evaluate their protective effects against WSSV. After feeding for 15 days, the cumulative mortality and the copy number of WSSV in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps were significantly lower when they were challenged by WSSV, compared with those in control shrimps (p < 0.05. The caspase-3 activity was suppressed in rVP28-yl feeding shrimps but ascended in CpG feeding shrimps after WSSV challenge. Besides, the PO activity in CpG feeding shrimps was significantly increased after feeding trial, and kept increasing post WSSV challenge (p < 0.05. While the increased NO production was observed both in CpG and rVP28-yl feeding shrimps after feeding trial and WSSV challenge. In addition, increased mRNA expression levels of STAT and Dicer were observed in CpG group post WSSV challenge. These results together indicated that oral feeding of CpG ODNs and rVP28-yl could enhance the innate non-specific immune responses especially antiviral immunity of shrimps in varying degrees, and increase their resistance against WSSV infection

Q Yi

2014-04-01

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Analysis of White Spots in High-Density Alumina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of white spots in translucent alumina bodies fabricated from reactive powders was investigated. Emphasis was placed on the determination of the relationships of powder preparation procedures and particulate character to the introduction of...

D. E. Niesz, R. B. Bennett

1973-01-01

71

Sustainable control of white spot disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems. Chemicals such as formaldehyde, sodium percarbonate and sodium chloride have been applied to control infections with this parasite. However, information on the influence of concentration, length of treatment period and temperature, on the survival of theronts and tomonts, has been lacking. The tolerance of the free-living theront stage towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate in solution was investigated at two temperature levels (11-12 and 21-22 °C). The theronts were exposed to the two substances in concentrations of 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/l. The survival of theronts was examined in a four-well setup. Each well contained 5-12 theronts in 150 µl aqueous solution. Tolerance towards formaldehyde and sodium percarbonate was tested simultaneously, together with two pure water negative controls. At each concentration and temperature (11-12 and 21-22 °C) the experiment was repeated 4-9 times. The numbers of live theronts were counted every 15 minutes using a stereo-microscope (8-100× magnification). Lysed and/or immobilised theronts with no movement of cilia were considered dead. For both substances a negative relationship was seen between the survival of theronts and length of treatment, temperature and concentration of chemical. Using formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate, all theronts were dead within 15 minutes at a concentration of 64 mg/l at 21-22 °C. At the same temperature, using 8 mg/l, this was achieved within 150 minutes using formaldehyde and 135 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At the low temperature (11-12 °C) using 64 mg/l, all theronts were dead within 45 minutes using formaldehyde and 30 minutes using sodium percarbonate. At 8 mg/l all theronts died within 300 minutes when treating with formaldehyde or sodium percarbonate. Dose-response experiments on tomonts showed that this parasite stage was much more tolerant towards both chemicals. Filtration experiments on tomont containing water were conducted. Mesh sizes of 500, 300, 160 and 80 µm were used. A mesh size of 80 µm was demonstrated to filter out 100 % of the tomonts. The abiotic factors temperature, chemical and concentration all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis.

Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

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Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1.  

Science.gov (United States)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Recombinant LvHMGBa/b proteins were present in the nucleus of transfected Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that LvHMGBa/b upregulated the WSSV immediate-early (IE) gene (ie1) in a NF-?B and STAT binding site-dependent manner. GST pull-down assays demonstrated that LvHMGBa/b interacted with L. vannamei Dorsal (LvDorsal) and L. vannamei STAT (LvSTAT), respectively. LvHMGBa was highly expressed in hepatopancreas while HMGBb was highly expressed in stomach, intestine, heart, antennal gland, and epidermis. Moreover, an immune challenge assay demonstrated that the expression of LvHMGBa/b was upregulated by WSSV infection and that both mRNAs reached peak values at 24 h post-infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that invertebrate HMGB proteins participates in viral gene regulation. PMID:21186060

Chen, Yi-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Ting; Huang, Xian-De; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Mei; Xie, Jun-Feng; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

2011-02-01

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Development of a rapid method for identifying carryover contamination of positive control DNA, using a chimeric positive control and restriction enzyme for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus by nested PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chimeric positive plasmids have been developed to minimize false-positive reactions caused by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) contamination. Here, we developed a rapid method for identifying false-positive results while detecting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by nested PCR, using chimeric positive plasmids. The results of PCRs using WSSV diagnostic primer sets showed PCR products of a similar size (WSSV 1st PCR product, 1,447 bp; WSSV 2nd PCR product, 941 bp) using WSSV chimeric plasmids or DNA from shrimp infected with WSSV. The PCR products were digested with DraI for 1 h at 37 °C. The digested chimeric DNA separated into two DNA bands; however, the WSSV-infected shrimp DNA did not separate. Thus, chimeric plasmid DNA may be used as positive control DNA instead of DNA from WSSV-infected shrimp, in order to prevent PCR contamination. Thus, the use of restriction enzyme digestion allowed us to rapidly distinguish between WSSV DNA and WSSV chimeric plasmid DNA. PMID:25320443

Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kwon, Se Ryun

2014-12-01

74

[White spot lesions and orthodontic treatment. Prevention and treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Decalcification of the enamel surface adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances, in the form of white spot lesions, is a common and frequent well-known side-effect of orthodontic treatment. Fixed appliances and the bonding materials increase the retention of biofilm and encourage the formation of white spot lesions. Management of these lesions begins with a good oral hygiene regime and needs to be associated with use of fluoride agents (fluoridated toothpaste, fluoride containing mouth rinse, gel, varnish, bonding materials, elastic ligature), CPP-ACP, antiseptics, LASER, tooth whitening, resin infiltration, micro-abrasion. The purpose of this review is to access the direct evidence regarding the prevention and management of white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment. PMID:25158746

Morrier, Jean-Jacques

2014-09-01

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Presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca em crustáceos decápodes silvestres em lagoas costeiras no Sul do Brasil / Presence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild decapods crustaceans in coastal lagoons in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca (em inglês WSSV) nas principais espécies de camarões, siris e caranguejos de cinco lagoas que recebem o efluente de fazendas afetadas pela enfermidade foi detectada por nested PCR, e inclusões virais nos camarões por histologia. Pela nested PCR encont [...] rou-se a presença de WSSV em 13 de 16 (81,2%) amostras de camarões da espécie Farfantepenaeus paulensis, em 13 de 14 (92,8%) de Litopenaeus schmitti, em uma de duas de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%), em 13 de 15 (86,6%) de siri da espécie Callinectes danae e em 11 de 12 (91,6%) de Callinectes sapidus, e não foi detectada no caranguejo Chasmagnathus granulata em 10 amostras. Inclusões características de WSSV foram observadas em três amostras histológicas de 50 (6,0%) no epitélio gástrico e cuticular e nas brânquias de dois exemplares de F. paulensis e um de L. schmitti. É o primeiro relato da presença de WSSV em camarões L. schmitti e no siri C. danae silvestres. As principais espécies de camarões e siris dos ambientes de entorno das fazendas foram contaminadas pelo WSSV, constituindo-se em vetores potenciais do vírus. Abstract in english The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the main species of shrimps, blue crabs, and burrowing crabs of five lagoons where shrimp farm effluents are discharged, was analyzed by nested PCR and the presence of virus inclusions in the shrimps was analyzed through histopathology. The nested [...] PCR analysis indicated the presence of WSSV in 13 of 16 (81.2%) samples of the shrimp species of Farfantepenaeus paulensis, in 13 of 14 (92.8%) of Litopenaeus schmitti, in one of two of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%), in 13 of 15 (86.6%) of blue crab species of Callinectes danae and in 11 of 12 (91.6%) of Callinectes sapidus and none was detected in the 10 samples of the burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata. The inclusion characteristics of WSSV were observed in three samples of 50 (6.0%) in the gastric and cuticular epithelium and in the gills of two specimens of F. paulensis and one of L. schmitti. The presence of WSSV in L. schmitti wild shrimp and in the C. danae blue crab is reported for the first time in the present work. The results indicate that the main species of shrimps and blue crabs of the environment surrounding the farms were infected by WSSV, and they may be considered potential vectors of the virus.

S.W., Costa; A.P.M., Fraga; A.S., Zamparetti; M.R.F., Marques; E.R., Andreatta.

76

Presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca em crustáceos decápodes silvestres em lagoas costeiras no Sul do Brasil Presence of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV in wild decapods crustaceans in coastal lagoons in southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A presença do vírus da síndrome da mancha branca (em inglês WSSV nas principais espécies de camarões, siris e caranguejos de cinco lagoas que recebem o efluente de fazendas afetadas pela enfermidade foi detectada por nested PCR, e inclusões virais nos camarões por histologia. Pela nested PCR encontrou-se a presença de WSSV em 13 de 16 (81,2% amostras de camarões da espécie Farfantepenaeus paulensis, em 13 de 14 (92,8% de Litopenaeus schmitti, em uma de duas de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%, em 13 de 15 (86,6% de siri da espécie Callinectes danae e em 11 de 12 (91,6% de Callinectes sapidus, e não foi detectada no caranguejo Chasmagnathus granulata em 10 amostras. Inclusões características de WSSV foram observadas em três amostras histológicas de 50 (6,0% no epitélio gástrico e cuticular e nas brânquias de dois exemplares de F. paulensis e um de L. schmitti. É o primeiro relato da presença de WSSV em camarões L. schmitti e no siri C. danae silvestres. As principais espécies de camarões e siris dos ambientes de entorno das fazendas foram contaminadas pelo WSSV, constituindo-se em vetores potenciais do vírus.The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV in the main species of shrimps, blue crabs, and burrowing crabs of five lagoons where shrimp farm effluents are discharged, was analyzed by nested PCR and the presence of virus inclusions in the shrimps was analyzed through histopathology. The nested PCR analysis indicated the presence of WSSV in 13 of 16 (81.2% samples of the shrimp species of Farfantepenaeus paulensis, in 13 of 14 (92.8% of Litopenaeus schmitti, in one of two of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (50%, in 13 of 15 (86.6% of blue crab species of Callinectes danae and in 11 of 12 (91.6% of Callinectes sapidus and none was detected in the 10 samples of the burrowing crab Chasmagnathus granulata. The inclusion characteristics of WSSV were observed in three samples of 50 (6.0% in the gastric and cuticular epithelium and in the gills of two specimens of F. paulensis and one of L. schmitti. The presence of WSSV in L. schmitti wild shrimp and in the C. danae blue crab is reported for the first time in the present work. The results indicate that the main species of shrimps and blue crabs of the environment surrounding the farms were infected by WSSV, and they may be considered potential vectors of the virus.

S.W. Costa

2012-02-01

77

Endogenous Retrovirus Insertion in the KIT Oncogene Determines White and White spotting in Domestic Cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. PMID:25085922

David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S; Nelson, George; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Connelly, Catherine J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryugo, David K

2014-01-01

78

Endogenous Retrovirus Insertion in the KIT Oncogene Determines White and White spotting in Domestic Cats  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P < 0.0001) and white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. PMID:25085922

David, Victor A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S.; Nelson, George; Schaffer, Alejandro A.; Connelly, Catherine J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Ryugo, David K.

2014-01-01

79

Transmission of cucumber leaf spot virus by Olpidium radicale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of zoospores of four cultures of Olpidium radicale and one of O. brassicae to transmit viruses acquired in vitro from dilute virus solutions was compared. Transmission was demonstrated by infectivity and serological assays of the roots of cucumber seedlings 6 days after inoculation. A bulk culture of O. radicale, from cucumber plant roots collected near Nantes, France, a single-sporangial culture derived from it, and a single-sporangial culture from melon plant roots collected near Woodland, California, U.S.A., transmitted cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) and the cucumber fruit streak strain of CLSV (CLSV-FS). A bulk culture of O. radicale from melon plant roots collected at Montfavet, France, did not transmit CLSV or CLSV-FS. All four cultures transmitted cucumber necrosis and melon necrotic spot viruses, used as positive controls, but they did not transmit cucumber soil-borne, squash necrosis, petunia asteroid mosaic or tobacco necrosis viruses. In each of the trials a single-sporangial culture of O. brassicae from lettuce plant grown in California transmitted only tobacco necrosis virus. PMID:1765774

Campbell, R N; Lecoq, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Sim, S T

1991-12-01

80

Numerical models of Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot  

Science.gov (United States)

The last big storm outbreak, of the Great White Spot type, took place in December 2010 and was the best ever observed Saturn’s great storm thanks to ground-based and space-based Cassini Mission follow-up. The enormous activity of the storm was followed by large-scale phenomena, some of them new, such as very intense electrostatic discharge activity, a warming by 40K of the higher stratosphere above the storm, and a turbulent belt-like region that encircled the whole planet in a few months altering the regular planet’s cloud morpholgy. We performed non-linear numerical simulations of the storm by using the EPIC model, a GCM which uses potential temperature as the vertical coordinate, and accounts for stratification and vertical thermal and vertical wind shear structures. We also used a shallow water model, a simplification of the primitive Navier-Stokes equations after imposing special conditions to the fluid, but able to retain some of the fundamental dynamics. Both models were able to reproduce general aspects of the observed storm’s cloud morphology and dynamics, such as the initial development of the storm, and the high horizontal velocities around the storm’s head surrounding the ascending convective cells. Simulations indicate that the event transported big amounts of mass up to the visible cloud top level, close to the tropopause, which formed cell-like anticyclonic regions whose north limit developed high velocity winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds. We are thankful to the ICE computer facilities. We also used computing facilities at CESCA (Barcelona) supported by MICIIN.

Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

Sanchez-Lavega, A.

2011-12-01

82

Masking of labial enamel white spot lesions by resin infiltration--a clinical report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a novel approach to treat smooth-surface white spot lesions micro-invasively. The technique is based on the infiltration of enamel caries lesions with low-viscosity light-curing resins called infiltrants. After the surface layer is eroded, the lesions are desiccated and a resin infiltrant is applied. The resin penetrates into the lesion micro-porosities driven by capillary forces and is subsequently hardened. Infiltrated lesions lose their whitish appearance and look similar to sound enamel. Additionally, the treatment prevents lesion progression. The proposed technique might be an alternative to microabrasion and restorative treatment, in particular for white spot lesions of esthetically relevant teeth. PMID:19862396

Paris, Sebastian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

2009-10-01

83

Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen: a potential oral treatment to protect Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is considered a candidate antigen for use in a potential vaccine to this important shrimp pathogen (the cause of white spot syndrome, WSS). Here, we used spores of Bacillus subtilis to display VP28 on the spore surface. Trials were conducted to evaluate their ability to protect shrimps against WSSV infection. The gene cotB-vp28 was integrated into the chromosome of the laboratory strain B. subtilis PY79, and expression of CotB-VP28 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Expression of CotB-VP28 was equivalent to 1000 molecules per spore. PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores were mixed with pellets for feeding of whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei), followed by WSSV challenge. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase activities and mortality rates of the two shrimp groups were evaluated. Groups fed with PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores at day 7 had increased SOD activities of 29% and increased phenoloxidase activities of 15% and 33%, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Fourteen days postchallenge, 35% of vaccinated shrimps had died compared to 49% of those fed naked spores (PY79) and 66% untreated, unchallenged animals. These data suggest that spores expressing VP28 have potential as a prophylactic treatment of WSS. PMID:25066511

Nguyen, Anh T V; Pham, Cuong K; Pham, Huong T T; Pham, Hang L; Nguyen, Anh H; Dang, Lua T; Huynh, Hong A; Cutting, Simon M; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

2014-09-01

84

Primeiro relato do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV em Campanula medium L. no Brasil First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV infecting Campanula medium in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Plantas de campânula (Campanula medium exibindo mosaico e necrose foliar e anéis em flores foram coletadas em uma estufa comercial de flores na região de Atibaia, SP. Suspeitando de possível etiologia viral, amostras de tecido lesionado foram analisadas por ensaios de transmissão mecânica, microscopia eletrônica e sorologia. Todos os resultados apontaram para a presença do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV como o responsável pelos sintomas. Esse é o primeiro relato deste patógeno em campânula no Brasil.Plants of bellflower (Campanula medium exhibiting symptoms of mosaic, leaf necrosis and flower ring spot were found in a commercial crop in a greenhouse in Atibaia, São Paulo State. Electron microscopy, serology and biological assays indicated the presence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV. This is the first report of this pathogen in bellflower plants in Brazil.

Ricardo Gioria

2010-06-01

85

Primeiro relato do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) em Campanula medium L. no Brasil / First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infecting Campanula medium in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas de campânula (Campanula medium) exibindo mosaico e necrose foliar e anéis em flores foram coletadas em uma estufa comercial de flores na região de Atibaia, SP. Suspeitando de possível etiologia viral, amostras de tecido lesionado foram analisadas por ensaios de transmissão mecânica, microsco [...] pia eletrônica e sorologia. Todos os resultados apontaram para a presença do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) como o responsável pelos sintomas. Esse é o primeiro relato deste patógeno em campânula no Brasil. Abstract in english Plants of bellflower (Campanula medium) exhibiting symptoms of mosaic, leaf necrosis and flower ring spot were found in a commercial crop in a greenhouse in Atibaia, São Paulo State. Electron microscopy, serology and biological assays indicated the presence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). This [...] is the first report of this pathogen in bellflower plants in Brazil.

Ricardo, Gioria; Kátia Regiane, Brunelli; Romulo Fujito, Kobori; Márcia Maria Rabelo Guimarães, Kobori; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima.

2010-06-01

86

Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service and other information. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and ADA (American Dental Association. The data were processed and analyzed with the Epi-info software program, version 3.2, and Microsoft Excel. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied to assess the association among the variables. The enamel white spot prevalence was 30.8% and the age group, duration of the bedtime milk feeding habit, age of initial practice of oral hygiene and presence of caries lesions with cavitation were considered statistically significant with regard to enamel white spot prevalence (p < 0.05. No association was found between oral hygiene quality and the study variables.

Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

2009-06-01

87

A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The white spotting locus (S) in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor) gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S) to extreme white spotting (s(w)). We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w) allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs. PMID:25116146

Baranowska Körberg, Izabella; Sundström, Elisabeth; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Gustafson, Ulla; Hedhammar, Åke; Karlsson, Elinor K; Seddon, Jennifer; Söderberg, Arne; Vilà, Carles; Zhang, Xiaolan; Åkesson, Mikael; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Andersson, Göran; Andersson, Leif

2014-01-01

88

Interaction between a dark spot and a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic lattice with fully incoherent white light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study experimentally the interaction of a dark spot with a nonlinear photonic lattice with fully incoherent white light emitted from an incandescent bulb in the self-defocussing photovoltaic media when the dark spot is aimed at different positions of lattices with different lattice spacing. In this case a host of novel phenomena is demonstrated, including dark spot induced lattice dislocation-deformation, the annihilation of the dark spot and so on. Results demonstrate that the interaction between incoherent dark spot and photonic lattice is always attraction and the large-spacing photonic lattice is analogous to the continuous medium

89

Cytopathological characteristics of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates  

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Full Text Available The electron microscopy study revealed that four examined virus isolates in the cells of the infected host plant produced different inclusions depending on the virus isolate and the time of passaging by mechanical transmission. Numerous virus particle inclusions as well as viroplasm and filamentous inclusions typical for TSWV were present in the plant cells infected with TSWV isolate (PPR. This isolate was kept in N. rustica by 4 mechanical transmissions. A similar virus isolate but maintained for 2 years by mechanical transmission in Nicotiana plants (TI produced virus particle inclusions as well as amorphous inclusions typical for defective isolates. In plant cells infected with the same isolate but maintained by mechanical transmission one year longer (T2 no virus particle inclusions were produced. In the amorphous inclusions produced by this isolate virus particles were seen, but they were not surrounded by additional membrane. The isolate G induced only amorphous inclusions dispersed within the cytoplasm of infected cells. No virus particles were seen in the amorphous inclusions. The mechanical transmission of TSWV isolates in N. rustica plants reduced the number of virus particles present in the cytoplasm. The defectivenes of the isolate cause also the appearance of a new type of inclusion - the amorphous inclusions.

Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald

1998-06-01

90

Characterization of Tomato yellow spot virus, a novel tomato-infecting begomovirus in Brazil Caracterização do Tomato yellow spot virus, um novo begomovírus isolado de tomateiro no Brasil  

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The objective of this work was the biological and molecular characterization of a begomovirus detected in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, named TGV-[Bi2], by determining its host range, complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other begomoviruses. Biological characterization consisted of a host range study using either sap inoculation or particle bombardment as inoculation methods. The yellow spot virus can infect plants in Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae, in...

Renata Faier Calegario; Sávio de Siqueira Ferreira; Eduardo Chumbinho de Andrade; Francisco Murilo Zerbini

2007-01-01

91

Characterization of Tomato yellow spot virus, a novel tomato-infecting begomovirus in Brazil Caracterização do Tomato yellow spot virus, um novo begomovírus isolado de tomateiro no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was the biological and molecular characterization of a begomovirus detected in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, named TGV-[Bi2], by determining its host range, complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other begomoviruses. Biological characterization consisted of a host range study using either sap inoculation or particle bombardment as inoculation methods. The yellow spot virus can infect plants in Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae, including economically importat crops as sweet pepper, and weeds as Datura stramonium and Nicotiana silvestris. For the molecular characterization, the full-length genome (DNA-A and DNA-B was amplified, cloned and completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that TGV-[Bi2] constitutes a novel begomovirus species named Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV, closely related to Sida mottle virus (SiMoV.O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização biológica e molecular de um begomovírus detectado em tomateiros em São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, denominado TGV-[Bi2]. A caracterização biológica consistiu em teste de gama de hospedeiros, realizado por meio de inoculação via extrato foliar tamponado ou bombardeamento de partículas. O isolado TGV-[Bi2] infecta plantas das famílias Solanaceae e Amaranthaceae, inclusive espécies economicamente importantes como o pimentão, e algumas plantas daninhas como Datura stramonium e Nicotiana silvestris. A caracterização molecular consistiu na clonagem e seqüenciamento de seu genoma completo (DNA-A e DNA-B. A comparação de seqüências e análise filogenética indicaram que o TGV-[Bi2] constitui uma nova espécie de begomovírus, denominada Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV, filogeneticamente relacionado ao Sida mottle virus (SiMoV.

Renata Faier Calegario

2007-09-01

92

Characterization of Tomato yellow spot virus, a novel tomato-infecting begomovirus in Brazil / Caracterização do Tomato yellow spot virus, um novo begomovírus isolado de tomateiro no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização biológica e molecular de um begomovírus detectado em tomateiros em São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, denominado TGV-[Bi2]. A caracterização biológica consistiu em teste de gama de hospedeiros, realizado por meio de inoculação via extrato foliar tampon [...] ado ou bombardeamento de partículas. O isolado TGV-[Bi2] infecta plantas das famílias Solanaceae e Amaranthaceae, inclusive espécies economicamente importantes como o pimentão, e algumas plantas daninhas como Datura stramonium e Nicotiana silvestris. A caracterização molecular consistiu na clonagem e seqüenciamento de seu genoma completo (DNA-A e DNA-B). A comparação de seqüências e análise filogenética indicaram que o TGV-[Bi2] constitui uma nova espécie de begomovírus, denominada Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV), filogeneticamente relacionado ao Sida mottle virus (SiMoV). Abstract in english The objective of this work was the biological and molecular characterization of a begomovirus detected in São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, named TGV-[Bi2], by determining its host range, complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationships with other begomoviruses. Biological chara [...] cterization consisted of a host range study using either sap inoculation or particle bombardment as inoculation methods. The yellow spot virus can infect plants in Solanaceae and Amaranthaceae, including economically importat crops as sweet pepper, and weeds as Datura stramonium and Nicotiana silvestris. For the molecular characterization, the full-length genome (DNA-A and DNA-B) was amplified, cloned and completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that TGV-[Bi2] constitutes a novel begomovirus species named Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV), closely related to Sida mottle virus (SiMoV).

Renata Faier, Calegario; Sávio de Siqueira, Ferreira; Eduardo Chumbinho de, Andrade; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini.

1335-13-01

93

Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to those caused by TSWV were observed on sweet honey leaf (Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, [synonym Eupatorium rebaudianum Bertoni], family Asteraceae) plants in an experimental field in the prefec...

Chatzivassiliou, E. K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

2007-01-01

94

Development of a Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) risk evaluation methodology for a processing tomato region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A risk map for the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was elaborated for the main Portuguese processing tomato producing region, the "Ribatejo e Península de Setúbal" region, where periodically this virus causes severe losses. Forty nine tomato fields were monitored. Risk factors for TSWV infection were identified and quantified according to their relative importance in TSWV incidence. The risk factors considered for each field were: (1) presence of TSWV in the crop plants; (2) presence o...

Mateus, C.; Pequito, A.; Teixeira, S.; Godinho, M. C.; Figueiredo, E.; Amaro, F.; Lacasa, A.; Mexia, A.

2012-01-01

95

SPOTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Fas (CD95, APO-1, TNFRSF6) is a TNF receptor superfamily member that directly triggers apoptosis and contributes to the maintenance of lymphocyte homeostasis and prevention of autoimmunity. Although FADD and caspase-8 have been identified as key intracellular mediators of Fas signaling, it is not clear how recruitment of these proteins to the Fas death domain leads to activation of caspase-8 in the receptor signaling complex. We have used high-resolution confocal microscopy and live cell imaging to study the sequelae of early events in Fas signaling. These studies have revealed a new stage of Fas signaling in which receptor ligation leads to the formation of surface receptor oligomers that we term signaling protein oligomerization transduction structures (SPOTS). Formation of SPOTS depends on the presence of an intact Fas death domain and FADD but is independent of caspase activity. Analysis of cells expressing Fas mutations from patients with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) reveals that formation of SPOTS can be disrupted by distinct mechanisms in ALPS. PMID:15557123

Siegel, Richard M.; Muppidi, Jagan R.; Sarker, Malabika; Lobito, Adrian; Jen, Melinda; Martin, David; Straus, Stephen E.; Lenardo, Michael J.

2004-01-01

96

Influenza A viruses in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos).  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of many wild waterbird species in the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIV) remains unclear. We report the first isolation of AIV from American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos; Pelecaniformes) in North America. Two H13N9 AIVs were isolated from hatchling birds in breeding colonies in Minnesota, USA, during 2007 and 2008. Based on molecular sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes, the 2008 virus was genetically related to AIVs previously isolated from gulls and shorebirds in North America. The 2007 isolate was most related to AIVs from Eurasian gulls and North American ducks, reflecting both global movement of these viruses and reassortment between viruses associated with duck and gull reservoirs. PMID:20966281

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A; Poulson, Rebecca; Goekjian, Virginia; Di Matteo, Jon J; Wilcox, Benjamin; Stallknecht, David E

2010-10-01

97

Effect of Fluoridated Toothpaste on White Spot Lesions in Postorthodontic Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Introduction: This article illustrates a new treatment approach and evaluates the effect of use of fluoridated toothpaste on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) diagnosed at debonding. Materials and methods: Thirty-one orthodontic patients (mean age: 19.6 years), with a minimum of four WSLs on the buccal surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular incisors, canines, premolars and first molars after orthodontic therapy, were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, longitudinal trial lasting 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into two groups using fluoridated toothpaste (test group, n = 31) and nonfluoridated toothpaste (control group, n = 31). A custom-made mouth tray, covering the maxillary dentition, was used while brushing with the fluoridated toothpaste three times per day. Maxillary dentition acted as control and mandibular as the test. The WSLs were scored by using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) index, at baseline and 8 weeks after debonding. Results: The ICDAS II index of the WSLs decreased in the test group in the mandibular dentition but not on the maxillary dentition during the 8-week trial (p toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on WSLs. How to cite this article: Agarwal A, Pandey H, Pandey L, Choudhary G. Effect of Fluoridated Toothpaste on White Spot Lesions in Postorthodontic Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):85-88.

Pandey, Harsh; Pandey, Lavesh; Choudhary, Garima

2013-01-01

98

Ice nucleation activity in Pantoea ananatis obtained from maize white spot lesions  

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Full Text Available Maize white spot lesions caused by Pantoea ananatis has contributed substantially to yield reduction of maize crops in many countries, including Brazil. The initial symptoms of the disease include water-soaked lesions on the leaves, which later become necrotic and straw-colored. Basic knowledge regarding the biology and the infection mechanisms of this pathogen is lacking. In this study, 15 P. ananatis isolates obtained from maize white spot lesions were examined for their ice nucleation activity (INA. The INAs of individual bacterial isolates was determined by tube nucleation tests. Bacterial isolates were grown on tryptic soy broth medium and an aliquot of 0.1 mL of culture was added to test tubes containing 1 mL of sterile distilled water. The tubes were packed in an ice bath, which had a temperature below –10°C, for approximately 2 min. Instantaneous formation of ice in the tube revealed a positive INA phenotype of the isolate. Only 9 of the 15 studied isolates showed the INA+ phenotype. Pathogenicity tests were performed using whole plants and detached leaves. Symptoms were reproduced in both tests, but only for the inoculations using INA+ isolates. Electron microscopy allowed visualization of protein vesicles under outer cell wall of isolates characterized as INA+.

Aline Vanessa Sauer

2014-09-01

99

Controle químico da Cercosporiose, Mancha-Branca e dos Grãos Ardidos em milho / Chemical control of gray leaf spot, white spot and rot grain in maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de fungicida, no controle da Cercosporiose e da Mancha-Branca do milho, e suas consequências na produtividade de grãos e na incidência de grãos ardidos, além de estabelecer a relação existente entre a produtividade de grão [...] s e a severidade dessas doenças. Dois experimentos distintos (com Azoxystrobina + Cyproconazole e tratamento controle) foram conduzidos em três locais, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008. Utilizaram-se 12 híbridos comerciais de milho, que foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca, por meio de escala de notas, variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente susceptível). Estimou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). A aplicação de fungicida é eficiente no controle de doenças foliares e na redução da incidência de grãos ardidos, além de proporcionar 12% de aumento na produtividade de grãos, em relação à do tratamento controle. As doenças foliares Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca reduzem a produtividade de grãos de milho e essa redução é maior quando as doenças ocorrem mais precocemente. A Cercosporiose provoca maior redução na produtividade de grãos, quando comparada com a Mancha-Branca. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and rot grain, as well as to establish the relationship between grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cros [...] s hybrids were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot) were performed using scale-visual symptoms, with scores ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). In addition, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated. Fungicide application is effective in the control of maize leaf diseases, and the experiments without control of the diseases had grain yield lower than that of the experiments with control, with a reduction of 1.2 t.ha-1 (12.3%) on average. The fungicide application had a positive effect in the control of rot grains, with a reduction of 2.6% on average. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduce the maize grain yield and this reduction is greater when diseases occur earlier. Gray leaf spot causes a greater reduction in grain yield compared with white spot.

André Humberto, Brito; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade Rezende, Pereira; Marcio, Balestre.

2013-10-01

100

Controle químico da Cercosporiose, Mancha-Branca e dos Grãos Ardidos em milho / Chemical control of gray leaf spot, white spot and rot grain in maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de fungicida, no controle da Cercosporiose e da Mancha-Branca do milho, e suas consequências na produtividade de grãos e na incidência de grãos ardidos, além de estabelecer a relação existente entre a produtividade de grão [...] s e a severidade dessas doenças. Dois experimentos distintos (com Azoxystrobina + Cyproconazole e tratamento controle) foram conduzidos em três locais, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008. Utilizaram-se 12 híbridos comerciais de milho, que foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca, por meio de escala de notas, variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente susceptível). Estimou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). A aplicação de fungicida é eficiente no controle de doenças foliares e na redução da incidência de grãos ardidos, além de proporcionar 12% de aumento na produtividade de grãos, em relação à do tratamento controle. As doenças foliares Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca reduzem a produtividade de grãos de milho e essa redução é maior quando as doenças ocorrem mais precocemente. A Cercosporiose provoca maior redução na produtividade de grãos, quando comparada com a Mancha-Branca. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and rot grain, as well as to establish the relationship between grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cros [...] s hybrids were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot) were performed using scale-visual symptoms, with scores ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). In addition, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated. Fungicide application is effective in the control of maize leaf diseases, and the experiments without control of the diseases had grain yield lower than that of the experiments with control, with a reduction of 1.2 t.ha-1 (12.3%) on average. The fungicide application had a positive effect in the control of rot grains, with a reduction of 2.6% on average. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduce the maize grain yield and this reduction is greater when diseases occur earlier. Gray leaf spot causes a greater reduction in grain yield compared with white spot.

André Humberto, Brito; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade Rezende, Pereira; Marcio, Balestre.

 
 
 
 
101

Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900), fed ?-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and ?-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus / Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900) alimentados con ?-1,3 glucano vitamina E y ?-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y ?-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV). Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g) en contenedores de fibra de vidrio de 60 L y se ali [...] mentaron diariamente durante 23 días con ?-1,3-glucano (0,1%), vitamina E (0,01%), y ?-caroteno (0,01%) y posteriormente se inocularon con WSSV. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y catalasa (CAT) en hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 y 48 h después de la infección. Los grupos de camarones alimentados con los tratamientos incrementaron la actividad SOD en el hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 12 y 24 h después de la infección, respectivamente. Los juveniles tratados con vitamina E y ?-1,3-glucano mantuvieron un incremento en la actividad SOD desde las 12 a 48 h postinfección. Los camarones alimentados con ?-caroteno incrementaron la actividad de SOD antes de la infección con WSSV y los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y vitamina E incrementaron la actividad CAT también antes de la infección. La actividad CAT en músculo se incrementó respecto al grupo control, con todos los grupos de camarones tratados desde 1 hasta 6 h posteriores a la inoculación con WSSV. La actividad antioxidante más alta se registró en los camarones alimentados con vitamina E. Los juveniles alimentados con vitamina E y posteriormente inoculados con WSSV, registraron 100% de mortalidad a las 72 h, pero los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y ?-caroteno resistieron la infección hasta las 144 h. Los resultados de Antioxidant response in F. californiensis fed with dietary supplements and infected with WSSV este estudio mostraron la capacidad de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus californiensis alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E o ?-caroteno, de incrementar la respuesta antioxidante antes y durante una infección viral. Abstract in english The effect of dietary ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g) were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with ?-1. [...] 3-glucan (0.1%), vitamin E (0.01%), and ?-carotene (0.01%) for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and ?-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with ?-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with ?-?-glucan and ?-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, or ?-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.

Rosario, Pacheco; Felipe, Ascencio; Martha, Zarain; Gracia, Gómez; Ángel, Campa.

102

Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed ?-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and ?-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 alimentados con ?-1,3 glucano vitamina E y ?-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of dietary ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with ?-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and ?-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and ?-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with ?-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with ?-?-glucan and ?-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, or ?-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.Se evaluó el efecto de ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y ?-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g en contenedores de fibra de vidrio de 60 L y se alimentaron diariamente durante 23 días con ?-1,3-glucano (0,1%, vitamina E (0,01%, y ?-caroteno (0,01% y posteriormente se inocularon con WSSV. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD y catalasa (CAT en hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 y 48 h después de la infección. Los grupos de camarones alimentados con los tratamientos incrementaron la actividad SOD en el hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 12 y 24 h después de la infección, respectivamente. Los juveniles tratados con vitamina E y ?-1,3-glucano mantuvieron un incremento en la actividad SOD desde las 12 a 48 h postinfección. Los camarones alimentados con ?-caroteno incrementaron la actividad de SOD antes de la infección con WSSV y los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y vitamina E incrementaron la actividad CAT también antes de la infección. La actividad CAT en músculo se incrementó respecto al grupo control, con todos los grupos de camarones tratados desde 1 hasta 6 h posteriores a la inoculación con WSSV. La actividad antioxidante más alta se registró en los camarones alimentados con vitamina E. Los juveniles alimentados con vitamina E y posteriormente inoculados con WSSV, registraron 100% de mortalidad a las 72 h, pero los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y ?-caroteno resistieron la infección hasta las 144 h. Los resultados de Antioxidant response in F. californiensis fed with dietary supplements and infected with WSSV este estudio mostraron la capacidad de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus californiensis alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E o ?-caroteno, de incrementar la respuesta antioxidante antes y durante una infección viral.

Rosario Pacheco

2011-11-01

103

Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900), fed ?-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and ?-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus / Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900) alimentados con ?-1,3 glucano vitamina E y ?-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y ?-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV). Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g) en contenedores de fibra de vidrio de 60 L y se ali [...] mentaron diariamente durante 23 días con ?-1,3-glucano (0,1%), vitamina E (0,01%), y ?-caroteno (0,01%) y posteriormente se inocularon con WSSV. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y catalasa (CAT) en hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 y 48 h después de la infección. Los grupos de camarones alimentados con los tratamientos incrementaron la actividad SOD en el hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 12 y 24 h después de la infección, respectivamente. Los juveniles tratados con vitamina E y ?-1,3-glucano mantuvieron un incremento en la actividad SOD desde las 12 a 48 h postinfección. Los camarones alimentados con ?-caroteno incrementaron la actividad de SOD antes de la infección con WSSV y los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y vitamina E incrementaron la actividad CAT también antes de la infección. La actividad CAT en músculo se incrementó respecto al grupo control, con todos los grupos de camarones tratados desde 1 hasta 6 h posteriores a la inoculación con WSSV. La actividad antioxidante más alta se registró en los camarones alimentados con vitamina E. Los juveniles alimentados con vitamina E y posteriormente inoculados con WSSV, registraron 100% de mortalidad a las 72 h, pero los que fueron alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano y ?-caroteno resistieron la infección hasta las 144 h. Los resultados de Antioxidant response in F. californiensis fed with dietary supplements and infected with WSSV este estudio mostraron la capacidad de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus californiensis alimentados con ?-1,3-glucano, vitamina E o ?-caroteno, de incrementar la respuesta antioxidante antes y durante una infección viral. Abstract in english The effect of dietary ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g) were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with ?-1. [...] 3-glucan (0.1%), vitamin E (0.01%), and ?-carotene (0.01%) for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and ?-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and ?-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with ?-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with ?-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with ?-?-glucan and ?-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed ?-?-glucan, vitamin E, or ?-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.

Rosario, Pacheco; Felipe, Ascencio; Martha, Zarain; Gracia, Gómez; Ángel, Campa.

2011-11-01

104

Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as “mancha de chocolate” (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased t...

Batuman, O.; Kuo, Y. -w; Palmieri, M.; Rojas, M. R.; Gilbertson, R. L.

2010-01-01

105

Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both by mechanical infection and by the vector F. accidentalis. Moreover, evolved strains, here indicated as TSWV-RB-PI (Pepper, Italy), are not able to infect tomato plants carrying the Sw5 gene, confirming that distinct viral gene products control the outcome of infection in plants carrying Sw5 and Tsw. The simultaneous presence of evolved TSWV strains, showing the same biological characteristics (such as host range and symptomatology on different hosts) in two geographic areas of southern Italy, very far each other, let us hypothesize a unique focus of infection. Only subsequently, infected plants, through trade of plant material, have been diffused in locations so far apart. Further molecular studies are underway to assess the possible correlation between the different isolates in different geographical areas. PMID:25151838

Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

2013-01-01

106

Inheritance of white head spotting in natural populations of South American water rat (Nectomys squamipes Rodentia: Sigmodontinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Specimens with white head spots are present at low frequency in the natural populations of South American water rat (Nectomys squamipes) and absent in the sibling species Nectomys rattus. We analyzed the pattern of inheritance of the phenotype using complex segregation analysis of pedigrees of a captive-bred population of N. squamipes. We found that the inheritance of the white head spot in this species can be described within the framework of the major gene recessive model with incomplete penetrance of genotypes. PMID:14757733

Axenovich, T I; D'Andrea, P S; Fernandes, F; Bonvicino, C R; Zorkoltseva, I V; Borodin, P M

2004-01-01

107

Mice with mutations of Dock7 have generalized hypopigmentation and white-spotting but show normal neurological function  

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The classical recessive coat color mutation misty (m) arose spontaneously on the DBA/J background and causes generalized hypopigmentation and localized white-spotting in mice, with a lack of pigment on the belly, tail tip, and paws. Here we describe moonlight (mnlt), a second hypopigmentation and white-spotting mutation identified on the C57BL/6J background, which yields a phenotypic copy of m/m coat color traits. We demonstrate that the 2 mutations are allelic. m/m and mnlt/mnlt phenotypes b...

Blasius, Amanda L.; Brandl, Katharina; Crozat, Karine; Xia, Yu; Khovananth, Kevin; Krebs, Philippe; Smart, Nora G.; Zampolli, Antonella; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Beutler, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

108

Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, [...] the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service and other information. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization) and ADA (American Dental Association). The data were processed and analyzed with the Epi-info software program, version 3.2, and Microsoft Excel. Fisher's exact test (p

Ana Valéria Pagliari, Tiano; Suzely Adas Saliba, Moimaz; Orlando, Saliba; Cléa Adas Saliba, Garbin.

109

Prevalence of enamel white spots and risk factors in children up to 36 months old  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enamel white spots and the quality of oral hygiene in children up to 36 months old, in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply, analyzing the contribution of several variables. After approval of the Ethics Committee, [...] the parents signed an informed consent form and were interviewed about their educational level, economic classification of the family, nursing habits, use of toothpaste, access to dental service and other information. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization) and ADA (American Dental Association). The data were processed and analyzed with the Epi-info software program, version 3.2, and Microsoft Excel. Fisher's exact test (p

Ana Valéria Pagliari, Tiano; Suzely Adas Saliba, Moimaz; Orlando, Saliba; Cléa Adas Saliba, Garbin.

2009-06-01

110

[Expression of the mutant gene mi in mice: white spotting pattern].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mice of mi/+ and +/+ genotypes of the mutant stock microphthalmia (mi) were mated inter se and with those of CC57BR/Mv and CBA/J inbred lines. In all types of crosses, the offsprings of mi/+ genotype had unpigmented fingers and distal tail parts (penetrance 100%). This trait is determined mostly by the mutant mi gene, the expression of which is not affected by modifier genes. However, the degree of mi gene expression, white spotting, on other body parts (wrist, foot, ventral body side, and parietal head part) varied widely in mice obtained from different crosses; penetrance ranged from 0 to 100%. The results obtained indicate that in these cases, the expression of mi gene was strongly affected by modifier genes. The different frequency of the mi gene effects, in heterozygote offspring obtained from reciprocal crosses, can result from the imprinting of the modifier genes in maternal and paternal gametes. PMID:9119213

Koniukhov, B V; Laminina, N A

1996-11-01

111

Current technology and techniques in re-mineralization of white spot lesions: A systematic review  

Science.gov (United States)

White Spot lesions are a common iatrogenic occurrence on patients who are treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. There is a dynamic chemical interaction between enamel and saliva at the tooth surface that allow a lesion to have phase changes involving demineralization of enamel and reminerlization. This is due to calcium and phosphate dissolved in saliva that is deposited onto the tooth surface or removed depending on the surrounding pH. Caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is gaining popularity in dentistry as a way to increase the available level of calcium and phosphate in plaque and saliva to improve the chemical gradient so that if favors reminerlization. The aim of our investigation is to search the available current literature and formulate a recommendation for use of CPP-ACP in orthodontics. Publications from the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Searches from August 2010 to April 1st 2012 were performed under the terms "MI Paste OR Recaldent OR caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate OR CPP-ACP or tooth mousse". The searches yielded 155 articles, These were reviewed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles with inappropriate study design or no outcome measures at both baseline and end point were also excluded. 13 articles were deemed of relevance with a high quality study design and were included in this study for evaluation. The current literature suggests a preventative treatment regimen in which MI Paste Plus is used. It should be delivered once daily prior to bed after oral hygiene for 3 minutes in a fluoride tray, throughout orthodontic treatment. It should be recommended for high risk patients determined by poor oral hygiene, as seen by the inability to remove plaque from teeth and appliances. This protocol may prevent or assist in the remineralization of enamel white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

Podray, Susan S.

112

Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were recruited and randomly allocated to a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to topically apply a CPP-ACP -containing agent (Tooth Mousse, GC Europe) once daily and the subjects of the control group brushed their teeth with standard fluoride toothpaste. The intervention period was 4 weeks and the endpoints were quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) on buccal surfaces of the upper incisors, cuspids and first premolars and visual scoring from digital photos. The attrition rate was 15%, mostly due to technical errors, and 327 lesions were included in the final evaluation. A statistically significant (p <0.05) regression of the WSL was disclosed in both study groups compared to baseline, but there was no difference between the groups. The mean area of the lesions decreased by 58% in the CPP-ACP group and 26% in the fluoride group (p = 0.06). The QLF findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced area of the lesions after 4 weeks as assessed by QLF. The improvement was however not superior to the "natural" regression following daily use of fluoride toothpaste.

Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten

2010-01-01

113

Lightning activity in Saturn's Great White Spot of 2010/2011  

Science.gov (United States)

In this presentation we will summarize the main findings about Saturn's Great White Spot of 2010/2011 gained by analyzing data from the Cassini RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) instrument in combination with images from the Cassini cameras. Great White Spots (GWS) are planetary-scale disturbances in Saturn's atmosphere that usually happen once per Saturn year (29.5 Earth years). The last GWS of 2010/2011 occurred earlier than expected, and the Cassini RPWS instrument measured radio emissions caused by lightning discharges thereby identifying the GWS as a giant thunderstorm. Lightning radio emissions were measured for almost 9 months, from 5 December 2010 until 28 August 2011, with typical flash rates of more than 10 per second. Many images of the GWS were taken with the Cassini ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and by Earth-based telescopes which captured the storm's birth, evolution and demise. The GWS developed an elongated eastward tail due to Saturn's zonal winds, and this tail wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. RPWS data indicated that the storm's head was the main center of lightning activity, but the region of active thunderstorm cells also extented eastward into the tail. This was confirmed by the first optical observation of lightning flashes on Saturn's dayside located eastward of the head. The head region periodically spawned anticyclonic vortices, and the optical flashes appeared in the cyclonic gaps between them where the atmosphere looked clear down to the level of deep clouds. The largest anticyclonic vortex in the tail drifted with a rate that was 2 deg/day slower than the head. Hence, after about half a year one caught up with the other, and it came to a head-vortex collision in mid-June 2011. This led to a significant decrease of lightning and convective activity, which became intermittent and finally ended in late August 2011.

Fischer, Georg; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Pagaran, Joseph A.

2014-05-01

114

Tomato chlorotic spot virus in hydroponically-grown lettuce in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the regions of Campinas and Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil, hidroponically grown crops of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Verônica, which showed virus-like symptoms were examined by electron microscope, biological, serological and molecular tests. Pleomorphic, enveloped particles (80-100 nm in diameter were always detected in these samples. Experimentally inoculated host plants, including lettuce, reacted with tospoviruses-induced symptoms. Some differences were observed in Gomphrena globosa, which reacted by showing local lesions and systemic mosaic. Two isolates of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV were identified by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The sequencing and alignment of the RT-PCR coat protein amplified fragments have indicated a high degree of homology with the TCSV sequences stored in the GenBank. This is the first report of losses due to a virus from the genus Tospovirus in commercial hydroponic lettuce crops in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies are needed for better understanding the spread of the virus in hydroponic crops, since Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is reported to spread through the nutritive solution.

Colariccio Addolorata

2004-01-01

115

Cytopathological changes in Schefflera actinophylla Harms. naturally infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants of Schefflera actinophylla Harms. with stunted growth, chlorotic and necrotic spots and patterns, leaf epinasty and distortion are infected with impatiens necrotic spot virus classified as a member of genus Tospovirus. Studies with electron microscope revealed that in cells of S. actinophylla leaves there were no virus particle inclusions typical for tospovirus infection, but only single particles were present. The isolate of INSV was defective and the amount of INSV particles was strongly reduced in Schefflera plants. Some inclusions (I type were composed of short branched cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and a dark substance forming characteristic bands. The II type represented inclusions that were usually ballshaped and composed of a dark substance resembling that of the I type, but not accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. The III type of inclusions was composed of dark, osmophilic masses. The inclusions present in the cells differ from those typical for tospovirus infection.

Anna Rudzi?ska-Langwald

1998-12-01

116

In vitro transcription of Tomato spotted wilt virus is independent of translation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ongoing transcription in vitro of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has previously been demonstrated to require the presence of reticulocyte lysate. This dependence was further investigated by testing the occurrence of transcription in the presence of two translation inhibitors: edeine, an inhibitor that still allows scanning of nascent mRNAs by the 40S ribosomal subunit, and cycloheximide, an inhibitor that completely blocks translation including ribosome scanning. Neither of these inhibitors...

Knippenberg, I. C.; Goldbach, R. W.; Kormelink, R. J. M.

2004-01-01

117

Two spinefoot colour morphs: mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are synonyms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are two similar species that differ subtly in colouration and morphology. Three major mtDNA clades were identified for these species, but individuals were clustered by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) according to geography rather than morphology, suggesting that the colour morphs are interbreeding. PMID:22026611

Hsu, T-H; Adiputra, Y T; Burridge, C P; Gwo, J-C

2011-11-01

118

Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ACLSV isolates and Trichoviruses were used for comparative analysis. Indian ACLSV isolates among themselves and with isolates from elsewhere in the world shared 91-100% and 70-98% sequence identities at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of the isolates was observed. Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. Recombination analysis (RDP3 ver.2.6) done for all the available ACLSV complete CP sequences of the world and Indian isolates indicate no significant evidence of recombination. However, one recombination event among Indian ACLSV-CP isolates was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of complete CP sequence variability study from India and also the first evidence of homologous recombination in ACLSV. PMID:21289443

Rana, T; Chandel, V; Kumar, Y; Ram, R; Hallan, V; Zaidi, A A

2010-12-01

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Fontes de resistência em tomateiro aos begomovírus bissegmentados Tomato yellow spot virus e Tomato severe rugose virus / Sources of resistance in tomato to bipartite begomoviruses Tomato yellow spot virus and Tomato severe rugose virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os begomovírus causam doenças de grande importância econômica em diversas culturas, principalmente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Juntamente com outras famílias de vírus, os begomovírus têm causado grande prejuízo para os produtores de tomate in natura e para processamento industrial. O objeti [...] vo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de 11 genótipos resistentes ao Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) frente à infecção pelos begomovírus Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) e Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) em condições de casa-vegetação. A inoculação das plantas foi realizada via biobalística no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. A infecção viral confirmou-se pelo desenvolvimento dos sintomas e pela técnica de hibridização dot blot. Selecionaram-se como promissores os genótipos STY2, STY5, STY6 e L7, por não apresentarem sintomas e por terem concentrações virais muito baixas para os dois vírus. O espectro de resistência dos genes Ty-1 e Ty-2 não resultaram efetivos ante as espécies virais empregadas no estudo. As linhagens TY52, H24 e CLN2116B, portadoras destes genes, foram suscetíveis aos vírus ToYSV e ToSRV. Abstract in english Begomoviruses cause diseases of major economic importance in many crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Together with other families of viruses, the begomoviruses cause great damage for producers of fresh and processed tomatoes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavi [...] or of 11 resistant genotypes to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) when infected by the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were inoculated by biobalistic method when displaying two true leaves. Viral infection was confirmed by visual observation of symptoms and by dot blot hybridization. Genotypes STY2, STY5, STY6 and L7 were selected as promising due to the absence of symptoms and very low viral concentration for both viruses. The resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-2 were not effective against the viral species used in the study. The lines TY52, H24 and CLN2116B, carrying these genes, exhibited a susceptible behavior.

Francisco D, Hurtado; Marta A, Gil; Yamila M, Zubiaur; Jorge G, Aguilera; César Augusto D, Xavier; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini Junior; Derly Jose H da, Silva.

120

Are low temperature habitats hot spots of microbial evolution driven by viruses?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing body of evidence to show that viruses are important drivers of microbial evolution and that they can store a great deal of the Earth's microbial diversity in their genomes. Examination of microbial diversity in polar regions has revealed a higher than expected diversity of viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. Further, the few available studies in polar regions reveal that viral control of microbial mortality is important in these habitats. In this opinion article, we argue that strong relationships between viruses and their hosts in a range of polar habitats could be key in explaining why polar regions are in fact hot spots of microbial diversity and evolution. Further, we argue that periodic glaciations, and particularly the Neoproterozoic low-latitude glaciation, known as 'snowball Earth', could have been periods of intense diversification in aquatic refuges. PMID:21130655

Anesio, Alexandre M; Bellas, Christopher M

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Detección del iris yellow spot virus en el cultivo de cebolla en Zacatecas, México / Iris yellow spot virus detection in the onion cultivation of Zacatecas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El virus de la mancha amarilla del iris (IYSV) es la enfermedad viral de mayor importancia para los cultivos de ajo y cebolla en Zacatecas, México. A finales de mayo de 2010 se encontraron lesiones amarillentas en forma de diamante en hojas y tallo floral de plantas de cebolla en parcelas comerciale [...] s, localizados en los municipios de Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. y Enrique Estrada pertenecientes al estado de Zacatecas. La prueba DAS-ELISA mostró resultados positivos para este virus en las muestras procedentes de diferentes municipios. Thrips tabaci el único vector conocido del IYSV se encontró en las parcelas comerciales muestreadas, aunque la presencia de Frankliniella occidentalis también fue reconocida en una parcela comercial de cebolla, cuyas muestras resultaron positivas a IYSV. No se encontró diferencia entre la altura, número de hojas, peso y diámetro de bulbo de plantas sin lesiones y aquellas con diferente número de lesiones de IYSV. Abstract in english The yellow spot virus Iris (IYSV) is the most important viral disease for garlic and onion crops in Zacatecas, Mexico. In late May 2010, yellow lesions were found in diamond-shaped leaves and flower stem of onion plants in commercial fields located in the municipalities of Loreto, Villa de Cos, Sain [...] Alto, Villanueva, Calera de V. R. and Enrique Estrada from the State of Zacatecas. The DAS-ELISA test was positive for the virus in samples from different municipalities. Thrips tabaci the only known vector of IYSV was found in sampled commercial parcels, although, the presence of Frankliniella occidentalis was also recognized in a commercial plot of onions, whose samples were positive for IYSV too. No difference was found between height, leaf number, bulb weight or diameter of the plants without lesions and those with different numbers of IYSV lesions.

Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Manuel, Reveles-Hernández.

122

Transmission of Iris yellow spot virus by Frankliniella fusca and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) affects onion production in the United States and worldwide. The presence of IYSV in Georgia was confirmed in 2003. Two important thrips species that transmit tospoviruses, the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Lindeman)) and the tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) are known to infest onion in Georgia. However, T. tabaci is the only confirmed vector of IYSV. Experiments were conducted to test the vector status of F. fusca in comparison with T. tabaci. F. fusca and T. tabaci larvae and adults reared on IYSV-infected hosts were tested with antiserum specific to the nonstructural protein of IYSV through an antigen coated plate ELISA. The detection rates for F. fusca larvae and adults were 4.5 and 5.1%, respectively, and for T. tabaci larvae and adults they were 20.0 and 24.0%, respectively, indicating that both F. fusca and T. tabaci can transmit IYSV. Further, transmission efficiencies of F. fusca and T. tabaci were evaluated by using an indicator host, lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum (Salisbury)). Both F. fusca and T. tabaci transmitted IYSV at 18.3 and 76.6%, respectively. Results confirmed that F. fusca also can transmit IYSV but at a lower efficiency than T. tabaci. To attest if low vector competency of our laboratory-reared F. fusca population affected its IYSV transmission capability, a Tomato spotted wilt virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) transmission experiment was conducted. F. fusca transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus at a competent rate (90%) suggesting that the transmission efficiency of a competent thrips vector can widely vary between two closely related viruses. PMID:22420253

Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Pappu, Hanu R; Diffie, Stan; Riley, David G; Gitaitis, Ron D

2012-02-01

123

On the formation of white-spot defects in a superalloy VAR ingot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the production of nickel-based superalloys for the aerospace industry, strict control of the macrostructure of the product is necessary to avoid the appearance of potentially fatal defects. Our study focuses on the prevention of ''white spots'' in the alloy IN 718. These defects, which are small volumes of a few millimeters of characteristic length, are depleted in niobium. They are known to result from the fall of metal fragments in the liquid pool during VAR processing. According to their history in the liquid metal, these fragments could not being remelted before being trapped in the mushy zone and then give rise to defects. A model calculates the heat transfer in such a precursor to simulate its melting during his stay in the bath. The validation of the predicted melting kinetics requires a series of immersive experiences of synthetic defects in a metal bath. The model and experiments have demonstrated the initial solidification of a layer of metal around the precursor. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Grignard, Jean Francois; Soller, Aude; Jourdan, Julien; Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Jardy, Alain [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198), Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex (France)

2011-07-15

124

Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2) on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL). The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old) children with 45 active WSL in anterior perma [...] nent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated twice: baseline and on week 4. Maximum lesion dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival) were measured in millimeters and classified in four grades of size. WSL were also assessed regarding lesion activity by one calibrated examiner. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used (P 0.01). It was concluded that after 4 applications the two varnish formulations tested produced similar clinical effects, indicating the reduction and the control of carious activity in most WSL.

Jainara Maria Soares, Ferreira; Ana Karla Ramalho, Aragão; Adriana Dias Batista, Rosa; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Valdenice Aparecida de, Menezes.

2009-12-01

125

Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2) on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL). The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old) children with 45 active WSL in anterior perma [...] nent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated twice: baseline and on week 4. Maximum lesion dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival) were measured in millimeters and classified in four grades of size. WSL were also assessed regarding lesion activity by one calibrated examiner. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used (P 0.01). It was concluded that after 4 applications the two varnish formulations tested produced similar clinical effects, indicating the reduction and the control of carious activity in most WSL.

Jainara Maria Soares, Ferreira; Ana Karla Ramalho, Aragão; Adriana Dias Batista, Rosa; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Valdenice Aparecida de, Menezes.

126

Therapeutic effect of two fluoride varnishes on white spot lesions: a randomized clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two varnish formulations (G1 = 5% NaF, G2 = 6% NaF + 6% CaF2 on the remineralization of white spot lesions (WSL. The sample was composed of 15 (7- to 12-year-old children with 45 active WSL in anterior permanent teeth. The children were randomly divided into two groups providing 22 lesions for G1 and 23 for G2. The children were submitted to weekly varnish applications 4 times. The WSL were evaluated twice: baseline and on week 4. Maximum lesion dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival were measured in millimeters and classified in four grades of size. WSL were also assessed regarding lesion activity by one calibrated examiner. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used (P 0.01. It was concluded that after 4 applications the two varnish formulations tested produced similar clinical effects, indicating the reduction and the control of carious activity in most WSL.

Jainara Maria Soares Ferreira

2009-12-01

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Transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus by Frankliniella occidentalis after viral acquisition during the first larval stage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiency at which tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was transmitted by adult Frankliniella occidentalis that ingested the virus at different larval ages was determined by a petunia leaf-disk assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that 0- to 2-day-old larvae (mostly first instars) can acquire TSWV, which suggests that after ingestion and accumulation of virus they were subsequently converted into transmitters in the adult stage. Older larvae (second instars)...

Wetering, F.; Goldbach, R.; Peters, D.

1996-01-01

128

Passion fruit green spot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on passion fruit in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease. PMID:14756419

Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V

2003-01-01

129

Lipid metabolism in chlorotic spot virus infected groundnut leaves (Arachis hypogea L var. TMV 2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipid composition of groundnut leaves inoculated with chlorotic spot virus and systematically infected newly developed leaves was determined at various stages of infection. Total lipid content of systematically infected leaves was 11.2-18% less than that of the corresponding healthy leaves depending on the stage of infection; the maximum change being in systematically infected leaves 20-22 days after inoculation. 14CO2 (bicarbonate form) incorporation by intact leaves into lipids was marginally lower in infected leaves. (1-14C)-sodium acetate incorporation by leaf discs into lipids was significantly less, while 32P-orthophosphate incorporation was essentially unaltered in infected leaves. It is suggested that the drastic reduction in chloroplast lipids in virus-infected leaves is due to inadequate synthesis of membrane proteins with which the lipids exist as lipoproteins. (author)

130

A new cryptic virus belonging to the family Partitiviridae was found in watermelon co-infected with Melon necrotic spot virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel virus was detected in watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) infected with Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) using SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis. In addition to the expected MSNV genome, two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments of 1,312 and 1,118 bp were also identified and sequenced from the purified virus preparations. These two dsRNA segments encode two putative partitivirus-related proteins, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and a capsid protein, which were sequenced. Genomic-sequence analysis and analysis of phylogenetic relationships indicate that these two dsRNAs together make up the genome of a novel Partitivirus. This virus was found to be closely related to the Pepper cryptic virus 1 and Raphanus sativus cryptic virus. It is suggested that this novel virus putatively named Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus be considered as a new member of the family Partitiviridae. PMID:23775759

Sela, Noa; Lachman, Oded; Reingold, Victoria; Dombrovsky, Aviv

2013-10-01

131

Dynamics of Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot from high-resolution Cassini ISS observations  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 5th 2010 a storm erupted in Saturn’s North Temperate latitudes which were experiencing early spring season. The storm quickly developed to a planet-wide disturbance of the Great White Spot type. The ISS instrument onboard Cassini acquired its first images of the storm on 23th December 2010 and performed repeated observations with a variety of spatial resolutions over the nearly 10 months period the storm continued active. Here we present an analysis of two of the image sequences with better spatial resolution of the mature storm when it was fully developed and very active. We used an image correlation algorithm to measure the cloud motions obtained from images separated 20 minutes and obtained 16,000 wind tracers in a domain of 60 degrees longitude per 20 degrees in latitude. Intense zonal and meridional motions accompanied the storm and reached values of 120 m/s in particular regions of the active storm. The storm released a chain of anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices at planetocentric latitudes of 36° and 32° respectively. The short time difference between the images results in estimated wind uncertainties of 15 m/s that did not allow to perform a complete analysis of the turbulence and kinetic spectrum of the motions. We identify locations of the updrafts and link those with the morphology in different observing filters. The global behaviour of the storm was examined in images separated by 10 hours confirming the intensity of the winds and the global behaviour of the vortices. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.

2012-10-01

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The route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The route of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the body of its vectors, Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied during their development. First instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected Datura stramonium plants for 24 h. The rate of transmission by adults was determined in inoculation access feeding test on Emilia sonchifolia leaf disks. Thrips tissues were analysed for infection at 24 h intervals after the acquisition-access feeding period, and assayed by the whole-mount immuno-fluorescent staining technique. The virus was initially detected in the proximal midgut region in larvae of both species, and then in the second and third midgut regions, foregut, and salivary glands. Occasionally the first infections of the salivary glands were already detected in one-day-old second stage larvae. The intensity of the infection in the various organs of the thrips of each species was positively related to the transmission efficiency. In both thrips populations good agreement was found between the percentage of second instar larvae and adults with at least one infected salivary gland lobe and the percentage of transmitting adults. These results support the contention that the virus must reach the salivary glands before thrips pupation in order to be transmitted by old second instar larvae and adults. PMID:12417949

Kritzman, A; Gera, A; Raccah, B; van Lent, J W M; Peters, D

2002-11-01

133

Coincident ruddy turnstone migration and horseshoe crab spawning creates an ecological 'hot spot' for influenza viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1985, avian influenza virus surveillance has been conducted annually from mid-May to early June in charadriiform species from the families Scolopacidae and Laridae (shorebirds and gulls) at Delaware Bay in the northeast United States. The mass migrations of shorebirds, gulls and horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) coincide at that time, and large numbers of migrating birds pause at Delaware Bay to feed on horseshoe crab eggs deposited at the high-tide line. Influenza viruses are consistently isolated from charadriiform birds at Delaware Bay, at an overall rate approximately 17 times the combined rate of isolation at all other surveillance sites worldwide (490 isolates/9474 samples, 5.2% versus 49 isolates per 15,848 samples, 0.3%, respectively; Proportion test, p < 0.0001). The likelihood of isolating influenza viruses at Delaware Bay is dependent on the presence of ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) at the sampling site (G-test of independence, p < 0.001). The convergence of host factors and environmental factors results in a unique ecological 'hot spot' for influenza viruses in Charadriiformes. PMID:20630885

Krauss, Scott; Stallknecht, David E; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Niles, Lawrence J; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

2010-11-22

134

Induction of necrosis via mitochondrial targeting of Melon necrotic spot virus replication protein p29 by its second transmembrane domain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The virulence factor of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), a virus that induces systemic necrotic spot disease on melon plants, was investigated. When the replication protein p29 was expressed in N. benthamiana using a Cucumber mosaic virus vector, necrotic spots appeared on the leaf tissue. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial aggregation in these tissues. Fractionation of tissues expressing p29 and confocal imaging using GFP-tagged p29 revealed that p29 associated with the mitochondrial membrane as an integral membrane protein. Expression analysis of p29 deletion fragments and prediction of hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) in p29 showed that deletion of the second putative TMD from p29 led to deficiencies in both the mitochondrial localization and virulence of p29. Taken together, these results indicated that MNSV p29 interacts with the mitochondrial membrane and that p29 may be a virulence factor causing the observed necrosis.

135

Evaluation of 'white-spotted kidneys' associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys) can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3%) showed focal to multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18) and blood (n = 24) samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the LipL32 gene. Leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 19 (79.2%) out of 24 kidneys, as well as 7 (29.2%) blood and 10 (55.5%) urine samples of cows with white spots in their kidneys. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and a few plasma cells in the renal interstitial tissues. In addition, 14 apparently normal kidneys and associated urine and blood samples were similarly examined by PCR but did not provide any positive results. In this study, high detection of leptospirosis in kidneys with interstitial nephritis suggests that Leptospira spp. are associated with white spotted kidneys. The present findings indicate that white spotted kidneys can be due to leptospirosis in this region in southwestern Iran, which indicates an increased risk of zoonotic disease. The data show that LipL32-based primers are useful for PCR-based diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:23327135

Azizi, Shahrzad; Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Hajimirzaei, Mohammad R; Gholami Varnamkhast, Mohssen; Sadeghian, Hossein; Oryan, Ahmad

2012-01-01

136

Evaluation of 'white-spotted kidneys' associated with leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction based LipL32 gene in slaughtered cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The presence of white spots in the kidneys of cattle at slaughter (so-called white-spotted kidneys) can be an indication of infection with Leptospira, a spirochaete of public health concern because it causes zoonotic disease. In this study, 24 kidneys of 180 slaughtered cows (13.3%) showed focal to [...] multifocal white spots at inspection. These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18) and blood (n = 24) samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the LipL32 gene. Leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 19 (79.2%) out of 24 kidneys, as well as 7 (29.2%) blood and 10 (55.5%) urine samples of cows with white spots in their kidneys. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including lymphocytes and a few plasma cells in the renal interstitial tissues. In addition, 14 apparently normal kidneys and associated urine and blood samples were similarly examined by PCR but did not provide any positive results. In this study, high detection of leptospirosis in kidneys with interstitial nephritis suggests that Leptospira spp. are associated with white spotted kidneys. The present findings indicate that white spotted kidneys can be due to leptospirosis in this region in southwestern Iran, which indicates an increased risk of zoonotic disease. The data show that LipL32-based primers are useful for PCR-based diagnosis of leptospirosis.

Shahrzad, Azizi; Elahe, Tajbakhsh; Mohammad R., Hajimirzaei; Mohssen Gholami, Varnamkhasti; Hossein, Sadeghian; Ahmad, Oryan.

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The use of SD-OCT in the differential diagnosis of dots, spots and other white retinal lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elena Zaharova1, Jerome Sherman1-31State University of New York's State College of Optometry, University Eye Center, New York, NY, USA; 2SUNY Eye Institute, New York, NY, USA; 3New York Eye Institute and Laser Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To demonstrate the utility of a retinal imaging technique using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT for creating a B-scan layer-by-layer analysis to aid in the differential diagnosis of various retinal dots, spots, and other white lesions.Design: Review.Methods: A retrospective review of imaging studies performed with SD-OCT (Topcon, 3DOCT-2000, Oakland, NJ at SUNY State College of Optometry.Results: B-scan layer-by-layer analysis and unique SD-OCT reflectivity patterns of the following retinal white lesions are reviewed in the order of their retinal layer localization: myelinated nerve fiber layer, cotton wool spot, exudates, edema residues, drusen, fundus albipunctatus, Stargardt disease, Bietti crystalline dystrophy, punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC, presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS, post-photocoagulation chorioretinal scarring, and osseous choristoma.Conclusion: The reviewed images demonstrate the utility of SD-OCT in the identification of the unique characteristics of the presented retinal pathologies. SD-OCT is ideal for retinal layer localization of lesions, thus enhancing the differential diagnosis of retinal dots, spots, and other white lesions. Even though true pathognomonic patterns are rare, highly suggestive findings of certain retinal abnormalities often facilitate immediate recognition and diagnosis.Keywords: SD-OCT, photoreceptor integrity line, retinal pigment epithelium, white dot syndrome, retinal pathology, imaging

Zaharova E

2011-10-01

138

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of atypical white blood cells, and a positive reaction to a mono spot test . There is no ... that infects about 95% of all people. At times, Epstein-Barr virus can result in sore throat, ...

139

Restricted Spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Thrips-Resistant Pepper.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and population development of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis were studied on the pepper accessions CPRO-1 and Pikante Reuzen, which are resistant and susceptible to thrips, respectively. Viruliferous thrips were released on plants of each accession (nonchoice tests) or on plants in a 1:1 mixture of both accessions (choice tests) in small cages containing 8 or 16 plants. Significantly fewer CPRO-1 plants became infected in the primary infection phase in both tests. In the nonchoice test, virus infection of the resistant plants did not increase after the initial infection, but all plants eventually became infected when mixtures of both cultivars were challenged in the secondary infection phase. Secondary spread of TSWV from an infected resistant or susceptible source plant was significantly slower to resistant plants than to susceptible plants, independent of source plant phenotype. The restricted introduction and spread of TSWV in the thrips-resistant cultivar was confirmed in a large-scale greenhouse experiment. The restricted and delayed TSWV spread to plants of the resistant accession in both the cage and the greenhouse experiment was explained by impeded thrips population development. The results obtained indicate that thrips resistance may provide a significant protection to TSWV infection, even when the crop is fully susceptible to the virus. PMID:18944320

Maris, P C; Joosten, N N; Goldbach, R W; Peters, D

2003-10-01

140

Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ?50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the development of CLs.

Kenneth Gilbert

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

A comparison of the antigens present on the surface of virus released artificially from chick cells infected with vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus and its white pock mutant  

Science.gov (United States)

Antisera prepared against vaccinia and cowpox viruses were absorbed with purified suspensions of vaccinia virus, red cowpox and white cowpox viruses. They were then tested for their ability to neutralize the viruses, and to precipitate the virus soluble antigens. The results showed that some virus specific antigens were not virus surface components and that some components were present on the surface of all three viruses. However, certain components were detected on the surface of vaccinia virus but not on the surface of cowpox virus, and vice versa. Some evidence for the existence of a vaccinia-specific surface component was also obtained. Comparisons between results of cross-neutralization tests and immunodiffusion tests on the absorbed sera indicated that antibody to a number of antigens, including the classical LS, and the cowpox-specific d antigen play no part in the process of poxvirus neutralization. ImagesFig. AFig. BFig. CFig. DFig. EFig. FFig. G PMID:4624399

Baxby, Derrick

1972-01-01

142

The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops  

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Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Basmas) were studied. When a T. tabaci female was given an oviposition period of 4¿days, an average of 21 larvae were produced on leaves of D. stramonium, 17.5 o...

Chatzivassiliou, E. K.; Peters, D.; Katis, N. I.

2007-01-01

143

Resistência de cultivares e linhagens de tomateiro a Tomato chlorotic spot virus e a Potato virus Y / Resistance of tomato lines and cultivars to Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Potato virus Y  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Linhagens avançadas do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum) do IAC foram avaliadas em condições de campo em Campinas (SP) para resistência a tospovírus e a potyvírus, nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, respectivamente. No primeiro ano, a única espécie de tospovírus [...] que ocorreu na área experimental foi Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV). As sete linhagens do grupo IAC exibiram baixa porcentagem de plantas sintomáticas em duas avaliações, com médias abaixo de 28%; as cultivares testadas mostraram-se altamente suscetíveis, com médias acima de 85%, à exceção de 'Franco', que apresentou cerca de 55% de infecção. No segundo experimento, conduzido em 2003/2004, dez linhagens do grupo IAC foram comparadas com cinco cultivares de polinização aberta e híbridos F1, além do acesso LA-444-1 de L. peruvianum. Nesse experimento, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos, verificou-se ocorrência generalizada de Potato virus Y (PVY). Foi determinado o percentual de plantas com sintomas e avaliada a intensidade dos sintomas mediante uso de escala de notas. Com base nos dois critérios, verificou-se que LA-444-1 apresenta alta resistência a PVY, que 'Tyrade' exibe comportamento intermediário, enquanto todos os demais genótipos demonstram alta suscetibilidade ao vírus. O comportamento dos genótipos avaliados neste trabalho mostra a necessidade de se considerar, nos programas de melhoramento do tomateiro, a introgressão de fatores de resistência não só a vírus de importância atual nas regiões produtoras, como geminivírus, mas também a outros vírus potencialmente nocivos à cultura, como tospovírus e potyvírus. Abstract in english Advanced breeding lines from the IAC tomato breeding program and several tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars and F1 hybrids were screened for tospovirus and potyvirus resistance under field conditions, at Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. D [...] uring the first season, only Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was detected in plants of the experimental area. On both evaluations, all seven lines (IAC group) were resistant to TCSV, with under 28% of infected plants. The tomato cultivars and hybrids were highly susceptible, with greater than 85% of infected plants, except for 'Franco', with 55% of infected plants. During the 2003/2004 growing season, the number of IAC lines evaluated was raised from seven to ten, and they were compared to five cultivars/F1 hybrids and to L. peruvianum LA-444-1. On this experiment, only Potato virus Y (PVY) was detected in plants. Evaluations were carried out using a symptom intensity scale and ELISA. Considering both criteria, it was verified that only LA-444-1 displayed high resistance to PVY. In addition, 'Tyrade' displayed an intermediate behavior while all other lines, cultivars and hybrids behaved as susceptible to this potyvirus. These results highlight the need of introgressing resistance to multiple viruses in tomato breeding programs, taking into consideration the economical importance and relative incidence of each virus in different geographical regions and natural variations on incidence from year to year.

André L., Lourenção; Walter J., Siqueira; Arlete M. T., Melo; Silvia R.L., Palazzo; Paulo C.T., Melo; Addolorata, Colariccio.

144

Resistência de cultivares e linhagens de tomateiro a Tomato chlorotic spot virus e a Potato virus Y Resistance of tomato lines and cultivars to Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Potato virus Y  

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Full Text Available Linhagens avançadas do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum do IAC foram avaliadas em condições de campo em Campinas (SP para resistência a tospovírus e a potyvírus, nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, respectivamente. No primeiro ano, a única espécie de tospovírus que ocorreu na área experimental foi Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. As sete linhagens do grupo IAC exibiram baixa porcentagem de plantas sintomáticas em duas avaliações, com médias abaixo de 28%; as cultivares testadas mostraram-se altamente suscetíveis, com médias acima de 85%, à exceção de 'Franco', que apresentou cerca de 55% de infecção. No segundo experimento, conduzido em 2003/2004, dez linhagens do grupo IAC foram comparadas com cinco cultivares de polinização aberta e híbridos F1, além do acesso LA-444-1 de L. peruvianum. Nesse experimento, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos, verificou-se ocorrência generalizada de Potato virus Y (PVY. Foi determinado o percentual de plantas com sintomas e avaliada a intensidade dos sintomas mediante uso de escala de notas. Com base nos dois critérios, verificou-se que LA-444-1 apresenta alta resistência a PVY, que 'Tyrade' exibe comportamento intermediário, enquanto todos os demais genótipos demonstram alta suscetibilidade ao vírus. O comportamento dos genótipos avaliados neste trabalho mostra a necessidade de se considerar, nos programas de melhoramento do tomateiro, a introgressão de fatores de resistência não só a vírus de importância atual nas regiões produtoras, como geminivírus, mas também a outros vírus potencialmente nocivos à cultura, como tospovírus e potyvírus.Advanced breeding lines from the IAC tomato breeding program and several tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars and F1 hybrids were screened for tospovirus and potyvirus resistance under field conditions, at Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. During the first season, only Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV was detected in plants of the experimental area. On both evaluations, all seven lines (IAC group were resistant to TCSV, with under 28% of infected plants. The tomato cultivars and hybrids were highly susceptible, with greater than 85% of infected plants, except for 'Franco', with 55% of infected plants. During the 2003/2004 growing season, the number of IAC lines evaluated was raised from seven to ten, and they were compared to five cultivars/F1 hybrids and to L. peruvianum LA-444-1. On this experiment, only Potato virus Y (PVY was detected in plants. Evaluations were carried out using a symptom intensity scale and ELISA. Considering both criteria, it was verified that only LA-444-1 displayed high resistance to PVY. In addition, 'Tyrade' displayed an intermediate behavior while all other lines, cultivars and hybrids behaved as susceptible to this potyvirus. These results highlight the need of introgressing resistance to multiple viruses in tomato breeding programs, taking into consideration the economical importance and relative incidence of each virus in different geographical regions and natural variations on incidence from year to year.

André L. Lourenção

2005-12-01

145

Effects of Temperature and Host on the Generation of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Defective Interfering RNAs.  

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ABSTRACT The generation of defective interfering (DI) RNA molecules of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) was studied by serially passaging in-ocula from plant to plant under different controlled conditions. DI RNAs were generated at higher rates in plants at 16 degrees C than in plants incubated at higher temperatures. Another factor promoting the TSWV DI RNA generation was the use of high virus concentrations in the inocula. The solanaceous species Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana benthamiana, and N. rustica supported the generation of DI RNAs, whereas the virus recovered from the inoculated composite species, Emilia sonchifolia, remained free of any DI RNA under all conditions tested. This study resulted in a strategy to maintain DI RNA-free TSWV isolates, as well as in an efficient way to produce a large population of different DI RNA species. A single DI RNA species usually became dominant in an isolate after a few rounds of serial inoculations. The possible mechanisms involved in TSWV DI RNA generation under different inoculation circumstances are discussed. PMID:18945014

Inoue-Nagata, A K; Kormelink, R; Nagata, T; Kitajima, E W; Goldbach, R; Peters, D

1997-11-01

146

Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala  

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Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as “mancha de chocolate” (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissue to Nicotiana benthamiana and, when graft-transmitted to tomato, this agent induced chocolate spot symptoms. This virus-like agent also was sap-transmitted to Datura stramonium and Nicotiana glutinosa, but not to a range of non-solanaceous indicator plants. Icosahedral virions ~28–30 nm in diameter were purified from symptomatic N. benthamiana plants. When rub-inoculated onto leaves of N. benthamiana plants, these virions induced symptoms indistinguishable from those in N. benthamiana plants infected with the sap-transmissible virus associated with chocolate spot disease. Tomatoes inoculated with sap or grafted with shoots from N. benthamiana plants infected with purified virions developed typical chocolate spot symptoms, consistent with this virus being the causal agent of the disease. Analysis of nucleic acids associated with purified virions of the chocolate-spot-associated virus, revealed a genome composed of two single-stranded RNAs of ~7.5 and ~5.1 kb. Sequence analysis of these RNAs revealed a genome organization similar to recently described torradoviruses, a new group of picorna-like viruses causing necrosis-associated diseases of tomatoes in Europe [tomato torrado virus (ToTV)] and Mexico [tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) and tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV)]. Thus, the ~7.5 kb and ~5.1 kb RNAs of the chocolate-spot-associated virus corresponded to the torradovirus RNA1 and RNA2, respectively; however, sequence comparisons revealed 64–83% identities with RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of ToTV, ToANV and ToMarV. Together, these results indicate that the chocolate-spot-associated virus is a member of a distinct torradovirus species and, thus, another member of the recently established genus Torradovirus in the family Secoviridae. The name tomato chocolate spot virus is proposed. PMID:20376682

Batuman, O.; Kuo, Y.-W.; Palmieri, M.; Rojas, M. R.

2010-01-01

147

Tomato chocolate spot virus, a member of a new torradovirus species that causes a necrosis-associated disease of tomato in Guatemala.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomatoes in Guatemala have been affected by a new disease, locally known as "mancha de chocolate" (chocolate spot). The disease is characterized by distinct necrotic spots on leaves, stems and petioles that eventually expand and cause a dieback of apical tissues. Samples from symptomatic plants tested negative for infection by tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, tobacco etch virus and other known tomato-infecting viruses. A virus-like agent was sap-transmitted from diseased tissue to Nicotiana benthamiana and, when graft-transmitted to tomato, this agent induced chocolate spot symptoms. This virus-like agent also was sap-transmitted to Datura stramonium and Nicotiana glutinosa, but not to a range of non-solanaceous indicator plants. Icosahedral virions approximately 28-30 nm in diameter were purified from symptomatic N. benthamiana plants. When rub-inoculated onto leaves of N. benthamiana plants, these virions induced symptoms indistinguishable from those in N. benthamiana plants infected with the sap-transmissible virus associated with chocolate spot disease. Tomatoes inoculated with sap or grafted with shoots from N. benthamiana plants infected with purified virions developed typical chocolate spot symptoms, consistent with this virus being the causal agent of the disease. Analysis of nucleic acids associated with purified virions of the chocolate-spot-associated virus, revealed a genome composed of two single-stranded RNAs of approximately 7.5 and approximately 5.1 kb. Sequence analysis of these RNAs revealed a genome organization similar to recently described torradoviruses, a new group of picorna-like viruses causing necrosis-associated diseases of tomatoes in Europe [tomato torrado virus (ToTV)] and Mexico [tomato apex necrosis virus (ToANV) and tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV)]. Thus, the approximately 7.5 kb and approximately 5.1 kb RNAs of the chocolate-spot-associated virus corresponded to the torradovirus RNA1 and RNA2, respectively; however, sequence comparisons revealed 64-83% identities with RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of ToTV, ToANV and ToMarV. Together, these results indicate that the chocolate-spot-associated virus is a member of a distinct torradovirus species and, thus, another member of the recently established genus Torradovirus in the family Secoviridae. The name tomato chocolate spot virus is proposed. PMID:20376682

Batuman, O; Kuo, Y-W; Palmieri, M; Rojas, M R; Gilbertson, R L

2010-06-01

148

Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants. PMID:20626283

Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

2010-08-01

149

Iris Yellow Spot Virus in the Netherlands: Occurence in Onion and Confirmation of Transmission by Thrips tabaci  

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Since its first detection in the Netherlands in 1992, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) has been reported worldwide in Allium crops, in a few ornamentals and in a small number of weeds. After recent findings of IYSV in Alstroemeria and Eustoma in the Netherlands, a number of neighbouring onion fields were surveyed. In 2005 and 2006, only few infected plants were found with obvious symptoms of IYSV. In 2007, after sampling and testing small leaf samples with various types of dama...

Hoedjes, K.; Verhoeven, J. Th J.; Goldbach, R. W.; Peters, D.

2011-01-01

150

Immune responses of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, against virus-like particles of betanodavirus produced in Escherichia coli.  

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Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However, little is known about the activation of genes responsible for cellular and innate immunity by vaccines. In the present study, VLPs of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) were produced in prokaryotes and their ability to enter Asian sea bass cells was the same as native virus, suggesting that they possess a similar structure to OGNNV. VLPs immunogenicity was then determined by intramuscularly vaccinating Epinephelus coioides at different concentrations (1.5 or 15 ?g g(-1) fish body weight, FBW) and immunizing frequencies (administration once, twice and thrice). A single vaccination with the dosage of 1.5 ?g g(-1) FBW is enough to provoke high titer antibodies (average 3 fold higher than that of negative control) with strong neutralizing antibody titer as early as 1 week post immunization. Furthermore, quantitative PCR analysis revealed that eleven genes associated with humoral, cellular and innate immunities were up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney at 12h post immunization, correlating with the early antibody response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VLP vaccination induced humoral immune responses and activated genes associated with cellular and innate immunity against betanodavirus infection in orange-spotted grouper. PMID:24252246

Lai, Yu-Xiong; Jin, Bao-Lei; Xu, Yu; Huang, Li-Jie; Huang, Run-Qing; Zhang, Yong; Kwang, Jimmy; He, Jian-Guo; Xie, Jun-Feng

2014-01-15

151

Characterization of Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus, A Novel Trichovirus Isolated from Stone Fruit Trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT A trichovirus closely related to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was detected in symptomatic apricot and Japanese plum from Italy. The Sus2 isolate of this agent cross-reacted with anti-ACLSV polyclonal reagents but was not detected by broad-specificity anti- ACLSV monoclonal antibodies. It had particles with typical trichovirus morphology but, contrary to ACLSV, was unable to infect Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. The sequence of its genome (7,494 nucleotides [nt], missing only approximately 30 to 40 nt of the 5' terminal sequence) and the partial sequence of another isolate were determined. The new virus has a genomic organization similar to that of ACLSV, with three open reading frames coding for a replication-associated protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), a movement protein, and a capsid protein, respectively. However, it had only approximately 65 to 67% nucleotide identity with sequenced isolates of ACLSV. The differences in serology, host range, genome sequence, and phylogenetic reconstructions for all viral proteins support the idea that this agent should be considered a new virus, for which the name Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV) is proposed. APCLSV shows substantial sequence variability and has been recovered from various Prunus sources coming from seven countries, an indication that it is likely to have a wide geographical distribution. PMID:18943045

Liberti, D; Marais, A; Svanella-Dumas, L; Dulucq, M J; Alioto, D; Ragozzino, A; Rodoni, B; Candresse, T

2005-04-01

152

Tomato spotted wilt virus: agente causal de la marchitez del Miguelito (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) en el Estado de Morelos, México / Tomato spotted wilt virus: causal agent of wilt in "Miguelito" (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) in Morelos, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se observaron síntomas de moteado, manchas necróticas anulares, enanismo y marchitez severa en plantas de miguelito (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) (Fam: Compositae) cultivadas en viveros comerciales del Estado de Morelos, México. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la etiología de e [...] sta enfermedad. Se identificó al virus marchitez manchada del tomate (Tomato spotted wilt virus. TSWV) como el agente causal de la enfermedad del miguelito con base en los ensayos de transmisión mecánica en plantas indicadoras y de patogenicidad en plántulas sanas de Z. elegans, cultivadas desde semilla en el invernadero. En las plantas el virus causó los síntomas de moteado, manchas necróticas en forma de anillos concéntricos, enanismo y marchitez, idénticos a los observados en plantas de miguelito cultivados en condiciones de campo. Se detectó por serología (DAS-ELISA) sólo al TSWV en plantas de miguelito con síntomas de marchitez procedentes de viveros comerciales del Estado de Morelos, en las plantas indicadoras usadas para separar al virus y en las plantas de miguelito producidas desde semilla inoculadas con el aislamiento puro de TSWV en el invernadero. La identidad taxonómica del TSWV se confirmó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de la RT-PCR. Las secuencias obtenidas del TSWV de muestras de campo de miguelito (número de acceso EF067862) y del mismo virus separado de N. rustica (número de acceso EF067863) mostraron una homología en el fragmento amplificado del gen de la proteína de la cápside del TSWV del 100% entre ellas y del 93% con las existentes en la base de datos de lNCBI/GenBank de aislamientos del TSWV ampliamente distribuidos en el mundo. Este trabajo es el primer reporte de la presencia del TSWV en Z. elegans en México y se describen dos métodos moleculares para diagnosticar e identificar este virus. Abstract in english Mottle symptoms, necrotic ring spots, dwarfism, and severe wilt were observed on "miguelito" (Zinnia elegans Jacquin) (Fam: Comositae) plants cultivated in commercial nurseries in the State of Morelos, México. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the etiology of the disease. Tomato spott [...] ed wilt virus (TSWV) was identified as the causal agent of the disease in miguelito by mechanical transmission tests on indicator plants and pathogenicity tests on healthy Z. elegans seedlings cultivated from seed in a greenhouse. On these plants the virus caused mottled symptoms, necrotic spots in the form of concentric rings, dwarfism and wilt, identical to those observed in miguelito plants cultivated in field conditions. Through serology (DAS-ELISA) only TSWV was detected in miguelito plants with wilt symptoms from commercial nurseries in the State of Morelos, in indicator plants used to separate the virus, and in miguelito plants produced from seed and inoculated with a pure isolate of TSWV in the greenhouse. Taxonomical identity of TSWV was confirmed by direct sequencing of the RT-PCR products. The TSWV sequences obtained from field samples of miguelito (access number EF067862) and the same virus separated from N. rustica (access number EF067863) showed 100% homology in the amplified fragment of the capsid protein gene of TSWV, while with the samples of TSWV isolates widely distributed over the world existing in the INCBI/GeneBank there was 93% homology. This paper is the first report of the presence of TSWV in Z. elegans in México, and two molecular methods for diagnosing and identifying this virus are described.

Ma. Valeria, Morales-Díaz; Salomé, Alcacio-Rangel; Rodolfo, De La Torre-Almaraz.

2008-05-01

153

Caracterização do Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolado de jiló no Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo / Characterization of a Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolated from gilo in Paraíba Valley, São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os tospovírus são responsáveis por perdas significativas em diversas culturas, principalmente solanáceas. No município de São José dos Campos (SP), plantas de jiló (Solanum gilo) apresentando sintomas de mosaico, bolhosidades, nanismo e queda acentuada da produção foram coletadas para análise. Visan [...] do a caracterização do agente causador dos sintomas, testes biológicos, elétrono microscópicos, sorológicos e moleculares foram realizados. Através de inoculação mecânica em plantas indicadoras das famílias Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae e Solanaceae obtiveram-se resultados típicos aos esperados para tospovírus. Ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, observaram-se, em contrastação negativa, partículas pleomórficas com diâmetro entre 80 e 110 nm e em cortes ultra-finos partículas presentes em vesículas do retículo endoplasmático. Através de DAS-ELISA, identificou-se o Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV). A partir de RNA total extraído de folhas infetadas, amplificaram-se, via RT-PCR, fragmentos correspondentes ao gene da proteína do capsídeo (cp) os quais foram seqüenciados e comparados com outros depositados no "GenBank". A homologia de nucleotídeos e aminoácidos deduzidos foi respectivamente de 99 e 95% quando comparada com seqüências de isolados de TCSV. A comparação com as outras espécies do gênero Tospovirus apresentou valores de homologia entre 72 e 84%. Estes resultados confirmam a identidade deste vírus como pertencente à espécie TCSV, que é predominante no Estado de São Paulo e importante patógeno de outras plantas cultivadas. Além disso, variedades de jiló quando inoculadas foram susceptíveis tanto ao TCSV como às espécies Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) e Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). Abstract in english Tospoviruses are responsible for important losses in most crops, mainly Solanaceae. Gilo (Solanum gilo) plants showing mosaic, blistering, stunting and 100% production losses were collected for analysis from São José dos Campos in the State of São Paulo. Biological, electron microscopy, serological [...] and molecular tests were carried out in order to characterize the virus isolate. The mechanical inoculation on Amaranthaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae plants showed typical tospovirus-induced symptoms. Pleomorphic particles from 80 to 110 nm were observed in negatively stained preparations and in vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified by DAS-ELISA. DNA fragments were amplified by RT-PCR, with specific primers designed to the nucleocapsid gene (N) of the main Tospovirus species, sequenced and compared with others in the GenBank. The nucleotide and amino acid deduced sequences homology was 99 and 95%, respectively, with TCSV. Comparison with other Tospovirus species presented values between 74 and 81%. These results confirmed the identity of this virus isolate as TCSV, the main tospovirus species in São Paulo that also damages other Solanaceous crops. Varieties of gilo have been inoculated showing susceptibility to TCSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV).

MARCELO, EIRAS; ALEXANDRE L. R., CHAVES; ADDOLORATA, COLARICCIO; RICARDO, HARAKAVA; JANSEN DE, ARAUJO; CÉSAR M., CHAGAS.

154

Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. PMID:24685241

Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

2014-06-01

155

Markers of hepatitis viruses A and B: direct comparison between whole serum and blood spotted on filter-paper  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of blood spotted on filter-paper is a cheap and convenient method for collecting, storing and transporting samples for analysis of markers of hepatitis virus B. Vaccine against viral hepatitis B is now available but is expensive, and, in order to make the best use of it, large-scale screening programmes need to be carried out in endemic areas prior to immunization campaigns. The sensitivity of the filter-paper method was compared with that of the analysis of whole serum, and the epide...

Zoulek, G.; Bu?rger, P.; Deinhardt, F.

1985-01-01

156

Masking white spots of enamel in caries lesions with a non-invasive infiltration technique in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the treatment effect of non-invasive infiltration on early caries caused by different degrees of enamel demineralization. Forty specimens of early enamel caries were prepared and divided into low and high demineralization groups. After treatment with non-invasive infiltration, the specimens were placed under cariogenic conditions. Color measurements were determined using a spectrophotometer 4 times to obtain chromatism values (?E1-?E4), including before and after production of artificial caries, and after infiltration treatment and re-demineralization. The effects of color change on early caries using non-invasive infiltration were compared between the 2 demineralization groups. Color differences before the production of artificial caries and after infiltration treatment and re-demineralization could not be distinguished by direct observation. Color differences after the production of artificial caries and after infiltration treatment and re-demineralization could be distinguished by direct observation. There were no significant differences in the 4 chromatism values (?E1-?E4) between the 2 groups. Non-invasive infiltration showed an excellent ability to mask white spot lesions and maintained high color stability. Treatment of high and low demineralization of enamel had the same masking effect. PMID:25177972

Ou, X-Y; Zhao, Y-H; Ci, X-K; Zeng, L-W

2014-01-01

157

[Evaluation of Ebola virus reproduction in adult ICR white mice].  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigators studied the ability of adult ICR mice (a laboratory model that was most approximated to the wildtype populations of mice) to maintain Ebola virus (EV) reproduction in the organism. The adult ICR mice inoculated with EV during 23 passages were shown to maintain viral reproduction in the liver. The elevated levels of platelets and the early generation of fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products suggested there were hemostatic changes that did not, however, progress to severe coagulopathy. The animals were in appearance apparently, other than adynamia observed on days 5-7. Thus, the susceptibility of the adult ICR mice to EV is characterized by their ability to maintain virus reproduction in the liver without evident signs of the infection. This pattern of susceptibility in the mice shows a possible role of this rodent species in the transmissive cycle of EV. PMID:20886711

Chepurnov, A A; Sizikova, L P; Shalemba-Chepurnova, A A; Shestopalova, L V

2010-01-01

158

Effectiveness of MI Paste Plus and PreviDent fluoride varnish for treatment of white spot lesions: A randomized controlled trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction White spot lesions are a common sequela of orthodontic therapy. In this parallel-group randomized trial, we assessed the effectiveness of 2 agents commonly used to ameliorate white spot lesions compared with a normal home-care regimen. Methods Patients aged 12 to 20 years were recruited from the offices of orthodontists and dentists who belonged to the Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based Dentistry network. The patients had their orthodontic appliances removed within the past 2 months and had at least 1 white spot lesion affecting their maxillary incisors. The subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1) an 8-week regimen of MI Paste Plus (GC America, Alsip, Ill), (2) a single application of PreviDent fluoride varnish (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY), and (3) usual home care (control). Photographs were taken at enrollment and 8 weeks later. Two panels consisting of 5 dental professionals and 5 laypersons assessed the before-and-after pairs of photographs in a blinded fashion. Objective assessments and self-assessments were also performed. Results One hundred fifteen subjects completed the study; 34 were assigned to the MI Paste Plus group, 40 to the fluoride varnish group, and 41 to the control group. The mean improvements assessed by the professional panel were 21%, 29%, and 27% in the MI Paste Plus, fluoride varnish, and control groups, respectively. The results from the lay panel were 29%, 31%, and 25%, respectively. Objective improvements in the surface affected were 16%, 25%, and 17%, respectively; self-assessments of improvement were 37% in all 3 groups. No assessments indicated significant differences between subjects in the active arms compared with the control arm. Conclusions MI Paste Plus and PreviDent fluoride varnish do not appear to be more effective than normal home care for improving the appearance of white spot lesions over an 8-week period. PMID:23273358

Huang, Greg J.; Roloff-Chiang, Brie; Mills, Brian E.; Shalchi, Salma; Spiekerman, Charles; Korpak, Anna M.; Starrett, Jeri L.; Greenlee, Geoffrey M.; Drangsholt, Ross J.; Matunas, Jack C.

2014-01-01

159

Fluctuation of indexes of consist and quality of milk of black and white and red-spotted cows during different months and seasons of lactation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To analyze fluctuation of indexes of consist and quality of milk of black and white and red-spotted cows during different months and seasons of lactation. The work was performed in Lithuanian Academy of Veterinary, department of stockbreeding as well as public enterprise Pieno Tyrimai during Master studies 2005-2007. During the analysis, data of controlled cows’ productivity was analyzed according to accounting information of cattle breeding. During the analysis we evaluated 98 Lithua...

Zube?, Egidijus

2007-01-01

160

Postsynaptic Alpha 2-Adrenoceptors Mediate Melanosome Aggregation in Melanophores of the White-Spotted Rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature of neuro-melanophore junction in the white-spotted rabbit fish Siganus cancliculatus. In vitro experiments using split fin preparation indicated that melanophores of S. cancliculatus are highly responsive to potassium ions and adrenergic agonists. Potassium ions and the adrenergic agonists induced prompt melanosome aggregation that could be competitively blocked by yohimbine (alpha-2 specific adrenergic antagonist and phentolamine (non-specific alpha adrenergic antagonist. The melanophore responses to repeated potassium stimulation (up to 20 stimuli did not show any sign of fatigue. However, statistically significant enhancement was observed in responses to potassium that followed the first five stimulations. Adrenergic agonists acted in a time and concentration-dependent manner and their relative potency had the following rank order: clonidine (alpha-2 specific agonist > norepinephrine (non-specific adrenergic agonist > phenylephrine (alpha-1 specific agonist > methoxamine (alpha-1-specific agonist. Yohimbine exerted a more potent inhibiting effect on norepinephrine induced melanosome aggregation compared to phentolamine. Prazosine (alpha-1 specific antagonist had no effect on such aggregation. Chemically denervated melanophores displayed hypersensitivity to alpha-adrenergic agonists but were refractive to potassium ion stimulation. The refractivity of denervated melanophores to potassium indicates the effect of potassium ion is not direct on melanophores but it is rather through depolarization effect of potassium on the neuro-melanophore peripheral sympathetic fibers and hence release of norepinephrine. In denervated melanophores, similar to intact melanophores, only phentolamine and yohimbine but not prazosine, significantly inhibited melanosome aggregation effect of norepinephrine, indicating that norepinephrine effect is through postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The present data demonstrate that the nature of melanophore innervation in this teleost is adrenergic and neuro-melanophore signals mediating melanosome aggregation are transmitted through alpha-2 postsynaptic adrenoceptors.

M.H. Amiri

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors mediate melanosome aggregation in melanophores of the white-spotted rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation was undertaken to study the nature of neuro-melanophore junction in the white-spotted rabbit fish Siganus canaliculatus. In vitro experiments using split fin preparation indicated that melanophores of S. canaliculatus are highly responsive to potassium ions and adrenergic agonists. Potassium ions and the adrenergic agonists induced prompt melanosome aggregation that could be competitively blocked by yohimbine (alpha-2 specific adrenergic antagonist) and phentolamine (non-specific alpha adrenergic antagonist). The melanophore responses to repeated potassium stimulation (up to 20 stimuli) did not show any sign of fatigue. However, statistically significant enhancement was observed in responses to potassium that followed the first five stimulations. Adrenergic agonists acted in a time and concentration-dependent manner and their relative potency had the following rank order: clonidine (alpha-2 specific agonist) > norepinephrine (non-specific adrenergic agonist) > phenylephrine (alpha-1 specific agonist) > methoxamine (alpha-1-specific agonist). Yohimbine exerted a more potent inhibiting effect on norepinephrine induced melanosome aggregation compared to phentolamine. Prazosine (alpha-1 specific antagonist) had no effect on such aggregation. Chemically denervated melanophores displayed hypersensitivity to alpha-adrenergic agonists but were refractive to potassium ion stimulation. The refractivity of denervated melanophores to potassium indicates the effect of potassium ion is not direct on melanophores but it is rather through depolarization effect of potassium on the neuro-melanophore peripheral sympathetic fibers and hence release of norepinephrine. In denervated melanophores, similar to intact melanophores, only phentolamine and yohimbine but not prazosine, significantly inhibited melanosome aggregation effect of norepinephrine, indicating that norepinephrine effect is through postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The present data demonstrate that the nature of melanophore innervation in this teleost is adrenergic and neuro-melanophore signals mediating melanosome aggregation are transmitted through alpha-2 postsynaptic adrenoceptors. PMID:19579911

Amiri, M H

2009-01-01

162

Caracterização do Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolado de jiló no Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo  

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Full Text Available Os tospovírus são responsáveis por perdas significativas em diversas culturas, principalmente solanáceas. No município de São José dos Campos (SP, plantas de jiló (Solanum gilo apresentando sintomas de mosaico, bolhosidades, nanismo e queda acentuada da produção foram coletadas para análise. Visando a caracterização do agente causador dos sintomas, testes biológicos, elétrono microscópicos, sorológicos e moleculares foram realizados. Através de inoculação mecânica em plantas indicadoras das famílias Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae e Solanaceae obtiveram-se resultados típicos aos esperados para tospovírus. Ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, observaram-se, em contrastação negativa, partículas pleomórficas com diâmetro entre 80 e 110 nm e em cortes ultra-finos partículas presentes em vesículas do retículo endoplasmático. Através de DAS-ELISA, identificou-se o Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV. A partir de RNA total extraído de folhas infetadas, amplificaram-se, via RT-PCR, fragmentos correspondentes ao gene da proteína do capsídeo (cp os quais foram seqüenciados e comparados com outros depositados no "GenBank". A homologia de nucleotídeos e aminoácidos deduzidos foi respectivamente de 99 e 95% quando comparada com seqüências de isolados de TCSV. A comparação com as outras espécies do gênero Tospovirus apresentou valores de homologia entre 72 e 84%. Estes resultados confirmam a identidade deste vírus como pertencente à espécie TCSV, que é predominante no Estado de São Paulo e importante patógeno de outras plantas cultivadas. Além disso, variedades de jiló quando inoculadas foram susceptíveis tanto ao TCSV como às espécies Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV e Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV.

EIRAS MARCELO

2002-01-01

163

Reação de híbridos de milho e comparação de métodos para avaliação da Cercosporiose e Mancha Branca / Reaction of commercial corn hybrids and comparison of methods for evaluation of maize White Spot and Gray Leaf Spot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o nível de resistência de 12 híbridos comerciais de milho à cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora zeae-maydis, e à Mancha Branca, causada por Pantoea ananatis e comparar a eficiência das estimativas da área abaixo da curva de progresso das doenças e da estabilid [...] ade fenotípica, na avaliação da resistência a esses patógenos. Foram conduzidos três experimentos, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, em três locais. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças, em intervalos de sete dias, a partir dos 80 dias da emergência, por meio de uma escala de notas variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente suscetível). Foram estimadas a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD) e o coeficiente de regressão linear (b1) entre a variável independente época de avaliação (x) e a variável dependente severidade da doença (y) e o coeficiente de determinação (R²). Observou-se que, ambas as metodologias utilizadas mostraram-se eficientes na discriminação do nível de resistência dos híbridos avaliados à Cercosporiose e à Mancha Branca, permitindo a classificação de modo semelhante. Os híbridos mais resistentes às duas doenças foram o AG7088, AG7010 e 2B707 e os mais suscetíveis o 30F44, 30F53 e AG8021. Os híbridos 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 e Impacto apresentaram comportamento variável em função dos locais de avaliação. Abstract in english With the objective of evaluating the resistance level of commercial corn hybrids and comparing the efficiency of the estimates of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and that of the phenotypical stability parameters in the evaluation of resistance maize white spot and gray leaf spot, t [...] hree experiments were carried out in the agricultural year of 2007/2008 in three environments. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and gray leaf spot) based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-day intervals from the 80th day after maize emergence, ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated, as were the phenotypical stability parameters, i.e., the linear regression coefficient (b i) between the independent variable evaluation time (x), and the dependent variable, disease severity (y) and the determination coefficient (R²). It was found that in the case of maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot, both methodologies used proved to be effective in the discrimination of the resistance level of the hybrids, enabling them to be ranked in a similar way. The most resistant hybrids to maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot were AG7088, AG 7010 and 2B707, and the most susceptible were 30F44, 30F53 and AG8021. The 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 and Impacto hybrids showed variable levels of resistance with the environment.

André H. de, Brito; Renzo G. von, Pinho; Álvaro de O., Santos; Sidnei dos, Santos.

164

Reação de híbridos de milho e comparação de métodos para avaliação da Cercosporiose e Mancha Branca Reaction of commercial corn hybrids and comparison of methods for evaluation of maize White Spot and Gray Leaf Spot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o nível de resistência de 12 híbridos comerciais de milho à cercosporiose, causada por Cercospora zeae-maydis, e à Mancha Branca, causada por Pantoea ananatis e comparar a eficiência das estimativas da área abaixo da curva de progresso das doenças e da estabilidade fenotípica, na avaliação da resistência a esses patógenos. Foram conduzidos três experimentos, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, em três locais. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças, em intervalos de sete dias, a partir dos 80 dias da emergência, por meio de uma escala de notas variando de 1 (altamente resistente a 9 (altamente suscetível. Foram estimadas a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e o coeficiente de regressão linear (b1 entre a variável independente época de avaliação (x e a variável dependente severidade da doença (y e o coeficiente de determinação (R². Observou-se que, ambas as metodologias utilizadas mostraram-se eficientes na discriminação do nível de resistência dos híbridos avaliados à Cercosporiose e à Mancha Branca, permitindo a classificação de modo semelhante. Os híbridos mais resistentes às duas doenças foram o AG7088, AG7010 e 2B707 e os mais suscetíveis o 30F44, 30F53 e AG8021. Os híbridos 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 e Impacto apresentaram comportamento variável em função dos locais de avaliação.With the objective of evaluating the resistance level of commercial corn hybrids and comparing the efficiency of the estimates of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC and that of the phenotypical stability parameters in the evaluation of resistance maize white spot and gray leaf spot, three experiments were carried out in the agricultural year of 2007/2008 in three environments. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and gray leaf spot based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-day intervals from the 80th day after maize emergence, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated, as were the phenotypical stability parameters, i.e., the linear regression coefficient (b i between the independent variable evaluation time (x, and the dependent variable, disease severity (y and the determination coefficient (R². It was found that in the case of maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot, both methodologies used proved to be effective in the discrimination of the resistance level of the hybrids, enabling them to be ranked in a similar way. The most resistant hybrids to maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot were AG7088, AG 7010 and 2B707, and the most susceptible were 30F44, 30F53 and AG8021. The 30K64, DKB177, DKB390 and Impacto hybrids showed variable levels of resistance with the environment.

André H. de Brito

2011-02-01

165

Effect of infection by chlorotic spot virus on 14CO2 fixation in leaves of groundnut Arachis hypogea L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photosynthetic incorporation of 14CO2 into leaves of groundnut infected by chlorotic spot virus (GCSV) was slightly more at stages 2 and 5 less at stage 4 as compared to control. 14C incorporation into the alcohol soluble fraction of infected leaves followed the same trend as total 14CO2 fixation but in the alcohol-insoluble fraction the same was less at all the sampled stages. 14C in the alcohol-soluble fraction of fed leaves of both types (stage 5) decreased with time along with simultaneous increase in alcohol-insoluble fraction. The proportion of 14C incorporated into organic acids, amino acids and sugars was same in both the samples at stage 2, greater into organic and amino acids and less into sugars at stages 4 and 5, and at 12 and 24 hr time periods of stage 5 of virus infected leaves when compared to healthy ones. 14C incorporated into total sugars and organic acids of infected leaves followed that of total 14C fixation, and varied in individual sugars and organic acids. 14C in sugars of both type of leaves decreased with time and with simultaneous increase in organic and amino acids. 14C incorporated into virus infected leaf proteins was more when compared to healthy leaves. (auth.)

166

Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

Fanning, Liam J

2012-02-03

167

Characterization of H3N6 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild white pelican in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized an influenza virus isolated from a great white pelican in Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of its gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage and that they appear to have evolved in distinct geographical regions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, suggesting reassortment of virus genes maintained in wild aquatic birds whose flyways overlap across these continents. It is notable that this virus might possess some genes of the same origin as those of highly pathogenic H7 and H5 viruses isolated in Eurasia. The present study underscores the need for continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses in Eurasia and Africa. PMID:19655084

Simulundu, Edgar; Mweene, Aaron S; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Ishii, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yuka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kimihito; Kida, Hiroshi; Saiwana, Lewis; Takada, Ayato

2009-01-01

168

Influence of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Uneven Distribution on Its Serological Detection in Tomato, Pepper and Ornamentals  

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Full Text Available Reliable detection of plant pathogens does not only mean the development of sufficiently sensitive laboratory techniques for their routine testing. Regardless of the sensitivity of applied methods, the proper selection of samples to be tested has crucial influence on method reliability. Due to uneven distribution of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in naturally infected systemic host plants, the collection and sampling of material for assaying is acritical moment upon which the reliability of laboratory procedure depends. The effect of irregular virus distribution on its serological detection was examined in tomato, pepper and four ornamental species, as its most important host plants in our country.The reliability of virus detection, depending on its uneven distribution, was assessed by serological testing of tomato and pepper symptomatic leaves and fruits, and symptomatic and asymptomatic young and old leaves, as well as flower petals of ornamentals. Although TSWV was detected using ELISA in the majority of plants included in the experiment, the tests indicated an uneven distribution and unequal concentrations of TSWV in different parts of the plants. The virus could not be detected in a certain number of subsamples, prepared from infected tomato and pepper fruits and older ornamental leaves. The virus also could not be detected in some ornamentals and tomato plants with intensive symptoms. Conversely, the virus was detected in three ornamental plants without any symptoms. Examining the virus distribution in different plant parts indicated that the reliability of ELISA could be reached not only by sampling younger ornamental leaves, but also by preparing compound samples with as much leaves as possible, or by testing a greater number of subsamples of the tested plant. Considering a small possibility of TSWV detection in tomato and pepper fruits, the infection of these should be established by testing their leaves. Besides, the data show that negative test results for the known host plants with characteristic symptoms require tests to be repeated using more sensitive methods than ELISA. These results are important as guidelines for growers and professionals who submit samples, as well as for laboratories performing routine testing.

Ivana ?eki?

2008-01-01

169

Egg whites from eggs of chickens infected experimentally with avian hepatitis E virus contain infectious virus, but evidence of complete vertical transmission is lacking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. Vertical transmission of HEV has been reported in humans, but not in other animals. In this study, we showed that avian HEV could be detected in chicken egg-white samples. Subsequently, avian HEV in egg white was found to be infectious, as evidenced by the appearance of viraemia, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion in chickens inoculated with avian HEV-positive egg white, but not in chickens inoculated with HEV-negative egg white. To further assess the possibility of vertical transmission of avian HEV, batches of embryonated eggs from infected hens were hatched, and hatched chicks were monitored for evidence of avian HEV infection. However, no virus was detected in samples collected from the hatched chicks throughout this study, suggesting that avian HEV could not complete the vertical transmission cycle. The possible implications of our findings are also discussed. PMID:17412983

Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J

2007-05-01

170

Pink spot, white spot: the pineal skylight of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) skull and its possible role in the phenology of feeding migrations  

Science.gov (United States)

Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, which have an irregular pink area on the crown of the head known as the pineal or ‘pink spot’, forage upon jellyfish in cool temperate waters along the western and eastern margins of the North Atlantic during the summer. Our study showed that the skeletal structures underlying the pink spot in juvenile and adult turtles are compatible with the idea of a pineal dosimeter function that would support recognition of environmental light stimuli. We interrogated an extensive turtle sightings database to elucidate the phenology of leatherback foraging during summer months around Great Britain and Ireland and compared the sightings with historical data for sea surface temperatures and day lengths to assess whether sea surface temperature or light periodicity/levels were likely abiotic triggers prompting foraging turtles to turn south and leave their feeding grounds at the end of the summer. We found that sea temperature was too variable and slow changing in the study area to be useful as a trigger and suggest that shortening of day lengths as the late summer equilux is approached provides a credible phenological cue, acting via the pineal, for leatherbacks to leave their foraging areas whether they are feeding close to Nova Scotia or Great Britain and Ireland.

Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

2014-01-01

171

Virological and pathomorphological aspects in experimental infections with some triassociated pneumotropic viruses in the white mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental infections were induced in white mice by intranasal administration of parainfluenza virus type 3, 739-2D strain, to which influenza virus A/Beijing, 353/89 (H3N2) strain, and respiratory syncytial virus, Long strain, were associated. The model was organized so as to obtain a triassociated infection, parainfluenza virus type 3 being inoculated the first and the other two viruses, in the following stages-II and III-, alternately. The infections were revealed by the presence of positive immunofluorescence reactions in the pulmonary tissue, of histological, histochemical and histoenzymatic lesions at the level of the respiratory apparatus, as well as of pathomorphological changes in other organs. At the pulmonary parenchyma level the inflammatory lesion had a 100% frequency. The severest pathomorphological picture was the diffuse, lymphohistiocytic and macrophagic bronchopneumonia. The cytoinfiltrate was characterized by a proportionality between lymphocytes and histiocytes and the lower but not insignificant presence of macrophages. The prevalent lesion was the thickening of interparietoalveolar septa, as a consequence of stasis hyperemia, oedema and lymphohistiomacrophagocytic infiltrate, to which dystrophic lesions, especially of biocytes, are often added. Different lesions are present in other organs, such as: in the liver-inflammatory, dystrophico-inflammatory and dystrophic lesions; in the kidney, pancreas, cerebellum and thymus--vascular changes, stasis hyperemia; in the spleen--hyperplasia of megakaryocytes. Generally, the type and severity of lesions vary from one viral-association-induced infection to another. PMID:9836325

Petica, M; Petrescu, A

1997-01-01

172

Development of a varicella-zoster virus neutralization assay using a glycoprotein K antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plaque-reduction assays have been used to detect varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-neutralizing antibodies in sera for many decades. The current study characterized the mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) 18A10, specific for VZV envelope glycoprotein K (gK), and applied this antibody to a new type of neutralization assay in the VZV field. The procedure is called the neutralization enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (N-ELISPOT) assay and evolved from the VZV immunoperoxidase focus assay. Optimization of the assay involved defining the optimum combination of virus plaque-forming units (PFU) and antibody dilution, which were found to be 0-100 PFU and 1:200, respectively. Furthermore, the N-ELISPOT assay produced results consistent with that obtained for the plaque-reduction neutralization assay. Considering that the plaque-reduction neutralization assay is time-consuming and labor-intensive, the VZV N-ELISPOT assay offers several advantages including reproducibility and applicability for high-throughput analysis of humoral immune responses to VZV. PMID:24486923

Chen, Lihong; Liu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jianghui; Wen, Lanling; Zhao, Qinjian; Zhu, Hua; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

2014-05-01

173

Products of different chemical groups to control maize white spotProdutos de diferentes grupos químicos no controle da mancha branca do milho  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of different products used to control maize white spot, a leaf disease caused by the bacterium Pantoea ananatis. Six products from different chemical groups were used for this experiment, and they were tested on the susceptible hybrid HS200. Parameters, such as severity (%, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC, and productivity, have been estimated. The treatment with oxytetracyline resulted higher grain productivity for maize. Natural products, such as Rocksil and Pyroligneous acid, even though they are used as supplement for plants, were not effective in controlling the maize white spot. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes produtos no controle da mancha branca do milho, doença foliar causada pela bactéria Pantoea ananatis. Para o experimento foram utilizados seis produtos pertencentes a diferentes grupos químicos, testados no híbrido suscetível HS200. Avaliaramse as variáveis severidade, área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e a produtividade de grãos. O tratamento com oxitetraciclina resultou maior produtividade de grãos da cultura do milho. Produtos naturais testados no experimento, como Rocksil e Ácido Pirolenhoso, utilizados como suplementos nutricionais para as plantas, não foram eficientes no controle da mancha branca do milho.

Eliseu dos Santos Pedro

2012-12-01

174

Interferon status and white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever that is the significant disease of domestic pigs, with high rates of mortality. ASFV is double-stranded DNA virus whose genes encode some proteins that are implicated in the suppression of host immune response. In this study, we have modeled in vivo infection of ASFV for determination of interferon (IFN) status in infected pigs. We measured the level of IFN-?, -? and -? by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and showed that the level of IFN-? sharply decreased during infection. Unlike IFN-?, the level of IFN-? and -? increased from the 2nd and 4th days post-infection, respectively. Also, we analyzed the population dynamics of peripheral white blood cells of infected pigs due to their important role in host immune system. We showed that the atypical lymphocytes appeared after short time of infection and this result is in accordance with our previous study done in vitro. At the last day of infection about 50% of the total white blood cells were destroyed, and the remaining cells were represented mainly by small-sized lymphocytes, reactive lymphocytes and lymphoblasts. PMID:22226551

Karalyan, Z; Zakaryan, H; Sargsyan, Kh; Voskanyan, H; Arzumanyan, H; Avagyan, H; Karalova, E

2012-01-15

175

Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

Ma Hao

2011-10-01

176

Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background African swine fever virus (ASFV is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5 in infected pigs than in control group (0.3, marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated.

Karalyan Zaven

2012-02-01

177

Probing Behaviour of thrips. Behavioural study on the feeding of Western flower thrips related to Tomato spotted wilt virus transmission and host plant susceptibility  

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Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis , feeds in a piercing sucking manner and is a worldwide pest on many ornamental and vegetable crops. Thrips can feed on different parts of the plant; leaves, stems, flowers and fruits. On leaves thrips can ingest the cell contents of epidermal, mesophyll, and parenchymal cells, but their mouthparts cannot reach the vascular tissue. Western flower thrips can also transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) during probing. My research has shown th...

Kindt, F.

2004-01-01

178

Use of Dried Spots of Whole Blood, Plasma, and Mother's Milk Collected on Filter Paper for Measurement of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Burden?  

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We studied the use of dried spots of bodily fluids (plasma, whole blood, and mother's milk) on filter paper as a means of sample collection and storage for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load testing under stringent field conditions. Plasma placed directly in lysis buffer, which is customarily used for viral load assays, was used for comparison in all our experiments. Utilizing reconstruction experiments, we demonstrate no statistical differences between viral loads determi...

Ayele, Workenesh; Schuurman, Rob; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Dorigo-zetsma, Wendelien; Mengistu, Yohannes; Goudsmit, Jaap; Paxton, William A.; Baar, Michel P.; Pollakis, Georgios

2007-01-01

179

Parâmetros de cultivo e a enfermidade da mancha-branca em fazendas de camarões de Santa Catarina / Cultivation parameters and the white spot disease in shrimp farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre parâmetros físico-químicos e biológicos do cultivo de camarão com a enfermidade causada pelo vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV). Foram avaliadas a mortalidade, as características físicas e químicas da água e do solo, e foram realizados os [...] exames e as análises microscópicas a fresco, presença de víbrios na hemolinfa, além do diagnóstico histopatológico e molecular (PCR) do WSSV, em viveiros de oito fazendas de Santa Catarina, entre 2008 e 2009. O vírus foi detectado em cinco fazendas com registros da enfermidade em ciclos anteriores. A temperatura da água foi semelhante entre as fazendas com e sem WSSV, e a mortalidade ocorreu a intervalos ascendentes entre 24,6 e 29,3ºC. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros de análises microscópicas a fresco, tempo de coagulação e presença de víbrios na hemolinfa e sinais clínicos, entre viveiros com e sem WSSV. As concentrações de nitrito, sílica, fenol e alcalinidade na água e pH do solo apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os viveiros afetados ou não por WSSV. Os valores de nitrito, sílica e pH do solo estavam dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo de camarões, no entanto, isto não ocorreu com a alcalinidade e a concentração de fenol, o que sugere uma relação dos últimos com a manifestação da enfermidade da mancha-branca. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among physicochemical and biological parameters in shrimp cultivation with the disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The occurrence of mortality, physical and chemical characteristics of water and soil were evaluated, and [...] clinical and microscopic analyses and the presence of vibrio in hemolymph, were performed as well as the histopathological and molecular diagnosis (PCR) of the WSSV in ponds of eight farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. The virus was detected in five farms, which had displayed the disease in previous cycles. The temperature of the water was similar among farms independently of the presence of the virus, and mortality occurred at ascendant temperature intervals, between 24.6 and 29.3ºC. No significant differences were found for the parameters of microscopic analyses among ponds either with or without the virus. Nitrite, silica, phenol and water-alkalinity concentrations, as well as soil pH values, showed significant differences among the ponds affected or not by the WSSV. Nitrite, silica and pH values were within the recommended limits for shrimp cultivation, however this did not occur for the alkalinity and phenol concentrations, wich suggests a relationship of the latter parameters with manifestation of the white spot disease.

Sérgio Winckler da, Costa; Luiz Rodrigo Mota, Vicente; Talita Medeiros de, Souza; Edemar Roberto, Andreatta; Maria Risoleta Freire, Marques.

180

Parâmetros de cultivo e a enfermidade da mancha-branca em fazendas de camarões de Santa Catarina Cultivation parameters and the white spot disease in shrimp farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre parâmetros físico-químicos e biológicos do cultivo de camarão com a enfermidade causada pelo vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade, as características físicas e químicas da água e do solo, e foram realizados os exames e as análises microscópicas a fresco, presença de víbrios na hemolinfa, além do diagnóstico histopatológico e molecular (PCR do WSSV, em viveiros de oito fazendas de Santa Catarina, entre 2008 e 2009. O vírus foi detectado em cinco fazendas com registros da enfermidade em ciclos anteriores. A temperatura da água foi semelhante entre as fazendas com e sem WSSV, e a mortalidade ocorreu a intervalos ascendentes entre 24,6 e 29,3ºC. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos parâmetros de análises microscópicas a fresco, tempo de coagulação e presença de víbrios na hemolinfa e sinais clínicos, entre viveiros com e sem WSSV. As concentrações de nitrito, sílica, fenol e alcalinidade na água e pH do solo apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os viveiros afetados ou não por WSSV. Os valores de nitrito, sílica e pH do solo estavam dentro dos limites recomendados para o cultivo de camarões, no entanto, isto não ocorreu com a alcalinidade e a concentração de fenol, o que sugere uma relação dos últimos com a manifestação da enfermidade da mancha-branca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among physicochemical and biological parameters in shrimp cultivation with the disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. The occurrence of mortality, physical and chemical characteristics of water and soil were evaluated, and clinical and microscopic analyses and the presence of vibrio in hemolymph, were performed as well as the histopathological and molecular diagnosis (PCR of the WSSV in ponds of eight farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. The virus was detected in five farms, which had displayed the disease in previous cycles. The temperature of the water was similar among farms independently of the presence of the virus, and mortality occurred at ascendant temperature intervals, between 24.6 and 29.3ºC. No significant differences were found for the parameters of microscopic analyses among ponds either with or without the virus. Nitrite, silica, phenol and water-alkalinity concentrations, as well as soil pH values, showed significant differences among the ponds affected or not by the WSSV. Nitrite, silica and pH values were within the recommended limits for shrimp cultivation, however this did not occur for the alkalinity and phenol concentrations, wich suggests a relationship of the latter parameters with manifestation of the white spot disease.

Sérgio Winckler da Costa

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Sintomas atípicos em frutos de meloeiro e de melancia ocasionados por Watermelon mosaic virus-2 / Atypic symptoms in melon and watermelon fruits caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The Northeast of Brazil presents great potencial for melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production. Melon fruit with white spots and watermelon fruits showing chlorotic spots were demonstrated to be caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2, through indirect enzyme linked-immuno sorbe [...] nt assay.

J. ALBÉRSIO A., LIMA; M. ABÍLIO DE, QUEIROZ; NAJARA F., RAMOS; M. FÁTIMA B., GONÇALVES.

182

Sintomas atípicos em frutos de meloeiro e de melancia ocasionados por Watermelon mosaic virus-2  

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Full Text Available The Northeast of Brazil presents great potencial for melon (Cucumis melo and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production. Melon fruit with white spots and watermelon fruits showing chlorotic spots were demonstrated to be caused by Watermelon mosaic virus-2, through indirect enzyme linked-immuno sorbent assay.

LIMA J. ALBÉRSIO A.

2002-01-01

183

Assessment of the risk of White Sturgeon to become infected and potential carriers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little scientific information is available to assess whether White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus can become infected and potential carriers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). To assess this risk, monitoring results of adult and progeny White Sturgeon were examined from waters historically stocked with salmonid fish known to be IPNV carriers. From 1999 through 2004 White Sturgeon from a total of 30 separate families whose parentage came from waters historically stocked with IPNV carrier fish were tested. Duplicate groups of 25 juvenile Snake River White Sturgeon were waterborne exposed to 1.0×10(4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL of water for 1 h and an additional group was injected intraperitoneally with 1.0×10(5) TCID50/fish. A negative control group was handled similarly but was not exposed to the virus. No morbidity was detected in any of the treatment groups or the negative control. At 34, 40, 47, and 54 d postexposure to IPNV, virus reisolation was attempted on five fish from each group, and an additional five fish from each group were examined for histological changes consistent with an IPNV infection. At 34 and 40 d postinjection with IPNV, 20% (one of five) of the fish tested positive for the virus per sample interval; however, fish from groups that were waterborne-exposed to IPNV were all negative. At 47 and 54 d after exposure or injection with IPNV an additional five fish from each group were tested at each sample interval and all results were negative. Histological analysis of target tissue obtained from five fish per group at 34 and 54 d postinfection also failed to detect any consistent change associated with an IPNV infection. These results suggest that the risk of White Sturgeon to become infected and develop into potential carriers of IPNV is negligible. PMID:24341767

LaPatra, Scott E; Mead, Sherry

2013-12-01

184

Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia  

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Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

GuohuiZhou

2013-09-01

185

Multicenter Evaluation of Use of Dried Blood and Plasma Spot Specimens in Quantitative Assays for Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA: Measurement, Precision, and RNA Stability  

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Eleven laboratories evaluated the use of dried blood and plasma spots for quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA by two commercially available RNA assays, the Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor and the bioMerieux NucliSens HIV-1 QT assays. The recovery of HIV RNA was linear over a dynamic range extending from 4,000 to 500,000 HIV type 1 RNA copies/ml. The Monitor assay appeared to have a broader dynamic range and seemed more sensitive at lower concentrations. However, the NucliSens ...

Brambilla, Don; Jennings, Cheryl; Aldrovandi, Grace; Bremer, James; Cassol, Sharon A.; Dickover, Ruth; Jackson, J. Brooks; Pitt, Jane; Sullivan, John L.; Butcher, Ann; Grosso, Lynell; Reichelderfer, Patricia; Fiscus, Susan A.

2003-01-01

186

Microsatellite loci for the white-dotted mosquito (Culex restuans), a principal vector of West Nile virus in North America  

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We characterized the first microsatellite loci in the white-dotted mosquito, Culex restuans, a critical early spring West Nile virus vector. An enrichment protocol yielded 960 positive clones of which we sequenced 300. We designed primers to amplify 29 unique di-, tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellites and chose 17 that amplified consistently across populations and were polymorphic. We developed three multiplex primer combinations for all 17 loci. A survey of 44 individuals revealed two to ...

Fonseca, Dina M.; Okada, Kenli; Kramer, Laura D.

2009-01-01

187

West Nile virus in American White Pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64-75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection. PMID:23530073

Sovada, Marsha A; Pietz, Pamela J; Hofmeister, Erik K; Bartos, Alisa J

2013-06-01

188

Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis New Jersey type virus in white-tailed deer on Ossabaw Island, Georgia, 1985 to 1989.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1985 to 1989, 491 serum samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Ossabaw Island, Georgia (USA) and were tested for neutralizing antibodies to New Jersey and Indiana type vesicular stomatitis viruses. Prevalence of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis New Jersey (VSNJ) virus in deer for the 5-yr period was 43%. Prevalence of antibodies differed by year (P less than 0.0001), and was dependent on age class (P less than 0.0001) and location on the island (P less than 0.0001). Of 173 deer sampled from other locations in the southeastern United States, only two had VSNJ antibody titers normally considered positive (greater than or equal to 1: 32). The positive deer were from Union County, Arkansas (USA) and Wakulla County, Florida (USA). No evidence of exposure to vesicular stomatitis Indiana Virus was observed. PMID:1661786

Fletcher, W O; Stallknecht, D E; Kearney, M T; Eernisse, K A

1991-10-01

189

Oral and fecal shedding of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, serotype 1 from experimentally infected white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), one of the most important infectious diseases of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), is vectored by species of midges in the genus Culicoides. Although vector borne, fecal shedding of EHD virus, serotype 2 has been reported from infected deer in a previous study. To evaluate the potential for fecal and oral shedding, oral and rectal swabs were obtained on day 8 post-inoculation from white-tailed deer fawns experimentally infected with EHD virus, serotype 1 (EHDV-1). Eight deer were viremic for EHDV-1; virus was detected in oral swabs from three (38%) and in rectal swabs from four (50%). The ability to isolate EHDV-1 in oral secretions or feces was not dependent on being able to detect clinical disease. These results indicate that in a relatively large proportion of EHDV-1 infected deer, virus can be detected in feces and oral secretions. Although more work is necessary, such shedding may be important in experimental studies or pen situations where deer-to-deer contact is prevalent and intense. PMID:11838208

Gaydos, Joseph K; Allison, Andrew B; Hanson, Britta A; Yellin, Anna S

2002-01-01

190

Determining the Effect of Calculus, Hypocalcification, and Stain on Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy for Detecting White Spot Lesions  

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Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS have been shown as useful methods for distinguishing sound enamel from carious lesions ex vivo. However, factors in the oral environment such as calculus, hypocalcification, and stain could lead to false-positive results. OCT and PRS were used to investigate extracted human teeth clinically examined for sound enamel, white spot lesion (WSL, calculus, hypocalcification, and stain to determine whether these factors would confound WSL detection with these optical methods. Results indicate that OCT allowed differentiating caries from sound enamel, hypocalcification, and stain, with calculus deposits recognizable on OCT images. ANOVA and post-hoc unequal N HSD analyses to compare the mean Raman depolarization ratios from the various groups showed that the mean values were statistically significant at P<.05, except for several comparison pairs. With the current PRS analysis method, the mean depolarization ratios of stained enamel and caries are not significantly different due to the sloping background in the stained enamel spectra. Overall, calculus and hypocalcification are not confounding factors affecting WSL detection using OCT and PRS. Stain does not influence WSL detection with OCT. Improved PRS analysis methods are needed to differentiate carious from stained enamel.

Lin-P'ing Choo-Smith

2010-01-01

191

Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis / Seleção de reprodutores de camarão livres da síndrome da mancha-branca e da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar reprodutores de Litopenaeus vannamei sobreviventes de um surto do vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV), adaptados às condições locais e diagnosticados negativamente para WSSV e para o vírus da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética (IHHNV), e ava [...] liar se esta extratégia é uma alternativa viável para produção em Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados fenotipicamente 800 machos e 800 fêmeas, de um viveiro. Análises de nested-PCR de 487 fêmeas e de 231 machos, sexualmente maduros, mostraram que 63% das fêmeas e 55% dos machos estavam infectados com IHHNV. Os animais livres de IHHNV foram testados para WSSV, e os considerados duplo negativos destinados à reprodução. As pós-larvas produzidas foram estocadas em nove berçários, para análise. Das 45 amostras, com 50 pós-larvas cada, apenas duas foram positivas para IHHNV e nenhuma para WSSV. Os lotes de pós-larvas diagnosticadas livres de vírus por nested-PCR foram encaminhados para seis fazendas. Foi realizada análise comparativa em viveiros de engorda, entre pós-larvas locais e pós-larvas do Nordeste do Brasil. Também foram analisados caranguejos (Chasmagnathus granulata), siris (Callinectes sapidus) e lebres do mar (Aplysia brasiliana), que são possíveis vetores dos vírus. A média de sobrevivência foi de 55% para as pós-larvas locais e de 23,4% para as pós-larvas do Nordeste. As lebres do mar apresentaram prevalência de 50% e os caranguejos de 67% de WSSV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and to evaluate if this strat [...] egy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata), blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana), which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

Carlos Cesar de, Mello Junior; Gael Yvan Leclercq, Delsol; Emmerik, Motte; Virna Alexia Cedeño, Escobar; Pedro Filipe, Rey; Mauricio Laterça, Martins; Luis Alejandro Vinatea, Arana; Giovanni Lemos de, Mello; Alvaro Pestana de, Farias; Xavier Antonio Serrano, Arguello; John Erick Montaño, Maridueña.

2011-05-01

192

Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis / Seleção de reprodutores de camarão livres da síndrome da mancha-branca e da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar reprodutores de Litopenaeus vannamei sobreviventes de um surto do vírus da síndrome da mancha-branca (WSSV), adaptados às condições locais e diagnosticados negativamente para WSSV e para o vírus da necrose infecciosa hipodermal e hematopoiética (IHHNV), e ava [...] liar se esta extratégia é uma alternativa viável para produção em Santa Catarina. Foram selecionados fenotipicamente 800 machos e 800 fêmeas, de um viveiro. Análises de nested-PCR de 487 fêmeas e de 231 machos, sexualmente maduros, mostraram que 63% das fêmeas e 55% dos machos estavam infectados com IHHNV. Os animais livres de IHHNV foram testados para WSSV, e os considerados duplo negativos destinados à reprodução. As pós-larvas produzidas foram estocadas em nove berçários, para análise. Das 45 amostras, com 50 pós-larvas cada, apenas duas foram positivas para IHHNV e nenhuma para WSSV. Os lotes de pós-larvas diagnosticadas livres de vírus por nested-PCR foram encaminhados para seis fazendas. Foi realizada análise comparativa em viveiros de engorda, entre pós-larvas locais e pós-larvas do Nordeste do Brasil. Também foram analisados caranguejos (Chasmagnathus granulata), siris (Callinectes sapidus) e lebres do mar (Aplysia brasiliana), que são possíveis vetores dos vírus. A média de sobrevivência foi de 55% para as pós-larvas locais e de 23,4% para as pós-larvas do Nordeste. As lebres do mar apresentaram prevalência de 50% e os caranguejos de 67% de WSSV. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and to evaluate if this strat [...] egy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata), blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana), which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

Carlos Cesar de, Mello Junior; Gael Yvan Leclercq, Delsol; Emmerik, Motte; Virna Alexia Cedeño, Escobar; Pedro Filipe, Rey; Mauricio Laterça, Martins; Luis Alejandro Vinatea, Arana; Giovanni Lemos de, Mello; Alvaro Pestana de, Farias; Xavier Antonio Serrano, Arguello; John Erick Montaño, Maridueña.

193

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

194

Sequence diversity of the nucleoprotein gene of iris yellow spot virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) isolates from the western region of the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), a tentative virus species in the genus Tospovirus and family Bunyaviridae, is considered a rapidly emerging threat to onion production in the western United States (US). The present study was undertaken to determine the sequence diversity of IYSV isolates from infected onion plants grown in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Washington. Using primers derived from the small RNA of IYSV, the complete sequence of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of each isolate was determined and the sequences compared. In addition, a shallot isolate of IYSV from Washington was included in the study. The US isolates of IYSV shared a high degree of sequence identity (95 to 99%) with one another and to previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that with the exception of one isolate from central Oregon and one isolate from California, all the onion and shallot isolates from the western US clustered together. This cluster also included onion and lisianthus isolates from Japan. A second distinct cluster consisted of isolates from Australia (onion), Brazil (onion), Israel (lisianthus), Japan (alstroemeria), The Netherlands (iris) and Slovenia (leek). The IYSV isolates evaluated in this study appear to represent two distinct groups, one of which largely represents isolates from the western US. Understanding of the population structure of IYSV would potentially provide insights into the molecular epidemiology of this virus. PMID:16320007

Pappu, H R; du Toit, L J; Schwartz, H F; Mohan, S K

2006-05-01

195

Serological evidence of bovine herpesvirus 1-related virus infection in the white-tailed deer population on Anticosti Island, Quebec.  

Science.gov (United States)

High white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population densities and the occurrence of harsh environmental conditions are present on Anticosti Island, located in the Gulf of Saint-Lawrence (Quebec, Canada). This island is the northernmost region of white-tailed deer distribution in northeastern North America. The aim of this work was to determine whether a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) may occur in a stressed white-tailed deer population. One hundred one deer sera were collected from apparently healthy animals during the hunting season from September to late November 1985. Fifty-three percent of tested deer were positive to the seroneutralization test using Colorado strain of BHV1 virus. Higher percentages of seropositivity were observed in animals of both sexes greater than 4-yr-old. Analysis of antibody titers in seropositive animals according to age suggests that BHV1-related viral infection is endemic in the Anticosti Island deer population. It is postulated that environmental stress may induce immunosuppression of certain infected and/or carrier animals in their population that shed virus for long periods of time. PMID:2541261

Lamontagne, L; Sadi, L; Joyal, R

1989-04-01

196

Resistencia genética de híbridos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) Al virus del bronceado (TSWV) / Genetic resistance of tomato hybrids (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación se realizó en el invernadero y laboratorio de la Fundación PROINPA en Cochabamba - Bolivia en el 2012. El objetivo fue evaluar la resistencia y suscep-tibilidad de plantas a los virus Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV y Groundnut ringspot [...] virus - GRSV en 10 híbridos de tomate mediante evaluación feno-típica y del patrón molecular (marcador SCAR Sw- 421), que distingue los homocigotos y hete-rocigotos resistentes del susceptible. Los resul-tados mostraron que el marcador SW-421 se co-localizó con el gen Sw-5 de resistencia a TSWV. Se observó la presencia de la banda de resistencia (R) para TSWV a 940 bp en las variedades PROINPA 2 (Aguaí) y PROINPA 9 (Bonita) en estado homocigoto dominante (Sw-5/Sw-5). Las variedades PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka), y PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera), mostraron la banda resistencia (H) a TSWV a 900-940 bp en estado heterocigoto (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Solamente la variedad PROINPA 7 (Redonda), el padre 71 89S LACHING SW-5 y la variedad Shannon mostraron el gen de suscep-tibilidad (S) al TSWV a 900 bp en estado homo-cigoto recesivo (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). Los análisis de severidad y de DAS-ELISA fueron confirmados con el análisis molecular. Abstract in english This research was conducted at the PROINPA Foundation’s greenhouse and laboratory in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2012. Its objective was to evaluate the resistance and susceptibility to Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV and Groundnut ringspot virus - GRSV in 10 tomato [...] hybrids. Phenotypic and molecular pattern (SCAR marker SW-421) evaluations were performed in order to differentiate homozygous and heterozygous resistant from susceptible plants. Results showed that molecular marker Sw421 is co -located with the TSWV-resistance Sw-5 gene. A TSWV-resistance band (R) was observed at 940 bp and showed the homozygous presence of the Sw-5 allele (Sw-5/Sw-5) in PROINPA 2 (Aguai) and PROINPA 9 (Bonita) varieties. PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka) and PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera) varieties, showed a TSWV resistance band (H) at 900-940 bp in the heterozygous state (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Only PROINPA 7 (Redonda), the male parent 71 LACHING 89S Sw-5 and the variety Shannon showed TSWV susceptibility gene (S) at 900 bp in the homozygous-recessive state (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). The results of the severity analysis and of DAS-ELISA were confirmed by the molecular analysis.

Julio, Gabriel; Daniel, Sanabria; Silene, Veramendi; Giovanna, Plata; Ada, Angulo; Mario, Crespo.

2013-06-01

197

Resistencia genética de híbridos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) Al virus del bronceado (TSWV) / Genetic resistance of tomato hybrids (Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.) to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación se realizó en el invernadero y laboratorio de la Fundación PROINPA en Cochabamba - Bolivia en el 2012. El objetivo fue evaluar la resistencia y suscep-tibilidad de plantas a los virus Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV y Groundnut ringspot [...] virus - GRSV en 10 híbridos de tomate mediante evaluación feno-típica y del patrón molecular (marcador SCAR Sw- 421), que distingue los homocigotos y hete-rocigotos resistentes del susceptible. Los resul-tados mostraron que el marcador SW-421 se co-localizó con el gen Sw-5 de resistencia a TSWV. Se observó la presencia de la banda de resistencia (R) para TSWV a 940 bp en las variedades PROINPA 2 (Aguaí) y PROINPA 9 (Bonita) en estado homocigoto dominante (Sw-5/Sw-5). Las variedades PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka), y PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera), mostraron la banda resistencia (H) a TSWV a 900-940 bp en estado heterocigoto (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Solamente la variedad PROINPA 7 (Redonda), el padre 71 89S LACHING SW-5 y la variedad Shannon mostraron el gen de suscep-tibilidad (S) al TSWV a 900 bp en estado homo-cigoto recesivo (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). Los análisis de severidad y de DAS-ELISA fueron confirmados con el análisis molecular. Abstract in english This research was conducted at the PROINPA Foundation’s greenhouse and laboratory in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2012. Its objective was to evaluate the resistance and susceptibility to Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV, Tomato cholorotic spot virus - TCSV and Groundnut ringspot virus - GRSV in 10 tomato [...] hybrids. Phenotypic and molecular pattern (SCAR marker SW-421) evaluations were performed in order to differentiate homozygous and heterozygous resistant from susceptible plants. Results showed that molecular marker Sw421 is co -located with the TSWV-resistance Sw-5 gene. A TSWV-resistance band (R) was observed at 940 bp and showed the homozygous presence of the Sw-5 allele (Sw-5/Sw-5) in PROINPA 2 (Aguai) and PROINPA 9 (Bonita) varieties. PROINPA 1 (Andinita), PROINPA 3 (Arami), PROINPA 4 (Yara), PROINPA 5 (Pintona), PROINPA 6 (Jasuka) and PROINPA 10 (Bola Pera) varieties, showed a TSWV resistance band (H) at 900-940 bp in the heterozygous state (Sw-5/Sw-5+). Only PROINPA 7 (Redonda), the male parent 71 LACHING 89S Sw-5 and the variety Shannon showed TSWV susceptibility gene (S) at 900 bp in the homozygous-recessive state (Sw-5+/Sw-5+). The results of the severity analysis and of DAS-ELISA were confirmed by the molecular analysis.

Julio, Gabriel; Daniel, Sanabria; Silene, Veramendi; Giovanna, Plata; Ada, Angulo; Mario, Crespo.

198

Spot the Block: Tween Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

How do you Spot the Block? It’s easy! Just look for the Nutrition Facts Label on food packages. Once you spot it, you’ll be able to ... at: www.fda.gov/spottheblock What is “The Block”? It’s the black-and-white Nutrition Facts Label ...

199

Dried-blood spots: a cost-effective field method for the detection of Chikungunya virus circulation in remote areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: In 2005, there were outbreaks of febrile polyarthritis due to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Comoros Islands. CHIKV then spread to other islands in the Indian Ocean: La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar. These outbreaks revealed the lack of surveillance and preparedness of Madagascar and other countries. Thus, it was decided in 2007 to establish a syndrome-based surveillance network to monitor dengue-like illness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the use of ca...

Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Heraud, Jean-michel; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Rafisandratantsoa, Jean The?ophile; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Richard, Vincent

2013-01-01

200

Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans. PMID:19357167

Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

P3N-PIPO of Clover yellow vein virus exacerbates symptoms in pea infected with white clover mosaic virus and is implicated in viral synergism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed infection of pea (Pisum sativum) with Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) and White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) led to more severe disease symptoms (a phenomenon called viral synergism). Similar to the mixed ClYVV/WClMV infection, a WClMV-based vector encoding P3N-PIPO of ClYVV exacerbated the disease symptoms. Infection with the WClMV vector encoding ClYVV HC-Pro (a suppressor of RNA silencing involved in potyviral synergisms), also resulted in more severe symptoms, although to a lesser extent than infection with the vector encoding P3N-PIPO. Viral genomic RNA accumulated soon after inoculation (at 2 and 4 days) at higher levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding HC-Pro but at lower levels in leaves inoculated with WClMV encoding P3N-PIPO than in peas infected with WClMV encoding GFP. Our results suggest that ClYVV P3N-PIPO is involved in the synergism between ClYVV and WClMV during pea infection through an unknown mechanism different from suppression of RNA silencing. PMID:24418553

Hisa, Yusuke; Suzuki, Haruka; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Nakahara, Kenji S; Uyeda, Ichiro

2014-01-20

202

Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genomic analysis of integration will be important in evaluating the safety of human gene therapy with retroviral vectors. Here, we investigated MLV vector integration sites in human T-cells, since they are amenable to gene transfer studies, and have been used therapeutically in clinical trials. We mapped 340 MLV vector integration sites in the infected human T-cell clones we established. The data showed that MLV preferred integration near the transcription start sites (±5 kb), near CpG islands (±1 kb), and within the first intron of RefSeq genes. We also identified MLV integration hot spots that contained three or more integrations within a 100 kb region. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA-levels of T-cell clones that contained MLV integrations near transcription start sites or introns were dysregulated compared to the uninfected cells. These studies help define the profile of MLV integration in T-cells and the risks associated with MLV-based gene therapy

203

Global analysis of population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics of genetic diversity, and evolutionary lineages of Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus is an economically important viral pathogen of Allium crops worldwide. A global analysis of known IYSV nucleocapsid gene (N gene) sequences was carried out to determine the comparative population structure, spatial and temporal dynamics with reference to its genetic diversity and evolution. A total of 98 complete N gene sequences (including 8 sequences reported in this study) available in GenBank and reported from 23 countries were characterized by in-silico RFLP analysis. Based on RFLP, 94% of the isolates could be grouped into NL or BR types while the rest belonged to neither group. The relative proportion of NL and BR types was 46% and 48%, respectively. A temporal shift in the IYSV genotypes with a greater incremental incidence of IYSVBR was found over IYSVNL before 2005 compared to after 2005. The virus population had at least one evolutionarily significant recombination event, involving IYSVBR and IYSVNL. Codon substitution studies did not identify any significant differences among the genotypes of IYSV. However, N gene codons were minimally positively selected, moderately negatively selected denoting the action of purifying selection, thus rejecting the theory of neutral mutation in IYSV population. However, one codon position (139) was found to be positively selected in all the genotypes. Population selection statistics in the IYSVBR, IYSVNL genotypes and in the population as a whole also revealed the action of purifying selection or population expansion, whereas IYSVother displayed a decrease in population size. Genetic differentiation studies showed inherent differentiation and infrequent gene flow between IYSVBR and IYSVNL genotypes corroborating the geographical confinement of these genotypes. Taken together the study suggests that the observed diversity in IYSV population and temporal shift in IYSVBR genotype is attributable to genetic recombination, abundance of purifying selection, insignificant positive selection and population expansion. Restricted gene flow between the two major IYSV genotypes further emphasizes the role of genetic drift in modeling the population architecture, evolutionary lineage and epidemiology of IYSV. PMID:24954534

Iftikhar, Romana; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Bag, Sudeep; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Pappu, Hanu R

2014-08-15

204

Dried blood spots collected on filter paper: an international resource for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Type-1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper provides a powerful approach for the development of large-scale, population-based screening programs. DBS methods are particularly valuable in developing countries and isolated rural regions where resources are limited. Large numbers of field [...] specimens can be economically collected and shipped to centralized reference laboratories for genetic and (or) serological analysis. Alternatively, the dried blood can be stored and used as an archival resource to rapidly establish the frequency and distribution of newly recognized mutations, confirm patient identity or track the origins and emergence of newly identified pathogens. In this report, we describe how PCR-based technologies are beginning to interface with international screening programmes for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In particular, we review recent progress using DBS specimens to resolve the HIV-1 infection status of neonates, monitor the genetic evolution of HIV-1 during early infancy and establish a sentinel surveillance system for the systematic monitoring of HIV-1 genetic variation in Asia.

Sharon A, Cassol; Stanley, Read; Bruce G, Weniger; Perry, Gomez; Normand, Lapointe; Ou, Chin-Yih; P George, Babu.

205

Strategies to facilitate the development of uncloned or cloned infectious full-length viral cDNAs: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus as a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Approaches to simplify and streamline the construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones (FL-cDNAs are needed. Among desirable improvements are the ability to use total nucleic acids (TNA extracts from infected hosts (to bypass viral purification limitations for the direct one-step amplification of large FL-cDNAs, the possibility to inoculate plants with uncloned FL-cDNAs and the simplified cloning of these large molecules. Results Using the 7.55 kb genome of Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus (ACLSV approaches allowing the rapid generation from TNA extracts of FL-cDNAs under the control of the T7 promoter and the successful inoculation of plants using in vitro transcripts obtained from these uncloned amplification products have been developed. We also show that the yeast homologous recombination system permits efficient cloning of FL-cDNAs and the simultaneous one-step tailoring of a ternary Yeast-Escherichia coli-Agrobacterium tumefaciens shuttle vector allowing efficient inoculation of both herbaceous and woody host plants by agroinfiltration. Conclusions The fast and efficient strategies described here should have broad applications, in particular for the study of "difficult" plant viruses, such as those infecting woody hosts, and potentially for other, non plant-infecting viral agents.

Marais Armelle

2011-10-01

206

Fordyce Spots  

Science.gov (United States)

... disease. Overview Fordyce spots are normal large, superficial sebaceous (oil-producing) glands seen on the moist tissue ... commonly, at the border of the lips. These sebaceous glands are not associated with hair follicles. These ...

207

Winter weeds as inoculum sources of tomato spotted wilt virus and as reservoirs for its vector, Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in farmscapes of Georgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a broad host range including crops and weeds. In Georgia, TSWV is known to consistently affect peanut, tomato, pepper, and tobacco production. These crops are grown from March through November. In the crop-free period, weeds are presumed to serve as a green bridge for thrips and TSWV. Previous studies have identified several winter weeds as TSWV and thrips hosts. However, their ability to influence TSWV transmission in crops is still not completely understood. To further understand these interactions, population dynamics of two prevalent vectors, viz., Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on selected winter weeds were monitored from October through April in four counties from 2004 to 2008. Peak populations were typically recorded in March. F. fusca and F. occidentalis adults were found on winter weeds and their percentages ranged from 0 to 68% in comparison with other adults. Immatures outnumbered all adults. Microcosm experiments indicated that the selected winter weeds differentially supported F. fusca reproduction and development. The time required to complete one generation (adult to adult) ranged from 11 to 16 d. Adult recovery ranged from 0.97 to 2.2 per female released. In addition, transmission assays revealed that thrips efficiently transmitted TSWV from peanut to weeds, the incidence of infection ranged from 10 to 55%. Back transmission assays with thrips from TSWV-infected weeds resulted in up to 75% TSWV infection in peanut. These whole-plant transmission and back transmission assays provide the basis for TSWV persistence in farmscapes year round. PMID:24612539

Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Shrestha, Anita; Culbreath, Albert

2014-04-01

208

Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot)  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Blue-gray spots (Mongolian spots) appear as gray to blue colored, flat, "bruise-like" areas of skin. Overview ...

209

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TS WV), weeds and thrip vectors in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the Andean region of Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), malezas y vectores de trips en el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) en la región andina de Cundinamarca (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presencia y distribución de TSWV, arvenses y los trips vectores en las principales zonas productoras de tomate en la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca (provincias de Oriente, Sumapaz y Ubaté), se confirmó mediante la técnica DAS ELISA , se evaluó la presencia del virus TSWV en tejido [...] de tomate, arvenses y trips asociados. Se observaron incidencias altas en diferentes provincias de la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca. La incidencia viral alcanzó promedios de 23,3% en el Sumapaz, el 19,4% en Oriente y el 4% en Ubaté. Los síntomas característicos observados correspondieron a manchas de color café y anillos concéntricos en el área foliar, tallos y frutos, bronceado, manchas en flor y marchitez en hojas, tallos y flores. Las especies de trips con mayor presencia fueron Frankliniella occidentalis, seguida de Thrips palmi y Thrips tabaci. Se determinó el importante papel de las arvenses como fuente de inóculo y reservorio de vectores en las especies Emilia sonchifolia y Amaranthus dubius Abstract in english The presence and distribution of the TSWV, weeds and thrip vectors in major tomato producing areas in the Andean department of Cundinamarca (Oriente, Sumapaz and Ubate provinces) were assessed with the DAS ELISA technique, evaluating the presence of the TSWV in tomato tissue, associated thrips and w [...] eeds. High incidences were observed in different provinces of the Andean department of Cundinamarca. The average viral incidence reached 23.3% in Sumapaz, 19.4% in Oriente and 4% in Ubate. The symptoms observed were: brown spots and concentric rings in the leaf area, stems and fruits; browning and spotting in the flower; and wilting in the leaves, stems and flowers. The thrip species with the highest presence were Frankliniella occidentalis, followed by Thrips palmi and Thrips tabaci. We determined the important role of weeds as inoculum sources and vector reservoirs for the species Emilia sonchifolia and Amaranthus dubius

Everth E, Ebratt R; Rocio, Acosta A; Olga Y, Martínez B; Omar, Guerrero G; Walther, Turizo A.

210

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TS WV), weeds and thrip vectors in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the Andean region of Cundinamarca (Colombia) / Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), malezas y vectores de trips en el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) en la región andina de Cundinamarca (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presencia y distribución de TSWV, arvenses y los trips vectores en las principales zonas productoras de tomate en la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca (provincias de Oriente, Sumapaz y Ubaté), se confirmó mediante la técnica DAS ELISA , se evaluó la presencia del virus TSWV en tejido [...] de tomate, arvenses y trips asociados. Se observaron incidencias altas en diferentes provincias de la región andina del departamento de Cundinamarca. La incidencia viral alcanzó promedios de 23,3% en el Sumapaz, el 19,4% en Oriente y el 4% en Ubaté. Los síntomas característicos observados correspondieron a manchas de color café y anillos concéntricos en el área foliar, tallos y frutos, bronceado, manchas en flor y marchitez en hojas, tallos y flores. Las especies de trips con mayor presencia fueron Frankliniella occidentalis, seguida de Thrips palmi y Thrips tabaci. Se determinó el importante papel de las arvenses como fuente de inóculo y reservorio de vectores en las especies Emilia sonchifolia y Amaranthus dubius Abstract in english The presence and distribution of the TSWV, weeds and thrip vectors in major tomato producing areas in the Andean department of Cundinamarca (Oriente, Sumapaz and Ubate provinces) were assessed with the DAS ELISA technique, evaluating the presence of the TSWV in tomato tissue, associated thrips and w [...] eeds. High incidences were observed in different provinces of the Andean department of Cundinamarca. The average viral incidence reached 23.3% in Sumapaz, 19.4% in Oriente and 4% in Ubate. The symptoms observed were: brown spots and concentric rings in the leaf area, stems and fruits; browning and spotting in the flower; and wilting in the leaves, stems and flowers. The thrip species with the highest presence were Frankliniella occidentalis, followed by Thrips palmi and Thrips tabaci. We determined the important role of weeds as inoculum sources and vector reservoirs for the species Emilia sonchifolia and Amaranthus dubius

Everth E, Ebratt R; Rocio, Acosta A; Olga Y, Martínez B; Omar, Guerrero G; Walther, Turizo A.

2013-04-01

211

Viruses  

... Freed Head, Virus-Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Building 535, ...edu Interests: hepatitis C virus; HCV antivirals, antivirals targeting IRES elements, viral-host interactions, analysis of Pol II RNAs * ...cds=107 Interests: geminiviruses; plant viruses; virus-plant interactions; resistance to plant viruses Dr. Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine,...shtml Interests: emphasis on electron microscopy; classification; evolution; environment and virus taxonomy Contribution: Special Issue: Bacteriophage Assembly Prof. Dr. Stefano ...

212

Virus infection on Brain White Matter: statistical analysis of DT MRI scans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain White Matter (BWM) is formed on nerve fibres (due to myelin coating) and it undergoes continuous changes with aging throughout the life of humans. This age-related morphology, however, also gets further modified when a subject is infected by a viral disease such as HIV. In the present study, textural variations in BWM specific to a set of control images vs. images of a HIV + subject are assayed via an algorithm based on the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM); and the associated Haralick features that are extracted from the GLCM. The clinical images of the brain used in the study are gathered from the noninvasive technique of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT MRI). Results observed in the images of normal (nonpathogenic) subjects show progressive changes in the image parameters with aging; whereas, a wider variation is observed in the relevant parameters of the images pertinent to pathogenic subjects who exhibit cognitive (or motor impairments) due to HIV infection. The findings of the proposed method are reasonably correlated with clinical diagnosis in two HIV+ cases. PMID:21816715

Kalpana, R; Muttan, S; Kumarasamy, N

2011-01-01

213

The two envelope membrane glycoproteins of Tomato spotted wilt virus show differences in lectin-binding properties and sensitivities to glycosidases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Genus: Tospovirus, Family: Bunyaviridae) is a major constraint to the production of several different crops of agronomic and horticultural importance worldwide. The amino acid sequence of the two envelope membrane glycoproteins, designated as GN (N-terminal) and GC (C-terminal), of TSWV contain several tripeptide sequences, Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, suggesting that the proteins are N-glycosylated. In this study, the lectin-binding properties of the viral glycoproteins and their sensitivities to glycosidases were examined to obtain information on the nature of potential oligosaccharide moieties present on GN and GC. The viral proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and probed by affinoblotting using a battery of biotinylated lectins with specificity to different oligosaccharide structures. GC showed strong binding with five mannose-binding lectins, four N-acetyllactosamine-binding lectins and one fucose-binding lectin. GN was resolved into two molecular masses and only the slow migrating form showed binding, albeit to a lesser extent than GC, with three of the five mannose-binding lectins. The N-acetyllactosamine- and fucose-specific lectins did not bind to either molecular mass form of GN. None of the galactose-, N-acetylgalactosamine-, or sialic acid-binding lectins tested showed binding specificity tectins tested showed binding specificity to GC or GN. Treatment of the denatured virions with endoglycosidase H and peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) resulted in a significant decrease in the binding of GC to high mannose- and N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectins. However, no such differences in lectin binding were apparent with GN. These results indicate the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides of high mannose- and complex-type on GC and possibly high mannose-type on GN. Differences in the extent of binding of the two envelope glycoproteins to different lectins suggest that GC is likely to be more heavily N-glycosylated than GN. No evidence was observed for the presence of O-linked oligosaccharides on GN or GC

214

Collaboration Spotting  

CERN Document Server

Collaboration Spotting is a software package under development at CERN in collaboration with EC-JRC that combines advanced mining and semantics techniques with interactive socio-metric diagrams (sociograms) to assist users in understanding the publication and patent landscapes at the technology forefront.

Agocs, A; Le Goff, J-M; Skogstad, E; Tanev, H; Van der Goot, E

2013-01-01

215

Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3?(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination.

Richard W. Moyer

2011-01-01

216

Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB. Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV.

Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

2008-02-01

217

A comparison of ectoparasite prevalence and occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus / Una comparación de la prevalencia de ectoparásitos y ocurrencia de virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en el merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se examinaron 784 individuos del merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus para su análisis virológico y parasitológico para establecer el efecto de la intensidad media de ectoparásitos sobre la ocurrencia del virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en peces del Mar Negro. El homogenizado de órganos in [...] ternos (riñón, bazo e hígado) fue inoculado con células BF-2. Las células que mostraron efecto citopático (CPE) fueron probadas con ELISA para determinar la especie de virus. Las intensidades y prevalencia promedio de los ectoparásitos (Trichodina spp. y Gyrodactylus alviga) fueron determinadas sobre las branquias de los mismos peces. Los peces infectados con VHSV presentaron intensidades similares de Trichodina spp. (10,0 ± 1,8) a aquellos libres de VHSV (7,2 ± 1,0). Las intensidades medias de Gyrodactylus alviga fueron similares en los peces infectados con VHSV (1,8 ± 0,1) que en aquellos no infectados (3,3 ± 0,2). Estos resultados indican que los ectoparásitos no son los únicos responsables de la ocurrencia observada de VHSV. Otros factores, como el estrés del desove, fluctuaciones imprevistas en los parámetros de la calidad del agua por sí solo, o aditivamente con los ectoparásitos, pueden ser responsables de la ocurrencia de VHSV en el merlán. Abstract in english Seven hundred and eighty-four whiting (Merlangius merlangus euxinus) were individually sampled for virological and parasitological examination to assess the effect of ectoparasite mean intensity on the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting in the Black Sea. The pooled h [...] omogenates of internal organs (kidney, spleen and liver) were inoculated onto BF_2 cells. The cells exhibiting cytopathic effect (CPE) were tested with ELISA to determine the virus species. The mean intensities and prevalence of ectoparasites (Trichodina spp. and Gyrodactylus alviga) were also determined on the gills of the same fish. The whiting infected with VHSV contained similar counts of Trichodina spp. (10.0 ± 1.8) than VHSV-free whiting (7.2 ± 1.0). The mean intensities of Gyrodactylus alviga were similar on the VHSV infected (1.8 ± 0.1) than uninfected fish (3.3 ± 0.2). The results indicate that ectoparasites were not alone responsible for the observed occurrence of VHSV. Other factors, such as spawning stress, sudden fluctuations in water quality parameters alone or additively to ectoparasites may be responsible for the occurrence of VHSV in whiting.

Hamdi, Ogut; Nejmettin, Cavus.

218

A comparison of ectoparasite prevalence and occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus / Una comparación de la prevalencia de ectoparásitos y ocurrencia de virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en el merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se examinaron 784 individuos del merlán Merlangius merlangus euxinus para su análisis virológico y parasitológico para establecer el efecto de la intensidad media de ectoparásitos sobre la ocurrencia del virus septicémico hemorrágico viral (VHSV) en peces del Mar Negro. El homogenizado de órganos in [...] ternos (riñón, bazo e hígado) fue inoculado con células BF-2. Las células que mostraron efecto citopático (CPE) fueron probadas con ELISA para determinar la especie de virus. Las intensidades y prevalencia promedio de los ectoparásitos (Trichodina spp. y Gyrodactylus alviga) fueron determinadas sobre las branquias de los mismos peces. Los peces infectados con VHSV presentaron intensidades similares de Trichodina spp. (10,0 ± 1,8) a aquellos libres de VHSV (7,2 ± 1,0). Las intensidades medias de Gyrodactylus alviga fueron similares en los peces infectados con VHSV (1,8 ± 0,1) que en aquellos no infectados (3,3 ± 0,2). Estos resultados indican que los ectoparásitos no son los únicos responsables de la ocurrencia observada de VHSV. Otros factores, como el estrés del desove, fluctuaciones imprevistas en los parámetros de la calidad del agua por sí solo, o aditivamente con los ectoparásitos, pueden ser responsables de la ocurrencia de VHSV en el merlán. Abstract in english Seven hundred and eighty-four whiting (Merlangius merlangus euxinus) were individually sampled for virological and parasitological examination to assess the effect of ectoparasite mean intensity on the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in whiting in the Black Sea. The pooled h [...] omogenates of internal organs (kidney, spleen and liver) were inoculated onto BF_2 cells. The cells exhibiting cytopathic effect (CPE) were tested with ELISA to determine the virus species. The mean intensities and prevalence of ectoparasites (Trichodina spp. and Gyrodactylus alviga) were also determined on the gills of the same fish. The whiting infected with VHSV contained similar counts of Trichodina spp. (10.0 ± 1.8) than VHSV-free whiting (7.2 ± 1.0). The mean intensities of Gyrodactylus alviga were similar on the VHSV infected (1.8 ± 0.1) than uninfected fish (3.3 ± 0.2). The results indicate that ectoparasites were not alone responsible for the observed occurrence of VHSV. Other factors, such as spawning stress, sudden fluctuations in water quality parameters alone or additively to ectoparasites may be responsible for the occurrence of VHSV in whiting.

Hamdi, Ogut; Nejmettin, Cavus.

2014-04-01

219

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-02-12

220

Analysis of the populations genetic variability of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), virus vector of the rice white leaf  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a monophagous insect of the rice and virus vector of the white leaf (RHBV). It is distributed in America Central, El Caribe, part of the America del Sur and in Costa Rica it is in all the producing zones of rice. The genetic variability was analyzed by means of RAPD-PCR of individuals from three populations of Costa Rica: Parrita, Guanacaste (Liberia) y San Carlos (Santa Clara), that they are found separated geographically. The technique consisted of amplifying regions at random of the genome of these insects utilizing five primers. A total of 72 polymorphic bands were obtained, that upon being analyzed statistically by means of the multivariate analysis program of numerical taxonomy could show a clear genetic distancing among said populations. The genetic distance observed in the molecular analysis can be explained for the climatic and/or geographical isolation of the populations or by the incident of Wolbachia, riquettsia that induces cytoplasmic sterility in insects. These symbionts are transmitted of generation in generation, of the mother to their offspring and they cause reproductive alterations as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. The presence of Wolbachia was determined by means of transmission electronic microscopy being observed in the greasy and muscular weave of the abdomen of T. orizicolus. Rickettsias present pleomorphic morphology and form small groups, that are characterized form small groups, that are characterized for the presence of electrondense material semidetached to the cell wall with an interior electronlucent. Its size in transverse cuts ranged between 520 nm of length X 470 nm of width. In addition, its presence was detected by means of the amplification by PCR of the genomic DNA of the insects; a specific primer for the DNA ribosomal 16S of Wolbachia was utilized for it. A 86% of insects of the San Carlos population were positive, a 96% was determined for Guanacaste, a 37% for Parrita and a 100% for Colombia. Individual insects originating from populations of T. orizicolus of the zones of Parrita and Guanacaste, maintained in greenhouse, they were crossed among them in the greenhouse. Of the crossing infected males with uninfected females progeny was not obtained, what it seems to indicate that is cytoplasmic incompatibility unidirectional. Also, a reduction or a drastic absence of offspring was observed in those crossings where both insects were infected, what could be explained by the incidence of more than a race of the bacterium (bidirectional mutual incompatibility). This last phenomenon could be a head in part of the genetic isolation observed among populations of T. orizicolus originating from different localities. (author)

 
 
 
 
221

Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus / Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum) cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas [...] cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido por ácaros Brevipalpus (VTB). Brevipalpus phoenicis coletados de C. x speciosum sintomático e transferidos para plantas sadias de C. x speciosum reproduziram as lesões. O ácaro também transmitiu o patógeno para C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi e Tetragonia expansa, as quais exibiram manchas cloróticas e/ou necróticas. O vírus também foi transmitido mecanicamente para Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus e T. expansa, além de C. x speciosum. Plantas de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa mantidas a 28 - 30ºC desenvolveram infecção sistêmica. Em todos os tecidos sintomáticos das plantas-teste inoculadas, examinados ao microscópio eletrônico, foram encontrados efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear causado por VTB. O vírus foi purificado a partir de folhas com infecção sistêmica de C. amaranticolor e C. quinoa. Injeções de preparações purificadas em coelho geraram um anti-soro policlonal que reagiu especificamente com o antígeno homólogo em teste de ELISA. As evidências obtidas indicam que as manchas cloróticas do Clerodendrum estão associadas a um VTB do tipo nuclear, tentativamente denominado de vírus da mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus- ClCSV). Abstract in english Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted vir [...] uses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV).

Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima; Karen Sumire, Kubo; Paulo de Tarso Oliveira, Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de, Alcântara; Alessandra Jesus, Boari; Renata Takassugi, Gomes; Juliana, Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Gilberto José de, Morais; Renato Barbosa, Salaroli.

2008-02-01

222

Barreras de maíz en una estrategia de manejo integral para controlar epidemias del virus mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) / Corn barriers in an integrated management strategy to control epidemics of papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las epidemias ocasionadas por el virus de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) se han logrado retrasar mediante un sistema de manejo integral (MIP), aunque no se ha medido la efectividad individual de algunos componentes. Para ello se evaluó el establecimiento de barreras de maíz [...] (Zea mays L.) en el control del PRSV-P en Veracruz, México. El MIP incluyó la protección del vivero con malla de polipropileno, 2743 plantas ha-1, la erradicación de plantas enfermas, la fertilización mineral y el control de arvenses. Los tratamientos fueron: manejo integral con barreras de maíz (MIP), manejo integral sin barreras (MIZ) y manejo regional (MR, 1600 plantas ha-1, con insecticidas, sin barreras ni eliminación de plantas enfermas). El modelo logístico explicó adecuadamente la incidencia en MIP, MIZ y MIR, y la severidad en MIZ (R²=0.92 a 0.97); el exponencial y Gompertz explicaron la severidad (R²=0.92 y 0.98) en el MIP y MR. La mayor tasa epidémica se observó en el MR (0.054), mientras que el MIP la redujo en 42 % (0.031). Las barreras indujeron menor incidencia y severidad promedio (Yp-MIP= 18.4 y 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ= 23.4 y 11.7 %) y fnal (Yf-MIP= 81.0 y 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ= 94.11 y 43.0 %). La severidad máxima a 238 d después del trasplante (ddt) se observó en MR (69.0 %) y la menor en MIP (35.7 %). La ausencia de barreras incrementó las epidemias; en MR la máxima incidencia (100 %) y severidad (60 %) ocurrió 175 ddt, mientras que en MIP 238 ddt (incidencia 80 %, severidad 35 %). Las barreras mejoraron la sanidad del MIP en 14.0 % (Yf-MIP = 81.0 % Abstract in english Te epidemics caused by papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) have been delayed by an integral management system (MIP), although the individual efectiveness of some components has not been measured. Te establishment of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers was evaluated in the control of PRSV-P in [...] Veracruz, Mexico. Te MIP included the protection of the nursery with polypropylene mesh, 2743 plants ha-1, eradication of diseased plants, mineral fertilization and weed control. Treatments were: integral management with corn barriers (MIP), integral management without barriers (MIZ) and regional management (MR, 1600 plants ha-1, using insecticides, without barriers and elimination of diseased plants). Te logistic model adequately explained the incidence in MIP, MIZ and MR, and severity (R²=0.92 to 0.97) in MIZ; the exponential and Gompertz models explained severity (R²= 0.92 and 0.98) in MIP and MR. Te highest epidemic rate was observed in MR (0.054), while MIP reduced it by 42 % (0.031). Barriers induced lower incidence and mean severity (Yp -MIP = 18.4 and 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ = 23.4 and 11.7 %) and final (Yf-MIP = 81.0 and 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ = 94.11 and 43.0 %). Maximum severity at 238 d after transplant (dat) was observed in MR (69.0 %) and the lowest in MIP (35.7 %). Te absence of barriers increased the epidemics; in MR the maximum incidence (100 %) and severity (60 %) occurred 175 dat, while in MIP, 238 dat (incidence 80 %, severity 35 %). Barriers improved papaya health under MIP by 14 % (Yf-MIP =81.0 %

Elías, Hernández-Castro; J. Antonio, Villanueva-Jiménez; J. Antonio, Mora-Aguilera; Cristian, Nava-Díaz.

2010-05-01

223

Barreras de maíz en una estrategia de manejo integral para controlar epidemias del virus mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) / Corn barriers in an integrated management strategy to control epidemics of papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las epidemias ocasionadas por el virus de la mancha anular del papayo (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) se han logrado retrasar mediante un sistema de manejo integral (MIP), aunque no se ha medido la efectividad individual de algunos componentes. Para ello se evaluó el establecimiento de barreras de maíz [...] (Zea mays L.) en el control del PRSV-P en Veracruz, México. El MIP incluyó la protección del vivero con malla de polipropileno, 2743 plantas ha-1, la erradicación de plantas enfermas, la fertilización mineral y el control de arvenses. Los tratamientos fueron: manejo integral con barreras de maíz (MIP), manejo integral sin barreras (MIZ) y manejo regional (MR, 1600 plantas ha-1, con insecticidas, sin barreras ni eliminación de plantas enfermas). El modelo logístico explicó adecuadamente la incidencia en MIP, MIZ y MIR, y la severidad en MIZ (R²=0.92 a 0.97); el exponencial y Gompertz explicaron la severidad (R²=0.92 y 0.98) en el MIP y MR. La mayor tasa epidémica se observó en el MR (0.054), mientras que el MIP la redujo en 42 % (0.031). Las barreras indujeron menor incidencia y severidad promedio (Yp-MIP= 18.4 y 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ= 23.4 y 11.7 %) y fnal (Yf-MIP= 81.0 y 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ= 94.11 y 43.0 %). La severidad máxima a 238 d después del trasplante (ddt) se observó en MR (69.0 %) y la menor en MIP (35.7 %). La ausencia de barreras incrementó las epidemias; en MR la máxima incidencia (100 %) y severidad (60 %) ocurrió 175 ddt, mientras que en MIP 238 ddt (incidencia 80 %, severidad 35 %). Las barreras mejoraron la sanidad del MIP en 14.0 % (Yf-MIP = 81.0 % Abstract in english Te epidemics caused by papaya ring spot virus (PRSV-P) (Carica papaya L.) have been delayed by an integral management system (MIP), although the individual efectiveness of some components has not been measured. Te establishment of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers was evaluated in the control of PRSV-P in [...] Veracruz, Mexico. Te MIP included the protection of the nursery with polypropylene mesh, 2743 plants ha-1, eradication of diseased plants, mineral fertilization and weed control. Treatments were: integral management with corn barriers (MIP), integral management without barriers (MIZ) and regional management (MR, 1600 plants ha-1, using insecticides, without barriers and elimination of diseased plants). Te logistic model adequately explained the incidence in MIP, MIZ and MR, and severity (R²=0.92 to 0.97) in MIZ; the exponential and Gompertz models explained severity (R²= 0.92 and 0.98) in MIP and MR. Te highest epidemic rate was observed in MR (0.054), while MIP reduced it by 42 % (0.031). Barriers induced lower incidence and mean severity (Yp -MIP = 18.4 and 7.1 %; Yp-MIZ = 23.4 and 11.7 %) and final (Yf-MIP = 81.0 and 35.7 %; Yf-MIZ = 94.11 and 43.0 %). Maximum severity at 238 d after transplant (dat) was observed in MR (69.0 %) and the lowest in MIP (35.7 %). Te absence of barriers increased the epidemics; in MR the maximum incidence (100 %) and severity (60 %) occurred 175 dat, while in MIP, 238 dat (incidence 80 %, severity 35 %). Barriers improved papaya health under MIP by 14 % (Yf-MIP =81.0 %

Elías, Hernández-Castro; J. Antonio, Villanueva-Jiménez; J. Antonio, Mora-Aguilera; Cristian, Nava-Díaz.

224

Activating Transcription Factor 4 and X Box Binding Protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptional Regulated White Spot Syndrome Virus Genes Wsv023 and Wsv083  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4) which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase, (PERK)]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2?)] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with ...

Li, Xiao-yun; Pang, Li-ran; Chen, Yong-gui; Weng, Shao-ping; Yue, Hai-tao; Zhang, Ze-zhi; Chen, Yi-hong; He, Jian-guo

2013-01-01

225

Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (Phaematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture. PMID:16698283

Citarasu, Thavasimuthu; Sivaram, Veeramani; Immanuel, Grasian; Rout, Namita; Murugan, Vadivel

2006-10-01

226

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... very specific to the material they intend to attack, whether it is a virus, bacteria, or any ... virus, antibodies cause other white blood cells to attack the virus and destroy it. When a person ...

227

The Tomato spotted wilt virus cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM ) triggers a hypersensitive response in Sw-5-containing resistant tomato lines and in Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with the functional Sw-5b resistance gene copy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Sw-5 gene cluster has been cloned, and Sw-5b has been identified as the functional gene copy that confers resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its avirulence (Avr) determinant has not been identified to date. Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1' plants transformed with a copy of the Sw-5b gene are immune without producing a clear visual response on challenge with TSWV, whereas it is shown here that N.?benthamiana transformed with Sw-5b gives a rapid and conspicuous hypersensitive response (HR). Using these plants, from all structural and non-structural TSWV proteins tested, the TSWV cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM ) was confirmed as the Avr determinant using a Potato virus X (PVX) replicon or a non-replicative pEAQ-HT expression vector system. HR was induced in Sw-5b-transgenic N.?benthamiana as well as in resistant near-isogenic tomato lines after agroinfiltration with a functional cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM ) from a resistance-inducing (RI) TSWV strain (BR-01), but not with NSM from a Sw-5 resistance-breaking (RB) strain (GRAU). This is the first biological demonstration that Sw-5-mediated resistance is triggered by the TSWV NSM cell-to-cell movement protein. PMID:24720811

Hallwass, Mariana; de Oliveira, Athos Silva; de Campos Dianese, Erico; Lohuis, Dick; Boiteux, Leonardo Silva; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko; Resende, Renato O; Kormelink, Richard

2014-12-01

228

Origin of delta spots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with H-alpha filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot borne piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. The findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots and spots of normal magnetic configuration.

Tang, F.

1983-11-01

229

Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Entre cêrca de 200 variedades de feijoeiro ensaiadas, a Manteiga foi mais sensitiva aos vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca, formando, nas fôlhas primárias, lesões locais adequadas para contagens. Com o vírus de vira-cabeça as lesões locais apareceram de 3 -6 dias após as inoculações, sob a forma de manchas cloróticas, às vezes com anéis necróticos; com o vírus da necrose branca as lesões se manifestaram em 1 - 4 dias, sob a forma de pontuações necróticas, pequenos anéis necróticos ou, em casos de certas estirpes do vírus, como pintas cloróticas. Feijoeiros com as fôlhas primárias tendo 2/3 de sua expansão ou mais desenvolvidas deram melhores resultados para o vírus de vira-cabeça; para o vírus da necrose branca os melhores resultados foram obtidos com fôlhas que tinham 2/3 ou ligeiramente menos de sua expansão total. O vírus de vira-cabeça não se tornou sistêmico em plantas inoculadas mecanicamente. A maioria das estirpes do vírus da necrose branca também não se tornou sistêmica em feijoeiros inoculados mecanicamente. Uma estirpe amarela deste tem a capacidade de se tornar sistêmica em feijoeiros sob determinadas condições. O sulfito de sódio em solução 0,0125 M, usado na extração do inóculo, aumentou ligeiramente o número de lesões formadas nas fôlhas do feijoeiro Manteiga pelo vírus de vira-cabeça; aumento consideravelmente maior foi obtido com a extração em presença de búfer de fosfato 0,1 M com pH 7, sendo êsse efeito atribuído a um aumento da sensitividade da planta-teste. A mistura de ambos causou aumento igual ou ligeiramente menor que o búfer só. Para o vírus da necrose branca a presença de sulfito de sódio 0,0125 M durante a extração aumentou consideravelmente o número de lesões, sendo esse efeito atribuído à diminuição na perda de atividade do vírus, devida à oxidação; o búfer sozinho ocasionou pequeno aumento em comparação com a testemunha, mas a mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both viruses. Bean plants kept for 48 hours under reduced light gave a higher number of lesions th

A. S. Costa

1957-01-01

230

Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and died due to infection. The mortality of affected species associated with a causative agent was confirmed in most species, except the mud crab and freshwater prawn (Marcrobrachium rosenbergii. However, viral particles can be still detected in surviving animals 10 days after infection. The results of this study will be a helpful tool employed in establishing measures on disease control and reduction of risk with the importation of white shrimp broodstock.

Supamattaya, K.

2005-02-01

231

Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo / A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Entre cêrca de 200 variedades de feijoeiro ensaiadas, a Manteiga foi mais sensitiva aos vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca, formando, nas fôlhas primárias, lesões locais adequadas para contagens. Com o vírus de vira-cabeça as lesões locais apareceram de 3 -6 dias após as inoculações, sob a for [...] ma de manchas cloróticas, às vezes com anéis necróticos; com o vírus da necrose branca as lesões se manifestaram em 1 - 4 dias, sob a forma de pontuações necróticas, pequenos anéis necróticos ou, em casos de certas estirpes do vírus, como pintas cloróticas. Feijoeiros com as fôlhas primárias tendo 2/3 de sua expansão ou mais desenvolvidas deram melhores resultados para o vírus de vira-cabeça; para o vírus da necrose branca os melhores resultados foram obtidos com fôlhas que tinham 2/3 ou ligeiramente menos de sua expansão total. O vírus de vira-cabeça não se tornou sistêmico em plantas inoculadas mecanicamente. A maioria das estirpes do vírus da necrose branca também não se tornou sistêmica em feijoeiros inoculados mecanicamente. Uma estirpe amarela deste tem a capacidade de se tornar sistêmica em feijoeiros sob determinadas condições. O sulfito de sódio em solução 0,0125 M, usado na extração do inóculo, aumentou ligeiramente o número de lesões formadas nas fôlhas do feijoeiro Manteiga pelo vírus de vira-cabeça; aumento consideravelmente maior foi obtido com a extração em presença de búfer de fosfato 0,1 M com pH 7, sendo êsse efeito atribuído a um aumento da sensitividade da planta-teste. A mistura de ambos causou aumento igual ou ligeiramente menor que o búfer só. Para o vírus da necrose branca a presença de sulfito de sódio 0,0125 M durante a extração aumentou consideravelmente o número de lesões, sendo esse efeito atribuído à diminuição na perda de atividade do vírus, devida à oxidação; o búfer sozinho ocasionou pequeno aumento em comparação com a testemunha, mas a mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento. Abstract in english Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW) and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS) viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or [...] rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for bo

A. S., Costa.

232

A multiplex nested PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus and a phytoplasma in white jute (Corchorus capsularis L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiplex nested PCR assay was developed by optimizing reaction components and reaction cycling parameters for simultaneous detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV) and a phytoplasma (Group 16Sr V-C) causing little leaf and bunchy top in white jute (Corchorus capsularis). Three sets of specific primers viz. a CoGMV specific (DNA-A region) primer, a 16S rDNA universal primer pair P1/P7 and nested primer pair R16F2n/R2 for phytoplasmas were used. The concentrations of the PCR components such as primers, MgCl2 , Taq DNA polymerase, dNTPs and PCR conditions including annealing temperature and amplification cycles were examined and optimized. Expected fragments of 1 kb (CoGMV), 674 bp (phytoplasma) and 370 bp (nested R16F2n/R2) were successfully amplified by this multiplex nested PCR system ensuring simultaneous, sensitive and specific detection of the phytoplasma and the virus. The multiplex nested PCR provides a sensitive, rapid and low-cost method for simultaneous detection of jute little leaf phytoplasma and CoGMV. Based on BLASTn analyses, the phytoplasma was found to belong to the Group 16Sr V-C. PMID:23413927

Biswas, C; Dey, P; Satpathy, S

2013-05-01

233

Origin of delta spots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with H..cap alpha.. filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration.

Tang, F. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Big Bear Solar Observatory)

1983-11-01

234

Gastro-intestinal handling of water and solutes in three species of elasmobranch fish, the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate Raja eglanteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports aspects of GI tract physiology in the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate, Raja eglanteria. Plasma and stomach fluid osmolality and solute values were comparable between species, and stomach pH was low in all species (2.2 to 3.4) suggesting these elasmobranchs may maintain a consistently low stomach pH. Intestinal osmolality, pH and ion values were comparable between species, however, some differences in ion values were observed. In particular Ca(2+) (19.67+/-3.65mM) and Mg(2+) (43.99+/-5.11mM) were high in L. erinacea and Mg(2+) was high (130.0+/-39.8mM) in C. palgiosum which may be an indication of drinking. Furthermore, intestinal fluid HCO(3)(-) values were low (8.19+/-2.42 and 8.63+/-1.48mM) in both skates but very high in C. plagiosum (73.3+/-16.3mM) suggesting ingested seawater may be processed by species-specific mechanisms. Urea values from the intestine to the colon dropped precipitously in all species, with the greatest decrease seen in C. plagiosum (426.0+/-8.1 to 0mM). This led to the examination of the molecular expression of both a urea transporter and a Rhesus like ammonia transporter in the intestine, rectal gland and kidney in L. erinacea. Both these transporters were expressed in all tissues; however, expression levels of the Rhesus like ammonia transporter were orders of magnitude higher than the urea transporter in the same tissue. Intestinal flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were, for the most part, in an inward direction with the notable exception of urea. Colon flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were all in an outward direction, although absolute rates were considerably lower than the intestine, suggestive of a much tighter epithelia. Results are discussed in the context of the potential role of the GI tract in salt and water, and nitrogen, homeostasis in elasmobranchs. PMID:19782760

Anderson, W Gary; Dasiewicz, Patricia J; Liban, Suadi; Ryan, Calen; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Weihrauch, Dirk

2010-04-01

235

Impact of West Nile virus and other mortality factors on American white pelicans at breeding colonies in the northern plains of North America  

Science.gov (United States)

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial-nesting birds and their breeding sites are concentrated in a few small areas, making this species especially vulnerable to factors that can influence productivity, such as disease, disturbance, predation, weather events and loss of nesting habitat. Nearly half of the American white pelican population breeds at four colonies in the northern plains: Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in North Dakota, Bitter Lake (Waubay NWR) in South Dakota, Medicine Lake NWR in Montana, and Marsh Lake in Minnesota. Thus, sustained productivity at these colonies is crucial to the health of the entire species. During the latter half of the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons, unusually high mortality of pelican chicks was observed at these colonies. West Nile virus (WNv) was identified as one source of these losses. In 2004-2007 we monitored three major colonies in the northern plains to assess mortality of chicks during the late breeding season. We documented severe weather events, disturbance, and WNv as factors contributing to chick mortality. Before WNv arrived in the region in 2002, chick mortality after mid-July was ???4%, and then jumped to as high as 44% in the years since WNv arrived. WNv kills older chicks that are no longer vulnerable to other common mortality factors (e.g., severe weather, gull predation) and typically would have survived to fledge; thus WNv appears to be an additive mortality factor. Persistence of lower productivity at American white pelican colonies in the northern plains might reduce the adult breeding population of this species in the region.

Sovada, M. A.; Pietz, P. J.; Converse, K. A.; Tommy, King, D.; Hofmeister, E. K.; Scherr, P.; Ip, H. S.

2008-01-01

236

[Simulation of the disease caused by Hantaan virus in white mice by a complex of virological, biochemical, and hematological parameters].  

Science.gov (United States)

The essence of studies was that the disease is simulated in 12-day albino mice subcutaneously infected with Hantaan virus, strain 76-118 in a dose of 10 LD50. As an efficiency index, the study of drugs uses major (death protection coefficient, mean animal lifetime) and auxiliary (virological: pathogen accumulation in the brain tissues of deceased animals) parameters, biochemical (the levels of creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malonic dialdehyde), hematological (count of leukocytes, leukogram) ones; as well as interferon status (the levels of circulatory interferon, leukocytic production of alpha- and gamma-interferons). The procedure for simulating the disease caused by Hantaan virus on an experimental animal is used to choose effective drugs against the pathogen of hemorrhagic nephrosonephritis. PMID:19069793

Koval'chuk, A V; Loginova, S Ia; Borisevich, S V; Kopylova, N K; Pashchenko, Iu I; Khamitov, R A; Maksimov, V A

2008-01-01

237

Detection of yellowhead virus and Chinese baculovirus in penaeid shrimp by the Western blot technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The continuing threat posed by viral diseases in cultured shrimp calls for the development of detection technologies for monitoring the animals, especially broodstock. Two of the most highly pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp are the yellow-head virus (YHV) and Chinese baculovirus (CBV, also called white spot baculovirus). A Western blot (WB) protocol capable of detecting YHV and CBV in the hemolymph of infected shrimp was developed. The use of the hemolymph as material for virus detection allowed for sample collection without sacrificing the animals. This protocol was highly specific, rapid, and sensitive enough to detect the presence of the viruses before the appearance of overt symptoms. It was also useful for demonstrating the growth of both viruses in primary shrimp lymphoid cell cultures. PMID:9504749

Nadala, E C; Tapay, L M; Cao, S; Loh, P C

1997-12-01

238

Characterization of the yeast form symbiant of Togosodes orizicolus (Hemiptera: delphacidae), vector of the rice white leaf virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the yeast forms symbionts of Togo soles Orizicolus (YLSTo), through its morphologic description and locating in situ through microscopy of light, electronic microscopy of transmission and of sweeping and immuno microscopy. Likewise, molecular tests were carried out to classify phylogenetically the symbionts, utilizing partial sequences of the ribosomal DNA 18S. This study will permit to determine, the existence or not of interactions among the YLSTo and the insect vector, in the future. The paper of that interaction in the mechanism of trans ovarial transmission of the virus and the search of alternatives for the control of the disease in the rice. (S. Grainger)

239

Mongolian blue spots  

Science.gov (United States)

Mongolian spots are flat, blue, or blue-gray skin markings near the buttocks that appear at birth or shortly thereafter. ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, East Indian, and African descent.

240

Role of Oxalis corniculata L. as plant virus reservoir with special regard to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV-RB) strain occurrence in rock-wool cultivation in Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The creeping wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata L.) in Central Europe occurs mainly in anthropogenic areas, where it grows in parks and landfill sites or in protected cultivation sites like greenhouses and nurseries. In Hungary O. corniculata has been spreading since the 19th century. In glass- and greenhouses it is the only weed species that was able to settle and flourish on hydroponic rock-wool and coconut fibre growing media. Among virus pathogens of forced tomato (LYPES) and paprika crops (...

Hodi, Anna Maria; Bese, Gabor; Hodi, Laszlo; Palkovics, Laszlo

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/?g of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/?g in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/?g in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/?g in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

2011-11-01

242

Combining rapid diagnostic tests and dried blood spot assays for point-of-care testing of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections in Burkina Faso, West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

People screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in Africa remain generally unaware of their status for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections. We evaluated a two-step screening strategy in Burkina Faso, using both HIV RDTs and Dried Blood Spot (DBS) assays to confirm an HIV-positive test, and to test for HBV and HCV infections. HIV counselling and point-of-care testing were performed at a voluntary counselling and testing centre with HBV, HCV status and HIV confirmation using DBS specimens, being assessed at a central laboratory. Serological testing on plasma was used as the reference standard assay to control for the performance of DBS assays. Nineteen out of 218 participants included in the study were positive for HIV using RDTs. A fourth-generation HIV ELISA and immunoblot assays on DBS confirmed HIV status. Twenty-four out of 25 participants infected with HBV were found positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using DBS. One sample with a low HBsAg concentration on plasma was not detected on DBS. Five participants tested positive for HCV antibodies were confirmed positive with an immunoblot assay using DBS specimens. Laboratory results were communicated within 7 days to participants with no loss to follow up of participants between the first and second post-test counselling sessions. In conclusion, DBS collection during HIV point-of-care testing enables screening and confirmation of HBV, HCV and HIV infections. Diagnosis using DBS may assist with implementation of national programmes for HBV, HCV and HIV screening and clinical care in middle- to low-income countries. PMID:23902574

Kania, D; Bekalé, A M; Nagot, N; Mondain, A-M; Ottomani, L; Meda, N; Traoré, M; Ouédraogo, J B; Ducos, J; Van de Perre, P; Tuaillon, E

2013-12-01

243

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and tries to prevent future ones. Virus Cell Antibodies are special chemicals the body uses to defend ... material in the body. White blood cells make antibodies. White blood cells are a type of blood ...

244

Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini  

CERN Document Server

We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact...

Choi, David S; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Simon-Miller, Amy A

2013-01-01

245

Processo de infecção e formação de mancha em grãos de aveia branca com níveis diferenciados de resistência para Pyrenophora chaetomioides Infection process and spot development on kernels of white oats with differentiated levels of resistance against Pyrenophora chaetomioides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mancha-negra dos grãos de aveia branca, cujo principal agente causal é Pyrenophora chaetomioides, é caracterizada pelo escurecimento de seus tecidos superficiais e pode ocasionar redução na qualidade e valor dos mesmos para a indústria alimentícia. Para melhor entender o processo de infecção e formação de manchas os objetivos deste trabalho foram i Determinar o período de maior suscetibilidade dos grãos à formação de manchas por P. chaetomioides nos componentes florais da aveia; ii determinar os diferentes níveis de resistência dos genótipos de aveia OR 2, ER 20877-2, UFRGS 995004-2, UPF 95204-2, UFRGS 16, UFRGS 9912002-2, UFRGS 999007-5, UFRGS 998013-3, UPF 16, UFRGS 999022-1, UFRGS 995058-3, UFRGS 15, UFRGS 17, UFRGS 19 e UFRGS 997005-2 à mancha-negra e sua correlação quanto à infecção dos grãos; iii avaliar o efeito do controle químico na expressão da doença durante a fase de formação de grãos. Em laboratório, avaliou-se o percentual de grãos manchados e a incidência de P. chaetomioides nos componentes florais, enquanto que, a campo, avaliaram-se o rendimento e peso do hectolitro dos grãos. Nos estádios de grão leitoso e massa é quando ocorre a maior incidência de P. chaetomioides nos componentes florais. Os genótipos diferiram com relação ao sintoma da mancha-negra e incidência, mas não houve correlação entre estas duas variáveis. O controle químico na floração reduziu apenas 21% da incidência do fungo nas sementes, em relação à testemunha. Apesar disso, não foi suficiente para reduzir a formação das manchas e nem aumentar o rendimento que compensasse o seu custo.The black spots of oat (Avena sativa grains, caused mainly by Pyrenophora chaetomioides, is characterized by the darkening of their superficial tissues, with reduction in their quality and value for the industry. In order to understand the infection process and formation of kernel spots the objectives of this work were i to determine the period of kernel's susceptibility during their spot formation by P. chaetomioides on the floral components; ii to determine the different levels of resistance of 15 oat genotypes to black spot and its correlation with kernel infection; iii to assess the effect of chemical control on the expression of the disease during the period of kernel formation. In the laboratory, the percentage of spotted grains and the incidence of P. chaetomioides in the floral components was evaluated, whereas in the field, yield and industrial weight were measured. Milk and dough stages had the largest incidences of P. chaetomioides in the floral components. The genotypes differed with regard to the black spot symptom on the kernel as well as with the incidence, but no correlation between these two variables was observed. Chemical control during the flowering stage reduced in 21% the incidence of the fungus in the seed in relation to the control. Despite of this, chemical control was neither efficient enough to reduce spot formation nor to increase yield to compensate its cost.

Carla A. C. Bocchese

2006-06-01

246

Processo de infecção e formação de mancha em grãos de aveia branca com níveis diferenciados de resistência para Pyrenophora chaetomioides / Infection process and spot development on kernels of white oats with differentiated levels of resistance against Pyrenophora chaetomioides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mancha-negra dos grãos de aveia branca, cujo principal agente causal é Pyrenophora chaetomioides, é caracterizada pelo escurecimento de seus tecidos superficiais e pode ocasionar redução na qualidade e valor dos mesmos para a indústria alimentícia. Para melhor entender o processo de infecção e for [...] mação de manchas os objetivos deste trabalho foram i) Determinar o período de maior suscetibilidade dos grãos à formação de manchas por P. chaetomioides nos componentes florais da aveia; ii) determinar os diferentes níveis de resistência dos genótipos de aveia OR 2, ER 20877-2, UFRGS 995004-2, UPF 95204-2, UFRGS 16, UFRGS 9912002-2, UFRGS 999007-5, UFRGS 998013-3, UPF 16, UFRGS 999022-1, UFRGS 995058-3, UFRGS 15, UFRGS 17, UFRGS 19 e UFRGS 997005-2 à mancha-negra e sua correlação quanto à infecção dos grãos; iii) avaliar o efeito do controle químico na expressão da doença durante a fase de formação de grãos. Em laboratório, avaliou-se o percentual de grãos manchados e a incidência de P. chaetomioides nos componentes florais, enquanto que, a campo, avaliaram-se o rendimento e peso do hectolitro dos grãos. Nos estádios de grão leitoso e massa é quando ocorre a maior incidência de P. chaetomioides nos componentes florais. Os genótipos diferiram com relação ao sintoma da mancha-negra e incidência, mas não houve correlação entre estas duas variáveis. O controle químico na floração reduziu apenas 21% da incidência do fungo nas sementes, em relação à testemunha. Apesar disso, não foi suficiente para reduzir a formação das manchas e nem aumentar o rendimento que compensasse o seu custo. Abstract in english The black spots of oat (Avena sativa) grains, caused mainly by Pyrenophora chaetomioides, is characterized by the darkening of their superficial tissues, with reduction in their quality and value for the industry. In order to understand the infection process and formation of kernel spots the objecti [...] ves of this work were i) to determine the period of kernel's susceptibility during their spot formation by P. chaetomioides on the floral components; ii) to determine the different levels of resistance of 15 oat genotypes to black spot and its correlation with kernel infection; iii) to assess the effect of chemical control on the expression of the disease during the period of kernel formation. In the laboratory, the percentage of spotted grains and the incidence of P. chaetomioides in the floral components was evaluated, whereas in the field, yield and industrial weight were measured. Milk and dough stages had the largest incidences of P. chaetomioides in the floral components. The genotypes differed with regard to the black spot symptom on the kernel as well as with the incidence, but no correlation between these two variables was observed. Chemical control during the flowering stage reduced in 21% the incidence of the fungus in the seed in relation to the control. Despite of this, chemical control was neither efficient enough to reduce spot formation nor to increase yield to compensate its cost.

Carla A. C., Bocchese; José A., Martinelli; Luiz C., Federizzi; Carlos R. E., Rosa.

247

Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies Anatomy of leaf lesions caused by Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis in different host species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB, o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV. O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N, mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV, mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV, representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso.The botanical genus Clerodendrum belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes several ornamental species. Necrotic and chlorotic spots on leaves of bleeding heart were observed for the first time in a residential garden from Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, associated with an infestation by the flat mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Tissue section analysis of the leaf lesions under transmission electron microscope showed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type, indicating that the symptoms were caused by a Brevipalpus-transmitted virus (BTV, named Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV. This virus was shown to be transmitted mechanically and by B. phoenicis to several plant species. In order to complete ClCSV characterization, anatomical changes in the leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected leaves were evaluated. Histological sections of healthy, control leaves and leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected plants of C. x speciosum, Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus and Annona muricata were analyzed. ClCSV infection resulted in similar tissue alterations caused by other BTV as Citrus Leprosies Virus Cytoplasmic (CiLV-C and Nuclear (CiLV-N, Coffee Ringspot Virus (CoRSV, Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus (SvRSV and Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV. Such symptoms consisted of hypertrophy and hyperplasia frequently followed by necrosis in palisade and spongy parenchyma tissues.

Renata Takassugui Gomes

2010-12-01

248

Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies / Anatomy of leaf lesions caused by Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV) transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis in different host species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpi [...] dae). Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB), o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV). O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C) e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N), mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV), mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV) e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV), representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso. Abstract in english The botanical genus Clerodendrum belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes several ornamental species. Necrotic and chlorotic spots on leaves of bleeding heart were observed for the first time in a residential garden from Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, associated with an infest [...] ation by the flat mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Tissue section analysis of the leaf lesions under transmission electron microscope showed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type, indicating that the symptoms were caused by a Brevipalpus-transmitted virus (BTV), named Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus (ClCSV). This virus was shown to be transmitted mechanically and by B. phoenicis to several plant species. In order to complete ClCSV characterization, anatomical changes in the leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected leaves were evaluated. Histological sections of healthy, control leaves and leaf lesions of ClCSV-infected plants of C. x speciosum, Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus and Annona muricata were analyzed. ClCSV infection resulted in similar tissue alterations caused by other BTV as Citrus Leprosies Virus Cytoplasmic (CiLV-C) and Nuclear (CiLV-N), Coffee Ringspot Virus (CoRSV), Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus (SvRSV) and Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV). Such symptoms consisted of hypertrophy and hyperplasia frequently followed by necrosis in palisade and spongy parenchyma tissues.

Renata Takassugui, Gomes; Elliot Watanabe, Kitajima; Francisco André Osamu, Tanaka; João Paulo Rodrigues, Marques; Beatriz, Appezzato-da-Glória.

2010-12-01

249

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... count, an increased percentage of atypical white blood cells, and a positive reaction to a mono spot test . There is no specific treatment for infectious mononucleosis , other than treating the symptoms. ...

250

Mononucleosis spot test  

Science.gov (United States)

Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

251

Bowling Ball Spotting  

Science.gov (United States)

Exactatron, an accurate weighing and spotting system in bowling ball manufacture, was developed by Ebonite International engineers with the assistance of a NASA computer search which identified Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) technology. The JPL research concerned a means of determining the center of an object's mass, and an apparatus for measuring liquid viscosity, enabling Ebonite to identify the exact spotting of the drilling point for top weighting.

1985-01-01

252

Investigation of likely causes of white patch formation on irradiated WWER fuel rod claddings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information concerning white patches observed on fuel cladding surfaces has been analytically treated. The analysis shows at least three kinds of the white patch appearance: bright white spots which appear to be loose corrosion product deposits disclosing corrosion pits upon spalling; indistinct streaks with separate pronounced spots 1-2 in dia. The spots seem to be thin superficial deposits; light-coloured dense uniform crud distributed over the surface of fuel claddings and fuel assembly jackets. (author)

253

Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding). New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*), N. Gossey Domin, N. [...] Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**), S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (*) This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (**) One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

A. S., Costa; R., Forster.

254

Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding. New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*, N. Gossey Domin, N. Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**, S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (* This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (** One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12 that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

A. S. Costa

1942-02-01

255

Nota sobre a molestia de virus do fumo denominada faixa das nervuras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The present paper deals with the virus disease of the tobacco plant recently described by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) under the name "faixa das nervuras" (veinbanding). New host plants are added to the list of suscepts, as follows : Nicotiana repanda Willd., JV. angustifolia (*), N. Gossey Domin, N. [...] Sanderae Hort. ex. W. Watson, N. glutinosa L., N. longiflora Cav., N. paniculata L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. pimpinellifolium Mill., and Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. Datura stramonium L., already studied by Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) and Nicotiana glauca Grah., Nicandra physaloides Gaertn., Solanum nodiflorum (**), S. nigrum L., Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L., Vigna sinensis Endl. var. Black., and Dolichos lablab L., var. purpurens were found not to be susceptible to the virus. (*) This species was received with this name from the Division of Tobacco and Plant Nutrition, U.S.D.A. (**) One plant of S. nodiflorum out of 22 which were inoculated gave symptoms of veinbanding. However as no backinoculation was made it can not be stated with certainty if it was truly affected by this virus. The symptomatology on tobacco described by the above mentioned authors agrees as a whole with which has been observed that is : clearing of the veins, chlorotic spotting and veinbanding. In addition it is stated that the white necrotic spotting found associated with the disease on certain tobacco varieties, v. g. Sumatra and Turkish must be attributed to the same virus. On potato plants of the varieties President and Green Mountain the virus causes local streak-like symptoms followed by chlorotic mottling of young leaves. Late symptoms take the form of leaf-drop streak. The virus of "faixa das nervuras" is easily transmissible through the sap giving practically 100% of success. The physical properties of the virus are : tolerance to dilution 1:10.000, thermal death point 54°C. and logevity in vitro 72 hours. No vector of the virus is known. The statement of Kramer & Silberschmidt (12) that the virus of "faixa das nervuras" belongs to the group of the potato virus Y is confirmed. A discussion is given about the position of the virus within the group. Our results do not permit to state that the virus is more related to the veinbanding virus as claimed by these authors. It is also pointed out that the differences found in the litterature between the Y and veinbanding viruses are slight, justifying in the maximum the separation of both, but as strains of the same virus.

A. S., Costa; R., Forster.

1942-02-01

256

spots de campaña  

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publicidad política en televisión. Ilustrado por los spots televisivos, el debate se ha centrado en el alto costo que representa para los contribuyentes, a través de los partidos políticos, la producción y transmisión de estos mensajes. El presente trabajo consiste en un análisis de contenido de una muestra de spots transmitidos por las tres principales fuerzas electorales en México durante la campaña presidencial de 2006. El objetivo es identificar, de manera sistemática, características particulares en el formato y contenido de estos mensajes a la luz de su función persuasiva e informativa.

Julio Ju\\u00E1rez G\\u00E1miz

2007-01-01

257

Dollar spot of turfgrass  

Science.gov (United States)

This plant disease lesson on Dollar spot of turfgrass (caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Tom W. Allen (University of Georgia;); Alfredo Martinez (University of Georgia;); Lee L. Burpee (University of Georgia;)

2005-01-01

258

Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

2010-01-01

259

Spotting a fake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

260

Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Hyde, K. D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P. W.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Spot- Zombie Filtering System  

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Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

Arathy Rajagopal

2014-01-01

262

Temporal lesions and widespread involvement of white matter associated with multi-organ inflammatory disease in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

Science.gov (United States)

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord, characterized by spastic paraparesis, back pain, and sphincter disorders. Involvement of multiple organs and encephalopathy are uncommon in HAM/TSP. Nonspecific small white matter lesions of unknown etiology, mainly in the periventricular and subcortical regions, have been found on brain magnetic resonance imaging of HAM/TSP patients. Bitemporal lesions have rarely been described. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with HAM/TSP who presented subclinical cognitive deficits associated with bitemporal and widespread white matter lesions. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was inflammatory (blood-CSF barrier dysfunction, intrathecal synthesis of total and HTLV-1 IgG). The proviral load was higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The neurological picture was complicated by multi-organ inflammatory disease (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, uveitis, anemia, and chronic renal failure). This case highlights the potential multisystem inflammatory nature of HTLV-1 infection, with a wide spectrum of manifestations. In cases of HAM/TSP with multi-organ inflammatory disease, encephalic involvement should be investigated, even in the absence of clinical manifestations. Also bitemporal lesions can be the consequence of intense and diffuse inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:24815740

Mendes, Gustavo B; Kalil, Rosangela S; Rosadas, Carolina; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

2014-08-01

263

Observations regarding the neurocytokaryological study of the experimental infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in the white mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mice distributed in groups were inoculated with the herpes virus simplex type 1 and type 2 strains in various dilutions (10(-1)-10(-7)), which had been maintained on primary human embryo cell cultures. The animals were killed and homogenates were prepared of their brains, which were used for testing the infective titre in vivo and for the isolation of nuclei, by means of the Hymer-Kuff technique. For the cytokaryological examinations, smears were prepared from the homogenate, which were stained by May-Grünwald-Giemsa and Mann methods. The cell and nucleus types were evaluated morphologically, descriptively, according to the size and structure. On the basis of three criteria the following groups were set up: large sized cells with bulky nuclei; middle sized cells with nuclei of a medium size; small sized cells with small nuclei and visible nucleoli; small sized cells with small, tachychromatic nuclei; cells exhibiting karyolysis. In both the infection with herpes virus simplex type 1 and type 2, the small sized cells with small tachychromatic nuclei represent the highest rate. Between the variants of the elaborated models no significant differences regarding the cell and nucleus types are recorded. On the whole, the cytokaryological picture does not exhibit notable differences, but rather resemblances with respect to the proportionality of the nucleus types in the experimental variants studied, in the case of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 induced infections. PMID:10892432

Petica, M; Cri?an, I; Mu?iu, A

1998-01-01

264

Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot  

Science.gov (United States)

True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

265

Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis / Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores real [...] izados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho. Abstract in english A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in the field. This bacterium produced similar symptoms of the disease when inoculated on maize plants in greenhouse. Previous studies carried out by other authors [...] demonstrated that the control of this disease in field conditions has been achieved through the use of fungicides mainly with the Mancozeb in the initial phases of its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of P. ananatis from infected plants in the region of "Londrina, Paraná State" and to reproduce symptoms of the disease through artificial inoculation of maize plants in greenhouse. Using the chemical products tested previously by other authors for the control of this disease in the field, it was also objective of this work to evaluate the potential of these products to inhibit the bacterium, at both in laboratory and in condition of natural infection. The results showed that P. ananatis was successfully isolated from 40% of the young lesions collected in the field and when inoculated in greenhouse (controlled conditions), it reproduced symptoms similar to what was observed in the field. Among the tested chemical products, the fungicide Mancozeb was the best in the control of the disease under field conditions, in agreement with previous reports. This product inhibited completely the bacterium in laboratory, explaining the results found in the field. The others products were not efficient to control the disease and they did not also inhibit the bacterium in laboratory. The results represent additional evidences that the bacterium P. ananatis is the causal agent of the maize white spot disease.

Cleide Aparecida, Bomfeti; Walter Fernandes, Meirelles; Edneia Aparecida, Souza-Paccola; Carlos Roberto, Casela; Alexandre da Silva, Ferreira; Ivanildo Evódio, Marriel; Luzia Doretto, Paccola-Meirelles.

266

Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in the field. This bacterium produced similar symptoms of the disease when inoculated on maize plants in greenhouse. Previous studies carried out by other authors demonstrated that the control of this disease in field conditions has been achieved through the use of fungicides mainly with the Mancozeb in the initial phases of its development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of isolation of P. ananatis from infected plants in the region of "Londrina, Paraná State" and to reproduce symptoms of the disease through artificial inoculation of maize plants in greenhouse. Using the chemical products tested previously by other authors for the control of this disease in the field, it was also objective of this work to evaluate the potential of these products to inhibit the bacterium, at both in laboratory and in condition of natural infection. The results showed that P. ananatis was successfully isolated from 40% of the young lesions collected in the field and when inoculated in greenhouse (controlled conditions, it reproduced symptoms similar to what was observed in the field. Among the tested chemical products, the fungicide Mancozeb was the best in the control of the disease under field conditions, in agreement with previous reports. This product inhibited completely the bacterium in laboratory, explaining the results found in the field. The others products were not efficient to control the disease and they did not also inhibit the bacterium in laboratory. The results represent additional evidences that the bacterium P. ananatis is the causal agent of the maize white spot disease.

Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

2007-03-01

267

Influence of temperature on Mx gene expression profiles and the protection of sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, against red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection after poly (I:C) injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence of temperature on the susceptibility of fish against virus infection has been studied for a decade. Recent reports have been shown the effects of rearing temperatures on the fish immune system against virus infection. However, the roles of temperature in regulation of type I interferon (IFN) system has not yet been investigated. Thus, the effects of temperature on type I IFN response were investigated in this study using poly (I:C) injection in sevenband grouper and Mx gene was used as a marker for type I IFN expression. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) result showed that Mx expression profiles were moderately different between temperatures. The highly up-regulated Mx transcripts at 3 h post injection (hpi) were observed in high temperatures (25 °C and 30 °C) but not in low temperatures (15 °C and 20 °C). Meanwhile, low temperatures (15 °C and 20 °C) could detect the highly up-regulated Mx transcripts at 24 hpi. Expression of Mx transcripts was also observed at 72 hpi at 15 °C. Poly (I:C)-injected fish were challenged with RGNNV after 72 and 168 hpi. At 72 hpi, 100% of fish survived at all temperatures, whereas 95% survival rate was observed at 168 hpi at 25 °C during 14 days of observation. To further verify the duration period of an antiviral state at different temperatures, qPCR and endpoint dilution assay were used to quantify the number of virus in fish challenged with RGNNV. The reduction of viral copy numbers and viral titers could be observed at 72 and 168 hpi. However, high viral copy numbers and viral titers could be detected at 168 hpi at 30 °C. These results demonstrate that temperatures influenced on the Mx expression profiles and the duration period of an antiviral state efficiently interfered with virus replication at different temperatures. PMID:25107694

Thanasaksiri, Kittipong; Sakai, Nichika; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro

2014-10-01

268

Orbit control of SPOT satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

The SPOT system has been operational since the February 22nd, 1986, SPOT 1 launch date. SPOT 2, the second satellite, was put in orbit on February 21st, 1990, and station acquisition of SPOT 3, the last first generation satellite, was successfully performed after the September 26th, 1993 Ariane launch. Now, three satellites are in orbit, and their relative positions depend on the station keeping requirements specified for each one. Only SPOT 2 and SPOT 3 products are presently commercialized, SPOT 1 being kept in standby. The purpose of this document is to explain the flight dynamics aspects of the system. It synthesizes the specifications related to this field, and recalls specific data resulting from the mission analysis. Described in detail are the station acquisition (referring to the operational results of SPOT 3 launch), launch phase, description of the operations, station acquisition, maneuvers strategy, definition of the parameters monitored for station keeping, automatic management of maneuvers, and relative deviation of the 3 satellites.

Darrigan, Christian; Dulot, Jean-Louis; Forcioli, Dominique; Micheau, Pascal

269

Correlations between symptoms and DAS - Elisa values in two sources of resistance against tomato spotted wilt virus Correlações entre sintomas de vira-cabeça e o teste serológico ELISA (DAS em duas diferentes fontes de resistência a tospoviroses em tomateiro  

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Full Text Available The commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, cultivars Ângela Gigante I-5100 and Santa Clara (tospovirus susceptible, the Stevens cultivar, lines and experimental hybrids (tospovirus resistant, were used: a to evaluate two sources of resistance to tospoviruses in tomato (one from L. esculentum/Rey de Los Tempranos, and another one from L. peruvianum/Stevens; and b to verify statistically significant correlation between virus concentration determined through DAS-ELISA and symptomatology. In the Ângela Gigante I-5100 and the Santa Clara cultivars, the correlation coefficient was highly significant and the symptom average level was high, showing that in susceptible cultivars the symptom evolution is related to the virus multiplication in the plant. As for the TOM 547 and TOM 556 lines (background of Ângela Gigante I-5100 and Santa Clara, respectively, there was no statistical correlation between the symptoms and the viral particle concentration. Plants with light virus symptoms showed high absorbance values. Consequently we may assume that the resistance with `Rey de Los Tempranos' background may be of the tolerant kind because the high virus concentration found does not necessarily relate to a high level of symptoms. In the lines BPX320E 3902-01, BPX320E 3905 and BPX320F 7902 (both with Santa Clara background only few plants showed symptoms, which can be explained by incomplete penetrance of Sw-5 gene. In the case of non-symptomatic plants, the diagnosis using DAS-ELISA revealed negative results. That outcome indicates that in some materials, where resistance is obtained from L. peruvianum, the virus multiplication in the tissues seemed not be present.As cultivares comerciais Ângela Gigante I-5100 e Santa Clara (suscetíveis a tospovírus, a cultivar Stevens, e híbridos experimentais F1 (resistentes a tospoviroses, foram utilizadas para: a avaliar duas fontes de resistência a tospovírus em tomate, uma derivada de Lycopersicon esculentum / `Rey de Los Tempranos', e a outra derivada de L. peruvianum/'Stevens'; b verificar se existe uma correlação entre a concentração de partículas, detectadas por ELISA (DAS e sintomatologia. Nas cultivares Ângela Gigante I-5100 e Santa Clara esta correlação foi altamente significativa, e o nível médio de sintomas foi alto indicando que em cultivares suscetíveis a evolução de sintomas acompanha a multiplicação do vírus na planta. Já para as linhagens TOM 547, e TOM 556, (background de Ângela Gigante I-5100 e Santa Clara respectivamente, não houve correlação entre a presença de sintomas e a concentração de partículas: plantas com sintomas leves do vírus, apresentaram altos valores de absorbância. Nas linhagens BPX320E 3902-01, BPX320E 3905 e BPX320E 7902 (background Santa Clara, poucas plantas apresentaram sintomas, o que é explicado pela penetrância incompleta do gene Sw-5. Para as plantas assintomáticas os diagnósticos empregando DAS-ELISA apresentaram resultados negativos, mostrando que em materiais cuja fonte de resistência é obtida de L. peruvianum, parece não haver a multiplicação do vírus nos tecidos, ou se houver a quantidade de partícula seria mínima, insuficiente para ser detectada por esta técnica.

Luciane V. Resende

2000-06-01

270

Differential expression profiling of orange-spotted grouper larvae, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), that survived a betanodavirus outbreak.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a piscine nodavirus, has caused serious viral nervous necrosis and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide range of marine teleost species worldwide in the last two decades. Although the mortality of NNV-infected larvae is nearly 100%, there are still some larvae that survive this catastrophe. To comprehensively understand the variations of these survivors at the molecular level, we collected orange-spotted grouper larvae that survived an NNV outbreak in an indoor hatchery in southern Taiwan to study differential gene expression. Healthy larvae with high, medium and low levels of detected NNV were compared with morbid larvae using a 9600-clone-containing grouper larva cDNA microarray, and differential gene expression was further confirmed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significant variation exists in healthy larvae. The following genes were upregulated: adenylate kinase 1-2, myosin binding protein H-like, myosin light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, fast/white muscle troponin T embryonic isoform, and parvalbumin 1 and 2 genes. The following genes were downregulated: apolipoprotein A-I, trypsinogen, pyruvate kinase and astacin-like metalloprotease. Moreover, immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene transcription was significantly higher in healthy larvae that had high virus levels, indicating that humoral immunity might protect organisms from viral infection. These results suggest that some non-immune-related genes may have played important roles in survival during the larval metamorphosis stage, after betanodavirus infection. PMID:22324345

Wu, M-S; Chen, C-W; Lin, C-H; Tzeng, C-S; Chang, C-Y

2012-03-01

271

Localization of Pantoea ananatis inside lesions of maize white spot disease using transmission electron microscopy and molecular techniques Localização da bactéria Pantoea ananatis no interior de lesões da doença mancha branca do milho por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e técnicas moleculares  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The etiological agent of maize white spot (MWS disease has been a subject of controversy and discussion. Initially the disease was described as Phaeosphaeria leaf spot caused by Phaeosphaeria maydis. Other authors have suggested the existence of different fungal species causing similar symptoms. Recently, a bacterium, Pantoea ananatis, was described as the causal agent of this disease. The purpose of this study was to offer additional information on the correct etiology of this disease by providing visual evidence of the presence of the bacterium in the interior of the MWS lesions by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and molecular techniques. The TEM allowed visualization of a large amount of bacteria in the intercellular spaces of lesions collected from both artificially and naturally infected plants. Fungal structures were not visualized in young lesions. Bacterial primers for the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were used in PCR reactions to amplify DNA extracted from water-soaked (young and necrotic lesions. The universal fungal oligonucleotide ITS4 was also included to identify the possible presence of fungal structures inside lesions. Positive PCR products from water-soaked lesions, both from naturally and artificially inoculated plants, were produced with bacterial primers, whereas no amplification was observed when ITS4 oligonucleotide was used. On the other hand, DNA amplification with ITS4 primer was observed when DNA was isolated from necrotic (old lesions. These results reinforced previous report of P. ananatis as the primary pathogen and the hypothesis that fungal species may colonize lesions pre-established by P. ananatis.O agente etiológico da mancha branca do milho (MBM tem sido alvo de discussão e controvérsia. Inicialmente a doença foi descrita como sendo a mancha foliar de Phaeosphaeria causada por Phaeosphaeria maydis. Outros autores sugeriram a existência de diferentes espécies fúngicas provocando sintomas semelhantes. Recentemente a bactéria Pantoea ananatis foi descrita como sendo o agente causal desta doença. O objetivo deste estudo foi oferecer informações adicionais sobre a correta etiologia da doença proporcionando evidências visuais da presença da bactéria no interior de lesões da MBM por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET e técnicas moleculares. A MET permitiu visualizar um grande número de células bacterianas nos espaços intercelulares em lesões oriundas de plantas naturalmente e artificialmente infectadas. Estruturas fúngicas não foram visualizadas em lesões jovens. Primers bacterianos para os genes 16S rRNA e rpoB foram usados em reações de PCR para amplificar DNA extraído diretamente de lesões jovens e de lesões necróticas. O oligonucleotídeo universal para fungo, ITS4, foi incluído para identificar a possível presença de estruturas fúngicas nas lesões. Amplificação positiva foi obtida com primers bacterianos, a partir de lesões jovens, natural e artificialmente inoculadas, enquanto que nenhuma amplificação foi observada quando o oligonucleotídeo ITS4 foi usado. Amplificação do DNA com o primer ITS4 foi observada quando o DNA foi extraído de lesões em estádio avançado de necrose. Estes resultados reforçam relatos anteriores que descrevem P. ananatis como patógeno primário da doença e a hipótese de que espécies fúngicas podem colonizar lesões pré-estabelecidas pela P. ananatis.

Cleide A. Bomfeti

2008-02-01

272

Localization of Pantoea ananatis inside lesions of maize white spot disease using transmission electron microscopy and molecular techniques / Localização da bactéria Pantoea ananatis no interior de lesões da doença mancha branca do milho por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e técnicas moleculares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O agente etiológico da mancha branca do milho (MBM) tem sido alvo de discussão e controvérsia. Inicialmente a doença foi descrita como sendo a mancha foliar de Phaeosphaeria causada por Phaeosphaeria maydis. Outros autores sugeriram a existência de diferentes espécies fúngicas provocando sintomas se [...] melhantes. Recentemente a bactéria Pantoea ananatis foi descrita como sendo o agente causal desta doença. O objetivo deste estudo foi oferecer informações adicionais sobre a correta etiologia da doença proporcionando evidências visuais da presença da bactéria no interior de lesões da MBM por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET) e técnicas moleculares. A MET permitiu visualizar um grande número de células bacterianas nos espaços intercelulares em lesões oriundas de plantas naturalmente e artificialmente infectadas. Estruturas fúngicas não foram visualizadas em lesões jovens. Primers bacterianos para os genes 16S rRNA e rpoB foram usados em reações de PCR para amplificar DNA extraído diretamente de lesões jovens e de lesões necróticas. O oligonucleotídeo universal para fungo, ITS4, foi incluído para identificar a possível presença de estruturas fúngicas nas lesões. Amplificação positiva foi obtida com primers bacterianos, a partir de lesões jovens, natural e artificialmente inoculadas, enquanto que nenhuma amplificação foi observada quando o oligonucleotídeo ITS4 foi usado. Amplificação do DNA com o primer ITS4 foi observada quando o DNA foi extraído de lesões em estádio avançado de necrose. Estes resultados reforçam relatos anteriores que descrevem P. ananatis como patógeno primário da doença e a hipótese de que espécies fúngicas podem colonizar lesões pré-estabelecidas pela P. ananatis. Abstract in english The etiological agent of maize white spot (MWS) disease has been a subject of controversy and discussion. Initially the disease was described as Phaeosphaeria leaf spot caused by Phaeosphaeria maydis. Other authors have suggested the existence of different fungal species causing similar symptoms. Re [...] cently, a bacterium, Pantoea ananatis, was described as the causal agent of this disease. The purpose of this study was to offer additional information on the correct etiology of this disease by providing visual evidence of the presence of the bacterium in the interior of the MWS lesions by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular techniques. The TEM allowed visualization of a large amount of bacteria in the intercellular spaces of lesions collected from both artificially and naturally infected plants. Fungal structures were not visualized in young lesions. Bacterial primers for the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were used in PCR reactions to amplify DNA extracted from water-soaked (young) and necrotic lesions. The universal fungal oligonucleotide ITS4 was also included to identify the possible presence of fungal structures inside lesions. Positive PCR products from water-soaked lesions, both from naturally and artificially inoculated plants, were produced with bacterial primers, whereas no amplification was observed when ITS4 oligonucleotide was used. On the other hand, DNA amplification with ITS4 primer was observed when DNA was isolated from necrotic (old) lesions. These results reinforced previous report of P. ananatis as the primary pathogen and the hypothesis that fungal species may colonize lesions pre-established by P. ananatis.

Cleide A., Bomfeti; Edneia A., Souza-Paccola; Nelson S., Massola Júnior; Ivanildo E., Marriel; Walter F., Meirelles; Carlos R., Casela; Luzia D., Paccola-Meirelles.

273

Jupiter's Great Red Spot in Cassini image  

Science.gov (United States)

This true color image of Jupiter, taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft, is composed of three images taken in the blue, green and red regions of the spectrum. All images were taken from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on Oct. 8, 2000.Different chemical compositions of the cloud particles lead to different colors. The cloud patterns reflect different physical conditions -- updrafts and downdrafts -- in which the clouds form. The bluish areas are believed to be regions devoid of clouds and covered by high haze.The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) is a giant atmospheric storm as wide as two Earths and over 300 years old, with peripheral winds of 483 kilometers per hour (300 miles per hour). This image shows that it is trailed to the north by a turbulent region, caused by atmospheric flow around the spot.The bright white spots in this region are lightning storms, which were seen by NASA's Galileo spacecraft when it photographed the night side of Jupiter. Cassini will track these lightning storms and measure their lifetimes and motions when it passes Jupiter in late December and looks back on the darkside of the planet. Cassini is currently en route to its ultimate destination, Saturn.The resolution is 466 kilometers (290 miles) per picture element.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

2000-01-01

274

Empathy's blind spot.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to mount a philosophical challenge to the currently highly visible research and discourse on empathy. The notion of empathetic perspective-shifting-a conceptually demanding, high-level construal of empathy in humans that arguably captures the core meaning of the term-is criticized from the standpoint of a philosophy of normatively accountable agency. Empathy in this demanding sense fails to achieve a true understanding of the other and instead risks to impose the empathizer's self-constitutive agency upon the person empathized with. Attempts to 'simulate' human agency, or attempts to emulate its cognitive or emotional basis, will likely distort their target phenomena in profound ways. Thus, agency turns out to be empathy's blind spot. Elements of an alternative understanding of interpersonal relatedness are also discussed, focusing on aspects of 'interaction theory'. These might do some of the work that high-level constructs of empathy had been supposed to do without running into similar conceptual difficulties. PMID:24420745

Slaby, Jan

2014-05-01

275

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2000 through 2010. Average annual incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever by age-group, 2000 through 2010: ... new category called Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis (including Rocky Mountain spotted fever). This change was made to better ...

276

Virus diseases in the tobacco fields of Guilan and Western Azerbaijan provinces of Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is one of the important industrial plants in Iran. Viruses as an important group of plant pathogens cause many losses on the quality and quantity of tobacco crop. There was few information on the types of plant viruses infecting the tobacco fields of Guilan and almost no information for Western Azerbaijan province. During 2005-2007, leaf samples were taken from symptomatic plants in the growing areas of these two provinces. The observed symptoms on plants in the fields varied from mild mosaics to severe necrosis. The regions of sampling were including Rasht, Bazar-jomeh, Soumae-Sara, Talesh and Astara in Guilan and Ourmia, Sardasht and Ghara-Ziaeddin in Western Azerbaijan. The tobacco types and varieties from which the samples were taken included air-cured burley variety Burley 21 and to a lesser extent, oriental tobacco variety Basma Serres in W. Azerbaijan and flue-cured varieties Coker 347 and Virginia El in Guilan province. Samples were tested by DAS-ELISA method (Clark and Adams, 1977) using the polyclonal antibodies for a set of tobacco viruses. Some samples with positive reactions in DAS-ELISA were inoculated to indicator test plants such as Chenopodium amaranticolor, Datura metel, D. stramonium, Physalis floridana, Nicotiana rustica, N. glutinosa, and tobacco (varieties White burley and Samsun). The results of greenhouse experiments were consistent with serological tests. The following viruses which are listed in order of their overall abundance within the tested samples were detected: Tobacco streak virus (TSV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In all samples more than one virus infection was detected. The most severe mosaic type symptoms including the deformation and blistering on leaves were mainly seen in the infections by CMV and TMV. The most severe necrotic type symptoms including necrosis of midribs or veins and in some cases stem necrosis were generally associated with the infections by PVY and TSWV. Except TMV infection which was not detected in the Burley 21 variety in W. Azerbaijan, the above mentioned viruses were present in all sampling regions. The lack of TMV infection on Burley 21 is due to the presence of N gene, conferring resistance in this variety. PMID:19226768

Khateri, H; Moarrefzadeh, N; Mosahebi, G; Koohi-Habibi, M

2008-01-01

277

Nudiviruses and other large, double-stranded circular DNA viruses of invertebrates: new insights on an old topic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nudiviruses (NVs) are a highly diverse group of large, circular dsDNA viruses pathogenic for invertebrates. They have rod-shaped and enveloped nucleocapsids, replicate in the nucleus of infected host cells, and possess interesting biological and molecular properties. The unassigned viral genus Nudivirus has been proposed for classification of nudiviruses. Currently, the nudiviruses comprise five different viruses: the palm rhinoceros beetle virus (Oryctes rhinoceros NV, OrNV), the Hz-1 virus (Heliothis zea NV-1, HzNV-1), the cricket virus (Gryllus bimaculatus NV, GbNV), the corn earworm moth Hz-2 virus (HzNV-2), and the occluded shrimp Monodon Baculovirus reassigned as Penaeus monodon NV (PmNV). Thus far, the genomes of OrNV, GbNV, HzNV-1 and HzNV-2 have been completely sequenced. They vary between 97 and 230kbp in size and encode between 98 and 160 open reading frames (ORFs). All sequenced nudiviruses have 33 ORFs in common. Strikingly, 20 of them are homologous to baculovirus core genes involved in RNA transcription, DNA replication, virion structural components and other functions. Another nine conserved ORFs are likely associated with DNA replication, repair and recombination, and nucleotide metabolism; one is homologous to baculovirus iap-3 gene; two are nudivirus-specific ORFs of unknown function. Interestingly, one nudivirus ORF is similar to polh/gran gene, encoding occlusion body protein matrix and being conserved in Alpha- Beta- and Gammabaculoviruses. Members of nudiviruses are closely related and form a monophyletic group consisting of two sister clades of OrNV/GbNV and HzNVs/PmNV. It is proposed that nudiviruses and baculoviruses derived from a common ancestor and are evolutionarily related to other large DNA viruses such as the insect-specific salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) and the marine white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). PMID:19460388

Wang, Yongjie; Jehle, Johannes A

2009-07-01

278

Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus is a member of the genus Anulavirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete genomic sequence of Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus (CIBV) is described. The virus has a genomic organization similar to that of pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), the type member of the genus Anulavirus, but it is most closely related to a second, recently described, anulavirus, Amazon lily mild mottle virus (ALiMMV). PMID:24838850

Scott, Simon W; MacFarlane, Stuart A; McGavin, Wendy J; Fargette, Denis

2014-10-01

279

Dynamics of a dry spot  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results are presented for the motion of a dry spot in a thin viscous film on a horizontal surface. These include global and spatial measurements of dry spot diameter, front velocities, static and dynamic contact angle, and the shape of the liquid solid interface. Data are presented as a function of initial fluid depth for both an advancing fluid front of a collapsing dry spot and a receding fluid front of an opening dry spot. Results for both cases show that the final or static hole diameter increases as the initial fluid depth decreases. Also, insight is obtained into the relationship between the contact angle and the velocity for both advancing and receding fluid fronts. The experimental results are compared to a lubrication model, and good agreement is obtained.

Bankoff, S. G.; Johnson, M. F. G.; Miksis, M. J.; Schluter, R. A.; Lopez, P. G.

2003-07-01

280

Learning Java with Sun SPOTs  

Science.gov (United States)

Small Programmable Object Technology devices from Sun Microsystems (Sun SPOTs) are small wireless devices that can run Java programs. In the on-going research project described in this paper, Sun SPOTs have been used in conjunction with model-driven software development techniques to develop a tool that can be used to introduce new software developers to object-oriented programming in general and Java in particular in a new and interesting way.

Caulfield, Craig; Maj, S. Paul; Veal, David

 
 
 
 
281

Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

2011-12-01

282

White Pelican  

Science.gov (United States)

The American white pelican is still considered endangered in Alberta, Canada, where the population is increasing but fewer than half of the 20 known historic nesting islands are still in use. The site provides information on this magnificent bird: habitat, general biological data, risk factors, and management. External links to Canadian parks, nonprofit groups, and other species profiles also included.

283

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

284

On the origin of delta spots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with H? filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

285

7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413 Agriculture...Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both,...

2010-01-01

286

Polarization from an orbiting spot  

Science.gov (United States)

The polarization from a spot orbiting around Schwarzschild and extreme Kerr black holes is studied. We assume different models of local polarization. Firstly, as a toy model we set local polarization vector either normal to the disc plane, or we assume strictly azimuthal direction. Then we examine more realistic situation with a spot arising due to the emission from the primary source above the disc. We employ either Rayleigh single scattering or Compton multiple scattering approximations. Overall flux, degree and angle of polarization integrated over the whole orbit as well as their time dependence during the spot revolution are examined as functions of the observer's inclination angle. The gravitational and Doppler shifts, lensing effect as well as time delays are taken into account.

Dov?iak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír; Matt, Giorgio

2007-04-01

287

HOT SPOT Health Physics codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The newly developed HOT SPOT Health Physics codes allow fast assessment of accidents involving radioactive materials. These codes run on the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 family of hand-held computers, and the software resides on a single 128K minicassette. This compact system is intended for easy field use of the HOT SPOT codes. At present, 13 separate programs exist, ranging from general programs for downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material to more specific programs dealing with the release of plutonium, uranium, or tritium. Other programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of various radionuclides, and estimate the effects of a surface-burst nuclear weapon

288

Multi-spot ignition in type Ia supernova models  

CERN Document Server

We present a systematic survey of the capabilities of type Ia supernova explosion models starting from a number of flame seeds distributed around the center of the white dwarf star. To this end we greatly improved the resolution of the numerical simulations in the initial stages. This novel numerical approach facilitates a detailed study of multi-spot ignition scenarios with up to hundreds of ignition sparks. Two-dimensional simulations are shown to be inappropriate to study the effects of initial flame configurations. Based on a set of three-dimensional models, we conclude that multi-spot ignition scenarios may improve type Ia supernova models towards better agreement with observations. The achievable effect reaches a maximum at a limited number of flame ignition kernels as shown by the numerical models and corroborated by a simple dimensional analysis.

Roepke, F K; Niemeyer, J C; Woosley, S E

2005-01-01

289

The puzzling MILAGRO hot spots  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the reported detection by the MILAGRO experiment of localised hot spots in the cosmic ray arrival distribution and the difficulty of interpreting these observations. A model based on secondary neutron production in the heliotail is shown to fail. An alternative model based on loss-cone leakage through a magnetic trap from a local source region is proposed.

Drury, Luke

2008-01-01

290

Control of aphid-vectored and thrips-borne virus spread in lily, tulip, iris and dahlia by sprays of mineral oil, polydimethylsiloxane and pyrethroid insecticide in the field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study control of spread by insect vectors of non-persistent Lily symptomless virus and Lily mottle virus in lily, Tulip breaking virus in tulip, Iris mild mosaic virus, Narcissus latent virus and Iris severe mosaic virus in bulbous iris, and semi-persistent Dahlia mosaic virus and persistent Tomato spotted wilt virus in dahlia has been evaluated with weekly sprays of mineral oil, beta-pinene emulsion, polydimethylsiloxane emulsions and pyrethroid insecticide. In lily, beta-pinene in '...

Asjes, J.; Blom-barnhoorn, G. J.

2001-01-01

291

Characterization of host microRNAs that respond to DNA virus infection in a crustacean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many processes of eukaryotic cells. It is known that the expression profiles of host miRNAs can be reshaped by viruses. However, a systematic investigation of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection has not yet been performed. Results In this study, the shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Small RNA sequencing of WSSV-infected shrimp at different time post-infection (0, 6, 24 and 48?h identified 63 host miRNAs, 48 of which were conserved in other animals, representing 43 distinct families. Of the identified host miRNAs, 31 were differentially expressed in response to virus infection, of which 25 were up-regulated and six down-regulated. The results were confirmed by northern blots. The TargetScan and miRanda algorithms showed that most target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immune responses. Gene ontology analysis revealed that immune signaling pathways were mediated by these miRNAs. Evolutionary analysis showed that three of them, miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34, are highly conserved in shrimp, fruit fly and humans and function in the similar pathways. Conclusions Our study provides the first large-scale characterization of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection. This will help to reveal the molecular events involved in virus-host interactions mediated by miRNAs and their evolution in animals.

Huang Tianzhi

2012-04-01

292

Pome Fruit Viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field surveys and laboratory tests were carried out to assess the sanitary status of pome fruit trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Field surveys were carried out in 10 orchards, two nurseries and one varietal collectione during 2005-2006. A total of 65 apple and 51 pear cultivars were tested for the presence of the four most important pome fruit viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV. The most frequent viruses of apple were ACLSV (72% and ASPV (69%, whereas for pear those were ASGV (69% and ACLSV (64%. Biological indexing was more reliable than ELISA for virus detection. Multiplex RT-PCR results of 20 randomly selected apple cultivars were in line with biological indexing.This is the first report of the presence of ACLSV, ASPV, ASGV and ApMV in Bosnia and Herzegovina in pome fruits.

Biljana Loli?

2007-01-01

293

Two cysteine proteinases respond to bacterial and WSSV challenge in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Yun-Dong; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-10-01

294

Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, potato virus Y (PVY, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, tobacco each virus (TEV and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV.The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were investigated for 4 years (2002-2005. During this period many different tobacco growing localities in Vojvodina and central Serbia were monitored and samples showing virus symptoms were collected. The collected samples were tested by DAS ELISA using polyclonal antisera, specific for the detection of PVY, TSWV, TMV, CMV, AMV and TRSV.The results obtained for the tobacco virus distribution during these four years of investigation proved the presence of four economically important viruses in our country, whose frequencies varied from year to year. In 2002, 2003 and 2004, the most frequent was TSWV(86.84%; 79% and 49.56%, respectively, while in 2005 PVY was prevalent (56.16%. All viruses detected in the samples tested were present in single or mixed infections. A corellation was established between the field symptoms on tobacco and the virus causal agents.The results obtained showed that TSWV and PVY were the most important tobacco viruses in our country, so that further research of tobacco virus diseases should be directed towards their more detailed characterization.

Nataša Duduk

2006-01-01

295

Recombinant expression of the coat protein of Botrytis virus X and development of an immunofluorescence detection method to study its intracellular distribution in Botrytis cinerea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Botrytis cinerea is infected by many mycoviruses with varying phenotypical effects on the fungal host, including Botrytis virus X (BVX), a mycovirus that has been found in several B. cinerea isolates worldwide with no obvious effects on growth. Here we present results from serological and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) studies using antiserum raised against the coat protein of BVX expressed in Escherichia coli fused to maltose-binding protein. Due to the high yield of recombinant protein it was possible to raise antibodies that recognized BVX particles. An indirect ELISA, using BVX antibodies, detected BVX in partially purified virus preparations from fungal isolates containing BVX alone and in mixed infection with Botrytis virus F. The BVX antiserum also proved suitable for IFM studies. Intensely fluorescing spots (presumed to be virus aggregates) were found to be localized in hyphal cell compartments and spores of natural and experimentally infected B. cinerea isolates using IFM. Immunofluorescently labelled sections through fungal tissue, as well as fixed mycelia grown on glass slides, showed aggregations of virions closely associated with fungal cell membranes and walls, next to septal pores, and in hyphal tips. Also, calcofluor white staining of mature cell walls of virus-transfected Botrytis clones revealed numerous cell wall areas with increased amounts of chitin/glycoproteins. Our results indicate that some BVX aggregates are closely associated with the fungal cell wall and raise the question of whether mycoviruses may be able to move through the wall and therefore not be totally dependent on intracellular routes of transmission. PMID:22855784

Boine, Barbara; Kingston, Richard L; Pearson, Michael N

2012-11-01

296

Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots  

CERN Document Server

In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

2014-01-01

297

The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination i...

Strain George M; Schnabel Robert D; Famula Thomas R; Cargill Edward J; Murphy Keith E

2005-01-01

298

Smith-McGuckin spot.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Direct inspection of the tympanic membrane, especially with the help of the microscope, continues to be an important part of the examination of the patient suffering from ear disease. Accurate assessment of the varied appearances can be helpful in anticipating the prognosis in SMOM and may give information about the pathology of CSOM and cholesteatoma. The Smith-McGuckin spot was first described 20 years ago (Smith 1964, R Thomas 1965, personal communication) and its significance is reviewed....

Smith, C. W.

1985-01-01

299

Spot synthesis: observations and optimizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positionally addressable syntheses of peptides on continuous cellulose membranes (spot synthesis) have often been reported in detail, but important questions dealing with synthesis quality, reproducibility and subsequent binding assays have largely been under-emphasized. In this report we have investigated some of these problems. The most important results were: (i) the signal intensity of ligate binding to cellulose-bound peptides and the affinity of the corresponding soluble peptides show good correlation, illustrated by three different ligate binding assays; (ii) reducing peptide density on the cellulose avoids the 'ring spot' effect, i.e. where less binding is observed in the spot-center compared to the rim. We recommend a peptide density of 10 nmol/cm2 as a reasonable starting point for further optimization; (iii) statistical analysis of binding assay reproducibility with more than 15000 peptides resulted in a mean standard signal deviation of 0.18; and (iv) optimization of side-chain deprotection revealed that a 30-min pretreatment of the cellulose with 90% trifluoroacetic acid followed by the standard deprotection protocol resulted in higher purity of the synthesized products. PMID:10532237

Kramer, A; Reineke, U; Dong, L; Hoffmann, B; Hoffmüller, U; Winkler, D; Volkmer-Engert, R; Schneider-Mergener, J

1999-10-01

300

Spot-to-Beam Procedure  

CERN Document Server

We describe the interactive "STB" (spot_to_beam) MATHEMATICA procedure for a) approximating the spot image at the screen as ellipse, b) getting five parameters of the elliptic beam (two diameters, center coordinates, and orientation angle). The basic idea is to "map" the reference holes at screen onto the X-Y plane normal to the beam direction (Z-axis). All distortions of the image, e.g., due to camera-screen disposition can be, in principle, taken into account,assuming that the hole positions at screen and the orientation of the screen are known. With the non-linear LMS fitting, the "curved-coordinate-system" of the holes at image is transferred to the Cartesian coordinate system at XY-plane. Then the fitting ellipse is found in this latter system, by solving the system of N linear equations for 5 unknown parameters of beam ellipse, where N>5 is a number of reference points on edge of spot image. The examples of the real measurements at various screens will be demonstrated. The accuracy of beam diameters is ...

Seidov, Zakir F; Yahalom, Asher

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Virus crystallography.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Virus crystallography can provide atomic resolution structures for intact isometric virus particles and components thereof. The methodology is illustrated by reference to a particularly complex example, the core of the bluetongue virus (700 A).

Fry, Ee; Grimes, J.; Stuart, Di

1999-01-01

302

First record of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in the USA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A tospovirus was identified in tomato plants from two counties in Florida by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of portions of the S, M and L genomic segments. The predicted amino-acid sequences of the N protein of PCR products from four plant samples were >96% identical to those of TCSV. Part [...] ial nucleic acid sequences of the L and M RNA were >97% identical to those reported for TCSV isolates. Extracts from field samples infected test plants and produced symptoms similar to those reported for TCSV. This is the first report of an isolate of TCSV in Florida and in the USA.

Aurora, Londoño; Heather, Capobianco; Shouan, Zhang; Jane E., Polston.

303

Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Morogoro virus, although a large proportion shows specific antibodies.

Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy

2009-01-01

304

Hot White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

The article covers the physical properties and evolution of single white dwarfs ranging in temperature from 20,000K to 200,000 and higher, the hottest know electron-degenerate stars. After discussing the classification of their spectra, the author reviews the known properties, parameters, evolutionary state, as well as persisting and new puzzles regarding all spectroscopic subclasses of hot white dwarfs: the hot DA white dwarfs, the DAO white dwarfs, the PG1159 degenerates, the DO white dwarfs, the DB white dwarfs, the DBA white dwarfs, and the Hot DQ white dwarfs (an entirely new class). The most recent observational and theoretical advances are brought to bear on the topic.

Sion, Edward M

2011-01-01

305

An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

306

White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

2013-02-01

307

7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture ...Spotted Cotton § 28.421 Good Middling Spotted Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling...

2010-01-01

308

7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture...Spotted Cotton § 28.422 Strict Middling Spotted Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented...

2010-01-01

309

7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423 Agriculture ...Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented...

2010-01-01

310

7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture ...Spotted Cotton § 28.425 Low Middling Spotted Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented...

2010-01-01

311

NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 [SEVENS  

Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1405 ref|NP_477758.1| wsv236 [Shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33240.1| wsv2 ... 36 [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89160.1| WSSV292 ... [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] NP_477758.1 2.4 29% ...

312

NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1232 [SEVENS  

Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1232 ref|NP_478006.1| wsv484 [Shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33485.1| wsv4 ... 84 [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL88879.1| WSSV011 ... [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] NP_478006.1 8.9 27% ...

313

NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2338 [SEVENS  

Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2338 ref|NP_477662.1| wsv140 [Shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33144.1| wsv1 ... 40 [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89063.1| WSSV195 ... [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] NP_477662.1 0.54 32% ...

314

NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1367 [SEVENS  

Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1367 ref|NP_477616.1| wsv094 [Shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33098.1| wsv0 ... 94 [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89018.1| WSSV150 ... [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] NP_477616.1 1.7 37% ...

315

NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 [SEVENS  

Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1331 ref|NP_477761.1| wsv239 [Shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL33243.1| wsv2 ... 39 [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] gb|AAL89163.1| WSSV295 ... [shrimp ... white spot syndrome virus] NP_477761.1 7e-05 36% ...

316

Design of Spot Welding Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Welding robot has played an extremely important role in the welding production of high-quality, high-efficiency. The paper designed the hardware structure and software of spot welding robot. The hardware design mainly includes the major modules of arm and base; the hardware design includes two parts: manual mode and automatic mode. Manual mode is generally used for the robot system installation, commissioning and troubleshooting, and the major modules are controlled by the start of the corresponding button; automatic mode is mainly used for production stage. The welding robot uses PLC for controlling; the system runs faster and has a short production cycle.

Zelun Li

2013-11-01

317

A Strong Hot Spot Theorem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A real number alpha is said to be b-normal if every m-long string of digits appears in the base-b expansion of alpha with limiting frequency b-m. We prove that alpha is b-normal if and only if it possesses no base-b ''hot spot''. In other words, alpha is b-normal if and only if there is no real number y such that smaller and smaller neighborhoods of y are visited by the successive shifts of the base-b expansion of alpha with larger and larger frequencies, relative to the lengths of these neighborhoods

Bailey, David H.; Misiurewicz, Michal

2005-12-31

318

Symbol Spotting in Digital Libraries  

CERN Document Server

The specific problem of symbol recognition in graphical documents requires additional techniques to those developed for character recognition. The most well-known obstacle is the so-called Sayre paradox: correct recognition requires good segmentation, yet improvement in segmentation is achieved using information provided by the recognition process. This dilemma can be avoided by techniques that identify sets of regions containing useful information. Such symbol-spotting methods allow the detection of symbols in maps or technical drawings without having to fully segment or fully recognize the e

Rusinol, Marcal

2010-01-01

319

Epidemiology of apple leaf spot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Apple leaf spot (ALS) caused by Colletotrichum spp. is a major disease of apple (Malus domestica) in Southern Brazil. The epidemiology of this disease was studied in experiments carried out in the counties of Passo Fundo and Vacaria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, from February 1998 to October 2000. The disease was found in all the six apple orchards sampled in the growing seasons of 1997/98 and 1998/99. The fungus isolates associated with ALS fit the characteristics of C. gloeosporioides (75%),...

Crusius Luciano, U.; Forcelini Carlos, A.; Sanhueza Rosa, M. V.; Fernandes Jose?, M. C.

2002-01-01

320

Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

Yunus, M. A.; Rani, M. N. Abdul; Ouyang, H.; Deng, H.; James, S.

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

322

Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

Yunus, M A; Rani, M N Abdul; Ouyang, H; Deng, H; James, S, E-mail: h.ouyang@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, Harrison Hughes Building, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

2011-07-19

323

Spot and Runway Departure Advisor  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

Jung, Yoon Chul

2013-01-01

324

Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility  

Science.gov (United States)

Lockheed Martin has built a Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility at our Santa Cruz test site in Northern California. SPOT consists of three 1 meter optical telescopes controlled by a common site management system to individually or cooperatively task each system to observe orbital debris and earth orbiting satellites. The telescopes are mounted in Az/El fork mounts capable of rapid repointing and arc-sec class open loop tracking. Each telescope is installed in a separate clam shell dome and has aft mounted benches to facilitate installing various instrument suites. The telescope domes are mounted on movable rail carts that can be positioned arbitrarily along tracks to provide variable baselines for sparse aperture imaging. The individual telescopes achieved first light in June 2012 and have been used since to observe satellites and orbital debris. Typical observations consist of direct photometric imaging at visible and near infrared wavelengths, and also include spectroscopic and hypertemporal measurements. Rayleigh beacon adaptive optical systems for atmospheric aberration correction and high rate J-Band trackers for each telescope will be added in 2015. Coherent combinations of the three telescopes as an interferometric imaging array using actively stabilized free space variable delay optical paths and fringe tracking sensors is also planned. The first narrow band (I band) interferometric fringes will be formed in the summer of 2014, with wide band (R, I, H) interferometric imaging occurring by early 2015.

Shivitz, Robert; Kendrick, Richard; Mason, James; Bold, Matthew; Kubo, Tracy; Bock, Kevin; Tyler, David

2014-07-01

325

Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection.

Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F. [Foundation Joint Implementation Network JIN, Paterswolde (Netherlands); Overmars, P. (ed.) [Energy Delta Institute EDI, Groningen (Netherlands)

2006-01-15

326

Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N?=?165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

2014-01-01

327

Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N?=?165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesus; Farfan, Miguel Angel; Marquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

2014-01-01

328

Origin of Jupiter's Great Red Spot  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Great Red Spot, a giant vortex in the Jovian atmosphere, may owe its origin to the structure of Jupiter's magnetic field and radiation belt. Several Spot parameters resemble those of the Brazil anomaly, a negative anomaly in the terrestrial field. It is shown qualitatively that the Spot has developed at the site of a negative anomaly in the Jovian field and is continually supplied by precipitation of energetic radiation-belt particles into the planet's atmosphere

329

ATLAS Offline Beam Spot in 2012  

CERN Document Server

Precise knowledge of the shape and location of the beam spot, the luminous region where collisions occur, is an important input to many aspects of ATLAS operations, including the vertex reconstruction algorithm, the detector alignment, simulation conditions, and the calibration of the luminosity algorithms using van der Meer scans. This poster describes the fit procedure used to determine the beam spot, and presents beam spot results from 2012 pp fills.

Yu, D; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

330

Turbulent spots in a Stokes boundary layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The turbulent spots which form in a boundary layer generated by the harmonic oscillations of an incompressible fluid are investigated by numerical means. In order to allow the formation of turbulent spots, the dimensions of the computational box have been increased with respect to previous numerical investigations (Costamagna et al. (2003)). The boundaries of the spots are identified and the speeds of the head, tail, leftmost and rightmost points, are computed. The computed speeds well compare with those measured in steady boundary layers.

331

Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m-1. For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m-1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

332

Identification, characterization and functional analysis of a serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

Science.gov (United States)

As important arthropod immune responses, prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation and Toll pathway initiation are mediated by serine proteinase cascades and regulated by serpins. Herein, a serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin), encoding for 415 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 46,639 Da and isoelectric point of 7.03 was characterized from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that Lvserpin shared the highest similarity with Penaeus monodon serpin6 (87%). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the transcripts of Lvserpin were detected in all the examined tissues and most highly expressed in gill. The expression profiles of Lvserpin were greatly fluctuated upon infection of Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysoleikticus or White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Double stranded RNA-mediated suppression of Lvserpin resulted in a significant increase in the transcripts of two clip-domain serine proteinases (PPAE and PPAF), prophenoloxidase (proPO), anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), Crustin and penaeidin3 (Pens3) and also increased the high cumulative mortality post V. anguillarum injection. Besides, the recombinant Lvserpin protein (rLvserpin) was purified and exhibited inhibitory activity against trypsin. Also the rLvserpin showed inhibition on prophenoloxidase activation and bacterial growth. Hence, we proposed that the Lvserpin played important role in the shrimp innate immunity. PMID:24211341

Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; He, Shulin; Qian, Zhaoying; Wang, Xianzong; Mao, Aitao; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

2014-03-01

333

A spot market for electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electric utilities in many parts of the world are being transformed from regulated monopolies to competitive enterprises. They are buying power from sources they don't control, and experiencing new competitive pressures in selling. In response, utilities have begun to use such techniques as ''active demand-side management'' and ''real-time pricing'' to improve their responsiveness to customers and to create new opportunities for revenue. As an extension of the industry's evolution so far, this article describes how the utilities industry might develop a ''spot market'' for electricity, with the utility providing value in the form of a service for arbitrating requests and demands from various generators and users. The author presents a possible future organization of the electricity market, for which there is no model currently known. Most of its elements do exist in some form at one or more power companies around the world

334

Multi-spot porous silicon chip prepared from asymmetric electrochemical etching for human immunoglobin G sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multi-spot porous silicon (MSPS)-based optical biosensor was developed to specify the biomolecules. MSPS chip was generated by an electrochemical etching of silicon wafer using an asymmetric electrode configuration in aqueous ethanolic HF solution and constituted with nine arrayed porous silicon. MSPS prepared from anisotropic etching conditions displayed the Fabry-Pérot fringe patterns which varied spatially across the porous silicon (PS). Each spot displayed different reflection resonances and different pore characteristics as a function of the lateral distance from the Pt counter electrode. The sensor system consists of the 3 x 3 spot array of porous silicon modified with Protein A. The system was probed with various fragments of an aqueous Human Immunoglobin G (Ig G) analyte. The sensor operated by measurement of the reflection patterns in the white light reflection spectrum of MSPS. Molecular binding and specificity was detected as a shift in wavelength of these Fabry-Pérot fringe patterns. PMID:22103124

Um, Sungyong; Cho, Bomin; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Sohn, Honglae

2011-08-01

335

Genetic characterization of Blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus, a novel RNA virus with unique genetic features.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberries in several south-eastern states in the USA. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centres on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves. Double-stranded RNA was extracted from symptomatic leaves suggesting the presence of virus(es) possibly involved in the disease. Sequencing revealed the presence of a novel RNA virus with a ~14 kb genome divided into four RNA segments. Sequence analyses showed that the virus, for which we propose the name Blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus (BNRBV), possesses protein domains conserved across RNA viruses in the alpha-virus-like supergroup. Phylogenetic inferences using different genes placed BNRBV in a clade that includes the Bromoviridae, the genus Cilevirus (CiLV) and the recently characterized Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV). Despite the strong genetic relationships found among BNRBV, Cilevirus and HGSV, the genome of BNRBV contains three features that distinguish it significantly from its closest relatives: (i) the presence of two helicase domains with different evolutionary pathways, (ii) the existence of three conserved nucleotide stretches located at the 3' non-coding regions of each RNA segment and (iii) the conservation of terminal nucleotide motifs across each segment. Furthermore, CiLV and HGSV possess poly(A)-tailed bipartite and tripartite genomes, respectively, whereas BNRBV has a quadra-partite genome lacking a poly(A) tail. Based on these genetic features a new genus is proposed for the classification of BNRBV. PMID:23486668

Quito-Avila, Diego F; Brannen, Philip M; Cline, William O; Harmon, Philip F; Martin, Robert R

2013-06-01

336

Virological monitoring of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) for avian influenza.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 2003 and 2008, more than 600 white stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings in the German federal state of Brandenburg were ringed and examined for influenza A viruses. With the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 among wild birds in Germany in spring 2006, dead wild birds, including 88 white storks, were tested for infection with HPAIV. Furthermore, fresh fecal samples were examined by RT-PCR to monitor the occurrence of HPAIV in adult storks. While the monitoring of nestlings and adult white storks failed to yield evidence of influenza A virus infections in these birds, two storks found dead in April 2006 in the same location tested positive for HPAIV H5N1. Sequence analysis revealed that the virus isolated from one of the storks belonged to clade 2.2, which was commonly found in wild birds in the north of Germany and other European countries during the epidemic in 2006. Despite these two cases, white storks seemed to serve as neither a vector nor as a reservoir for HPAIV in Germany. The risk of white storks transmitting HPAIV to domestic poultry and humans is low. PMID:20095160

Müller, T; Hlinak, A; Freuling, C; Mühle, R U; Engelhardt, A; Globig, A; Schulze, C; Starick, E; Eggers, U; Sass, B; Wallschläger, D; Teifke, J; Harder, T; Conraths, F J

2009-12-01

337

Hot Spot Removal System: System description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

NONE

1997-09-01

338

Hot Spot Removal System: System description  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

339

Emmons spot forcing for turbulent drag reduction  

Science.gov (United States)

An Emmons spot-generation wind tunnel system has been designed to trigger closely spaced Emmons spots in the spanwise and longitudinal directions of an aerodynamic surface. For certain combinations of generator frequencies and amplitude, hole size, and hole spacing, experimental results indicate smaller turbulence scales and a reduction in skin friction of about 15 percent.

Goodman, W. L.

1985-01-01

340

Spot them in the spot: analysis of abused substances using dried blood spots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and DBS analysis have increasingly received attention during recent years. Furthermore, a substantial number of DBS methods has recently become available in clinical, forensic and occupational toxicology. In this review, we provide an overview of the different DBS-based methods that have been developed for detecting (markers of) abused substances. These include both legal and illegal drugs belonging to different categories, including cannabinoids, cocaine and metabolites, opioids, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, amphetamines and analogs, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, ketamine and novel psychoactive substances such as cathinones. Markers of ethanol consumption and tobacco use are also covered in this review. Since the majority of published methods has shown promising results overall, an interesting role for DBS analysis in diverse toxicological applications can be envisaged. For the distinct applications, we discuss the specific potential and benefits of DBS, the associated limitations and challenges, as well as recent developments and future perspectives. PMID:25383733

Sadones, Nele; Capiau, Sara; De Kesel, Pieter Mm; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses. PMID:18385370

Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

2008-04-01

342

Heartland Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... However, recent studies suggest that ticks, namely Lone Star ticks , may transmit the virus. Where have cases ... DVBD Color Brochure Heartland virus Specimen Submission/Reagent Ordering Arboviral Specimens Bacterial Zoonotic Specimens Dengue Specimens Muestras ...

343

Ryan White Program  

Science.gov (United States)

... and bisexual men. 14 Ryan White Parts, Grantees, & Structure The Ryan White Program consists of several “Parts” ( ... AIDS Program Population Fact Sheet: Men Who Have Sex with Men ; August 2012. ? Return to text HRSA. ...

344

50 CFR 660.373 - Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery management.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery management. 660.373 Section 660.373 ...Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery management. (a) Sectors. In order...

2010-10-01

345

ECHO virus  

Science.gov (United States)

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

346

Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV, Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, Potato Virus Y (PVY, Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV, Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV and Potato Virus X(PVX. This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test with specific monoclonal antibodies.Serological results proved the presence of four tobacco viruses (TMV, CMV, PVY and AMV, while TSWV, TRSV and PVX were not found in the tested samples of tobacco crops in Montenegro. The results also showed that TMV and CMV were the most frequent (44.6% and 41.5% of tested samples, respectively followed by PVY (15.4% and the least frequent AMV (3.1%. Most samples were infected with one of the examined viruses. In the PVY population found in Montenegro, its necrotic strain (PVYN was absolutely predominant.The results indicated the significance of TMV and CMV concerning tobacco viral infections in Montenegro, as well as a necessity of their detailed characterization at biological and molecular level.

Jelena Zindovi?

2007-01-01

347

Rethinking White Supremacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The article addresses the nature of power relations that sustain and disguise white racial hegemony in contemporary ‘western’ society. Following the insights offered by critical race theory (CRT), white supremacy is conceived as a comprehensive condition whereby the interests and perceptions of white subjects are continually placed centre stage and assumed as ‘normal’. These ...

Gillborn, David

2006-01-01