WorldWideScience

Sample records for white dwarf g191-b2b

  1. Stellar laboratories. VI. New Mo IV - VII oscillator strengths and the molybdenum abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Hoyer, D; Werner, K; Demleitner, M; Kruk, J W

    2015-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. To identify molybdenum lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Mo abundances, newly calculated Mo IV - VII oscillator strengths are used. We identified twelve Mo V and nine Mo VI lines in the UV spectrum of RE0503-289 and measured a photospheric Mo abundance of 1.2 - 3.0 x 10**-4 (mass fraction, 22500 - 56400 times the solar abundance). In addition, from the As V and Sn IV resonance lines, we measured mass fractions of arsenic (0.5 - 1.3 x 10**-5, about 300 - 1200 times solar) and tin (1.3 - 3.2 x 10**-4, about 14300 35200 times solar). For G191-B2B, upper limits were determined for the abundances of Mo (5.3 x 10*...

  2. Stellar laboratories II. New Zn IV and Zn V oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2014-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. In a recent analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B, 21 Zn IV lines were newly identified. Because of the lack of Zn IV data, transition probabilities of the isoelectronic Ge VI were adapted for a first, coarse determination of the photospheric Zn abundance. We performed new calculations of Zn IV and Zn V oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Zn IV - V spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. In the UV spectrum of G191-B2B, we identify 31 Zn IV and 16 Zn V lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in an...

  3. Stellar Laboratories II. New Zn Iv and Zn v Oscillator Strengths and Their Validation in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (SN) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. In a recent analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DA-type white dwarf G191B2B,21 Zn iv lines were newly identified. Because of the lack of Zn iv data, transition probabilities of the isoelectronic Ge vi were adapted for a first, coarse determination of the photospheric Zn abundance.Aims. Reliable Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths are used to improve the Zn abundance determination and to identify more Zn lines in the spectra of G191B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503289. Methods. We performed new calculations of Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Zn iv v spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-SN UV observations of G191B2B and RE 0503289. Results. In the UV spectrum of G191B2B, we identify 31 Zn iv and 16 Zn v lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce well almost all of them at log Zn 5.52 0.2 (mass fraction, about 1.7 times solar). In particular, the Zn iv Zn v ionization equilibrium, which is a very sensitive Teff indicator, is well reproduced with the previously determined Teff 60 000 2000 K and log g 7.60 0.05. In the spectrum of RE 0503289, we identified 128 Zn v lines for the first time and determined log Zn 3.57 0.2 (155 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zn iv and Zn v line profiles in two white dwarf (G191B2B and RE 0503289) ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed us to determine the photospheric Zn abundance of these two stars precisely.

  4. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  5. Stellar laboratories III. New Ba V, Ba VI, and Ba VII oscillator strengths and the barium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2014-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Reliable Ba V - VII oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. We newly calculated Ba V - VII oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba VI and Ba VII lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE0503-289. The Ba VI / Ba VII ionization equil...

  6. Stellar laboratories IV. New Ga IV, Ga V, and Ga VI oscillator strengths and the gallium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2015-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These atmospheres are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that are used to calculate them. Reliable Ga IV - VI oscillator strengths are used to identify Ga lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ga abundances. We newly calculated Ga IV - VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for analyzing of Ga lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. We unambiguously detected 20 isolated and 6 blended (with lines of other species) Ga V lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE0503-289. The identification of Ga IV and Ga VI lines is uncertain because th...

  7. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G 191-B2B

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Kruk, J W; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    H-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observation. We establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G 191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and ...

  8. The Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA: Establishing a Database of Synthetic Stellar Flux Standards I. NLTE Spectral Analysis of the DA-Type White Dwarf G191-B2B *,**,***,****

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims. We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at Teff =60 000 +/- 2000K and log g=7.60 +/- 0.05.We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions. The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare.

  9. Deuterium abundance toward G191-B2B: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Hebrard, G.; Desert, J. -M.; Ferlet, R.; Etangs, A. Lecavelier Des; Howk, J. C.; ANDRE, M.; W. P. Blair; Friedman, S. D.; Kruk, J. W.; Lacour, S.; Moos, H. W.; Sembach, K.; Chayer, P.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of the hot white dwarf G191-B2B, covering the wavelength region 905-1187A, were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). This data was used in conjunction with existing high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations to evaluate the total HI, DI, OI and NI column densities along the line of sight. Previous determinations of N(DI) based upon GHRS and STIS observations were controversial due to the saturated strength of the DI Lyman-alpha...

  10. Deuterium abundance toward G191-B2B Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, M; Hébrard, G; Désert, J M; Ferlet, R; Etangs, A L; Howk, J C; André, M; Blair, W P; Friedman, S D; Kruk, J W; Lacour, S; Moos, H W; Sembach, K R; Chayer, P; Jenkins, E B; Köster, D; Linsky, J L; Wood, B E; Oegerle, W R; Sonneborn, G; York, D G

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of the hot white dwarf G191-B2B, covering the wavelength region 905-1187A, were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). This data was used in conjunction with existing high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations to evaluate the total HI, DI, OI and NI column densities along the line of sight. Previous determinations of N(DI) based upon GHRS and STIS observations were controversial due to the saturated strength of the DI Lyman-alpha line. In the present analysis the column density of DI has been measured using only the unsaturated Lyman-beta and Lyman-gamma lines observed by FUSE. A careful inspection of possible systematic uncertainties tied to the modeling of the stellar continuum or to the uncertainties in the FUSE instrumental characteristics has been performed. The column densities derived are: log N(DI) = 13.40 +/-0.07, log N(OI) = 14.86 +/-0.07, and log N(NI) = 13.87 +/-0.07 quoted with 2-sigma uncertainties. The measurement of the HI column ...

  11. Towards a standardised line list for G191-B2B, and other DA type objects

    CERN Document Server

    Preval, Simon P; Holberg, Jay B; Dickinson, N J

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the far UV spectrum of G191-B2B over the range of 900-1700{\\AA} using co-added data from the FUSE and STIS archives. While previous identifications made by Holberg et al. (2003) are reaffirmed in this work, it is found that many previously unidentified lines can now be attributed to Fe, Ni, and a few lighter metals. Future work includes extending this detailed analysis to a wider range of DA objects, in the expectation that a more complete analysis of their atmospheres can be realised.

  12. Limits on the dependence of the fine-structure constant on gravitational potential from white-dwarf spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J C; Flambaum, V V; Ong, A; Webb, J K; Barrow, John D; Barstow, M A; Preval, S P; Holberg, J B

    2013-07-01

    We propose a new probe of the dependence of the fine-structure constant ? on a strong gravitational field using metal lines in the spectra of white-dwarf stars. Comparison of laboratory spectra with far-UV astronomical spectra from the white-dwarf star G191-B2B recorded by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph gives limits of ??/?=(4.2±1.6)×10(-5) and (-6.1±5.8)×10(-5) from FeV and NiV spectra, respectively, at a dimensionless gravitational potential relative to Earth of ???5×10(-5). With better determinations of the laboratory wavelengths of the lines employed these results could be improved by up to 2 orders of magnitude. PMID:23862989

  13. Limits on variations of the fine-structure constant with gravitational potential from white-dwarf spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C; Ong, A; Webb, J K; Barrow, John D; Barstow, M A; Preval, S P; Holberg, J B

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new probe of the variation of the fine structure constant, alpha, in a strong gravitational field using metal lines in the spectra of white dwarf stars. Comparison of laboratory spectra with far-UV astronomical spectra from the white dwarf star G191-B2B recorded by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph gives limits on the fractional variation of alpha of (Delta alpha/alpha)=(4.2 +- 1.6)x10^(-5) and (-6.1 +- 5.8)x10^(-5) from Fe V and Ni V spectra, respectively, at a dimensionless gravitational potential relative to Earth of (Delta phi) ~ 5x10^(-5). With better determinations of the laboratory wavelengths of the lines employed these results could be improved by up to two orders of magnitude.

  14. The Ionization of the Local Interstellar Medium, as Revealed by FUSE Observations of N, O and Ar toward White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, E B; Gry, C; Vallerga, J V; Sembach, K R; Shelton, R L; Ferlet, R; Vidal-Madjar, A; York, D G; Linsky, J L; Roth, K C; Dupree, A K; Edelstein, J D

    2000-01-01

    FUSE spectra of the white dwarf stars G191-B2B, GD 394, WD 2211-495 and WD 2331-475 cover the absorption features out of the ground electronic states of N I, N II, N III, O I and Ar I in the far ultraviolet, providing new insights on the origin of the partial ionization of the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), and for the case of G191-B2B, the interstellar cloud that immediately surrounds the solar system. Toward these targets the interstellar abundances of Ar I, and sometimes N I, are significantly below their cosmic abundances relative to H I. In the diffuse interstellar medium, these elements are not likely to be depleted onto dust grains. Generally, we expect that Ar should be more strongly ionized than H (and also O and N whose ionizations are coupled to that of H via charge exchange reactions) because the cross section for the photoionization of Ar I is very high. Our finding that Ar I/H I is low may help to explain the surprisingly high ionization of He in the LISM found by other investigators. Our res...

  15. Measuring chemical evolution and gravitational dependence of \\alpha using ultraviolet Fe V and Ni V transitions in white-dwarf spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, A; Flambaum, V V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the details of the ab initio high-precision configuration interaction and many-body perturbation theory calculations that were used in a previous work to place limits on the dependence of the fine-structure constant, alpha, on the gravitational field of the white-dwarf star G191-B2B. These calculations were combined with laboratory wavelengths and spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to obtain limits on the gravitational alpha-dependence using Fe V and Ni V transitions. The uncertainty in these results are dominated by the uncertainty in the laboratory wavelengths. In this work we also present ab initio calculations of the isotopic shifts of the Fe V transitions. We show that improved laboratory spectra will enable determination of the relative isotope abundances in Fe V to an accuracy ~20%. Therefore this work provides a strong motivation for new laboratory measurements.

  16. Accreting White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hernanz, M

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear (type Ia) supernovae are explosions in accreting white dwarfs, but the exact scenario leading to these explosions is still unclear. An important step to clarify this point is to understand the behaviour of accreting white dwarfs in close binary systems. The characteristics of the white dwarf (mass, chemical composition, luminosity), the accreted material (chemical composition) and those related with the properties of the binary system (mass accretion rate), are crucial for the further evolution towards the explosion. An analysis of the outcome of accretion and the implications for the growth of the white dwarf towards the Chandrasekhar mass and its thermonuclear explosion is presented.

  17. White dwarfs - fossil stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and properties of white dwarfs are analyzed. The physical structure of white dwarf interiors is balanced by a quantum-mechanical effect known as electron degeneracy pressure. Besides preventing gravitational collapse, the degenerate electrons also control the thermal structure of the stars. The transport of energy in the interior and near the surface of the stars is discussed. The surface composition of the white dwarfs is examined. It is observed that the surface of the stars contains only one element; 80 percent of the stars contain only H and the remaining stars contain He. It is determined that the intense gravity of the stars leads to a layering arrangement of material within the star. The origin and evolution of white dwarfs, in particular their crystal stage, are described

  18. White dwarf planets

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor Amy; Veras Dimitri; Villaver Eva; Mustill Alexander J.; Wyatt Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 ? 5?M?...

  19. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  20. Gaia and white dwarf - brown dwarf binaries .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, S. L.

    White dwarf-brown dwarf binaries are excellent benchmark systems, as the white dwarf provides an accurate (although model dependent) age calibrator for the brown dwarf. While these systems are rare, with authors suggesting the frequency to be between 0.5 and 2 %, they are being used to provide ages for the coolest brown dwarfs (e.g. WD0806-661) and also as testbeds for irradiated atmospheres. Gaia is estimated to detect ˜2000 of these systems using astrometry, enlarging the sample, and allowing limits to be placed on the brown dwarf desert.

  1. White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Moehler, S.; Bono, G.

    2008-01-01

    We review empirical and theoretical findings concerning white dwarfs in Galactic globular clusters. Since their detection is a critical issue we describe in detail the various efforts to find white dwarfs in globular clusters. We then outline the advantages of using cluster white dwarfs to investigate the formation and evolution of white dwarfs and concentrate on evolutionary channels that appear to be unique to globular clusters. We also discuss the usefulness of globular c...

  2. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  3. White Dwarf Stars (With 37 figures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    Introduction White Dwarfs as Useful Stars Origins: the Clue of White Dwarf Masses The Main Channel Why Such a Narrow Mass Distribution? Observed Properties of White Dwarfs Discovery of White Dwarfs Finding White Dwarfs White Dwarf Colors and the White Dwarf Luminosity Function White Dwarf Optical Spectra Distribution of Spectral Types with Effective Temperatures Magnetic White Dwarfs Pulsating White Dwarfs Physics of White Dwarf Interiors Equation of State Heat Transport in Degenerate Matter Nonideal Effects Specific Heat White Dwarf Formation and Early Cooling Thermal Pulses on the AGB Departure from the AGB The PNN Phase Nuclear Shutdown and Neutrino Cooling Chemical Evolution of White Dwarfs Diffusive Processes Accretion of "Fresh" ISM vs. Mass Loss Convection Chemical Evolution Scenarios White Dwarf Cooling and the White Dwarf Luminosity Function A Simplified Cooling Model Complications: Neutrinos and Crystallization Realistic Cooling Calculations Construction of Theoretical Luminosity Functions The Age of the Galactic Disk Nonradial Oscillations of White Dwarfs: Theory Review of Observations Hydrodynamic Equations Local Analysis and the Dispersion Relation g-mode Period Spacings Mode Trapping Rotational and Magnetic Splitting The Seismological Toolbox Pulsating White Dwarfs The Whole Earth Telescope PG 1159 Stars and Pulsating PNNs GD 358: A Pulsating DB White Dwarf The ZZ Ceti Stars Astrophysical Applications of White Dwarfs Stellar Evolution as a Spectator Sport The White Dwarf Luminosity Function and Our Galaxy White Dwarfs and Cluster Ages The Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function and Galaxy Distances Driving and Damping of Pulsations and Convective Efficiency in - White Dwarfs Ceti Stars Final Thoughts References

  4. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 ? 5?M?, any planets within about 1 ? 5?AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ??2?AU for a 1??M? progenitor and ??10?AU for a 5?M? progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  5. White Dwarfs in GALEX Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    We have cross-correlated the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ) white dwarf catalog with the GALEX 2nd Data Release and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 5 to obtain ultraviolet photometry (FUV, NUV) for approximately 700 objects and optical photometry (ugriz) for approximately 800 objects. We have compared the optical-ultraviolet colors to synthetic white dwarf colors to obtain temperature estimates for approximately 250 of these objects. These white dwarfs have e...

  6. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bwhite dwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  7. Evolution of White Dwarf Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Althaus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

  8. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within arm's reach of the universe's age. Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 made the observations from January through April 2001. These optical observations were combined to create the above images. Spectral data were also taken. M4 is 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Scorpius. The full press release on the latest findings is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/pr.html . The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.

  9. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are intrinsically equally bright, these binaries stand out in any colour-colour diagram. These studies have mainly used the largest astronomical database available at present, the Sloan Digital Sky Su...

  10. Equations of State for White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is about deriving a few equations of state for white dwarfs below the regime of neutron drip. White dwarfs - also called degenerate dwarfs, composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter - are luminous and the color of the light they are emitting is white, hence their name. Because of the relatively enormous density, the gravitational potential of a white dwarf causes a collapse. White dwarfs are classified as compact objects, meaning that their life begins wh...

  11. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity of white dwarfs can be inferred from spectroscopy, the internal structure of these compact stars can be unveiled only by means of asteroseismology, an approach based on the comparison between the observed pulsation periods of variable stars and the periods of appropriate theoretical models. In this communication, we first briefly describe the physical properties of white dwarf stars and the various families of pulsating white dwarfs known up to the present day, and then we present two recent analysis carried out by the La...

  12. The halo white dwarf population

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Hernanz, M.; Mochkovitch, R.; Torres, S.

    1998-01-01

    Halo white dwarfs can provide important information about the properties and evolution of the galactic halo. In this paper we compute, assuming a standard IMF and updated models of white dwarf cooling, the expected luminosity function, both in luminosity and in visual magnitude, for different star formation rates. We show that a deep enough survey (limiting magnitude > 20) could provide important information about the halo age and the duration of the formation stage. We also...

  13. White Dwarf Planets from GAIA

    OpenAIRE

    Silvotti, Roberto; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of high-precision astrometry with GAIA for detection of giant planetary companions to nearby white dwarfs. If one considers that, to date, no confirmed planets around single white dwarfs are known, the results from GAIA will be crucial to study the late-stage evolution of planetary systems and to verify the possibility that 2nd-generation planets are formed.

  14. Improved wavelengths for Fe V and Ni V for analysis of spectra of white dwarf stellar stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jacob; Nave, Gillian

    2015-08-01

    A recent paper by J.C. Berengut et al. tests for a potential variation in the fine-structure constant, ?, in the presence of a high gravitational field through spectral analysis of white-dwarf stars. The spectrum of G191-B2B has prominent Fe V and Ni V lines in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region that were used to determine any variation in ? via observed shifts in their wavelengths. Although no strong evidence for a variation was found, the authors did find a difference between values obtained for Fe V and Ni V that were indicative of a problem with the laboratory wavelengths. The laboratory wavelengths dominate the uncertainty of the measured variation, so improved values would tighten the constraints on the variation of ?.We have re-measured the spectra of Fe V and Ni V spectra in the VUV in order to reduce the wavelength uncertainties and put the two spectra on a consistent wavelength scale. The spectra were produced by a sliding spark light source with electrodes made of invar, an iron nickel alloy. Spectra of Fe V and Ni V were obtained using peak currents of 750-2000 A. The spectra were recorded using the NIST Normal Incidence Vacuum Spectrograph with phosphor image plates and photographic plates as detectors. Wavelengths from 1100 Å to 1800 Å were covered in a single exposure. A spectrum of a Pt/Ne hollow cathode lamp was also recorded for wavelength calibration.The spectra recorded on photographic plates are better resolved than the phosphor image plate spectra and are being measured in two ways. The first measures the positions of the spectral lines on a comparator, traditionally used to measure many archival spectra at NIST. The second uses a commercial image scanner to obtain a digital image of the plate that can be analyzed using line fitting software. Preliminary analysis of these spectra indicates that the literature values of the Fe V and Ni V wavelengths are not on the same scale and differ from our new measurements by up to 0.02 Å in some wavelength regions. We shall present improved analyses of the spectra using both methods and summarize their advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Singing and dancing white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accreting white dwarfs have recently been shown to exhibit non-radial pulsations similar to their non-interacting counterparts. This allows us to probe the interior of the accreting white dwarf using seismology, and may be the only way to determine masses for non-eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Improving our understanding of accreting white dwarfs will have implications for models of supernovae Type Ia. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables are also useful in establishing the effects of accretion on pulsations. A search for nonradial pulsations among suitable candidates has led to the discovery of twelve such systems known to date. With the goal of establishing an instability strip (or strips) for these pulsating accretors, we acquired HST ultra-violet time-series spectroscopy of six pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables in 2007 and 2008. This approach enables us to measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf using the co-added spectrum, and to simultaneously characterize the pulsations. We also intended to constrain the pulsation mode identification by comparing the ultra-violet amplitudes to those from near-simultaneous ground-based photometry. Our preliminary results indicate a broad instability strip in the temperature range of 10500-15400 K.

  16. Double white dwarfs and LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close pairs of white dwarfs are potential progenitors of type Ia supernovae and they are common, with the order of 100-300 million in the Galaxy. As such they will be significant, probably dominant, sources of the gravitational waves detectable by LISA. In the context of LISA's goals for fundamental physics, double white dwarfs are a source of noise, but from an astrophysical perspective, they are of considerable interest in their own right. In this paper I discuss our current knowledge of double white dwarfs and their close relatives (and possible descendants) the AM CVn stars. LISA will add to our knowledge of these systems by providing the following unique constraints: (i) an almost direct measurement of the galactic merger rate of DWDs from the detection of short period systems and their period evolution, (ii) an accurate and precise normalization of binary evolution models at shortest periods, (iii) a determination of the evolutionary pathways to the formation of AM CVn stars, (iv) measurements of the influence of tidal coupling in white dwarfs and its significance for stabilizing mass transfer, and (v) discovery of numerous examples of eclipsing white dwarfs with the potential for optical follow-up to test models of white dwarfs.

  17. Gaia photometry for white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, J M; Jordi, C; Tremblay, P E; Napiwotzki, R; Luri, X; Robin, A C; Kowalski, P M

    2014-01-01

    Context. White dwarfs can be used to study the structure and evolution of the Galaxy by analysing their luminosity function and initial mass function. Among them, the very cool white dwarfs provide the information for the early ages of each population. Because white dwarfs are intrinsically faint only the nearby (about 20 pc) sample is reasonably complete. The Gaia space mission will drastically increase the sample of known white dwarfs through its 5-6 years survey of the whole sky up to magnitude V = 20-25. Aims. We provide a characterisation of Gaia photometry for white dwarfs to better prepare for the analysis of the scientific output of the mission. Transformations between some of the most common photometric systems and Gaia passbands are derived. We also give estimates of the number of white dwarfs of the different galactic populations that will be observed. Methods. Using synthetic spectral energy distributions and the most recent Gaia transmission curves, we computed colours of three different types of...

  18. White Dwarf Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This proposal was designed to study pulse and orbital modulations in candidate DQ Herculis stars. Data on 5 stars were obtained. The best results were obtained on YY Draconis, which exhibited a strongly pulsed hard X-ray flux, and even suggested a transition between one-pole and two-pole emission during the course of the observation. This result is being readied for inclusion in a comprehensive study of YY Draconis. A strong pulsation appeared to be present also in H0857-242, but with a period of about 50 minutes, confusion with the first harmonic of the satellite's orbital frequency is possible. So that result is uncertain. A negative result was obtained on 4UO608-49 (V347 Pup), suggesting either that the X-ray identification is incorrect, or that the source is very transient. Finally, data was obtained on V1432 Aql and WZ Sge, respectively the slowest and fastest of these stars. Combined with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data, the high-energy data demonstrates the latter to contain a white dwarf rotating with P = 27.87 s. Optical photometry contemporaneous with the X-ray data was obtained of V1432 Aql, in order to study the variations in the eclipse waveform. As anticipated, the width and centroid of the eclipse appeared to vary with the 50-day "supercycle". A paper reporting this study is now in preparation.

  19. Low Mass Companions to White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of over 17 years of work searching for low mass stellar and substellar companions to more than 370 nearby white dwarfs. Roughly 60 low mass, unevolved companions were found and studied all together, with over 20 discovered in the last few years, including the first unambiguous brown dwarf companion to a white dwarf, GD 1400B. The resulting spectral type distributions for companions to white dwarfs and nearby cool field dwarfs are compared, a...

  20. Comparison of White Dwarf Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreault, S.; Bergeron, P.

    2005-01-01

    White dwarf masses can be determined in several ways. Here we compare masses obtained from Balmer line spectroscopy with those derived from trigonometric parallax measurements for an ensemble of cool hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs.

  1. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Panei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  2. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  3. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.

    2015-11-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of < ? rangle ? 84.818MeV^4, with a standard deviation ? ˜eq 82.021MeV^4, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  4. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for White Dwarf Stars with polytropic matter in the weak field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze its stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to be close to the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predicts an average value of brane tension as: $\\langle\\lambda\\rangle\\gtrsim84.818\\;\\rm MeV^4$, with a standard deviation $\\sigma\\simeq82.021\\;\\rm MeV^4$ which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining above of cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  5. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  6. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  7. The Physics of White Dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the current understanding of the structure and evolution of the white dwarf stars that was gained as a result of the increasingly sensitive and detailed astronomical observations coupled with calculations of the properties of matter under extreme conditions. (Author/GA)

  8. Pulsating Helium Atmosphere White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Judith; Montgomery, Michael H.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Shipman, Harry; Nitta, Atsuko; Whole Earth Telescope Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars currently on the main sequence as well as those from earlier generations will or have ended their stellar lives as white dwarf stars. White dwarfs are rich forensic laboratories linking the history and future evolution of our Galaxy. Their structure and atmospheric composition provide evidence of how the progenitors lived, how they evolved, and how they died. This information reveals details of processes governing the behavior of contemporary main sequence stars. Combined with their distribution in luminosity/temperature, white dwarfs strongly constrain models of galactic and cosmological evolution.GD358 is among the brightest (mv =13.7) and best studied of the pulsating white dwarfs. This helium atmoshere pulsator (DBV) has an extensive photometric database spanning 30 years, including nine multisite Whole Earth Telescope campaigns. GD358 exhibits a range of behaviors, from drastic changes in excited pulsation modes to variable multiplet splittings. We use GD358 as a template for an examination of the DBV class, combining photometric results with recent COS spectroscopy. The results present new questions concerning DB formation and evolution.

  9. White Dwarf Kinematics vs Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Wegg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the kinematics and mass of young (0.95Msun) are consistent with the expected relative contributions of single star evolution and mergers. We find that the kinematics are consistent with the majority of high-mass white dwarfs being formed through single star evolution.

  10. White dwarf research with Gaia

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The results of the Gaia mission will have tremendous influence on many topics in white dwarf research. In this paper the current status of the Gaia mission is described. At the end a short outlook on the release scenario and the expected accuracy of the Gaia data is provided.

  11. SDSS DR7 White Dwarf Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, S.J.; Kepler, S.O.; D. Koester; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Peçanha, Viviane; Nitta, A.; Costa, J. E. S.; Krzesinski, J.; Dufour, P; Lachapelle, F. -R.; Bergeron, P.; Yip, Ching-Wa; Harris, Hugh C.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Althaus, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new catalog of spectroscopically-confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent a more than factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalog based ...

  12. Hot white dwarfs and the UV delay in dwarf novae

    OpenAIRE

    Hameury, J.-M.; Lasota, J. -P.; Dubus, G.

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the effect of illumination of dwarf nova accretion discs by radiation from a hot, central, white dwarf. We show that only for very hot white dwarfs (Teff ~ 40 000$ K) the inner region of quiescent dwarf nova discs are partially depleted so that the delay between the rise to outburst of the optical and UV fluxes would be increased as suggested recently by King (1997). This depletion, however, must create several small outbursts between main outbursts, contrary to...

  13. DE CVn: A bright, eclipsing red dwarf - white dwarf binary

    OpenAIRE

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den; Greimel, R.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Nelemans, G.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V.S.; Robb, R. M.; Balam, D. D.; Guenther, E. W.; Kemp, J.; Augusteijn, T.; De Groot, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Close white dwarf - red dwarf binaries must have gone through a common-envelope phase during their evolution. DE CVn is a detached white dwarf - red dwarf binary with a relatively short (~8.7 hours) orbital period. Its brightness and the presence of eclipses makes this system ideal for a more detailed study. From a study of photometric and spectroscopic observations of DE CVn we derive the system parameters which we discuss in the frame work of common-envelope evolution. Pho...

  14. White dwarfs in the WTS: Eclipsing binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Burleigh M.R.; Koppenhoefer J.; Saglia R.P.; Steele P.R.; Cappetta M.

    2013-01-01

    We have identified photometric white dwarf candidates in the WFCAM transit survey through a reduced proper motion versus colour approach. Box-fitting with parameters adjusted to detect the unique signature of a white dwarf + planet/brown dwarf transit/eclipse event was performed, as well as looking for variability due to the irradiation of the companions atmosphere by the white dwarf's high UV flux. We have also performed a simple sensitivity analysis in order to assess the ability of the sur...

  15. White dwarfs - the once and future suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and properties of white dwarfs (Bessel's conclusion that Sirius and Procyon have invisible companions, Clark's discovery of Sirius B, Adams and Russell's study of white dwarf spectra, Chandrasekhar's explanation of white dwarf structure by equations incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity) are treated. Formation of white dwarfs, degeneracy, binary white dwarfs (and novae and supernovae) are explained. A mystery nearly 50 years old regarding the spectrum of the star Greenwich +70 degrees-8247 has been solved: it involves a stationary line phenomenon and a magnetic field of 300-500 million gauss. Processes being studied in white dwarfs and white dwarf models include gravitational settling, accretion, dredge-up, radiation pressure, and diffusive hydrogen burning

  16. G-dwarfs, white dwarfs and the local dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observed paucity of low metalicity stars (the G-dwarf problem), the observed paucity of low luminosity white dwarfs and the apparent overabundance of matter in the solar neighborhood are discussed in a single context. In particular, bimodal models of star formation with enhanced cooling of low luminosity white dwarfs may be able to simply solve the G-dwarf problem as well as the local dark matter problem without the overproduction of observable white dwarfs. Constraints from galactic chemical evolution are also discussed. 55 refs., 5 figs

  17. White dwarfs in the WTS: Eclipsing binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burleigh M.R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have identified photometric white dwarf candidates in the WFCAM transit survey through a reduced proper motion versus colour approach. Box-fitting with parameters adjusted to detect the unique signature of a white dwarf + planet/brown dwarf transit/eclipse event was performed, as well as looking for variability due to the irradiation of the companions atmosphere by the white dwarf's high UV flux. We have also performed a simple sensitivity analysis in order to assess the ability of the survey to detect companions to white dwarfs via the transit method.

  18. Magnetars and White Dwarf Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lobato, Ronaldo V; Coelho, Jaziel G

    2016-01-01

    The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field $B\\sim 10^{7}-10^{10}$ G and rotate very fast with frequencies $\\Omega\\sim 1$ rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods $P\\sim (2-12)$ s.

  19. White Dwarf Rotation Observations and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaler, S D

    2003-01-01

    White dwarfs rotate. The angular momentum in single white dwarfs must originate early in the life of the star, but also must be modified (and perhaps severely modified) during the many stages of evolution between birth as a main--sequence star and final appearance as a white dwarf. Observational constraints on the rotation of single white dwarf stars come from traditional spectroscopy and from asteroseismology, with the latter providing hints of angular velocity with depth. Results of these observational determinations, that white dwarfs rotate with periods ranging from hours to days (or longer), tells us that the processes by which angular momentum is deposited and/or drained from the cores of AGB stars are complex. Still, one can place strong limits on these processes by considering relatively simple limiting cases for angular momentum evolution in prior stages, and on subsequent angular momentum evolution in the white dwarfs. These limiting-case constraints will be reviewed in the context of the available ...

  20. White Dwarf Sequences in Dense Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Jarrod R.; Michael M. Shara

    2003-01-01

    We use the results of realistic N-body simulations to investigate the appearance of the white dwarf population in dense star clusters. We show that the presence of a substantial binary population in a star cluster, and the interaction of this population with the cluster environment, has serious consequences for the morphology of the observed white dwarf sequence and the derived white dwarf cooling age of the cluster. We find that over time the dynamical evolution of the clus...

  1. White dwarf cooling sequences and cosmochronology

    OpenAIRE

    García-Berro E.; Artigas A.; Isern J.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This means that their luminosity function, i.e. the number of white dwarfs per unit bolometric magnitude and unit volume as a function of bolometric magnitude, is a monotonically increasing function that decreases abruptly as a consequence of the finite age of the Galaxy. The precision and the accuracy of the white dwarf luminosity functions obtained with the recent large surveys together with the improved quali...

  2. The Physics of Pulsating White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Dufour, P.; Quirion, P.-O.; Randall, S. K.; Van Grootel, V.

    2012-09-01

    We present a summary of the properties of white dwarf stars, beginning with a brief reminder of their basic characteristics. We continue with a discussion of the spectral types, evolution, and other properties of cooling white dwarfs, with an emphasis on the internal physics. We then introduce the pulsating white dwarfs and provide an updated view of their status. We finally discuss the impact (real and potential) of asteroseismology on our knowledge of degenerate stars.

  3. Detonations in white dwarf dynamical interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Siguan, Gabriela; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Lorén Aguilar, Pablo; José Pont, Jordi; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In old, dense stellar systems collisions of white dwarfs are a rather frequent phenomenon. Here we present the results of a comprehensive set of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of close encounters of white dwarfs aimed to explore the outcome of the interaction and the nature of the final remnants for different initial conditions. Depending on the initial conditions and the white dwarf masses, three different outcomes are possible. Specifically, the outcome of the...

  4. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

  5. White dwarf cooling sequences and cosmochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Berro E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This means that their luminosity function, i.e. the number of white dwarfs per unit bolometric magnitude and unit volume as a function of bolometric magnitude, is a monotonically increasing function that decreases abruptly as a consequence of the finite age of the Galaxy. The precision and the accuracy of the white dwarf luminosity functions obtained with the recent large surveys together with the improved quality of the theoretical models of evolution of white dwarfs allow to feed the hope that in a near future it will be possible to reconstruct the history of the different Galactic populations.

  6. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial-mass-function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of...

  7. ASTRO-H White Paper - White Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Mukai, K; Harayama, A; Hayashi, T; Ishida, M; Long, K S; Terada, Y; Tsujimoto, M

    2014-01-01

    Interacting binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion --- cataclysmic variables (CVs) in which the mass loss is via Roche-lobe overflow, and symbiotic stars in which the white dwarf captures the wind of a late type giant --- are relatively commonplace. They display a wide range of behaviors in the optical, X-rays, and other wavelengths, which still often baffles observers and theorists alike. They are likely to be a significant contributor to the Galactic ridge X-ray emission, and the possibility that some CVs or symbiotic stars may be the progenitors of some of the Type Ia supernovae deserves serious consideration. Furthermore, these binaries serve as excellent laboratories in which to study physics of X-ray emission from high density plasma, accretion physics, reflection, and particle acceleration. ASTRO-H is well-matched to the study of X-ray emission from many of these objects. In particular, the excellent spectral resolution of the SXS will enable dynamical studies of the X-ray e...

  8. White dwarf heating and the ultraviolet flux in dwarf novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The heating of the outer layers of the white dwarf which is likely to occur during a dwarf nova outburst is investigated. It is shown that the decline in IUE flux, observed during quiescent intervals in the dwarf novae VW Hydri and WX Hydri, may be due to the outer layers cooling off once the heat source is removed. The calculations here assume uniformity of the heat source over the white dwarf surface. This is unlikely to be realized from disk accretion, and discussion is made of what further calculations are required.

  9. White Dwarf Critical Tests for Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2015-01-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity can lead to modifications of the gravitational force inside astrophysical objects. We exhibit that compact stars such as white dwarfs provide a unique set-up to test such deviations from Newtonian gravitational physics inside the stars. We obtain stringent and independent constraints on the parameter $\\Upsilon$ characterizing the deviations from gravity using the mass-radius relation, the Chandrasekhar mass limit and the maximal rotational frequency of white dwarfs. We find that white dwarfs impose stronger constraints on $\\Upsilon$ than the red and brown dwarfs.

  10. Old White Dwarfs as a Microlensing Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brad M. S.

    2000-01-01

    A popular interpretation of recent microlensing studies of the line of sight towards the Large Magellanic Cloud invokes a population of old white dwarf stars in the Galactic halo. Below I review the basic properties of old white dwarf stars and the ongoing efforts to detect this population directly.

  11. White Dwarf Spectra and Atmosphere Models

    OpenAIRE

    Koester, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    We describe the spectral classification of white dwarfs and some of the physical processes important for their understanding. In the major part of this paper we discuss the input physics and computational methods for one of the most widely used stellar atmosphere codes for white dwarfs.

  12. A Spitzer White Dwarf Infrared Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mullally, F.; Kilic, Mukremin; Reach, William T.; Kuchner, Marc J.; von Hippel, Ted; Burrows, Adam; Winget, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of 124 white dwarf stars with Spitzer Space Telescope. Objects were observed simultaneously at 4.5 and 8.0um with sensitivities better than 1 mJy. This data can be used to test models of white dwarf atmospheres in a new wavelength regime, as well as to search for planetary companions and debris disks.

  13. Decoding Convection with White Dwarf Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M.; WET Team

    2013-12-01

    Convection remains one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. Current studies of convective energy transport are based on the Mixing Length Theory (MLT). As an example for white dwarfs, Bergeron et al. (1995) show that basic parameters such as flux, line profiles, energy distribution, color indices, and equivalent widths are extremely sensitive to the assumed MLT parameterization. This is compelling, since we use our knowledge of white dwarf interiors to calibrate white dwarf cooling sequences, provide detailed estimates for the ages of individual white dwarfs, and calibrate the age of the Galactic disk. The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) is engaged in a long term project to empirically determine the physical properties of convection in the atmospheres of pulsating white dwarfs. Our technique uses information from nonlinear (non-sinusoidal) pulse shapes of the target star to empirically probe the physical properties of its convection zone. We present current results from WET targets in 2008 - 2012.

  14. Observational properties of magnetic white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    There are no known examples of magnetic white dwarfs with fields larger than about 3MG paired with a non-degenerate companion in detached binary systems. The suggestion is that highly magnetic, isolated white dwarfs may originate from stars that coalesce during common envelope evolution while those stars that emerge from a common envelope on a close orbit may evolve into double degenerate systems consisting of two white dwarfs, one or both magnetic. The presence of planets or planetary debris around white dwarfs is also a new and exciting area of research that may give us important clues on the formation of first and second generation planetary systems, since these place unique signatures in the spectra of white dwarfs.

  15. White Dwarfs Cosmological and Galactic Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Sion, Edward M; Vennes, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    The emphasis on white dwarf stars and cosmology arises from the most recent advances in cosmological and galactic structure research in which white dwarf stars are playing a very prominent role. Examples are Type Ia supernovae (i.e. white dwarf supernovae), the origin and evolution of the universe, the age of the galactic disk, cosmochronology using white dwarfs in globular clusters and galactic clusters, and the physics of accretion onto compact (very dense) stars. As an assisting guide to the reader, we have included, by invitation, comprehensive review articles in each of the four major areas of the book, white dwarf supernovae, cosmology, accretion physics and galactic structure. The reviews include introductory material that they build upon. The book is suitable and most useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and scientific professionals (e.g. astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, physicists).

  16. What fraction of white dwarfs are members of binary systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White dwarfs were originally discovered as the subordinate faint companions of bright nearby stars (i.e. Sirius B and 40 Eri B). Several general categories of binary systems involving white dwarfs are recognized: Sirius-like systems, where the white dwarf may be difficult to detect, binary systems containing white dwarfs and low mass stars, where the white dwarf is often readily discerned; and double degenerate systems. Different modes of white dwarf discovery influence our perception of both the overall binary fraction and the nature of these systems; proper motion surveys emphasize resolved systems, while photometric surveys emphasize unresolved systems containing relatively hot white dwarfs. Recent studies of the local white dwarf population offer some hope of achieving realistic estimates of the relative number of binary systems containing white dwarfs. A sample of 132 white dwarfs within 20 pc indicates that an individual white dwarf has a probability of 32 ± 8% of occurring within a binary or multiple star system.

  17. Measuring M dwarf Winds with DAZ White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Debes, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs with metal lines, so-called DAZs, show evidence for ongoing accretion of material onto their surfaces. Some DAZs are known to have unresolved M dwarf companions, which could account for the observed accretion through a stellar wind. I combine observed Ca abundances of the DAZs with information on the orbital separation of their M dwarf companions to infer the mass loss rate of the M dwarfs. I find that for three of the six known DAZs with M d...

  18. SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new catalog of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent more than a factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalogs based on DR4 data. Our distribution of subtypes varies from previous catalogs due to our more conservative, manual classifications of each star in our catalog, supplementing our automatic fits. In particular, we find a large number of magnetic white dwarf stars whose small Zeeman splittings mimic increased Stark broadening that would otherwise result in an overestimated log g if fit as a non-magnetic white dwarf. We calculate mean DA and DB masses for our clean, non-magnetic sample and find the DB mean mass is statistically larger than that for the DAs.

  19. An overview of white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charpinet S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, white dwarf stars represent ideal testbeds for our understanding of matter under extreme conditions, and work on their constitutive physics (neutrino production rates, conductive and radiative opacities, interior liquid/solid equations of state, partially ionized and partially degenerate envelope equations of state, diffusion coefficients, line broadening mechanisms is still being actively pursued. Given a set of constitutive physics, cooling white dwarfs can be used advantageously as cosmochronometers. Moreover, the field has been blessed by the existence of four distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs, each mapping a different evolutionary phase, and this allows the application of the asteroseismological method to probe and test their internal structure and evolutionary state. We set the stage for the reviews that follow on cooling white dwarfs as cosmochronometers and physics laboratories, as well as on the properties of pulsating white dwarfs and the asteroseismological results that can be inferred.

  20. Gravitational Radiation from Pulsating White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Benacquista, M.; Sedrakian, D.; Hairapetyan, M.; Shahabasyan, K.; Sadoyan, A.

    2003-01-01

    Rotating white dwarfs undergoing quasi-radial oscillations can emit gravitational radiation in a frequency range from 0.1 - 0.3 Hz. Assuming that the energy source for the gravitational radiation comes from the oblateness of the white dwarf induced by the rotation, the strain amplitude is found to be \\sim 10^{-27} for a white dwarf at \\sim 50 pc. The galactic population of these sources is estimated to be \\sim 10^7, and may produce a confusion limited foreground for proposed...

  1. Discovery of an Ultracool White Dwarf Companion

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of a low luminosity common proper motion companion to the white dwarf GD392 at a wide separation of $46''$ is reported. $BVRI$ photometry suggests a low temperature ($T_{\\rm eff}\\sim4000$ K) while $JHK$ data strongly indicate suppressed flux at all near infrared wavelengths. Thus, GD392B is one of the few white dwarfs to show significant collision induced absorption due to the presence of photospheric ${\\rm {H_2}}$ and the first ultracool white dwarf detected a...

  2. Understanding white dwarf binary evolution with white dwarf/main sequence binaries: first results from SEGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, M. R.; Gomez-Moran, A. Nebot; Schwope, A. D.

    2006-01-01

    Close white dwarf binaries make up a wide variety of objects such as double white dwarf binaries, which are possible SN Ia progenitors, cataclysmic variables, super soft sources, or AM CVn stars. The evolution and formation of close white dwarf binaries crucially depends on the rate at which angular momentum is extracted from the binary orbit. The two most important sources of angular momentum loss are the common envelope phase and magnetic braking. Both processes are so far...

  3. On the origin of high-field magnetic white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Torres Gil, Santiago; Loren Aguilar, Pablo; Aznar Siguan, Gabriela; Camacho D??az, Judit; Kulebi, Baybar; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; Corsico, Alejandro H.

    2013-01-01

    Every two years, white dwarf researchers and enthusiasts meet to exchange their knowledge and discuss recent developments in white dwarf theory and observations. These proceedings are from the 18th European White Dwarf Workshop held at Pedagogical University of Cracow (Krakow, Poland) on 13th - 17th August, 2012. The scientific topics discussed in this Workshop included: pulsating white dwarfs; luminosity function, mass distribution, and populations; white dwarf structure and evolution;...

  4. The origin of low-mass white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present white dwarf mass distributions of a large sample of post common-envelope binaries and wide white dwarf main sequence binaries and demonstrate that these distributions are statistically independent. While the former contains a much larger fraction of low-mass white dwarfs, the latter is similar to single white dwarf mass distributions. Taking into account observational biases we also show that the majority of low-mass white dwarfs are formed in close binaries.

  5. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Winget, D E

    2008-01-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  6. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  7. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning. PMID:23630372

  8. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the white dwarfs through the formation of strong radiating shock waves. A comparative study of the IPS and Polars can elucidate the primary effects of the magnetic fields on the dynamics and thermodynamics in accreting white dwarf systems.

  9. An overview of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Charpinet S.; Brassard P.; Fontaine G.; Randall S.K.; Van Grootel V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning) that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, whit...

  10. General Relativistic Calculations for White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.

    2014-01-01

    We restudy the properties of white dwarf stars composed of relativistic degenerate electron gas both in Newtonian and general relativity. Hence we investigate Mass-Radius relation for white dwarf stars by solving the Newtonian as well as Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for hydrostatic equilibrium considering the electron gas as non-interacting. We find that chandrasekhar's limiting mass of $1.452\\,M_\\odot$ for the Newtonian case is slightly modified to $1.397\\,M_\\odot$ ...

  11. NEW COOLING SEQUENCES FOR OLD WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs. This is done by evolving white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence, through the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. Complete evolutionary sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and for two different metallicities, Z = 0.01, which is representative of the solar neighborhood, and Z = 0.001, which is appropriate for the study of old stellar systems, like globular clusters. During the white dwarf cooling stage, we self-consistently compute the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important, the diffusive evolution of the elements in the outer layers and, finally, we also take into account all the relevant energy sources in the deep interior of the white dwarf, such as the release of latent heat and the release of gravitational energy due to carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. We also provide colors and magnitudes for these sequences, based on a new set of improved non-gray white dwarf model atmospheres, which include the most up-to-date physical inputs like the Ly? quasi-molecular opacity. The calculations are extended down to an effective temperature of 2500 K. Our calculations provide a homogeneous set of evolutionary cooling tracks appropriate for mass and age determinations of old DA white dwarfs and for white dwarf cosmochronology of the different Galactic populations.

  12. Pulsations in white dwarfs: Selected topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saio H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very brief overview of the observed properties of g-mode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. We then discuss a few selected topics: Excitation mechanisms (kappa- and convection- mechanisms, and briefly the effect of a strong magnetic field (? 1 MG on g-modes as recently found in a hot DQ (carbon-rich atmosphere white dwarf. In the discussion of excitation mechanisms, a simple interpretation for the convection mechanism is given.

  13. Edmund Stoner and white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of a limiting mass for white dwarf stars is today usually attributed to Subramanian Chandrasekhar. However it appears that an article by Edmund Stoner, which appeared in the Philosophical Magazine in 1930, was the first publication to give a convincing demonstration of the existence of a limiting mass for white dwarfs. We examine here why it is that the contributions of Stoner and others towards this discovery have been largely forgotten.

  14. NON EXPLOSIVE COLLAPSE OF A WHITE DWARF

    OpenAIRE

    Mochkovitch, R.

    1980-01-01

    Matter accretion on a white dwarf has been proposed to explain the novae and type I supernovae explosions. Accretion followed by a non explosive collapse, and leading to the formation of a neutron star is possible only if some constraints on the composition or the structure of the white dwarf, on the accretion rate, or on the energy production rate by nuclear reactions are respected. A detailed presentation of these constraints will be given.

  15. Neural Network identification of halo white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Santiago; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi

    1998-01-01

    The white dwarf luminosity function has proven to be an excellent tool to study some properties of the galactic disk such as its age and the past history of the local star formation rate. The existence of an observational luminosity function for halo white dwarfs could provide valuable information about its age, the time that the star formation rate lasted, and could also constrain the shape of the allowed Initial Mass Functions (IMF). However, the main problem is the scarce...

  16. The white dwarf population of NGC 6397

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, S.; García-Berro, E.; Althaus, L. G.; Camisassa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    NGC 6397 is one of the most interesting, well observed and theoretically studied globular clusters. The existing wealth of observations allows us to study the reliability of the theoretical white dwarf cooling sequences of low metallicity progenitors,to determine its age and the percentage of unresolved binaries, and to assess other important characteristics of the cluster, like the slope of the initial mass function, or the fraction of white dwarfs with hydrogen deficient a...

  17. On The Evolution of Magnetic White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, P. -E.; Fontaine, G.; Freytag, B.; Steiner, O.; Ludwig, H. -G; Steffen, M.; Wedemeyer, S.; Brassard, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-beta parameter, the thermal to magnetic pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1-50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1-1000 MG field strengths observ...

  18. Comparison of theoretical white dwarf cooling timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of white dwarf cooling times is paramount to place white dwarf cosmochronology of Galactic populations on more solid grounds. This issue is particularly relevant in view of the enhanced observational capabilities provided by the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, that will offer more avenues to employ white dwarfs as probes of Galactic evolution and test-beds of fundamental physics. We estimate for the first time the consistency of results obtained from two independent and widely used evolutionary codes (BaSTI and LPCODE) for white dwarf models with fixed mass and chemical stratification, when the same input physics is employed in both codes. We considered 0.55Msun white dwarf models with both pure carbon and uniform carbon-oxygen (50/50 mass fractions) core. We have assessed for the first time the maximum possible accuracy in the current estimates of white dwarf cooling times, resulting only from the different implementations of the stellar evolution equations and homogeneo...

  19. Nonlinear Analysis of Pulsating White Dwarf Lightcurves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Shipman, H.; WET TEam

    2015-06-01

    Convection remains one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. For example, Bergeron (1995) show that basic parameters such as flux, line profiles, energy distribution, color indices, and equivalent widths are extremely sensitive to the assumed convective parameterization. This is compelling, since we use our knowledge of these basic parameters to calibrate white dwarf cooling sequences, provide detailed estimates for the ages of individual white dwarfs, and determine the age of the Galactic disk. The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) is engaged in a long term project to empirically calibrate the physical properties of convection in pulsating white dwarfs by combining asteroseismology and analysis of nonlinear light curves. Nonsinusoidal distortions, in the form of narrow peaks and wider valleys, are observed in many pulsating white dwarf light curves. These are a reflection of the local depth of the convection zone, a value which varies during a pulsation cycle. Applying asteroseismology and convective light curve fitting to a wide sample of pulsating white dwarfs provides an empirical map of how the convective response time (the convection zone “depth”) varies as a function of effective temperature, and this can be compared with theoretical models, both MLT and hydrodynamic. This project has resulted in a large database of white dwarf lightcurves and pulsation frequencies. We present current results for DA and DB pulsators, and provide a few examples of interesting pulsation behavior seen along the way.

  20. On the Evolution of Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Fontaine, G.; Freytag, B.; Steiner, O.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Wedemeyer, S.; Brassard, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-? parameter, the thermal-to-magnetic-pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1-50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1-1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B ? 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (Teff) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection due to the convective coupling between the outer layers and the degenerate reservoir of thermal energy. Since no magnetic white dwarfs are currently known at the low temperatures where this coupling significantly changes the evolution, the effects of magnetism on cooling rates are not expected to be observed. This result contrasts with a recent suggestion that magnetic white dwarfs with Teff ? 10,000 K cool significantly slower than non-magnetic degenerates.

  1. Six detached white-dwarf close binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Marsh, T. R.; Maxted, P. F. L; Nelemans, G.; Karl, C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Moran, C. K. J.

    2005-01-01

    We determine the orbits of four double degenerate systems (DDs), composed of two white dwarfs, and of two white dwarf -- M dwarf binaries. The four DDs, WD1022+050, WD1428+373, WD1824+040, and WD2032+188, show orbital periods of 1.157155(5) d, 1.15674(2) d, 6.26602(6) d and 5.0846(3) d respectively. These periods combined with estimates for the masses of the brighter component, based on their effective temperatures, allow us to constrain the masses of the unseen companions. ...

  2. Possible new class of dense white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the strange quark matter hypothesis is true, then a new class of white dwarfs can exist whose nuclear material in their deep interiors can have a density as high as the neutron drip density, a few hundred times the density in maximum-mass white dwarfs and 4x104 the density in dwarfs of mass, M?0.6 Mcircle-dot. Their masses fall in the approximate range 10-4 to 1 Mcircle-dot. They are stable against acoustical modes of vibration. A strange quark core stabilizes these stars, which otherwise would have central densities that would place them in the unstable region of the sequence between white dwarfs and neutron stars. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. Possible new class of dense white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the strange matter hypothesis of Bodmer and Witten is true, then a new class of white dwarfs can exist whose nuclear material in their deep interiors can have a density as high as the neutron drip density, a few hundred times the density in maximum-mass white dwarfs and 4x104 the density in dwarfs of typical mass, M?0.6Mcircle-dot. Their masses fall in the approximate range 10-4--1Mcircle-dot. They are stable against acoustical modes of vibration. A strange quark core stabilizes these stars, which otherwise would have central densities that would place them in the unstable region of the sequence between white dwarfs and neutron stars

  4. White dwarfs, red dwarfs and halo dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the LMC still remains controversial. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than ∼ 1Mo-dot have been ruled out, while stars of ∼ 0.5 Mo-dot are the most probable candidates. This means that the microlenses should be either red or white dwarfs. Consequently, we assess jointly the relative contributions of both types of stars to the mass budget of the Galactic halo. We use a Monte Carlo code that incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of both red dwarfs and white dwarfs as well as detailed descriptions of both our Galaxy and the LMC and we compare the synthetic populations obtained with our simulator with the results obtained by the MACHO and EROS experiments. We find that the contribution of the red dwarf population is not enough to explain the number of events measured by the MACHO team. Even though, the optical depth obtained in our simulations almost doubles that obtained when taking into account the white dwarf population alone. Finally, we also find that the contribution to the halo dark matter of the entire population under study is smaller than 10%, at the 95% confidence level.

  5. New cooling sequences for old white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Renedo, Isabel; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Romero, Alejandra D; Corsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, Rene D; Garcia-Berro, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs. This is done by evolving white dwarf progenitors from the zero age main sequence, through the core hydrogen burning phase, the helium burning phase and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. Complete evolutionary sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and for two different metallicities: Z=0.01, which is representative of the solar neighborhood, and Z=0.001, which is appropriate for the study of old stellar systems, like globular clusters. During the white dwarf cooling stage we compute self-consistently the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important, the diffusive evolution of the elements in the outer layers and, finally, we also take into account all the relevant energy sources in the deep interior of the white dwarf, like the release of latent heat and the release of gravitational energy due to carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystall...

  6. THE MASSES OF POPULATION II WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globular star clusters are among the first stellar populations to have formed in the Milky Way, and thus only a small sliver of their initial spectrum of stellar types are still burning hydrogen on the main sequence today. Almost all of the stars born with more mass than 0.8 Msun have evolved to form the white dwarf cooling sequence of these systems, and the distribution and properties of these remnants uniquely holds clues related to the nature of the now evolved progenitor stars. With ultra-deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations, rich white dwarf populations of four nearby Milky Way globular clusters have recently been uncovered, and are found to extend impressive 5-8 mag in the faint-blue region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In this paper, we characterize the properties of these population II remnants by presenting the first direct mass measurements of individual white dwarfs near the tip of the cooling sequence in the nearest of the Milky Way globulars, M4. Based on Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS multiobject spectroscopic observations, our results indicate that 0.8 Msun population II main-sequence stars evolving today form 0.53 ± 0.01 Msun white dwarfs. We discuss the implications of this result as it relates to our understanding of stellar structure and evolution of population II stars and for the age of the Galactic halo, as measured with white dwarf cooling theory.

  7. THE WHITE DWARF AGE OF NGC 2477

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present deep photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 2477 using HST/WFPC2. By identifying seven cluster white dwarf candidates, we present an analysis of the white dwarf age of this cluster, using both the traditional method of fitting isochrones to the white dwarf cooling sequence, and by employing a new Bayesian statistical technique that has been developed by our group. This new method performs an objective, simultaneous model fit of the cluster and stellar parameters (namely, age, metallicity, distance, reddening, as well as individual stellar masses, mass ratios, and cluster membership) to the photometry. Based on this analysis, we measure a white dwarf age of 1.035 ± 0.054 ± 0.087 Gyr (uncertainties represent the goodness of model fits and discrepancy among models, respectively) in good agreement with the cluster's main-sequence turnoff age. This work is part of our ongoing work to calibrate main-sequence turnoff and white dwarf ages using open clusters, and to improve the precision of cluster ages to the ?5% level.

  8. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nandez, Jose L A; Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double-white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of a $\\sim1.5M_\\odot$ red giant star in a $\\sim 30$ day orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  9. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandez, J. L. A.; Ivanova, N.; Lombardi, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of an ˜1.5 M? red giant star in an ˜30 d orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  10. Unlocking the secrets of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horn, Hugh M

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs, each containing about as much mass as our Sun but packed into a volume about the size of Earth, are the endpoints of evolution for most stars. Thousands of these faint objects have now been discovered, though only a century ago only three were known. They are among the most common stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, and they have become important tools in understanding the universe. Yet a century ago only three white dwarfs were known.   The existence of these stars completely baffled the scientists of the day, and solving the mysteries of these strange objects required revolutionary advances in science and technology, including the development of quantum physics, the construction and utilization of large telescopes, the invention of the digital computer, and the ability to make astronomical observations from space.   This book tells the story of the growth in our understanding of white dwarf stars, set within the context of the relevant scientific and technological advances. Part popular science, ...

  11. THE LINK BETWEEN PLANETARY SYSTEMS, DUSTY WHITE DWARFS, AND METAL-POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been suspected that metal-polluted white dwarfs (types DAZ, DBZ, and DZ) and white dwarfs with dusty disks possess planetary systems, but a specific physical mechanism by which planetesimals are perturbed close to a white dwarf has not yet been fully posited. In this paper, we demonstrate that mass loss from a central star during post-main-sequence evolution can sweep planetesimals into interior mean motion resonances with a single giant planet. These planetesimals are slowly removed through chaotic excursions of eccentricity that in time create radial orbits capable of tidally disrupting the planetesimal. Numerical N-body simulations of the solar system show that a sufficient number of planetesimals are perturbed to explain white dwarfs with both dust and metal pollution, provided other white dwarfs have more massive relic asteroid belts. Our scenario requires only one Jupiter-sized planet and a sufficient number of asteroids near its 2:1 interior mean motion resonance. Finally, we show that once a planetesimal is perturbed into a tidal crossing orbit, it will become disrupted after the first pass of the white dwarf, where a highly eccentric stream of debris forms the main reservoir for dust-producing collisions. These simulations, in concert with observations of white dwarfs, place interesting limits on the frequency of planetary systems around main-sequence stars, the frequency of planetesimal belts, and the probability that dust may obscure future terrestrial planet finding missions.

  12. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates show that the observed light curves could be created by a starspot at about 10,000K (compared to the white dwarfs effective temperature of ~11,900K), covering 14% of the surface area at an inclination of 90.The formation of such a starspot would almost certainly require the presence of magnetic fields. Interestingly, J1529+2928 doesnt have a strong magnetic field; from its spectra, the team can constrain its field strength to be less than 70 kG.Given that up to 15% of white dwarfs are thought to have kG magnetic fields, eclipse-like events such as this one might in fact be common for white dwarfs. If so, then many similar events will likely be observed with future surveys of transients like Keplers ongoing K2 mission, which is expected to image another several hundred white dwarfs, or the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will image 13 million white dwarfs.CitationMukremin Kilic et al 2015 ApJ 814 L31. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/814/2/L31

  13. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates show that the observed light curves could be created by a starspot at about 10,000K (compared to the white dwarfs effective temperature of ~11,900K), covering 14% of the surface area at an inclination of 90.The formation of such a starspot would almost certainly require the presence of magnetic fields. Interestingly, J1529+2928 doesnt have a strong magnetic field; from its spectra, the team can constrain its field strength to be less than 70 kG.Given that up to 15% of white dwarfs are thought to have kG magnetic fields, eclipse-like events such as this one might in fact be common for white dwarfs. If so, then many similar events will likely be observed with future surveys of transients like Keplers ongoing K2 mission, which is expected to image another several hundred white dwarfs, or the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will image 13 million white dwarfs.CitationMukremin Kilic et al 2015 ApJ 814 L31. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/814/2/L31

  14. White dwarfs: connection with masses of the parent stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amnuel' , P.R.; Guseinov, O.Kh.; Novruzova, Kh.I.; Rustamov, Yu.S.

    1988-01-01

    A relationship between the mass of a white dwarf and the mass of the parent star on the main sequence is established. The white dwarf birth-rate matches the birth-rate (death-rate) of main sequence stars.

  15. White dwarfs: the connection with the parent's masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence between the mass of white dwarfs and that of their main sequence parent stars is determined. The birth-rates of white dwarfs with different masses and the death-rate of the main sequence stars are interconsistent

  16. White dwarfs: connection with masses of the parent stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relationship between the mass of a white dwarf and the mass of the parent star on the main sequence is established. The white dwarf birth-rate matches the birth-rate (death-rate) of main sequence stars

  17. Magnetic White Dwarf Stars in the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Jordan, Stefan; Kleinman, Scot J; Kulebi, Baybars; Koester, Detlev; Peçanha, Viviane; Castanheira, Bárbara G; Nitta, Atsuko; Costa, José Eduardo da Silveira; Winget, Don Earl; Kanaan, Antonio; Fraga, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    To obtain a better statistics on the occurrence of magnetism among white dwarfs, we searched the spectra of the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) in the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for Zeeman splittings and estimated the magnetic fields. We found 521 DAs with detectable Zeeman splittings, with fields in the range from around 1 MG to 733 MG, which amounts to 4% of all DAs observed. As the SDSS spectra have low signal-to-noise ratios, we carefully investigated by simulations with theoretical spectra how reliable our detection of magnetic field was.

  18. Pulsating White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, A.; Zabot, A.; Fraga, L.

    2012-09-01

    We present our current efforts to detect pulsating white dwarfs in globular clusters and analyze the future of this area when the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) and the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) all become operational. Today we are able to detect pulsating white dwarfs in M 4, NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. When ELT comes on line we should be able to improve the quality of data for the nearby clusters and push the limit to at least 3 magnitudes further, up to NGC 6626, increasing the number of observable clusters from 3 to 20.

  19. The angular momentum of isolated white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brassard P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a very brief report on an ongoing program aimed at mapping the internal rotation profiles of stars through asteroseismology. Three years ago, we developed and applied successfully a new technique to the pulsating GW Vir white dwarf PG 1159?035, and were able to infer that it rotates very slowly and rigidly over some 99% of its mass. We applied the same approach to the three other GW Vir pulsators with available rotational splitting data, and found similar results. We discuss the implications of these findings on the question of the angular momentum of white dwarfs resulting from single star evolution.

  20. Implications of White Dwarf Galactic Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by recent measurements which suggest that roughly half the mass of the galactic halo may be in the form of white dwarfs, we study the implications of such a halo. We first use current limits on the infrared background light and the galactic metallicity to constrain the allowed initial mass function (IMF) of the stellar population that produced the white dwarfs. The IMF must be sharply peaked about a characteristic mass scale $M_C \\approx 2.3 M_\\odot$. Since only a ...

  1. FUSE observations of hot white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, B; Kruk, J. W.; D. Koester; Allard, N. F.; Ferlet, R.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed FUSE observations of six hot white dwarf stars: four DA white dwarfs with T_eff >= 45000K, the DAO Feige55 (T_eff = 55000K), and the DA CD -38 10980 (T_eff = 24000K). Photospheric lines from SiIV, PV, and SVI can be observed in the majority of the five hotter objects. Feige55 shows also several other heavier elements. The measured abundances agree only partly with the predictions of the radiative levitation theory. We attribute this to current limitations of...

  2. White dwarf atmospheres and circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, Donald W

    2012-01-01

    Written by selected astronomers at the forefront of their fields, this timely and novel book compiles the latest results from research on white dwarf stars, complementing existing literature by focusing on fascinating new developments in our understanding of the atmospheric and circumstellar environments of these stellar remnants. Complete with a thorough refresher on the observational characteristics and physical basis for white dwarf classification, this is a must-have resource for researchers interested in the late stages of stellar evolution, circumstellar dust and nebulae, and the future

  3. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  4. A wide binary trigger for white dwarf pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, Amy; Veras, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Metal pollution in white dwarf atmospheres is likely to be a signature of remnant planetary systems. Most explanations for this pollution predict a sharp decrease in the number of polluted systems with white dwarf cooling age. Observations do not confirm this trend, and metal pollution in old (1-5 Gyr) white dwarfs is difficult to explain. We propose an alternative, time-independent mechanism to produce the white dwarf pollution. The orbit of a wide binary companion can be p...

  5. Detached white dwarf main-sequence star binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, B.; Kolb, U.

    2004-01-01

    We initiated a comprehensive state of the art binary population synthesis study of white dwarf main-sequence star (WDMS) binaries to serve as a foundation for subsequent studies on pre-cataclysmic variables, double white dwarfs, and white dwarf + B-star binaries. We considered seven distinct formation channels subdivided into three main groups according to the evolutionary process that gives rise to the formation of the white dwarf or its helium-star progenitor: dynamically stable Roche-lobe ...

  6. Hot Accretion onto White Dwarfs in Quiescent Dwarf Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, M V; Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Menou, Kristen

    2001-01-01

    We present dynamically consistent solutions for hot accretion onto unmagnetized, rotating white dwarfs (WDs) in five quiescent dwarf novae. The measured WD rotation rates (and other system parameters) in RX And, SS Cyg, U Gem, VW Hyi and WZ Sge imply spindown of the WD by an extended hot flow emitting most of its X-rays in the vicinity of the stellar surface. In general, energy advection is absent and the flow is stable to convection and hydrodynamical outflows. In rapidly rotating systems, the X-ray luminosity provides only an upper limit on the quiescent accretion rate because of substantial stellar spindown luminosity. We suggest that the presence of hot flows in quiescent dwarf novae may limit the long-term WD rotation rates to significantly sub-Keplerian values.

  7. Uniform period spacings in white dwarf models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of g-mode oscillations in white dwarfs are investigated analytically. Numerical results of period-spacing computations for DOV, DAV, and DBV models are presented in tables, and the relationships between period spacings and the composition and structure of the stellar atmospheres are discussed.

  8. Theoretical Study of White Dwarf Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Ajit; Koetter, Ted; Rivera, Ruben; Diaz, Juan

    2015-04-01

    We continue our interest in the computational simulation of the astrophysical phenomena with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.0 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We hope to extend our computational studies to blue giant stars in the future. Research Supported by National Science Foundation.

  9. On The Evolution of Magnetic White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, P -E; Freytag, B; Steiner, O; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Wedemeyer, S; Brassard, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-beta parameter, the thermal to magnetic pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1-50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1-1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have then employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B > 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (Teff) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection owing to the convective cou...

  10. Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, Summary of the session, White Dwarf Pulsars and Rotating White Dwarf Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Yukikatsu

    2013-01-01

    This is the summary of the parallel session entitled "White Dwarf Pulsars and Rotating White Dwarf Theory", chaired by Yukikatsu Terada in Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting. The origin of cosmic rays remains a mystery, even over 100 years since their discovery. Neutron stars (NSs) are considered textbook cases of particle acceleration sites in our Galaxy, but many unresolved numerical problems remain. Searches for new acceleration sites are crucial for astrophysics. The ma...

  11. Electron-cyclotron maser emission from white-dwarf pairs and white-dwarf planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Willes, Andrew J.; Wu, Kinwah

    2003-01-01

    By analogy to Jovian radio emissions powered by the electromagnetic interaction between Jupiter and its moons, we propose that close magnetic-nonmagnetic white-dwarf pairs and white-dwarf planetary systems are strong radio sources. A simple model is developed to predict the flux densities of radio emission generated by a loss-cone-driven electron-cyclotron maser. The radio emission from these systems has high brightness temperatures, is highly polarized, and varies on a peri...

  12. DETECTION OF A WHITE DWARF COMPANION TO THE WHITE DWARF SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5 (hereafter SDSSJ1257+5428) is a compact white dwarf binary from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that exhibits high-amplitude radial velocity variations on a period of 4.56 hr. While an initial analysis suggested the presence of a neutron star or black hole binary companion, a follow-up study concluded that the spectrum was better understood as a combination of two white dwarfs. Here we present optical spectroscopy and ultraviolet fluxes which directly reveal the presence of the second white dwarf in the system. SDSSJ1257+5428's spectrum is a composite, dominated by the narrow-lined spectrum from a cool, low-gravity white dwarf (Teff ? 6300 K, log g = 5-6.6) with broad wings from a hotter, high-mass white dwarf companion (11, 000-14, 000 K; ?1 Msun). The high-mass white dwarf has unusual line profiles which lack the narrow central core to H? that is usually seen in white dwarfs. This is consistent with rapid rotation with vsin i = 500-1750 km s-1, although other broadening mechanisms such as magnetic fields, pulsations, or a helium-rich atmosphere could also be contributory factors. The cool component is a puzzle since no evolutionary model matches its combination of low gravity and temperature. Within the constraints set by our data, SDSSJ1257+5428 could have a total mass greater than the Chandrasekhar limit and thus be a potential Type Ia supernova progenitor. However, SDSSJ1257+5428's unusually low-mass ratio q ? 0.2 suggests that it is more likely that it will evolve into an accreting double white dwarf (AM CVn star).

  13. Disintegrating Planetary Bodies Around a White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Several months ago, the discovery of WD 1145+017 was announced. This white dwarf appears to be orbited by planetary bodies that are actively disintegrating due to the strong gravitational pull of their host. A follow-up study now reveals that this system has dramatically evolved since its discovery.Signs of DisruptionPotential planetary bodies orbiting a white dwarf would be exposed to a particular risk: if their orbits were perturbed and they passed inside the white dwarfs tidal radius, they would be torn apart. Their material could then form a debris disk around the white dwarf and eventually be accreted.Interestingly, we have two pieces of evidence that this actually happens:Weve observed warm, dusty debris disks around ~4% of white dwarfs, andThe atmospheres of ~25-50% of white dwarfs are polluted by heavy elements that have likely accreted recently.But in spite of this indirect evidence of planet disintegration, wed never observed planetary bodies actively being disrupted around white dwarfs until recently.Unusual TransitsIn April 2015, observations by Keplers K2 mission revealed a strange transit signal around WD 1145+017, a white dwarf 570 light-years from Earth that has both a dusty debris disk and a polluted atmosphere. This signal was interpreted as the transit of at least one, and possibly several, disintegrating planetesimals.In a recent follow-up, a team of scientists led by Boris Gnsicke (University of Warwick) obtained high-speed photometry of WD 1145+017 using the ULTRASPEC camera on the 2.4m Thai National Telescope. These observations were taken in November and December of 2015 roughly seven months after the initial photometric observations of the system. They reveal that dramatic changes have occurred in this short time.Rapid EvolutionA sample light curve from TNT/ULTRASPEC, obtained in December 2015 over 3.9 hours. Many varied transits are evident (click for a better view!). Transits labeled in color appear across multiple nights. [Gnsicke et al. 2016]Initial observations of WD 1145+017 showed a significant transit dip (10%) only every ~3.6 hours, on average. In contrast, in the current observations, every light curve is riddled with numerous transit events that have durations of 312 minutes and depths of 1060%. Many of the transit features overlap, so there are now only short segments of the light curve that dont appear to be attenuated by debris.Gnsicke and collaborators use the new data to analyze the transiting bodies. Though some transits are consistent from night to night, most evolve in shape and depth, appearing and disappearing over the course of the observing campaign. This rapid variability, along with the large size of the transiting bodies (several times the size of the white dwarf), support the conclusion that the transiting objects are not solid bodies. Instead, they are likely clouds of gas and dust flowing from smaller bodies that are being disrupted.Because astronomical timescales are often extremely long, the observations of WD 1145+047 are especially exciting this is a rare chance to watch a system evolve in real time! Given how rapidly it appears to be changing, continued observations are sure to soon reveal more about the planetary bodies orbiting this white dwarf.CitationB. T. Gnsicke et al 2016 ApJ 818 L7. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/818/1/L7

  14. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge.

  15. Low Frequency Gravitational Waves from White Dwarf MACHO Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hiscock, William A.; Larson, Shane L; Routzahn, Joshua R.; Kulick, Ben

    2000-01-01

    The possibility that Galactic halo MACHOs are white dwarfs has recently attracted much attention. Using the known properties of white dwarf binaries in the Galactic disk as a model, we estimate the possible contribution of halo white dwarf binaries to the low-frequency (10^{-5} Hz} < f < 10^{-1}Hz) gravitational wave background. Assuming the fraction of white dwarfs in binaries is the same in the halo as in the disk, we find the confusion background from halo white dwarf bin...

  16. A wide binary trigger for white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsor, Amy; Veras, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    Metal pollution in white dwarf atmospheres is commonly assumed to be a signature of remnant planetary systems. Most explanations for this pollution predict a sharp decrease in the number of polluted systems with white dwarf cooling age. Observations do not confirm this trend, and metal pollution in old (1-5 Gyr) white dwarfs is difficult to explain. We propose an alternative, time-independent mechanism to produce the white dwarf pollution. The orbit of a wide binary companion can be perturbed by Galactic tides, approaching close to the primary star for the first time after billions of years of evolution on the white dwarf branch. We show that such a close approach perturbs a planetary system orbiting the white dwarf, scattering planetesimals on to star-grazing orbits, in a manner that could pollute the white dwarf's atmosphere. Our estimates find that this mechanism is likely to contribute to metal pollution, alongside other mechanisms, in up to a few per cent of an observed sample of white dwarfs with wide binary companions, independent of white dwarf age. This age independence is the key difference between this wide binary mechanism and others mechanisms suggested in the literature to explain white dwarf pollution. Current observational samples are not large enough to assess whether this mechanism makes a significant contribution to the population of polluted white dwarfs, for which better constraints on the wide binary population are required, such as those that will be obtained in the near future with Gaia.

  17. Double Degenerates among DA white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of catalog white dwarfs in search of radial velocity variations indicative of a binary motion are reported. In a sample of 54 DA white dwarfs, one Double Degenerate (DD) system with a period of 1.15 days (the shortest period DD system yet discovered) is found. Two other excellent and two good DD candidates, and two white dwarf + red dwarf pairs were also found. If all the candidates should be confirmed, this would indicate a frequency of about 13 percent of interacting binaries in an unbiased sample of evolved stars, with a DD frequency of about 10 percent. These results suggest fairly large values for the common-envelope parameter alpha, implying that a source of energy other than orbital may be required to eject the envelope during common-envelope events. Finally, in combination with previous evidence our result implies that DDs with WD components of the DA variety are unlikely to be the precursors of Type I supernovae, but DDs with non-DA components remain very attractive candidates. 20 refs

  18. White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lepine, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    As the most populous constituents of our galaxy, low-mass dwarfs are vital to understanding our galaxy's structure and kinematics. While wide White dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) can provide significant constraints on M dwarf age-activity relations, close WD+dMs can aid our understanding of the nature of common envelope evolution and its products (e.g. cataclysmic variables). We present the discovery and characterization of 186 new WD+dMs from the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey. These WD+dMs were discovered as a result of a search for post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs) and are part of an ongoing project to understand the space density and distribution of WD+dMs and PCEBs. In order to identify the sample of WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK, we utilized NUV-V and V-Ks colors. Here, we describe the discovery method and color selection, as well as present a detailed description of the properties of our sample based on two-component fits to our optical spectroscopy obtained at the MDM Observatory.

  19. Lessons for Asteroseismology from White Dwarf Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Travis S. Metcalfe

    2005-06-01

    The interpretation of pulsation data for sun-like stars is currently facing challenges quite similar to those faced by white dwarf modelers ten years ago. The observational requirements for uninterrupted long-term monitoring are beginning to be satisfied by successful multi-site campaigns and dedicated satellite missions. But exploration of the most important physical parameters in theoretical models has been fairly limited, making it difficult to establish a detailed best-fit model for a particular set of oscillation frequencies. I review the past development and the current state of white dwarf asteroseismology, with an emphasis on what this can tell us about the road to success for asteroseismology of other types of stars.

  20. Self-similar expansion of white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Properties of plasma expansion that propagates in an electron-positron-ion dense plasma are investigated. Suitable hydrodynamic equations for the ions and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons are used. Using self-similar transformation, the basic set of nonlinear equations is solved numerically. Typical values of white dwarf stars are used to estimate the behavior of the ion number density and ion fluid velocity. The positive ions are found to initially slowly escape with high velocity when the ion-to-electron density ratio increases. For higher values of the electron number density, the self-similar solution validity domain decreases. The relevance of the results to white dwarf expansion and collapse is highlight.

  1. General Relativistic and Newtonian White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of Newton's gravity and general relativity. In both cases Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the field equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the Chandrasekhar equation of state. The region of stability of RWDs is constructed taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse $\\beta$-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant angular momentum $J$ sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation period $\\sim0.28$ s in both cases and maximum rotating masses $\\sim1.534 M_{\\odot}$ and $\\sim1.516 M_{\\odot}$ for the Newtonian and general relativistic WDs, respectively. By using the turning point method we show that general relativistic WDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable whereas the Newtonian WDs are stable.

  2. General Relativistic and Newtonian White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkayev, K.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.; Siutsou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of Newton's gravity and general relativity. In both cases Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the field equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the Chandrasekhar equation of state. The region of stability of RWDs is constructed taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse ?-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant angular momentum J sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation period ˜ 0.28 s in both cases and maximum rotating masses ˜ 1.534M? and ˜ 1.516M? for the Newtonian and general relativistic WDs, respectively. By using the turning point method we show that general relativistic WDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable whereas the Newtonian WDs are stable.

  3. Watch This Space: Observing Merging White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Webbink, Ronald F

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will open the low-frequency (0.1-100 mHz) part of the gravitational wave spectrum to direct observation. Of order 3600 galactic close binary white dwarfs will be individually resolvable in its all-sky spectrum, of which a dozen systems are expected to be on the verge of merger, showing the effects of strong tidal heating and/or early onset of tidal mass transfer. Optical study of these systems would provide important insights into tidal dissipation mechanisms, and internal heating in merging white dwarfs that sets ignition conditions for potential type Ia supernovae. Theoretical modeling and instrumentation programs are needed now to enable a campaign for optical identifications to exploit this opportunity.

  4. Oxygen neutronization in accreting white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; Labay, Javier; Canal Masgoret, Ramon

    1983-01-01

    Solid carbon-oxygen white dwarf cores have been shown to be likely initial configurations for collapse to neutron star densities. Solidification seems to entail carbon/oxygen separation, with oxygen settling at the star's center and carbon being confined to more external, lower-density layers. Electron captures on 16O are then the triggering mechanism for collapse. The authors elucidate the outcome of the complete reaction network started by those captures and derive simple expressions for ac...

  5. Axion constraints from white dwarf cooling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothetical, pseudoscalar particles would be abundantly emitted from the interior of white dwarfs through bremsstrahlung processes. These stars would then rapidly cool. From the observed number of hot degenerates we find a new bound on the Yukawa coupling to electrons of g-13. For 'invisible axions' this translates into a new bound on the Peccei-Quinn scale of v>1x109 GeV, corresponding to msub(a)-2 eV. (orig.)

  6. Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of the physics of compact objects - white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are stated. State equations and models of superdnse objects are discussed with provision for effects of the general relativity theory. For compact objects physical properties in the ground state are analyzed. The structure of stars is studied, when analyzing effect of differnt disturbances on these objects: rotations, magnetic fields, thermal fluxes accretion etc

  7. The white dwarf population of NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Santiago; García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G.; Camisassa, María E.

    2015-09-01

    Context. NGC 6397 is one of the most interesting, well-observed, and most thoroughly theoretically studied globular clusters. The existing wealth of observations allows us to study the reliability of the theoretical white dwarf cooling sequences of low-metallicity progenitors, to determine the age of NGC 6397 and the percentage of unresolved binaries. We also assess other important characteristics of the cluster, such as the slope of the initial mass function or the fraction of white dwarfs with hydrogen-deficient atmospheres. Aims: We present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population of NGC 6397. In particular, we study the shape of the color-magnitude diagram and the corresponding magnitude and color distributions. Methods: To do this, we used an advanced Monte Carlo code that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences and an accurate modeling of the observational biases. Results: Our theoretical models and the observed data agree well. In particular, we find that this agreement is best for those cooling sequences that take into account residual hydrogen burning. This result has important consequences for the evolution of progenitor stars during the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase, since it implies that appreciable third dredge-up in low-mass, low-metallicity progenitors is not expected to occur. Using a standard burst duration of 1.0 Gyr, we obtain that the age of the cluster is 12.8+0.50-0.75 Gyr. Greater ages are also compatible with the observed data, but then unrealistic longer durations of the initial burst of star formation are needed to fit the luminosity function. Conclusions: We conclude that a correct modeling of the white dwarf population of globular clusters, used in combination with the number counts of main-sequence stars, provides a unique tool for modeling the properties of globular clusters.

  8. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nandez, Jose L. A.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lombardi Jr., James C.

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination ener...

  9. Remnants of Binary White Dwarf Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Fryer, Chris; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Timmes, F.X.

    2011-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive smooth particle hydrodynamics simulation survey of double-degenerate white dwarf binary mergers of varying mass combinations in order to establish correspondence between initial conditions and remnant configurations. We find that all but one of our simulation remnants share general properties such as a cold, degenerate core surrounded by a hot disk, while our least massive pair of stars forms only a hot disk. We characterize our remnant configura...

  10. Thermonuclear detonations ensuing white dwarf mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Marius; Guillochon, James; Brüggen, Marcus; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Rosswog, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) has for many years not been considered as the favoured model for the progenitor system of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). But recent years have seen a change of opinion as a number of studies, both observational and theoretical, have concluded that they should contribute significantly to the observed type Ia supernova rate. In this paper, we study the ignition and propagation of detonation through post-merger remnants and we follow the resul...

  11. The white dwarf population of NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S; Althaus, L G; Camisassa, M E

    2015-01-01

    NGC 6397 is one of the most interesting, well observed and theoretically studied globular clusters. The existing wealth of observations allows us to study the reliability of the theoretical white dwarf cooling sequences of low metallicity progenitors,to determine its age and the percentage of unresolved binaries, and to assess other important characteristics of the cluster, like the slope of the initial mass function, or the fraction of white dwarfs with hydrogen deficient atmospheres. We present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population of NGC 6397. In particular, we study the shape of the color-magnitude diagram, and the corresponding magnitude and color distributions. We do this using an up-to-date Monte Carlo code that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences and an accurate modeling of the observational biases. We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, we find that this agreement is best for those cooling sequences th...

  12. Axions and the white dwarf luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of white dwarfs can be described as a simple cooling process. Recently, it has been possible to determine with an unprecedented precision their luminosity function, that is, the number of stars per unit volume and luminosity interval. Since the shape of the bright branch of this function is only sensitive to the average cooling rate, we use this property to check the possible existence of axions, a proposed but not yet detected weakly interacting particle. We show here that the inclusion of the axion emissivity in the evolutionary models of white dwarfs noticeably improves the agreement between the theoretical calculations and the observational white dwarf luminosity function, thus providing the first positive indication that axions could exist. Our results indicate that the best fit is obtained for macos2? ? 2-6 meV, where ma is the mass of the axion and cos2? is a free parameter, and that values larger than 10 meV are clearly excluded.

  13. White dwarf cosmochronology in the solar neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Soderblom, D. R.; Cignoni, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cummings, J., E-mail: tremblay@stsci.edu [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    The study of the stellar formation history in the solar neighborhood is a powerful technique to recover information about the early stages and evolution of the Milky Way. We present a new method that consists of directly probing the formation history from the nearby stellar remnants. We rely on the volume complete sample of white dwarfs within 20 pc, where accurate cooling ages and masses have been determined. The well characterized initial-final mass relation is employed in order to recover the initial masses (1 ? M {sub initial}/M {sub ?} ? 8) and total ages for the local degenerate sample. We correct for moderate biases that are necessary to transform our results to a global stellar formation rate, which can be compared to similar studies based on the properties of main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Our method provides precise formation rates for all ages except in very recent times, and the results suggest an enhanced formation rate for the solar neighborhood in the last 5 Gyr compared to the range 5 < Age (Gyr) < 10. Furthermore, the observed total age of ?10 Gyr for the oldest white dwarfs in the local sample is consistent with the early seminal studies that have determined the age of the Galactic disk from stellar remnants. The main shortcoming of our study is the small size of the local white dwarf sample. However, the presented technique can be applied to larger samples in the future.

  14. Double White Dwarf Mergers with CASTRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Maximilian P.; Zingale, M.; Calder, A.; Swesty, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are among the brightest explosions in the Universe and are recognized as reliable distance indicators. While the accepted cause of these events is the thermonuclear incineration of white dwarf stars instigated by accretion, the characteristics of the donor stars remain under investigation. Recent observational evidence supports the hypothesis that the progenitors of some events are binary white dwarf systems, and has spurred renewed theoretical interest in a merger scenario. We present preliminary work modeling such a system using the modern, three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics code CASTRO. CASTRO uses an adaptive Eulerian grid to highly resolve features of interest and has been demonstrated to accurately address typical dynamical problems in astrophysics. We present simulations showing that it is an appropriate tool for the case of white dwarfs orbiting each other under Newtonian gravity. We show the capability of the code to conserve energy and angular momentum over multiple orbits, and we discuss the differences between simulations in inertial and co-rotating reference frames. We also present verification tests of the gravity solver and describe the importance of appropriate boundary conditions. With the success of these verification tests, the next step is to apply CASTRO to the inspiral and onset of mass transfer and determine areas of likely nuclear burning. This work was supported in part by the NSF under award AST-1211563.

  15. White dwarf cosmochronology in the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the stellar formation history in the solar neighborhood is a powerful technique to recover information about the early stages and evolution of the Milky Way. We present a new method that consists of directly probing the formation history from the nearby stellar remnants. We rely on the volume complete sample of white dwarfs within 20 pc, where accurate cooling ages and masses have been determined. The well characterized initial-final mass relation is employed in order to recover the initial masses (1 ? M initial/M ? ? 8) and total ages for the local degenerate sample. We correct for moderate biases that are necessary to transform our results to a global stellar formation rate, which can be compared to similar studies based on the properties of main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Our method provides precise formation rates for all ages except in very recent times, and the results suggest an enhanced formation rate for the solar neighborhood in the last 5 Gyr compared to the range 5 < Age (Gyr) < 10. Furthermore, the observed total age of ?10 Gyr for the oldest white dwarfs in the local sample is consistent with the early seminal studies that have determined the age of the Galactic disk from stellar remnants. The main shortcoming of our study is the small size of the local white dwarf sample. However, the presented technique can be applied to larger samples in the future.

  16. Further constraints on white dwarf galactic halos

    CERN Document Server

    Canal, R; Ruiz-Lapuente, P

    1997-01-01

    The suggestion that roughly half the mass of the galactic halo might be in the form of white dwarfs, together with the limits on the infrared background light and on the initial metallicity of the galactic disk, would set strong constraints on the initial mass function (IMF) of the halo. Particular IMFs have been proposed to cut off both the numbers of low-mass stars contributing to the infrared background and of high-mass stars which contribute to the growth of metallicity when they promptly explode as gravitational-collapse (Type II and Type Ib/c) supernovae. Here we examine the further contribution to metallicity from the Type Ia (thermonuclear) supernovae which would later be produced from the halo white dwarf population. We find that, for most of the evolutionary scenarios for the Type Ia supernova progenitor systems proposed so far, the constraints on the white dwarf mass fraction in the halo from the predicted production of iron would be extremely severe. When the predicted iron excess is not so large,...

  17. White Dwarf Convection Preceding Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    In the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae, a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf `simmers' for centuries preceding the ultimate explosion. During this period, reactions near the center drive convection throughout most of the interior of the white dwarf. The details of this convective flow determine how the first flames in the white dwarf ignite. Simulating this phase is difficult because the flows are highly subsonic. Using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, we present 3-d, full star models of the final hours of this convective phase, up to the point of ignition of a Type Ia supernova. We discuss the details of the convective velocity field and the locations of the initial hot spots. Finally, we show some preliminary results with rotation. Support for this work came from the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 (Stony Brook), the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and the DOE SciDAC program, under grant No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC). We made use of the jaguar machine via a DOE INCITE allocation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computational Facility.

  18. Stability properties of white dwarf radiative shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the oscillatory instability of white dwarf radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv. We extend previous works by studying the properties of (1) shocks with power-law cooling functions proportional to rhoT/sup ?/ rather than to rho2T/sup ?/; (2)= shocks dominated by bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling; and (3) shocks dominated by bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling when the effects of electron thermal conduction are not negligible. The results of our calculations allow us to delineate the stability regimes of white dwarf radiative shocks as a function of the dwarf mass, M/sub asterisk/, and the accretion rate, M. We parameterize M in terms of the optical depth to electron scattering through the preshock flow, tau/sub es/. In the Compton cooling and bremsstrahlung case, the shocks are unstable to low-order oscillation modes if M/sub asterisk/ < or approx. =(0.7 +- 0.1) M/sub sun/ for tau/sub es/ = 14, and if M/sub asterisk/ < or approx. =(0.9 +- 0.1)= M/sub X/ for tau/sub es/ = 1. When electron thermal conduction is added, low-order oscillation modes are unstable only if M/sub asterisk/ < or approx. =(0.3 +- 0.1) M/sub sun/. The unstable modes have approximate oscillation periods of 1.1tau/sub br/ and 0.63tau/sub br/, where tau/sub br/ is the bremsstrahlung cooling time scale of the postshock plasma. If an oscillatory instability is observed, constraints can be placed on the mass of the accreting white dwarf

  19. Simulation of the white dwarf-white dwarf galactic background in the LISA data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a proposed mission to detect and study gravitational radiation in the frequency range from 10-4 to 10-1 Hz. In the low part of its frequency band, the LISA data will contain a stochastic signal consisting of an incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own galaxy. In order to estimate the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a population of white-dwarf binaries recently synthesized by one of us. Our approach relies on an analytic expressions of the LISA Time-Delay Interferometric responses to the gravitational radiation emitted by such systems, and it allows us to implement a computationally efficient and accurate simulation of the background in the LISA data. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time with a period of 1 year, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about 2 months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. This modulation means that the galactic white-dwarf background that will be observable by LISA is a cyclostationary random process with a period of 1 year. We summarize the theory of cyclostationary random processes and present the corresponding generalized spectral method needed to characterize such a process in the LISA data. We find that, by measuring the generalized spectral components of the white-dwarf background, LISA will be able to infer properties of the distribution of the white-dwarf binary systems present in our galaxy

  20. Anderson and Stoner Published White Dwarf Mass Limits Before Chandrasekhar

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2011-01-01

    In their engaging recountals of Chandrasekhar's extraordinary career (Physics Today, vol 63, Issue 12, Dec 2010), neither Dyson nor Wali mention that Chandrasekhar was the third person not the first, to publish a white dwarf mass limit incorporating a relativistic treatment of degenerate electrons. As it has become a common misconception that Chandrasekhar was the first, a clarifying reminder on this historical point is warranted. In short, the white dwarf mass limit widely attributed to Chandrasekhar (1931) should be the specific white dwarf mass limit calculated for a polytrope. The insight that a relativistic treatment of degeneracy leads to the existence of a white dwarf mass limit first appeared in papers of W. Anderson (1929) and E.C. Stoner (1930) for a uniform density star. Accordingly, Chandrasekhar (1931) cites Stoner (1930) and points out that the polytrope white dwarf mass limit is less than Stoner's uniform density white dwarf mass limit by about 20%.

  1. The WFCAM transit survey and cool white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from our search for cool white dwarfs in the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey. Repeat observations starting in 2007 allowed to produce deep stacked images in J and measure proper motions. We combine this with deep optical imaging to select cool white dwarf candidates (Teff < 5000?K. About 27 cool white dwarf candidates with proper motions above 0.10 arcsec/yr were identified in one of the fields representing 1/8th of the survey area. Follow-up spectroscopy with the 10.2?m GTC telescope at La Palma confirmed the white dwarf status for all observed candidates. On-going work is being carried out to increase the sample of cool white dwarfs that will allow a more comprehensive study of the thick disk/halo white dwarf population.

  2. Detection of a white dwarf companion to the white dwarf SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T; Steeghs, D.; Southworth, J; D. Koester; Harris, V; Merry, L.

    2010-01-01

    SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5 (hereafter SDSSJ1257+5428) is a compact white dwarf binary from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that exhibits high-amplitude radial velocity variations on a period of 4.56 hours. While an initial analysis suggested the presence of a neutron star or black-hole binary companion, a follow-up study concluded that the spectrum was better understood as a combination of two white dwarfs. Here we present optical spectroscopy and ultraviolet fluxes which directly...

  3. White Dwarf based evaluation of the GALEX absolute calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Camarota, L; Holberg, J. B

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a revised photometric calibration of the \\emph{Galaxy Evolution Explorer} magnitudes, based on measurements of DA white dwarfs. The photometric magnitudes of white dwarfs measured by \\emph{GALEX} are compared to predicted magnitudes based on independent spectroscopic data (108 stars) and alternately to \\emph{IUE} UV fluxes of the white dwarfs (218 stars). The results demonstrate a significant non-linear correlation and small offset between archived \\emph...

  4. Spectroscopic observations of high proper motion DA white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Arazimova, E.; Kawka, A.; Vennes, S.

    2009-01-01

    We used the revised New Luyten Two-Tenths (rNLTT) catalog to select high proper motion white dwarf candidates. We studied the spectra of 70 hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs, which were obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We determined their effective temperature and surface gravity by fitting their Balmer line profiles to model white dwarf spectra. Using evolutionary mass-radius relations we de...

  5. Cool white dwarfs : cooling theory and Galactic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chabrier, Gilles

    1997-01-01

    We summarize recent improvements in model atmosphere and internal structure of faint white dwarfs. We derive an analytical cooling theory which illustrates the effects of various physical processes on the energy budget and the cooling history of cool white dwarfs. We consider in particular the effect of chemical fractionation at crystallization. This process, although it liberates a small amount of energy, affects significantly the cooling time of white dwarfs at their low-l...

  6. Presupernova evolution of accreting white dwarfs with rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, S. -C.; Langer, N.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the effects of rotation on the evolution of accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, with the emphasis on possible consequences in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors. Starting with a slowly rotating white dwarf, we simulate the accretion of matter and angular momentum from a quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. The role of the various rotationally induced hydrodynamic instabilities for the transport of angular momentum inside the white dwarf is investigated. We find th...

  7. Evolutionary calculations of phase separation in crystallizing white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Montgomery; Klumpe, E. W.; Winget, D. E.; Wood, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present an exploration of the significance of Carbon/Oxygen phase separation in white dwarf stars in the context of self-consistent evolutionary calculations. Because phase separation can potentially increase the calculated ages of the oldest white dwarfs, it can affect the age of the Galactic disk as derived from the downturn in the white dwarf luminosity function. We find that the largest possible increase in ages due to phase separation is 1.5 Gyr, with a most likely v...

  8. Constraining white-dwarf kicks in globular clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Heyl, Jeremy S.

    2007-01-01

    The wind of an asymptotic-giant-branch stars is sufficiently strong that if it is slightly asymmetric, it can propel the star outside of the open cluster of its birth or significantly alter its trajectory through a globular cluster; therefore, if these stellar winds are asymmetric, one would expect a deficit of white dwarfs of all ages in open clusters and for young white dwarfs to be less radially concentrated than either their progenitors or older white dwarfs in globular ...

  9. Formation and appearance of pulsar-like white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, Nazar

    2014-01-01

    Accretion-driven spin-up of a magnetized white dwarf in a close binary system is discussed. We address a situation in which the magnetic field of the white dwarf is screening during the accretion phase and re-generating due to the field diffusion through the accreted material after it. We find this scenario to be effective for a formation of massive pulsar-like white dwarfs.

  10. SED Signatures of Jovian Planets Around White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ignace, R.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of detecting Jovian-sized planets orbiting White Dwarf stars is considered. Significant IR excesses result from warm Jupiters orbiting a White Dwarf of $T_{\\rm eff}=10000$ K at a distance of $\\sim 10^3$ White Dwarf radii (corresponding to $\\sim 10^2$ Jupiter radii or a few tenths of an AU) with an orbital period of $\\sim 100$ days. Such a planet will have a 10 micron flux density at its Wien peak that is comparable to the emission of the White Dwarf at that wavel...

  11. White dwarfs and the ages of Open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open clusters provide the ideal environment for the calibration of ages determined from main sequence evolutionary theory (via cluster isochrones) and ages determined from white dwarf cooling theory. In an effort to measure more precise cluster ages, our group has developed a new technique using Bayesian statistics. Here we will discuss new capabilities of the technique, as well as the first application to real data, using the Hyades as a test case. Because the faintest white dwarfs have likely evaporated from the Hyades, we also demonstrate the first successful application of the bright white dwarf technique for deriving ages from the bright cluster white dwarfs alone.

  12. Formation and properties of close binary white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models explaining the formation and evolution of white-dwarf binaries are reviewed. The physical mechanisms involved, the effects of varying the key input parameters, and the observational implications are discussed in detail. Topics addressed include Roche lobes, mass transfer, and common envelopes; binary formation scenarios starting from pairs of massive white dwarfs or from pairs of low-mass white dwarfs; formation frequencies for pairs of different types; and close white-dwarf pairs as sources of gravitational-wave emission. 31 references

  13. Recent advances on the formation and evolution of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances made in the past seven years in both the theory and observation of white dwarfs which have led to major progress in understanding white dwarf formation and evolution are reviewed. The roles of convective dredge-up, mixing and dilution, accretion, gravitational and thermal diffusion in dense plasmas, radiate forces and mass outflow, nuclear shell burning, diffusion-induced reactions, late thermonuclear shell flashes, rotation, and magnetic fields in white dwarf evolution are considered. Recent work on the properties of white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables is briefly addressed. 153 references

  14. A Possible Brown Dwarf Companion to the White Dwarf GD1400

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Christopher, M.

    2004-01-01

    An unresolved, likely L dwarf companion to the DA white dwarf GD1400 is reported. This would be only the second such system known, discovered 17 years after the prototype L dwarf, GD165B, was determined to be a companion to a white dwarf. Photometric observations and model predicted stellar parameters of the well studied white dwarf primary indicate that GD1400B has $J-K\\ga2.0$ and $M_K=12.13$ mag. If correct, this would place GD1400B at spectral type L6, and it would be the...

  15. Pulsations in carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs: A new chapter in white dwarf asteroseismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present some of the results of a survey aimed at exploring the asteroseismological potential of the newly-discovered carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs. We show that, in certains regions of parameter space, carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs may drive low-order gravity modes. We demonstrate that our theoretical results are consistent with the recent exciting discovery of luminosity variations in SDSS J1426+5752 and some null results obtained by a team of scientists at McDonald Observatory. We also present follow-up photometric observations carried out by ourselves at the Mount Bigelow 1.6-m telescope using the new Mont4K camera. The results of follow-up spectroscopic observations at the MMT are also briefly reported, including the surprising discovery that SDSS J1426+5752 is not only a pulsating star but that it is also a magnetic white dwarf with a surface field near 1.2 MG. The discovery of g-mode pulsations in SDSS J1426+5752 is quite significant in itself as it opens a fourth asteroseismological 'window', after the GW Vir, V777 Her, and ZZ Ceti families, through which one may study white dwarfs.

  16. White dwarfs in common proper motion binaries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arazimová, Eva; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    San Francisco : Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010 - (Prša, A.), s. 147-148 ISBN 978-1-58381-750-6. - (ASP Conference Series. 435). [Binaries - Key to Comprehension of the Universe . Brno (CZ), 08.06.2009-12.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R GD205/08/H005; GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA300030908; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA301630901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarfs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Future Observations of White Dwarfs from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, M. A.; Casewell, S. L.

    2015-06-01

    We outline two possible future space missions suitable for the study of white dwarfs. These lie at the extreme ends of the spectrum of such opportunities in terms of cost and timescale. The SIRIUS extreme ultraviolet spectrograph will be proposed for the ESA/Chinese Academy of Sciences small, ? 50M Euro, mission. If selected it will fly in 2021. ATLAST is planned to be a very large UVOIR space observatory to provide a true replacement for the capabilities of HST. If it goes ahead, it will be a several billion-dollar project and will not fly before 2030. The paper provides further details on the technical capabilities of these space telescopes.

  18. Simulating Gaia performances on white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, S.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Isern, J.; Figueras, F.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most promising space missions of ESA is the astrometric satellite Gaia, which will provide very precise astrometry and multicolour photometry, for all 1.3 billion objects to V~20, and radial velocities with accuracies of a few km/s for most stars brighter than V ~ 17. Consequently, full homogeneous six-dimensional phase-space information for a huge number of stars will become available. Our Monte Carlo simulator has been used to estimate the number of white dwarfs...

  19. Search for Higgs Shifts in White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrio, Roberto; Wegner, Gary A.

    2014-08-01

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  20. Polarization observations of white dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of linear polarization of 85 white dwarf stars and some subdwarfs emission in UBVOR bands is given. The observations were obtained at 2.6 m telescope in the Crimean astrophysical observatory in 1971-1979. Data on galactic coordinates, electron temperatures of the objects are given. An intrinsic polarization twice large than root mean square error of measurements is revealed at more than 50% of the objects. There is an evidence for the polarization variations in some objects (for example, GD 299, EG 191, Feige 110 and EG 159)

  1. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  2. Rate of formation of white dwarfs in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white formation rate and the total number of white dwarfs in a cluster are related to the luminosity of the cluster. The uncertainties due to the uncertain helium abundance of the cluster are presented

  3. White-dwarf-white-dwarf galactic background in the LISA data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a proposed space mission, which will use coherent laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation. In the low part of its frequency band, the LISA strain sensitivity will be dominated by the incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own Galaxy. In order to estimate the magnitude of the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a synthesized population that recently appeared in the literature. Our approach relies on entirely analytic expressions of the LISA time-delay interferometric responses to the gravitational radiation emitted by such systems, which allows us to implement a computationally efficient and accurate simulation of the background in the LISA data. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about two months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. This suggests that, during this time period, LISA could search for other gravitational wave signals incoming from directions that are away from the galactic plane. Since the galactic white-dwarf background will be observed by LISA not as a stationary but rather as a cyclostationary random process with a period of 1 yr, we summarize the theory of cyclostationary random processes, present the corresponding generalized spectral method needed to characterize such process, and make a comparison between our analytic results and those obtained by applying our method to the simulated data. We find that, by measuring the generalized spectral components of the white-dwarf background, LISA will be able to infer properties of the distribution of the white-dwarf binary systems present in our Galaxy

  4. A magnetic white dwarf in a detached eclipsing binary

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Parsons; Marsh, T. R.; Gansicke, B. T.; Schreiber, M. R.; M. C. P. Bours; Dhillon, V.S.; Littlefair, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    SDSS J030308.35+005444.1 is a close, detached, eclipsing white dwarf plus M dwarf binary which shows a large infrared excess which has been interpreted in terms of a circumbinary dust disk. In this paper we present optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data for this system. At optical wavelengths we observe heated pole caps from the white dwarf caused by accretion of wind material from the main-sequence star on to the white dwarf. At near-infrared wavelengt...

  5. The mass of the white dwarf in GW Libra

    OpenAIRE

    van Spaandonk, L.; Steeghs, D.; Marsh, T. R.; S. G. Parsons

    2010-01-01

    We report a mass and rotational broadening (vsini) for the pulsating white dwarf component of the WZ Sge type Dwarf Nova GW Lib based on high-resolution VLT spectroscopy that resolves the MgII 4481A absorption feature. Its gravitational redshift combined with white dwarf mass-radius models, provides us with a direct measurement of the white dwarf mass of M_1 = 0.84 pm 0.02 M_sun. The line is clearly resolved and if associated with rotational broadening gives vsini=87.0 pm 3....

  6. Pure hydrogen atmosphere for very cool white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Saumon, D S

    1999-01-01

    Microlensing events observed in the line of sight toward the LMC indicate that a significant fraction of the mass of the dark halo of the Galaxy is probably composed of white dwarfs. In addition, white dwarf sequences have now be observed in the HR diagrams of several globular clusters. Because of the unavailability of white dwarf atmospheres for Teff < 4000K, cooling time scales for white dwarfs older than ~ 10 Gyr are very uncertain. Moreover, the identification of a MACHO white dwarf population by direct observation depends on a knowledge of the colors and bolometric corrections of very-cool white dwarfs. In this paper we present the first detailed model atmospheres and spectra of very cool hydrogen white dwarfs for Teff < 4000K. We include the latest description of the opacities of hydrogen and significantly, we introduce a non-ideal equation of state in the atmosphere calculation. We find that due to strong absorption from H_2 in the infrared, very old white dwarfs are brightest in the V, R, and I ...

  7. A wide binary trigger for white dwarf pollution

    CERN Document Server

    Bonsor, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Metal pollution in white dwarf atmospheres is likely to be a signature of remnant planetary systems. Most explanations for this pollution predict a sharp decrease in the number of polluted systems with white dwarf cooling age. Observations do not confirm this trend, and metal pollution in old (1-5 Gyr) white dwarfs is difficult to explain. We propose an alternative, time-independent mechanism to produce the white dwarf pollution. The orbit of a wide binary companion can be perturbed by Galactic tides, approaching close to the primary star for the first time after billions of years of evolution on the white dwarf branch. We show that such a close approach perturbs a planetary system orbiting the white dwarf, scattering planetesimals onto star-grazing orbits, in a manner that could pollute the white dwarf's atmosphere. Our estimates find that this mechanism is likely to contribute to metal pollution, alongside other mechanisms, in up to a few percent of an observed sample of white dwarfs with wide binary compan...

  8. Short-range effects in large white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work of Membrado and Pacheco (1988) on the implication of Yukawa-like effects in small white dwarfs is extended to analyze the very massive case. Although the role of these impurities grows substantially as the radius of the star decreases, when reasonable supergravity parameters are used the predicted change in the white dwarf mass-radius relation is unobservably small. 8 references

  9. Accretion on to Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Dayal

    2014-01-01

    The polars have no counterparts in neutron star systems and their study provides unique insights into the complex nature of the magnetospheric boundary. The observed properties of accretion shocks at the white dwarf surface such as the anomalous soft-X-ray excess and its time variability provide strong support for the hypothesis that under certain circumstances the field channelled funnel flow is “blobby”. This has been attributed to interchange instabilities such as the Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shocked gas at the stream-magnetosphere boundary where the stream fragments into discrete clumps of gas. As the clumps penetrate into the magnetosphere, they are shredded into smaller mass blobs via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that then couple on to field lines over an extended inner transition region in the orbital plane. The more massive blobs penetrate deep into the photosphere of the white dwarf releasing their energy as a reprocessed soft-X-ray black body component. Although similar instabilities are expected in the inner transition region in disced accretion albeit on a different scale there has been no direct observational evidence for blobby accretion in the generally lower field and disced IPs.

  10. Two new extremely hot pulsating white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, H. E.; Grauer, A. D.; Green, R. F.; Liebert, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    High speed photometry of the extremely hot, nearly degenerate stars PG 1707 + 427 and PG 2131 + 066 reveals that they are low-amplitude pulsating variables. Power spectral analysis shows both to be multiperiodic, with dominant periods of 7.5 and 6.4-6.9 minutes, respectively. Together with the known pulsators PG 1159 - 035 and the central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16, these objects define a new pulsational instability strip at the hot edge of the H-R diagram. The variations of these objects closely resemble those of the much cooler pulsating ZZ Ceti DA white dwarfs; both groups are probably nonradial g-mode pulsators. Evolutionary contraction of the PG 1159 - 035 variables may lead to period changes that would be detectable in as little as 1 year. The optical and IUE spectra of the PG 1159 - 035 variables are characterized by absorption lines of C IV and other CNO ions, indicating radiative levitation of species heavier than helium. He II is also present in the spectra, but the hydrogen Balmer lines are absent. Effective temperatures near 100,000 K are required, and the He II 4686 A profiles indicate log g greater than 6. These helium-rich pulsators form the hottest known subgroup of the DO white dwarfs.

  11. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs

  12. Theoretical Modeling of Pulsating Low-mass White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric variations in some low-mass white-dwarf stars have been recently detected (Hermes et al. 2012). Such variability is though to be due to long-period nonradial pulsation g modes. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs make up a new, separate class of pulsating white dwarfs with H rich atmospheres, low effective temperatures (Teff=7800-10000 K), and low gravities (log g= 6-6.8) (Hermes et al. 2013ab). Asteroseismology of these stars can provide valuable clues about their internal structure and evolutionary status, allowing us to place constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. We present here the main results of a detailed pulsational study applied to low-mass He-core white dwarfs, based on full evolutionary models representative of these objects. The main aim of this work is to provide a solid theoretical basis from which to interpret present and future observations of variable low-mass white dwarfs.

  13. Equilibrium structure of white dwarfs at finite temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Zhami, Bakytzhan; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Balgymbekov, Galymdin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown by S.~M. de Carvalho et al. (2014) that the deviations between the degenerate case and observations were already evident for 0.7-0.8 M$_{\\odot}$ white dwarfs. Such deviations were related to the neglected effects of finite temperatures on the structure of a white dwarf. Therefore, in this work by employing the Chandrasekhar equation of state taking into account the effects of temperature we show how the total pressure of the white dwarf matter depends on the mass density at different temperatures. Afterwards we construct equilibrium configurations of white dwarfs at finite temperatures. We obtain the mass-radius relations of white dwarfs for different temperatures by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation, and compare them with the estimated masses and radii inferred from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4.

  14. Constraining white dwarf structure and neutrino physics in 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsbury, Ryan; Richer, Harvey; Kalirai, Jason; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust statistical analysis of the white dwarf cooling sequence in 47 Tucanae. We combine HST UV and optical data in the core of the cluster, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Evolution (MESA) white dwarf cooling models, white dwarf atmosphere models, artificial star tests, and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method to fit white dwarf cooling models to our data directly. We use a technique known as the unbinned maximum likelihood to fit these models to our data without binning. We use these data to constrain neutrino production and the thickness of the hydrogen layer in these white dwarfs. The data prefer thicker hydrogen layers $(q_\\mathrm{H}=3.2\\e{-5})$ and we can strongly rule out thin layers $(q_\\mathrm{H}=10^{-6})$. The neutrino rates currently in the models are consistent with the data. This analysis does not provide a constraint on the number of neutrino species.

  15. The incidence of magnetic fields in cool DZ white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hollands, Mark; Koester, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence of magnetic fields among the coolest white dwarfs. Their spectra usually do not exhibit any absorption lines as the bound-bound opacities of hydrogen and helium are vanishingly small. Probing these stars for the presence of magnetic fields is therefore extremely challenging. However, external pollution of a cool white dwarf by, e.g., planetary debris, leads to the appearance of metal lines in its spectral energy distribution. These lines provide a unique tool to identify and measure magnetism in the coolest and oldest white dwarfs in the Galaxy. We report the identification of 7 strongly metal polluted, cool (T_eff < 8000 K) white dwarfs with magnetic field strengths ranging from 1.9 to 9.6 MG. An analysis of our larger magnitude-limited sample of cool DZ yields a lower limit on the magnetic incidence of 13+/-4 percent, noticeably much higher than among hot DA white dwarfs.

  16. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search was carried out for brown dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood, using the IRAS data base, in connection with the 'missing mass' theory. The paper was presented at the workshop on 'Astrophysics of brown dwarfs', Virginia, USA, 1985. No brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars were discovered. However it is suggested that a similar search with a more sensitive survey instrument may yield some detections. (U.K.)

  17. WHITE DWARF/M DWARF BINARIES AS SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, MV ?> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and MV ?> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  18. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-10-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, MV >~ 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and MV >~ 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a "magnetic bottle" connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the "nova limit" and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  19. HELIUM CORE WHITE DWARFS IN CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary evolution predicts a population of helium core (M sun) white dwarfs (WDs) that are slowly accreting hydrogen-rich material from low-mass main-sequence or brown dwarf donors with orbital periods less than 4 hr. Four binaries are presently known in the Milky Way that will reach such a mass-transferring state in a few Gyr. Despite these predictions and observations of progenitor binaries, there are still no secure cases of helium core WDs among the mass-transferring cataclysmic variables. This led us to calculate the fate of He WDs once accretion begins at a rate M-dot-10M-odot yr-1 set by angular momentum losses. We show here that the cold He core temperatures (Tc 7 K) and low M-dot thermonuclear runaway. Shara and collaborators noted that these large accumulated masses may lead to exceptionally long classical nova (CN) events. For a typical donor star of 0.2 Msun, such binaries will only yield a few hundred CNe, making these events rare among all CNe. We calculate the reheating of the accreting WD, allowing a comparison to the measured WD effective temperatures in quiescent dwarf novae and raising the possibility that WD seismology may be the best way to confirm the presence of a He WD. We also find that a very long (>1000 yr) stable burning phase occurs after the CN outburst, potentially explaining enigmatic short orbital period supersoft sources like RX J0537-7034 (Porb = 3.5 hr) and 1E 0035.4-7230 (Porb = 4.1 hr).

  20. Cataclysmic variable evolution - Clues from the underlying white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an update of determinations of the CV white dwarf effective-temperature, T(eff), together with an initial exploration of the possible implications and constraints on the CV lifetimes and evolution based on the ensemble of white dwarf T(eff) values as a function of orbital period. The CV dwarf luminosities are derived by using the T(eff) data and adopting the masses of individual CV white dwarfs determined by Webbink (1990). The present ensemble of empirically determined white dwarf effective temperatures reveals a distribution centered near 16,000 K, implying a mean lower limit total cooling lifetime of 5 x 10 to the 8th yr for the majority of CV degenerates. The two coolest CV degenerates, VV Puppis and St LMi, were found among the strongly magnetic AM Her CVs.

  1. On the masses of the white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the masses of the white dwarfs in cataclysmic binaries is examined. It is shown that selection effects can explain an overabundance of massive white dwarfs in novae but not in dwarf novae. It is proposed that the spiralling-in process in the common envelope favours the formation of more massive white dwarfs A number of simplified spiralling-in calculations are performed. The calculations demonstrate that the probability of coalescence of the secondary with the primary core, or secondary dissipation, is higher in the case of a giant envelope than in the case of a super giant envelope. Consequently, binaries with primary core masses greater than approx. 0.7 Msolar masses (and thus massive white dwarf remnants), have a better chance of surviving common envelope evolution and are therefore better candidates for the formation of cataclysmic variables. (author)

  2. HST Spectroscopy of the Hottest White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Spectral analysis needs the observation of lines of successive ionization stages in order to evaluate the ionization equilibrium (of a particular species) which is a sensitive indicator for the effective temperature. Since stars with effective temperatures as high as 100000 K have their flux maximum in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range and due to the high degree of ionization, most of the metal lines are found in the ultraviolet (UV) range. Thus, high-S/N and high-resolution UV spectra are a pre-requisite for a precise analysis. Consequently, we employed the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS), the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in order to obtain suitable data. We present state-of-the-art analyses of the hottest (pre-) white dwarfs by means of NLTE model atmospheres which include the metal-line blanketing of all elements from hydrogen to nickel.

  3. Collapse of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-oxygen white dwarfs formed in close binary systems may become unstable by mass accretion. Recent results concerning carbon-oxygen separation at the freezing point during the phase of cooling may have very important consequences for the problem of neutron star formation. The central, high-density regions of the star are then made of pure oxygen, the carbon being rejected to lower-density layers. When the star is compressed, carbon ignition can only happen after neutronization of the central (oxygen) regions. We show that, in this case, the chances of collapse to a neutron star are independent from the rate of mass accretion, in contrast with previous studies. A likely mechanism for neutron star formation emerges from this picture

  4. REMNANTS OF BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Timmes, F. X. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Fryer, Chris; Rockefeller, Gabriel [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    We carry out a comprehensive smooth particle hydrodynamics simulation survey of double-degenerate white dwarf binary mergers of varying mass combinations in order to establish correspondence between initial conditions and remnant configurations. We find that all but one of our simulation remnants share general properties such as a cold, degenerate core surrounded by a hot disk, while our least massive pair of stars forms only a hot disk. We characterize our remnant configurations by the core mass, the rotational velocity of the core, and the half-mass radius of the disk. We also find that some of our simulations with very massive constituent stars exhibit helium detonations on the surface of the primary star before complete disruption of the secondary. However, these helium detonations are insufficiently energetic to ignite carbon, and so do not lead to prompt carbon detonations.

  5. REMNANTS OF BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carry out a comprehensive smooth particle hydrodynamics simulation survey of double-degenerate white dwarf binary mergers of varying mass combinations in order to establish correspondence between initial conditions and remnant configurations. We find that all but one of our simulation remnants share general properties such as a cold, degenerate core surrounded by a hot disk, while our least massive pair of stars forms only a hot disk. We characterize our remnant configurations by the core mass, the rotational velocity of the core, and the half-mass radius of the disk. We also find that some of our simulations with very massive constituent stars exhibit helium detonations on the surface of the primary star before complete disruption of the secondary. However, these helium detonations are insufficiently energetic to ignite carbon, and so do not lead to prompt carbon detonations.

  6. Uniform period spacings in white dwarf models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptotic analysis of the equations of nonradial adiabatic oscillation shows that there is a uniform period spacing for g-modes with the same degree (l) and consecutive values of the radial wave number (n). If modes with the same l but different n are present in a pulsating star, then comparison of the period spacings in appropriate stellar models with period differences between the observed pulsation periods can provide mode identification, and thereby constrain other physical properties of the star. Since the pulsating white dwarfs are g-mode pulsators, those with rich power spectra may have period spacings that are integer multiples of some uniform period interval. The periods of PG1159 show spacings that correspond very closely to theoretical models for modes with l=1 and/or l=3. Since the period spacing of g-modes in DOV stars is sensitive to total stellar mass alone, this property of the period spectrum of PG1159 also strictly constrains its mass to be 0.60+-0.02 Msolar. New photometric observations of the other DOV stars are being undertaken, and progress continues in unravelling the complex lightcurve of the pulsating nucleus of the planetary nebula K1-16. Most compact pulsators are cooler than the DOV stars: the DBV and ZZ Ceti, or DAV, stars. In this paper, the authors calculate the period spacings for some representative DBV and DAV white dwarf models. They then briefly examine the applicability of the analysis of period spacings to the DBV and DAV stars

  7. ON GENERAL RELATIVISTIC UNIFORMLY ROTATING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller equation of state which generalizes that of Salpeter by taking into account the finite size of the nuclei, and the Coulomb interactions as well as electroweak equilibrium in a self-consistent relativistic fashion. The mass M, radius R, angular momentum J, eccentricity ?, and quadrupole moment Q of RWDs are calculated as a function of the central density ? c and rotation angular velocity ?. We construct the region of stability of RWDs (J-M plane) taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse ?-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant J sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation periods ?0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 2.2 s and maximum masses ?1.500, 1.474, 1.467, 1.202 M ? for 4He, 12C, 16O, and 56Fe WDs, respectively. By using the turning-point method, we found that RWDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable and we give the range of WD parameters where this occurs. We also construct constant rest-mass evolution tracks of RWDs at fixed chemical composition and show that, by losing angular momentum, sub-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass smaller than maximum static one) can experience both spin-up and spin-down epochs depending on their initial mass and rotation period, while super-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass larger than maximum static one) only spin up.

  8. ON GENERAL RELATIVISTIC UNIFORMLY ROTATING WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan, E-mail: kuantay@icra.it, E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it, E-mail: ruffini@icra.it, E-mail: siutsou@icranet.org [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-01-10

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller equation of state which generalizes that of Salpeter by taking into account the finite size of the nuclei, and the Coulomb interactions as well as electroweak equilibrium in a self-consistent relativistic fashion. The mass M, radius R, angular momentum J, eccentricity {epsilon}, and quadrupole moment Q of RWDs are calculated as a function of the central density {rho} {sub c} and rotation angular velocity {Omega}. We construct the region of stability of RWDs (J-M plane) taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse {beta}-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant J sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation periods {approx}0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 2.2 s and maximum masses {approx}1.500, 1.474, 1.467, 1.202 M {sub Sun} for {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, and {sup 56}Fe WDs, respectively. By using the turning-point method, we found that RWDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable and we give the range of WD parameters where this occurs. We also construct constant rest-mass evolution tracks of RWDs at fixed chemical composition and show that, by losing angular momentum, sub-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass smaller than maximum static one) can experience both spin-up and spin-down epochs depending on their initial mass and rotation period, while super-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass larger than maximum static one) only spin up.

  9. Optical spectroscopy of candidate Alpha Persei white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, S. L.; Dobbie, P. D.; Geier, S.; Lodieu, N.; Hambly, N. C.

    2015-08-01

    As part of an investigation into the high-mass end of the initial mass-final mass relation we performed a search for new white dwarf members of the nearby (172.4 pc), young (80-90 Myr) ? Persei open star cluster. The photometric and astrometric search using the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey and SuperCOSMOS sky surveys discovered 14 new white dwarf candidates. We have obtained medium resolution optical spectra of the brightest 11 candidates using the William Herschel Telescope and confirmed that while 7 are DA white dwarfs, 3 are DB white dwarfs and 1 is an sdOB star, only three have cooling ages within the cluster age, and from their position on the initial mass-final mass relation, it is likely none are cluster members. This result is disappointing, as recent work on the cluster mass function suggests that there should be at least one white dwarf member, even at this young age. It may be that any white dwarf members of ? Per are hidden within binary systems, as is the case in the Hyades cluster, however the lack of high-mass stars within the cluster also makes this seem unlikely. One alternative is that a significant level of detection incompleteness in the legacy optical image survey data at this Galactic latitude has caused some white dwarf members to be overlooked. If this is the case, Gaia will find them.

  10. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    van Oirschot, Pim; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G A; Helmi, Amina; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~ 3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference w...

  11. A SEARCH FOR ASTEROIDS, MOONS, AND RINGS ORBITING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do white dwarfs host asteroid systems? Although several lines of argument suggest that white dwarfs may be orbited by large populations of asteroids, transits would provide the most direct evidence. We demonstrate that the Kepler mission has the capability to detect transits of white dwarfs by asteroids. Because white-dwarf asteroid systems, if they exist, are likely to contain many asteroids orbiting in a spatially extended distribution, discoveries of asteroid transits can be made by monitoring only a small number of white dwarfs, compatible with Kepler's primary mission, which is to monitor stars with potentially habitable planets. Possible future missions that survey 10 times as many stars with similar sensitivity and minute-cadence monitoring can establish the characteristics of asteroid systems around white dwarfs, such as the distribution of asteroid sizes and semimajor axes. Transits by planets would be more dramatic, but the probability that they will occur is lower. Ensembles of planetary moons and/or the presence of rings around planets can also produce transits detectable by Kepler. The presence of moons and rings can significantly increase the probability that Kepler will discover planets orbiting white dwarfs, even while monitoring only a small number of them.

  12. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 × faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R☉ (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M☉, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M☉. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R☉ (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%-0.05%+0.10% (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at relatively large orbital radii. Similar eclipsing binary systems can have arbitrarily small eclipse depths in red bands and generate plausible small-planet-transit light curves. As such, these systems are a source of false positives for M-dwarf transiting planet searches. We present several ways to rapidly distinguish these binaries from transiting planet systems.

  13. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Nicholas M. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007 (India); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2012-10-01

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 Multiplication-Sign faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R{sub Sun} (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M{sub Sun }. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R{sub Sun} (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%{sub -0.05%}{sup +0.10%} (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at relatively large orbital radii. Similar eclipsing binary systems can have arbitrarily small eclipse depths in red bands and generate plausible small-planet-transit light curves. As such, these systems are a source of false positives for M-dwarf transiting planet searches. We present several ways to rapidly distinguish these binaries from transiting planet systems.

  14. RE 0044+09: A new K dwarf rapid rotator with a white dwarf companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Barry J.; Bromage, Gordon E.; Brown, Alexander; Jeffries, Robin D.; James, David J.; Kilkenny, David; Robb, Russell M.; Wonnacott, David; Lloyd, Christopher; Clayton, C.

    1995-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new K dwarf rapid rotator with a potential white dwarf companion. The white dwarf accounts for over 90% of the observed extreme ultraviolet flux detected from this system. Analysis of ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) and IUE data both suggest a white dwarf temperature of approximately 28,700 K. Optical photometry and the IUE long wavelength prime (LWP) spectrum (with the white dwarf contribution removed) imply that the late-type star has a spectral type of K1-3 V, and a distance of 55 +/- 5 pc. Using this distance, the observed IUE SWP flux, and the best-fit temperature results in a white dwarf radius of 0.0088 solar radius. The estimated white dwarf mass is then approximately 0.91 solar mass; somewhat over-massive compared to field white dwarfs. Optical photometry of the K star reveals a 'spot' modulation period of approximately 10 hr (now observed over 3 yr). However, radial velocity observations have revealed no significant variations. Spectroscopic observations place a low limit on the lithium abundance, but do show rapid rotation with a v sin i of 90 +/- 10 km/s. The K star was detected as a radio source at 3.6 cm (on two occasions) and 6 cm by the Very Large Array (VLA). The most likely evolutionary scenario is that the K star and hot white dwarf from either a wide binary or common proper motion pair with an age of 0.1-0.1 Gyr-consistent with the evolutionary timescale of the white dwarf and the rapid rotation of the K star. However, from the proper motion of the K star, this system does not seem to be associated with any of the known young stellar groups.

  15. The formation and detectability of Be + white dwarf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of Be+He star and Be+white swarf binaries is discussed using evolutionary calculations. A total number of 300-1000 rapidly rotating B star+He star binaries and 100-300 rapidly rotating B star+white dwarf binaries should exist within 1 kpc of the Sun. If the B star is a Be star, the Be+white dwarf systems produce X-rays due to accretion of wind material of the equatorial wind of the Be star onto the white dwarf. The estimated X-ray luminosities range between 1029 and 1033 erg/s. The late type Be stars?2 Cru and HR 48O4, that have X-ray luminosities of about 1032 erg/s, are likely to have acreting white dwarf companions. The Be stars with unseen companions are godd candidates for Be+He star binaries

  16. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, J Craig

    2012-01-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) have gotten increasingly tight. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the limits on the companions of SNIa in SNR 0509-67.5 and SN1572 are M dwarfs. M dwarfs have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNIa: they have small but finite magnetic fields, and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SNIa progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide an adequate rate of explosions. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a "magnetic bottle" connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate...

  17. Kinematics and Velocity Ellipsoid of the Solar Neighborhood White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Elsanhoury, W H; Abdel-Rahman, H I

    2015-01-01

    To determine the velocity ellipsoid of the solar neighborhood white dwarfs, we use the space velocity components of stars. Two samples of white dwarfs are used, 20 pc and 25 pc samples. Beside the two main samples, the solar velocity and velocity dispersions are calculated for the four subsamples, namely DA, non - DA, hot and cool white dwarfs. Comparison between the results of 20 pc sample and those of 25 pc sample gives good agreement, while the comparison between the other subsamples gives bad agreement. Dependence of the velocity dispersions and solar velocity on the chemical composition and effective temperatures are discussed.

  18. White Dwarf Stars as a Polytropic Gas Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Nouh, M I; Elkhateeb, M M; Korany, B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the highly degeneracy of electrons in white dwarf stars, we expect that the relativistic effects play very important role in these stars. In the present article, we study the properties of the condensed matter in white dwarfs using Newtonian and relativistic polytropic fluid sphere. Two polytropic indices (namely n=3 and n=1.5) are proposed to investigate the physical characteristics of the models. We solve the Lane-Emden equations numerically.. The results show that the relativistic effect is small in white dwarf stars.

  19. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R.; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R.; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the end state of most stars, including the Sun, after they exhaust their nuclear fuel. Between 1/4 and 1/2 of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements should rapidly settle into the stellar interiors unless they are occasionally replenished. The abundance ratios of heavy elements in white dwarf atmospheres are similar to rocky bodies in the Solar system. This and the existence of warm dusty debris disks around about 4% of...

  20. On the origin of the ultramassive white dwarf GD50

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We argue on the basis of astrometric and spectroscopic data that the ultramassive white dwarf GD50 is associated with the star formation event that created the Pleiades and is possibly a former member of this cluster. Its cooling age (~60Myrs) is consistent with it having evolved essentially as a single star from a progenitor with a mass M>6Msun so we find no need to invoke a white dwarf-white dwarf binary merger scenario to account for its existence. This result may represent the first direc...

  1. Ages of White Dwarf-Red Subdwarf Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hektor Monteiro; Wei-Chun Jao; Todd Henry; John Subasavage; Thom Beaulieu

    2005-01-01

    We provide the first age estimates for two recently discovered white dwarf-red subdwarf systems, LHS 193AB and LHS 300AB. These unusual systems provide a new opportunity for linking the reliable age estimates for the white dwarfs to the (measurable) metallicities of the red subdwarfs. We have obtained precise photometry in the $V_{J}R_{KC}I_{KC}JH$ bands and spectroscopy covering from 6000\\AA to 9000\\AA for the two new systems, as well as for a comparison white dwarf-main se...

  2. A double white dwarf with a paradoxical origin?

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. P. Bours; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T; Tauris, T. M.; Istrate, A. G.; Badenes, C.; Dhillon, V.S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hermes, J. J.; Kengkriangkrai, S.; Kilic, M.; D. Koester; Mullally, F.; Prasert, N.; Steeghs, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of the 4.6 h period double white dwarf SDSS J125733.63+542850.5. Combined with Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical data, these reveal that the massive white dwarf (secondary) has an effective temperature T2 = 13030 +/- 70 +/- 150 K and a surface gravity log g2 = 8.73 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.05 (statistical and systematic uncertainties respectively), leading to a mass of M2 = 1.06 Msun. The temperature of the extremely low-mass white dwarf (pr...

  3. Kinematics and Velocity Ellipsoid of the Solar Neighborhood White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoury, W. H.; Nouh, M. I.; Abdel-Rahman, H. I.

    2015-10-01

    To determine the velocity ellipsoid of the solar neighborhood white dwarfs, we use the space velocity components of stars. Two samples of white dwarfs are used, the 20 pc and 25 pc samples. Beside the two main samples, the solar velocity and velocity dispersions are calculated for four subsamples, namely DA, non - DA, hot and cool white dwarfs. A comparison between the results of the 20 pc sample and those of the 25 pc sample gives good agreement, while the comparison between the other subsamples gives poor agreement. The dependence of the velocity dispersions and solar velocity on the chemical composition and effective temperatures is discussed.

  4. The WFCAM transit survey and cool white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Pinfield D.; Hornillos D. Cristobal; Hodgkin S.; Napiwotzki R.; Catalan S.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from our search for cool white dwarfs in the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey). Repeat observations starting in 2007 allowed to produce deep stacked images in J and measure proper motions. We combine this with deep optical imaging to select cool white dwarf candidates (Teff < 5000?K). About 27 cool white dwarf candidates with proper motions above 0.10 arcsec/yr were identified in one of the fields representing 1/8th of the survey area. Follow-up spectroscopy with the 10.2?m GTC te...

  5. On the origin of the ultramassive white dwarf GD50

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbie, P. D.; Napiwotzki, R.; Lodieu, N.; Burleigh, M. R.; Barstow, M. A; Jameson, R. F.

    2006-01-01

    We argue on the basis of astrometric and spectroscopic data that the ultramassive white dwarf GD50 is associated with the star formation event that created the Pleiades and is possibly a former member of this cluster. Its cooling age (~60Myrs) is consistent with it having evolved essentially as a single star from a progenitor with a mass M>6Msun so we find no need to invoke a white dwarf-white dwarf binary merger scenario to account for its existence. This result may represe...

  6. White Dwarfs in NGC 6791: Avoiding the Helium Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brad

    2005-01-01

    We propose that the anomalously bright white dwarf luminosity function observed in NGC 6791 (Bedin et al 2005) is the consequence of the formation of 0.5 Msun white dwarfs with Helium cores instead of Carbon cores. This may happen if mass loss during the ascent of the Red Giant Branch is strong enough to prevent a star from reaching the Helium flash. Such a model can explain the slower white dwarf cooling (relative to standard models) and fits naturally with scenarios advanc...

  7. White dwarf stars and the Hubble Deep Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1998-01-01

    Although it a very narrow angle survey, the depth of the HDF results in its sampling a significant volume of the halo of our galaxy. Thus it is useful for the purposes of detecting (or placing upper limits on the distribution of) intrinsically faint stars, such as white dwarfs. White dwarfs could provide a significant fraction of the total mass of the halo of the Milky Way. Constraints on the population of halo white dwarfs from the HDF can directly address this possible par...

  8. The Torino Observatory Parallax Program: White Dwarf Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, R L; Bucciarelli, B; Massone, G; Casalegno, R; Chiumiento, G; Drimmel, R; Lanteri, L; Marocco, F; Spagna, A

    2003-01-01

    We present parallax determinations for six white dwarf candidates in the Torino Observatory Parallax Program. The absolute parallaxes are found with precisions at the 2-3 milliarcsecond level. For WD 1126+185 we find a distance incompatible with being a white dwarf, implying an incorrect classification. For WD 2216+484 we find our distance is consistent with a simple DA white dwarf rather than a composite system as previously proposed in the literature. In general it is found that the published photometric distance is an overestimate of the distance found here.

  9. The Torino Observatory Parallax Program: White dwarf candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R. L.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Bucciarelli, B.; Massone, G.; Casalegno, R.; Chiumiento, G.; Drimmel, R.; Lanteri, L.; Marocco, F.; Spagna, A.

    2003-06-01

    We present parallax determinations for six white dwarf candidates in the Torino Observatory Parallax Program. The absolute parallaxes are found with precisions at the 2-3 milliarcsec level. For WD 1126+185 we find a distance incompatible with being a white dwarf, implying an incorrect classification. For WD 2216+484 we find our distance is consistent with a simple DA white dwarf rather than a composite system as previously proposed in the literature. In general it is found that the published photometric distance is an overestimate of the distance found here.

  10. A low-temperature companion to a white dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, E. E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared object located about 120 AU from the white dwarf GD165 has been discovered. With the exception of the possible brown dwarf companion to Giclas 29-38 reported last year, the companion to GD165 is the coolest (2100 K) dwarf star ever reported and, according to some theoretical models, it should be a substellar brown dwarf with a mass between 0.06 and 0.08 solar mass. These results, together with newly discovered low-mass stellar companions to white dwarfs, change the investigation of very low-mass stars from the study of a few chance objects to that of a statistical distribution. In particular, it appears that very low-mass stars and perhaps even brown dwarfs could be quite common in the Galaxy.

  11. RX J2130.6+4710 - an eclipsing white dwarf - M-dwarf binary star

    OpenAIRE

    Maxted, P. F. L; Marsh, T. R.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Barstow, M. A; Dobbie, P. D.; Schreiber, M. R.; Dhillon, V.S.; Brinkworth, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    (Abridged) We report the detection of eclipses in the close white-dwarf - M-dwarf binary star RXJ2130.6+4710. We estimate that the spectral type of the M-dwarf is M3.5Ve or M4Ve. We estimate that the effective temperature of the white dwarf is Teff = 18000K +- 1000K. We have used the width of the primary eclipse and duration of totality measured precisely from Ultracam u' data combined with the amplitude of the ellipsoidal effect in the I band and the semi-amplitudes of the ...

  12. NLTT5306: The shortest Period Detached White Dwarf + Brown Dwarf Binary

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, P. R.; Saglia, R. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Lawrie, K; Cappetta, M.; Girven, J.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2012-01-01

    We have spectroscopically confirmed a brown dwarf mass companion to the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf NLTT5306. The white dwarf's atmospheric parameters were measured using Sloan Digital Sky Survey and X-Shooter spectroscopy as T_eff=7756+/-35K and log(g)=7.68+/-0.08, giving a mass for the primary of M_WD=0.44+/-0.04 M_sun, at a distance of 71+/-4 pc with a cooling age of 710+/-50 Myr. The existence of the brown dwarf secondary was confirmed through the near-infrared arm o...

  13. Time dependent white dwarf radiative shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the oscillatory instability of white dwarf radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv. We extend previous works by examining spherical shocks dominated by: (1) bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling; and (2) bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling when the effects of electron thermal conduction are not negligible. The results of our calculations allow us to delineate stability regimes as a function of the dwarf mass, M/sub d/, and the accretion rate, M0. We parameterize M0 in terms of the optical depth to electron scattering through the preshock flow, tau/sub es/. In the Compton cooling and bremsstrahlung case, the shocks are unstable to low order oscillation modes if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.7 +- 0.1) M/sub solar/ for tau/sub es/ = 14, and if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.9 +- 0.1) M/sub solar/ for tau/sub es/ = 1. When electron thermal conduction is added, low order oscillation modes are unstable only if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.3 +- 0.1) M/sub sun mass/. The unstable modes have approximate oscillation periods of 1.1 tau/sub br/ and 0.63 tau/sub br/, where tau/sub br/ is the bremsstrahlung cooling time scale of the postshock plasma. Our results can be scaled to magnetically funneled accretion flows as long as cyclotron emission contributes less than about 10% of the postshock cooling. 14 refs., 1 fig

  14. A Parameter-Space Study of Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarf Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chenchong; Chang, Philip; van Kerkwijk, Marten; Wadsley, James

    2012-01-01

    The merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs can lead either to a spectacular transient, stable nuclear burning or a massive, rapidly rotating white dwarf. Simulations of mergers have shown that the outcome strongly depends on whether the white dwarfs are similar or dissimilar in mass. In the similar-mass case, both white dwarfs merge fully and the remnant is hot throughout, while in the dissimilar case, the more massive, denser white dwarf remains cold and essentially intac...

  15. General Relativistic White Dwarfs and Their Astrophysical Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We consider applications of general relativistic uniformly-rotating white dwarfs to several astrophysical phenomena related to the spin-up and the spin-down epochs and to delayed type Ia supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, where we estimate the "spinning down" lifetime due to magnetic-dipole braking. In addition, we describe the physical properties of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars as massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs. Particularly we consider one of the so-called low-magnetic-field magnetars SGR 0418+5729 as a massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarf and give bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia, and magnetic field by requiring the general relativistic uniformly-rotating configurations to be stable.

  16. Testing the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution we revisit the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, which links the mass of a white dwarf with that of its progenitor in the main-sequence. Although this function is of paramount importance to several fields in modern astrophysics, it is still not well constrained either from the theoretical or the observational points of view. We present here a revision of the present semi-empirical initial-final mass relationship using all the available data and including our recent results obtained from studying white dwarfs in common proper motion pairs. We have also analyzed the results obtained so far to provide some clues on the dependence of this relationship on metallicity. Finally, we have also performed an indirect test of the initial-final mass relationship by studying its effect on the luminosity function and on the mass distribution of white dwarfs.

  17. A variational approach to understanding white dwarf evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    A variational approach is used to map out the effects that uncertainties in the theoretical model parameters have upon the derived ages near the observed cutoff in the white dwarf luminosity function. Two representative sequences are assessed, simulating a white dwarf with a 50/50 C/O mixture in the core and an outer helium layer and a white dwarf with a C/O convective overshooting profile. The differential effects that the variation of selected model input quantities has on the ages are reported, and it is concluded that internal theoretical uncertainties are small and getting smaller with time, and the results underscore the power of using the observed white dwarf luminosity function for studying the history of star formation in the Galaxy.

  18. Ages of white dwarf-red subdwarf systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hektor Monteiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first age estimates for two recently discovered white dwarf-red subdwarf systems, LHS 193AB and LHS 300AB. These systems provide a new opportunity for linking the reliable age estimates for the white dwarfs to the (measurable metallicities of the red subdwarfs. We have obtained precise photometry in the VJRKCIKCJH bands and spectroscopy covering from 6,000°A to 9,000°A (our spectral coveragefor the two new systems, as well as for a comparison white dwarfmain sequence red dwarf system, GJ 283 AB. Using model grids, we estimate the cooling age as well as temperature, surface gravity, mass, progenitor mass and total lifetimes of the white dwarfs. The results indicate that the two new systems are probably ancient thick disk objects with ages of at least 6-9 gigayears (Gyr.

  19. General relativistic white dwarfs and their astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider applications of general relativistic uniformly-rotating white dwarfs to several astrophysical phenomena related to the spin-up and the spin-down epochs and to delayed type Ia supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, where we estimate the 'spinning down' lifetime due to magnetic-dipole braking. In addition, we describe the physical properties of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars as massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs. Particularly we consider one of the so-called low-magnetic-field magnetars SGR 0418+5729 as a massive rapidly-rotating highly- magnetized white dwarf and give bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia, and magnetic field by requiring the general relativistic uniformly rotating configurations to be stable.

  20. General relativistic white dwarfs and their astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    We consider applications of general relativistic uniformly-rotating white dwarfs to several astrophysical phenomena related to the spin-up and the spin-down epochs and to delayed type Ia supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, where we estimate the "spinning down" lifetime due to magnetic-dipole braking. In addition, we describe the physical properties of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars as massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs. Particularly we consider one of the so-called low-magnetic-field magnetars SGR 0418+5729 as a massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarf and give bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia, and magnetic field by requiring the general relativistic uniformly-rotating configurations to be stable.

  1. General relativistic white dwarfs and their astrophysical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo [Sapienza University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Siutsou, Ivan [ICRANet, Square of Republic, Pescara (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    We consider applications of general relativistic uniformly-rotating white dwarfs to several astrophysical phenomena related to the spin-up and the spin-down epochs and to delayed type Ia supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, where we estimate the 'spinning down' lifetime due to magnetic-dipole braking. In addition, we describe the physical properties of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars as massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs. Particularly we consider one of the so-called low-magnetic-field magnetars SGR 0418+5729 as a massive rapidly-rotating highly- magnetized white dwarf and give bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia, and magnetic field by requiring the general relativistic uniformly rotating configurations to be stable.

  2. Magnetic white dwarfs: Observations, theory and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Kilic, Mukremin; Kepler, Souza Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Isolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from 103G to 109G, and constitute an interesting class of objects. The origin of the magnetic field is still the subject of a hot debate. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of the progenitor of white dwarfs, or on the contrary, are the result of binary interactions or, finally, other physical mechanisms that could produce such large magnetic fields during the evolution of the white dwarf itself, remains to be elucidated. In this work, we review the current status and paradigms of magnetic fields in white dwarfs, from both the theoretical and observational points of view.

  3. Magnetic White Dwarfs: Observations, Theory, and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique; Kepler, S O

    2015-01-01

    Isolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from kilogauss to gigagauss, and constitute an interesting class of objects. The origin of the magnetic field is still the subject of a hot debate. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of the progenitor of white dwarfs, or on the contrary, are the result of binary interactions or, finally, other physical mechanisms that could produce such large magnetic fields during the evolution of the white dwarf itself, remains to be elucidated. In this work we review the current status and paradigms of magnetic fields in white dwarfs, from both the theoretical and observational points of view.

  4. Evaporation and Accretion of Extrasolar Comets Following White Dwarf Kicks

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Nicholas; Metzger, Brian; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of observational evidence suggest that white dwarfs receive small birth kicks due to anisotropic mass loss. If other stars possess extrasolar analogues to the Solar Oort cloud, the orbits of comets in such clouds will be scrambled by white dwarf natal kicks. Although most comets will be unbound, some will be placed on low angular momentum orbits vulnerable to sublimation or tidal disruption. The dusty debris from these comets will manifest itself as an IR excess temporarily visi...

  5. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R.; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R.; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-10-01

    Most stars become white dwarfs after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel (the Sun will be one such). Between one-quarter and one-half of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements ought to sink rapidly into the stellar interiors (unless they are occasionally replenished). The abundance ratios of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are similar to the ratios in rocky bodies in the Solar System. This fact, together with the existence of warm, dusty debris disks surrounding about four per cent of white dwarfs, suggests that rocky debris from the planetary systems of white-dwarf progenitors occasionally pollutes the atmospheres of the stars. The total accreted mass of this debris is sometimes comparable to the mass of large asteroids in the Solar System. However, rocky, disintegrating bodies around a white dwarf have not yet been observed. Here we report observations of a white dwarf--WD 1145+017--being transited by at least one, and probably several, disintegrating planetesimals, with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 hours and exhibit varying depths (blocking up to 40 per cent of the star's brightness) and asymmetric profiles, indicative of a small object with a cometary tail of dusty effluent material. The star has a dusty debris disk, and the star's spectrum shows prominent lines from heavy elements such as magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, iron, and nickel. This system provides further evidence that the pollution of white dwarfs by heavy elements might originate from disrupted rocky bodies such as asteroids and minor planets.

  6. QUIESCENT NUCLEAR BURNING IN LOW-METALLICITY WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the impact of residual nuclear burning in the cooling sequences of hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs with very low metallicity progenitors (Z = 0.0001). These cooling sequences are appropriate for the study of very old stellar populations. The results presented here are the product of self-consistent, fully evolutionary calculations. Specifically, we follow the evolution of white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence through all the evolutionary phases, namely the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. This is done for the most relevant range of main-sequence masses, covering the most usual interval of white dwarf masses—from 0.53 M ? to 0.83 M ?. Due to the low metallicity of the progenitor stars, white dwarfs are born with thicker hydrogen envelopes, leading to more intense hydrogen burning shells as compared with their solar metallicity counterparts. We study the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important and find that nuclear energy sources play a key role during long periods of time, considerably increasing the cooling times from those predicted by standard white dwarf models. In particular, we find that for this metallicity and for white dwarf masses smaller than about 0.6 M ?, nuclear reactions are the main contributor to the stellar luminosity for luminosities as low as log (L/L ?) ? –3.2. This, in turn, should have a noticeable impact in the white dwarf luminosity function of low-metallicity stellar populations

  7. Anderson and Stoner Published White Dwarf Mass Limits Before Chandrasekhar

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Eric G

    2011-01-01

    In their engaging recountals of Chandrasekhar's extraordinary career (Physics Today, vol 63, Issue 12, Dec 2010), neither Dyson nor Wali mention that Chandrasekhar was the third person not the first, to publish a white dwarf mass limit incorporating a relativistic treatment of degenerate electrons. As it has become a common misconception that Chandrasekhar was the first, a clarifying reminder on this historical point is warranted. In short, the white dwarf mass limit widely ...

  8. Post nova white dwarf cooling in V1500 Cygni

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, M. W.; Naylor, T. (Timothy)

    1999-01-01

    We use the irradiated secondary star in the remnant of Nova Cyg 1975 as a probe of the cooling white dwarf. At superior conjunction the flux in the B band is dominated by the irradiated face of the secondary star. The heated face produces an orbital modulation which is dependent on the strength of the irradiating source. We demonstrate that the cooling rate of the white dwarf is consistent with the theoretical model of Prialnik (1986).

  9. New DA white dwarf evolutionary models and their pulsational properties

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, Alejandro Hugo; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; Benvenuto, Omar Gustavo; Serenelli, Aldo

    2001-01-01

    In this letter we investigate the pulsational properties of ZZ Ceti stars on the basis of new white dwarf evolutionary models calculated in a self-consistent way with the predictions of time dependent element diffusion and nuclear burning. In addition, full account is taken of the evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation. Emphasis is placed on the trapping properties of such models. By means of adiabatic, non-radial pulsation calculations, we find, as a result ...

  10. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, Leandro G.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Isern, Jordi; a-Berro, Enrique Garcí

    2010-01-01

    Abridged. White dwarf stars are the final evolutionary stage of the vast majority of stars, including our Sun. The study of white dwarfs has potential applications to different fields of astrophysics. In particular, they can be used as independent reliable cosmic clocks, and can also provide valuable information about the fundamental parameters of a wide variety of stellar populations, like our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. In addition, the high densities and temper...

  11. The White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of NGC6397

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brad M. S.; Anderson, Jay; Brewer, James; Dotter, Aaron; Fahlman, Greg G.; Hurley, Jarrod; Kalirai, Jason; King, Ivan; Reitzel, David; Richer, Harvey B.; Rich, R. Michael; Michael M. Shara; Stetson, Peter B

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) exposure of the nearby globular cluster NGC6397, focussing attention on the cluster's white dwarf cooling sequence. This sequence is shown to extend over 5 magnitudes in depth, with an apparent cutoff at magnitude F814W=27.6. We demonstrate, using both artificial star tests and the detectability of background galaxies at fainter magnitudes, that the cutoff is real and represents the truncation of the white dwarf l...

  12. Testing common envelopes on double white dwarf binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Nandez, Jose L. A.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lombardi Jr., James C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a double white dwarf binary likely involves a common envelope (CE) event between a red giant and a white dwarf (WD) during the most recent episode of Roche lobe overflow mass transfer. We study the role of recombination energy with hydrodynamic simulations of such stellar interactions. We find that the recombination energy helps to expel the common envelope entirely, while if recombination energy is not taken into account, a significant fraction of the commo...

  13. On the formation of hot DQ white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.; Córsico, A. H.; Bertolami, M. M. Miller; Romero, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first full evolutionary calculations aimed at exploring the origin of hot DQ white dwarfs. These calculations consistently cover the whole evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Our calculations provide strong support to the diffusive/convective-mixing picture for the formation of hot DQs. We find that the hot DQ stage is a short-lived stage and that the range of effective temperatures where hot DQ stars are found can be accounte...

  14. On the stability of ultra-magnetized white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Diego L.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-magnetized white dwarfs with interior fields up to 1018 G have recently been proposed to have a critical mass limit M max ? 2.58 M ?, which surpasses the traditional Chandrasekhar limit M ch ? 1.44 M ?. We show that several stability criteria and fundamental physical aspects that take place when huge magnetic fields and high densities are present have been neglected in the determination of such a new mass limit for white dwarfs, invalidating that result.

  15. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2015-10-22

    Most stars become white dwarfs after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel (the Sun will be one such). Between one-quarter and one-half of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements ought to sink rapidly into the stellar interiors (unless they are occasionally replenished). The abundance ratios of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are similar to the ratios in rocky bodies in the Solar System. This fact, together with the existence of warm, dusty debris disks surrounding about four per cent of white dwarfs, suggests that rocky debris from the planetary systems of white-dwarf progenitors occasionally pollutes the atmospheres of the stars. The total accreted mass of this debris is sometimes comparable to the mass of large asteroids in the Solar System. However, rocky, disintegrating bodies around a white dwarf have not yet been observed. Here we report observations of a white dwarf--WD 1145+017--being transited by at least one, and probably several, disintegrating planetesimals, with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 hours and exhibit varying depths (blocking up to 40 per cent of the star's brightness) and asymmetric profiles, indicative of a small object with a cometary tail of dusty effluent material. The star has a dusty debris disk, and the star's spectrum shows prominent lines from heavy elements such as magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, iron, and nickel. This system provides further evidence that the pollution of white dwarfs by heavy elements might originate from disrupted rocky bodies such as asteroids and minor planets. PMID:26490620

  16. Towards an Understanding of the Atmospheres of Cool White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Piotr M.; Saumon, Didier; Holberg, Jay; Leggett, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Cool white dwarfs with Teff < 6000 K are the remnants of the oldest stars that existed in our Galaxy. Their atmospheres, when properly characterized, can provide valuable information on white dwarf evolution and ultimately star formation through the history of the Milky Way. Understanding the atmospheres of these stars requires joined observational effort and reliable atmosphere modeling. We discuss and analyze recent observations of the near-ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrar...

  17. A double white dwarf with a paradoxical origin?

    CERN Document Server

    Bours, M C P; Gaensicke, B T; Tauris, T M; Istrate, A G; Badenes, C; Dhillon, V S; Gal-Yam, A; Hermes, J J; Kengkriangkrai, S; Kilic, M; Koester, D; Mullally, F; Prasert, N; Steeghs, D; Thompson, S E; Thorstensen, J R

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of the 4.6 h period double white dwarf SDSS J125733.63+542850.5. Combined with Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical data, these reveal that the massive white dwarf (secondary) has an effective temperature T2 = 13030 +/- 70 +/- 150 K and a surface gravity log g2 = 8.73 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.05 (statistical and systematic uncertainties respectively), leading to a mass of M2 = 1.06 Msun. The temperature of the extremely low-mass white dwarf (primary) is substantially lower at T1 = 6400 +/- 37 +/- 50 K, while its surface gravity is poorly constrained by the data. The relative flux contribution of the two white dwarfs across the spectrum provides a radius ratio of R1/R2 = 4.2, which, together with evolutionary models, allows us to calculate the cooling ages. The secondary massive white dwarf has a cooling age of about 1 Gyr, while that of the primary low-mass white dwarf is likely to be much longer, possibly larger than 5 Gyrs, depending on its mass and the strength of chemical di...

  18. Optical spectroscopy of candidate Alpha Persei white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Geier, S; Lodieu, N; Hambly, N C

    2015-01-01

    As part of an investigation into the high mass end of the initial mass-final mass relation we performed a search for new white dwarf members of the nearby (172.4 pc), young (80-90 Myr) $\\alpha$ Persei open star cluster. The photometric and astrometric search using the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and SuperCOSMOS sky surveys discovered 14 new white dwarf candidates. We have obtained medium resolution optical spectra of the brightest 11 candidates using the William Herschel Telescope and confirmed that while 7 are DA white dwarfs, 3 are DB white dwarfs and one is an sdOB star, only three have cooling ages within the cluster age, and from their position on the initial mass-final mass relation, it is likely none are cluster members. This result is disappointing, as recent work on the cluster mass function suggests that there should be at least one white dwarf member, even at this young age. It may be that any white dwarf members of $\\alpha$ Per are hidden within binary systems, as is the case in the Hyades clus...

  19. Constraints on white dwarfs structure and evolution from asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, G.

    2013-12-01

    In the last two decades, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of white dwarfs pulsators. Owing to ground-based multi-sites observational campaigns, and more recently to the long time-based high-precision photometric observations with the Kepler satellite, a large number of pulsating white dwarfs have been studied through the asteroseismology method. I emphasize here the accuracy that this method achieves on the determination of the total mass, one of the fundamental stellar parameter that can be derived from asteroseismology, among others. Then I discuss the issue of the age determination, emphasizing the contribution of the neutrinos cooling and the importance of the outer layer mass fraction. I show that some observations throw some doubts on the assumption that the cooling is the only cause of the observed frequency variations. Finally I summarize the results demonstrating that the entire stellar angular momentum is lost during the evolutionary phases prior to the white dwarf stage. While the asteroseismology of white dwarf stars has given a rich harvest of results on their internal structure and evolution, there are still some challenges to face. Determining accurate mass of the outer layers, specifically for the DA white dwarfs, is one of them. An increasing number of white dwarf pulsators are now known to exhibit frequency and amplitude temporal variations. The physical mechanism producing such variabilities has to be identified.

  20. Evaporation and accretion of extrasolar comets following white dwarf kicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Metzger, Brian D.; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Several lines of observational evidence suggest that white dwarfs receive small birth kicks due to anisotropic mass-loss. If other stars possess extrasolar analogues to the Solar Oort cloud, the orbits of comets in such clouds will be scrambled by white dwarf natal kicks. Although most comets will be unbound, some will be placed on low angular momentum orbits vulnerable to sublimation or tidal disruption. The dusty debris from these comets will manifest itself as an IR excess temporarily visible around newborn white dwarfs; examples of such discs may already have been seen in the Helix Nebula, and around several other young white dwarfs. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope may distinguish this hypothesis from alternatives such as a dynamically excited Kuiper Belt analogue. Although competing hypotheses exist, the observation that ?15 per cent of young white dwarfs possess such discs, if interpreted as indeed being cometary in origin, provides indirect evidence that low-mass gas giants (thought necessary to produce an Oort cloud) are common in the outer regions of extrasolar planetary systems. Hydrogen abundances in the atmospheres of older white dwarfs can, if sufficiently low, also be used to place constraints on the joint parameter space of natal kicks and exo-Oort cloud models.

  1. On the White Dwarf distances to Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, M; García-Berro, E; Isern, J; Torres, S

    2001-01-01

    We analyze in detail various possible sources of systematic errors on the distances of globular clusters derived by fitting a local template DA white dwarf sequence to the cluster counterpart (the so-called WD-fitting technique). We find that the unknown thickness of the hydrogen layer of white dwarfs in clusters plays a non negligible role. For reasonable assumptions - supported by the few sparse available observational constraints - about the unknown mass and thickness of the hydrogen layer for the cluster white dwarfs, a realistic estimate of the systematic error on the distance is within +-0.10 mag. However, particular combinations of white dwarf masses and envelope thicknesses - which at present cannot be excluded a priori - could produce larger errors. Contamination of the cluster DA sequence by non-DA white dwarfs introduces a very small systematic error of about -0.03 mag in the Mv/(V-I) plane, but in the Mv/(B-V) plane the systematic error amounts to ~ +0.20 mag. Contamination by white dwarfs with he...

  2. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the end state of most stars, including the Sun, after they exhaust their nuclear fuel. Between 1/4 and 1/2 of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements should rapidly settle into the stellar interiors unless they are occasionally replenished. The abundance ratios of heavy elements in white dwarf atmospheres are similar to rocky bodies in the Solar system. This and the existence of warm dusty debris disks around about 4% of white dwarfs suggest that rocky debris from white dwarf progenitors' planetary systems occasionally pollute the stars' atmospheres. The total accreted mass can be comparable to that of large asteroids in the solar system. However, the process of disrupting planetary material has not yet been observed. Here, we report observations of a white dwarf being transited by at least one and likely multiple disintegrating planetesimals with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 ...

  3. Mid-Infrared Observations of the White Dwarf Brown Dwarf Binary GD 1400

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Fluxes are measured for the DA white dwarf plus brown dwarf pair GD 1400 with the Infrared Array Camera on the {\\em Spitzer Space Telescope}. GD 1400 displays an infrared excess over the entire $3-8\\mu$m region consistent with the presence of a mid- to late-type L dwarf companion. A discussion is given regarding current knowledge of this unique system.

  4. Orbital Evolution of Compact White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David L; Steinfadt, Justin D R

    2012-01-01

    The new-found prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, Mhe<0.2 Msun) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (Menv~1e-3 Msun) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 1e6 yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H burning stage.

  5. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ?}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ?}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ?3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ?}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  6. Evolution of Close White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gokhale, V; Frank, J; Gokhale, Vayujeet; Peng, Xiao Meng; Frank, Juhan

    2006-01-01

    We describe the evolution of double degenerate binary systems, consisting of components obeying the zero temperature mass radius relationship for white dwarf stars, from the onset of mass transfer to one of several possible outcomes including merger, tidal disruption of the donor, or survival as a semi-detached AM CVn system. We use a combination of analytic solutions and numerical integrations of the standard orbit-averaged first-order evolution equations, including direct impact accretion and the evolution of the components due to mass exchange. We include also the effects of mass-loss during super-critical (super-Eddington) mass transfer and the tidal and advective exchanges of angular momentum between the binary components. We cover much the same ground as Marsh et al.(2004) with the additional effects of the advective or consequential angular momentum from the donor and its tidal coupling to the orbit which is expected to be stronger than that of the accretor. With the caveat that our formalism does not ...

  7. Simulating a white dwarf dominated Galactic halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.

    2003-08-01

    Observational evidence has suggested the possibility of a Galactic halo dominated by white dwarfs (WDs). While debate continues concerning the interpretation of this evidence, it is clear that an initial mass function (IMF) biased heavily toward WD precursors (1IMFs lead to an unavoidable overproduction of carbon and nitrogen relative to oxygen (as measured against the abundance patterns in the oldest stars of the Milky Way). Using a three-dimensional Tree N-body smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, we study the dynamics and chemical evolution of a galaxy with different IMFs. Both invariant and metallicity-dependent IMFs are considered. Our variable IMF model invokes a WD-precursor-dominated IMF for metallicities less than 5 per cent solar (primarily the Galactic halo), and the canonical Salpeter IMF otherwise (primarily the disc). Halo WD density distributions and C,N/O abundance patterns are presented. While Galactic haloes composed of >~5 per cent (by mass) of WDs are not supported by our simulations, mass fractions of ~1-2 per cent cannot be ruled out. This conclusion is consistent with present-day observational constraints.

  8. Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manreza Paret, Daryel; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto; Perez Martínez, Aurora

    2015-10-01

    We revisit the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). The impact of a strong magnetic field on the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for parallel pressures and find that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when B ? 1013 G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WDs with super-Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we can apply results for structure equations appropriate for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures that were derived in our previous work. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symmetry we have confirmed the same bound for B ? 1013 G, since beyond this value no physical solutions are possible. Our tentative conclusion is that massive WDs with masses well beyond the Chandrasekhar limit do not constitute stable solutions and should not exist.

  9. White dwarf masses in cataclysmic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnen, T P G; Schreiber, M R

    2015-01-01

    The white dwarf (WD) mass distribution of cataclysmic variables (CVs) has recently been found to dramatically disagree with the predictions of the standard CV formation model. The high mean WD mass among CVs is not imprinted in the currently observed sample of CV progenitors and cannot be attributed to selection effects. Two possibilities have been put forward: either the WD grows in mass during CV evolution, or in a significant fraction of cases, CV formation is preceded by a (short) phase of thermal time-scale mass transfer (TTMT) in which the WD gains a sufficient amount of mass. We investigate if either of these two scenarios can bring theoretical predictions and observations into agreement. We employed binary population synthesis models to simulate the present intrinsic CV population. We incorporated aspects specific to CV evolution such as an appropriate mass-radius relation of the donor star and a more detailed prescription for the critical mass ratio for dynamically unstable mass transfer. We also imp...

  10. White Dwarf Cosmochronology in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, P -E; Soderblom, D R; Cignoni, M; Cummings, J

    2014-01-01

    The study of the stellar formation history in the solar neighborhood is a powerful technique to recover information about the early stages and evolution of the Milky Way. We present a new method which consists of directly probing the formation history from the nearby stellar remnants. We rely on the volume complete sample of white dwarfs within 20 pc, where accurate cooling ages and masses have been determined. The well characterized initial-final mass relation is employed in order to recover the initial masses (1 < M/Msun < 8) and total ages for the local degenerate sample. We correct for moderate biases that are necessary to transform our results to a global stellar formation rate, which can be compared to similar studies based on the properties of main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Our method provides precise formation rates for all ages except in very recent times, and the results suggest an enhanced formation rate for the solar neighborhood in the last 5 Gyr compared to the range 5 <...

  11. On general relativistic uniformly rotating white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. The Hartle's formalism is applied to construct self-consistently the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller EoS that generalizes the Salpeter's one taking fully into account the finite size of nuclei, the Coulomb interactions as well as electroweak equilibrium in a self-consistent relativistic fashion is used to describe the WD matter. The mass, radius, angular momentum, eccentricity and quadrupole moment of RWDs are calculated as a function of the central density and rotation angular velocity. We construct the region of stability of RWDs taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse beta-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant angular momentum sequences that separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation periods 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 2.2 seconds and maximum masses 1.50...

  12. Seismology of Rapidly Rotating Accreting White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, Dean M; Bildsten, Lars

    2016-01-01

    A number of White Dwarfs (WDs) in cataclysmic binaries have shown brightness variations consistent with non-radial oscillations as observed in isolated WDs. A few objects have been well-characterized with photometric campaigns in the hopes of gleaning information about the mass, spin, and possibly internal structural characteristics. The novel aspect of this work is the possiblity to measure or constrain the interior structure and spin rate of WDs which have spent gigayears accreting material from their companion, undergoing thousands of nova outbursts in the process. In addition, variations in the surface temperature affect the site of mode driving, and provide unique and challenging tests for mode driving theories previously applied to isolated WD's. Having undergone long-term accretion, these WDs are expected to have been spun up. Spin periods in the range 60-100 seconds have been measured by other means for two objects, GW Lib and V455 And. Compared to typical mode frequencies, the spin frequency may be s...

  13. Thermonuclear detonations ensuing white dwarf mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Dan, Marius; Brüggen, Marcus; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Rosswog, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) has for many years not been considered as the favoured model for the progenitor system of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). But recent years have seen a change of opinion as a number of studies, both observational and theoretical, have concluded that they should contribute significantly to the observed type Ia supernova rate. In this paper, we study the ignition and propagation of detonation through post-merger remnants and we follow the resulting nucleosynthesis up to the point where a homologous expansion is reached. In our study we cover the entire range of WD masses and compositions. For the emergence of a detonation we study several setups, guided by both merger remnants from our own simulations and by results taken from the literature. We carefully compare the nucleosynthetic yields of successful explosions with SN Ia observations. Only three of our models are consistent with all the imposed constraints and potentially lead to a standard type Ia event. The first one, a $0...

  14. Discovery of an ultramassive pulsating white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, J J; Castanheira, Barbara G; Gianninas, A; Winget, D E; Montgomery, M H; Brown, Warren R; Harrold, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    We announce the discovery of the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere (DA) white dwarf (WD) ever discovered, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a 12,030 +/- 210 K WD with a log(g) = 9.08 +/- 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20 +/- 0.03 Msun. Stellar evolution models indicate that the progenitor of such a high-mass WD endured a stable carbon-burning phase, producing an oxygen-neon-core WD. The discovery of pulsations in GD 518 thus offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a WD with a possible oxygen-neon core. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425-595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7%, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, which exhibit non-radial g-mode pulsations driven by a hydrogen partial ionization zone. Successfully unraveling both the total mass and core ...

  15. On interstellar accretion and the rejuvenation of white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truran, J. W.; Wyatt, S. P.; Starrfield, S. G.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Sparks, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper investigates physical conditions which can give rise to thermonuclear runaways in the hydrogen envelopes of low-luminosity white dwarfs. Specifically, calculations are performed for white dwarfs of 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 1.25 solar masses with envelope masses in the range from 0.00001 to 0.001 solar mass and initial luminosities of 0.00001 to 0.01 times the solar value. It is found that envelope masses as low as 0.0001 solar mass are sufficient to initiate thermonuclear runaways on more massive white dwarfs with luminosities as low as about 0.001 the solar value. The runaway time scales under these conditions, typically of the order of a billion years, are comparable to the time scales for cooling of white dwarfs to these low luminosities. Since time-averaged accretion rates as low as a few times 10 to the -14th power solar mass per year are sufficient to reconstitute such envelopes, also on a time scale of several billion years, it is suggested that the association of novalike events with binary systems may not be unique. Accretion of interstellar matter onto isolated white dwarfs may, under some circumstances, be sufficient to rekindle and perhaps rejuvenate the dwarf. Such evolutionary behavior might define a new and distinct class of objects.

  16. On interstellar accretion and the rejuvenation of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated physical conditions which can give rise to thermonuclear runaways in the hydrogen envelopes of low-luminosity white dwarfs. Specifically, we have performed calculations for white dwarfs of masses 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 1.25 M/sub sun/, with envelope masses in the range 10-5 to 10-3M/sub sun/ and initial luminosities 10-5 to 10-2 L/sub sun/. We find that envelope masses as low as 10-4 M/sub sun/ are sufficient to initial thermonuclear runaways on more massive white dwarfs with luminosities as low as approx.10-4 L/sub sun/. The runaway time scales under these conditions, typically of the order of a billion years, are comparable to the time scales for cooling of white dwarfs to these low luminosities. Since time-averaged accretion rates as low as a few times 10-14 M/sub sun/ per year are sufficient to reconstitute such envelopes, also on a time scale of several billion years, we suggest that the association of nova-like events with binary systems may not be unique. Accreation of interstellar matter onto isolated white dwarfs may, under some circumstances, be sufficient to rekindle and perhaps rejuvenate the dwarf. Such evolutionary behavior might define a new and distinct class of objects

  17. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Bell, Keaton J; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R; Hermes, J J; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P; Winget, D E; Winget, K I

    2015-01-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 min due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B<70 kG. Since up to 15% of white dwarfs display kG magnetic fields, such ecli...

  18. The Long-Term Outcomes of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Binary star systems composed of two white dwarfs are a natural outcome of stellar evolution. Angular momentum losses from gravitational wave radiation cause the binary system's orbit to shrink until the two white dwarfs merge. The final outcome of the merger depends on the masses of the white dwarfs. Some potential outcomes, such as supernova explosions, may occur during or soon after the merger. Other outcomes, which I will refer to as "long-term" outcomes, occur as the merger remnant cools and its structure adjusts to the new state created during the energetic merger.In my dissertation, I quantitatively explore the long-term outcomes of the mergers of two white dwarfs. I focus primarily on the formation of neutron stars via accretion-induced collapse and the formation of two types of unusual stars, the single sub-dwarf B stars (hot, core helium fusing stars) and the R Coronae Borealis stars (cool, carbon-rich giant stars). Beginning with the results from my previous simulations of the short-lived viscous disk initially present in these remnants, I use the state-of-the-art MESA stellar evolution code to follow their thermal evolution.This work improves the quantitative understanding of which white dwarf binaries lead to a particular outcome and better characterizes the observational signatures of these outcomes. For systems that will undergo accretion-induced collapse, these simulations yield improved progenitor models that can then be used to explore the collapse and formation of a neutron star.

  19. Constraining White Dwarf Masses Via Apsidal Precession in Eccentric Double White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Valsecchi, Francesca; Willems, Bart; Deloye, Christopher J; Kalogera, Vicky

    2011-01-01

    Galactic short period double white dwarfs (DWD) are guaranteed gravitational wave (GW) sources for the next generation of space-based interferometers sensitive to low-frequency GWs (10^{-4}- 1 Hz). Here we investigate the possibility of constraining the white dwarf (WD) properties through measurements of apsidal precession in eccentric binaries. We analyze the general relativistic (GR), tidal, and rotational contributions to apsidal precession by using detailed He WD models. We find that apsidal precession can lead to a detectable shift in the emitted GW signal, the effect being stronger (weaker) for binaries hosting hot (cool) WDs. We find that in hot (cool) DWDs tides dominate the precession at orbital frequencies above ~0.01 mHz (~1 mHz). Analyzing the apsidal precession of these sources only accounting for GR would potentially lead to an extreme overestimate of the component masses. Finally, we derive a relation that ties the radius and apsidal precession constant of cool WD components to their masses, th...

  20. New White Dwarf Stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Kleinman, Scot J; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Nitta, Atsuko; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Costa, José Eduardo da Silveira; Külebi, Baybars; Jordan, Stefan; Dufour, Patrick; Giommi, Paolo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 9 088 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spectra on helium atmosphere white dwarfs, 71 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 171 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 327 continuum dominated DCs, 397 metal polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium dominated white dwarfs, 647 subdwarfs and 6887 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars.

  1. THE (DOUBLE) WHITE DWARF BINARY SDSS 1257+5428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SDSS 1257+5428 is a white dwarf in a close orbit with a companion that has been suggested to be a neutron star. If so, it hosts the closest known neutron star, and its existence implies a great abundance of similar systems and a rate of white dwarf neutron-star mergers similar to that of the type Ia supernova rate. Here, we present high signal-to-noise spectra of SDSS 1257+5428, which confirm an independent finding that the system is in fact composed of two white dwarfs, one relatively cool and with low mass and the other hotter and more massive. With this, the demographics and merger rate are no longer puzzling (various factors combine to lower the latter by more than 2 orders of magnitude). We show that the spectra are fit well with a combination of two hydrogen model atmospheres, as long as the lines of the higher-gravity component are broadened significantly relative to what is expected from just pressure broadening. Interpreting this additional broadening as due to rotation, the inferred spin period is short, about 1 minute. Similarly rapid rotation is only seen in accreting white dwarfs that are magnetic; empirically, it appears that in non-magnetized white dwarfs, accreted angular momentum is lost by nova explosions before it can be transferred to the white dwarf. This suggests that the massive white dwarf in SDSS 1257+5428 is magnetic as well, with B ? 105 G. Alternatively, the broadening seen in the spectral lines could be due to a stronger magnetic field, of ?106 G. The two models can be distinguished by further observations.

  2. A COMPREHENSIVE SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF DB WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed analysis of 108 helium-line (DB) white dwarfs based on model atmosphere fits to high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy. We derive a mean mass of 0.67 Msun for our sample, with a dispersion of only 0.09 Msun. White dwarfs also showing hydrogen lines, the DBA stars, comprise 44% of our sample, and their mass distribution appears similar to that of DB stars. As in our previous investigation, we find no evidence for the existence of low-mass (M sun) DB white dwarfs. We derive a luminosity function based on a subset of DB white dwarfs identified in the Palomar-Green Survey. We show that 20% of all white dwarfs in the temperature range of interest are DB stars, although the fraction drops to half this value above Teff ? 20,000 K. We also show that the persistence of DB stars with no hydrogen features at low temperatures is difficult to reconcile with a scenario involving accretion from the interstellar medium, often invoked to account for the observed hydrogen abundances in DBA stars. We present evidence for the existence of two different evolutionary channels that produce DB white dwarfs: the standard model where DA stars are transformed into DB stars through the convective dilution of a thin hydrogen layer and a second channel where DB stars retain a helium atmosphere throughout their evolution. We finally demonstrate that the instability strip of pulsating V777 Her white dwarfs contains no non-variables, if the hydrogen content of these stars is properly accounted for.

  3. Thermonuclear detonations ensuing white dwarf mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M.; Guillochon, J.; Brüggen, M.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rosswog, S.

    2015-12-01

    The merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) has for many years not been considered as the favoured model for the progenitor system of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). But recent years have seen a change of opinion as a number of studies, both observational and theoretical, have concluded that they should contribute significantly to the observed SN Ia rate. In this paper, we study the ignition and propagation of detonation through post-merger remnants and we follow the resulting nucleosynthesis up to the point where a homologous expansion is reached. In our study we cover the entire range of WD masses and compositions. For the emergence of a detonation we study three different setups. The first two are guided by the merger remnants from our earlier simulations, while for the third one the ignitions were set by placing hotspots with properties determined by spatially resolved calculations taken from the literature. There are some caveats to our approach which we investigate. We carefully compare the nucleosynthetic yields of successful explosions with SN Ia observations. Only three of our models are consistent with all the imposed constraints and potentially lead to a standard Type Ia event. The first one, a 0.45 M? helium (He) + 0.9 M? carbon-oxygen (CO) WD system produces a sub-luminous, SN 1991bg-like event while the other two, a 0.45 M? He+1.1 M? oxygen-neon WD system and a 1.05 + 1.05 M? system with two CO WDs, are good candidates for common SNe Ia.

  4. Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. The downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope, in combination with the absorption of a planet or tidal spin-up from a binary companion, can trigger strong dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: the outer third of a ˜ 0.55 {M}? WD is processed during the shell burning phase(s) of the progenitor; the escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and the intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a relatively thick tachocline layer. The helicity flux into the growing core is driven by a dynamical imbalance with a latitude-dependent rotational stress. The magnetic field deposited in an isolated massive WD is concentrated in an outer shell of mass ? 0.1 {M}? and can reach ˜10 MG. A buried toroidal field experiences moderate ohmic decay above an age ˜0.3 Gyr, which may lead to growth or decay of the external magnetic field. The final WD spin period is related to a critical spin rate below which magnetic activity shuts off and core and envelope decouple; it generally sits in the range of hours to days. WD periods ranging up to a year are possible if the envelope re-expands following a late thermal pulse.

  5. A deeply eclipsing detached double helium white dwarf binary

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Gänsicke, B T; Drake, A J; Koester, D

    2011-01-01

    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hour period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100K primary star and a 10,500K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the H{\\alpha} absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M1 = 0.283\\pm0.064Msun and M2 = 0.274\\pm0.034Msun, making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  6. Quiescent nuclear burning in low-metallicity white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Garcia-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the impact of residual nuclear burning in the cooling sequences of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs with very low metallicity progenitors ($Z=0.0001$). These cooling sequences are appropriate for the study of very old stellar populations. The results presented here are the product of self-consistent, fully evolutionary calculations. Specifically, we follow the evolution of white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence through all the evolutionary phases, namely the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. This is done for the most relevant range of main sequence masses, covering the most usual interval of white dwarf masses --- from $0.53\\, M_{\\sun}$ to $0.83\\, M_{\\sun}$. Due to the low metallicity of the progenitor stars, white dwarfs are born with thicker hydrogen envelopes, leading to more intense hydrogen burning shells as compared with their solar metallicity counterparts. We study the phase ...

  7. Signs of a faint disc population at polluted white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bergfors, Carolina; Dufour, Patrick; Rocchetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Observations of atmospheric metals and dust discs around white dwarfs provide important clues to the fate of terrestrial planetary systems around intermediate mass stars. We present Spitzer IRAC observations of 15 metal polluted white dwarfs to investigate the occurrence and physical properties of circumstellar dust created by the disruption of planetary bodies. We find subtle infrared excess emission consistent with warm dust around KUV 15519+1730 and HS 2132+0941, and weaker excess around the DZ white dwarf G245-58, which, if real, makes it the coolest white dwarf known to exhibit a 3.6 micron excess and the first DZ star with a bright disc. All together our data corroborate a picture where 1) discs at metal-enriched white dwarfs are commonplace and most escape detection in the infrared (possibly as narrow rings), 2) the discs are long lived, having lifetimes on the order of 10^6 yr or longer, and 3) the frequency of bright, infrared detectable discs decreases with age, on a timescale of roughly 500 Myr, su...

  8. The First Mid-Infrared Spectra of Cool White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Mullally, Fergal; Reach, William T; von Hippel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    We present the first mid-infrared spectra of two cool white dwarfs obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We also present 3.5-8 micron photometry for 19 cool white dwarfs with 5000K < Teff < 9000K. We perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis of these white dwarfs by fitting their UBVRIJHK and Spitzer photometry with state-of-the-art model atmospheres, and demonstrate that the optical and infrared spectral energy distributions of cool white dwarfs are well reproduced by our grid of models. Our mid-IR photometry and 7.5-14.5 micron spectrum of WD0018-267 are consistent with a Teff = 5720K, pure hydrogen white dwarf model atmosphere. On the other hand, LHS 1126 remains peculiar with significant mid-IR flux deficits in all IRAC bands and a featureless spectrum in the 5.2-7.5 micron range. Even though this deficit is attributed to collision induced absorption (CIA) due to molecular hydrogen, the shape of the deficit cannot be explained with current CIA opacity calculations. The infrared portion of th...

  9. White Dwarfs in HETDEX: Preparation for the Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade, large scale surveys have discovered a large number of white dwarf stars. Many new aspects have been revealed, including the discovery of the DQVs, close-in non-contact binary systems, and debris disks around many stars. Unfortunately, the population statistics of the newly discovered white dwarf stars are poorly constrained, because of the various methods used to assign objects to fibers for spectroscopic observations in the SDSS survey. A white dwarf sample that is magnitude limited, with well-constrained selection criteria, is needed. The HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will use the 9.2 m HET at McDonald Observatory and a set of more than 100 spectrographs to map the three-dimensional positions of one million galaxies, to probe dark energy. In this unique magnitude limited survey, all objects that fall into the fibers will be observed. We expect to observe spectroscopically about 10,00 white dwarf stars. In this paper, we will present the specifications and current status of HETDEX, which will start taking data in Fall 2014. We will also show our first results from observations of white dwarf stars using an identical spectrograph with the 2.7m HJS Telescope and discuss some of the approaches we have been working on in preparation for this exciting survey.

  10. Complete sample of white dwarfs, hot subdwarfs, and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of a complete sample of hot white dwarfs, identified spectroscopically from candidates selected for ultraviolet excess without regard to proper motion. The luminosity function and local space density of hot white dwarfs are derived, giving 1.43 +- .28 per 1000 cubic parsecs for M/sub v/ < 12.75. A model of the local rate of star formation is constructed, which, when combined with white dwarf cooling theory, satisfactorily reproduces the observed luminosity function. The predicted densities at fainter absolute magnitudes also agree with the observations although uncertainties in the data do not allow a determination of the change in star formation rate with time. The model predicts a range of scale heights for hot white dwarfs of 220 to 270 pc, and a total local density of degenerate stars of at least 20 per 1000 cubic parsecs. The assumption of a single population of DA white dwarfs with identical composition is not adequate to explain the observed color--color diagram

  11. The formation of massive white dwarfs in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to the mass spectrum of single white dwarfs which has a single narrow peak at approximately 0.6 solar mass, the observed mass spectrum of white dwarfs of cataclysmic binaries (CB's) shows a rather uniform distribution of the masses in the range approximately 0.3 solar mass to approximately 1.3 solar mass. The formation of CB's with white dwarfs of less than about 0.8 solar mass can be understood as the result of a binary evolution according to low mass Case B or Case C with a subsequent spiraling-in in a common envelope. On the other hand the formation of massive white dwarfs of M approximately > 1 solar mass can be explained as the result of a massive Case B mass transfer yielding a helium star which subsequently undergoes a second Case B mass transfer (so called Case BB evolution). The ultimate product of such an evolution is either a CO-white dwarf with a mass up to the Chandrasekhar limit or a neutron star. The formation of CB's via Case BB evolution requires the binary to undergo at least one, most probably two separate phases of spiraling-in in a common envelope. (Auth.)

  12. Cool white dwarf companions to four millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassa, C. G.; Antoniadis, J.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Koester, D.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. R.; Stappers, B. W.

    2016-02-01

    We report on photometric and spectroscopic observations of white dwarf companions to four binary radio millisecond pulsars, leading to the discovery of companions to PSRs J0614-3329, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We place limits on the brightness of the companion to PSR J0613-0200. Optical spectroscopy of the companion to PSR J0614-3329 identifies it as a DA-type white dwarf with a temperature of Teff = 6460 ± 80 K, a surface gravity log g = 7.0 ± 0.2 cgs and a mass of MWD = 0.24 ± 0.04 M?. We find that the distance to PSR J0614-3329 is smaller than previously estimated, removing the need for the pulsar to have an unrealistically high ?-ray efficiency. Comparing the photometry with predictions from white dwarf cooling models allows us to estimate temperatures and cooling ages of the companions to PSRs J0613-0200, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We find that the white dwarfs in these systems are cool Teff white dwarfs to cool to the observed temperatures, and we suggest that besides hydrogen shell flashes, irradiation driven mass loss by the pulsar may have been important.

  13. A DEEPLY ECLIPSING DETACHED DOUBLE HELIUM WHITE DWARF BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the H? absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 Msun and M2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 Msun, making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  14. Cool white dwarf companions to four millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Bassa, C G; Camilo, F; Cognard, I; Koester, D; Kramer, M; Ransom, S R; Stappers, B W

    2015-01-01

    We report on photometric and spectroscopic observations of white dwarf companions to four binary radio millisecond pulsars, leading to the discovery of companions to PSRs J0614-3329, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We place limits on the brightness of the companion to PSR J0613-0200. Optical spectroscopy of the companion to PSR J0614-3329 identifies it as a DA type white dwarf with a temperature of Teff=6460+-80 K, a surface gravity log g=7.0+-0.2 cgs and a mass of Mwd=0.24+-0.04 Msun. We find that the distance to PSR J0614-3329 is smaller than previously estimated, removing the need for the pulsar to have an unrealistically high gamma-ray efficiency. Comparing the photometry with predictions from white dwarf cooling models allows us to estimate temperatures and cooling ages of the companions to PSRs J0613-0200, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We find that the white dwarfs in these systems are cool Teff5 Gyr. Thin Hydrogen envelopes are required for these white dwarfs to cool to the observed temperatures, and we sugges...

  15. Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

  16. THE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF CONVECTIVE MIXING WHITE DWARFS, THE NON-DA GAP, AND WHITE DWARF COSMOCHRONOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral distribution of field white dwarfs shows a feature called the 'non-DA gap'. As defined by Bergeron et al., this is a temperature range (5100-6100 K) where relatively few non-DA stars are found, even though such stars are abundant on either side of the gap. It is usually viewed as an indication that a significant fraction of white dwarfs switch their atmospheric compositions back and forth between hydrogen-rich and helium-rich as they cool. In this Letter, we present a Monte Carlo model of the Galactic disk white dwarf population, based on the spectral evolution model of Chen and Hansen. We find that the non-DA gap emerges naturally, even though our model only allows white dwarf atmospheres to evolve monotonically from hydrogen-rich to helium-rich through convective mixing. We conclude by discussing the effects of convective mixing on the white dwarf luminosity function and the use thereof for Cosmochronology.

  17. GRMHD formulation of highly super-Chandrasekhar rotating magnetized white dwarfs: stable configurations of non-spherical white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sathyawageeswar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2015-11-01

    Here we extend the exploration of significantly super-Chandrasekhar magnetized white dwarfs by numerically computing axisymmetric stationary equilibria of differentially rotating magnetized polytropic compact stars in general relativity (GR), within the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime. We use a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) framework that describes rotating and magnetized axisymmetric white dwarfs, choosing appropriate rotation laws and magnetic field profiles (toroidal and poloidal). The numerical procedure for finding solutions in this framework uses the 3 + 1 formalism of numerical relativity, implemented in the open source XNS code. We construct equilibrium sequences by varying different physical quantities in turn, and highlight the plausible existence of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, with masses in the range of 2-3 solar mass, with central (deep interior) magnetic fields of the order of 1014 G and differential rotation with surface time periods of about 1-10 s. We note that such white dwarfs are candidates for the progenitors of peculiar, overluminous Type Ia supernovae, to which observational evidence ascribes mass in the range 2.1-2.8 solar mass. We also present some interesting results related to the structure of such white dwarfs, especially the existence of polar hollows in special cases.

  18. On high proper motion white dwarfs from photographic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Reylé, C; Creze, M; Reyle, Celine; Robin, Annie C.; Creze, Michel

    2001-01-01

    The interpretation of high proper motion white dwarfs detected by Oppenheimer et al (2001) was the start of a tough controversy. While the discoverers identify a large fraction of their findings as dark halo members, others interpret the same sample as essentially made of disc and/or thick disc stars. We use the comprehensive description of galactic stellar populations provided by the "Besancon" model to produce a realistic simulation of Oppenheimer et al. data, including all observational selections and calibration biases. The conclusion is unambiguous: Thick disc white dwarfs resulting from ordinary hypotheses on the local density and kinematics are sufficient to explain the observed objects, there is no need for halo white dwarfs. This conclusion is robust to reasonable changes in model ingredients. The main cause of the misinterpretation seems to be that the velocity distribution of a proper motion selected star sample is severely biased in favour of high velocities. This has been neglected in previous an...

  19. Evaporation and Accretion of Extrasolar Comets Following White Dwarf Kicks

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of observational evidence suggest that white dwarfs receive small birth kicks due to anisotropic mass loss. If other stars possess extrasolar analogues to the Solar Oort cloud, the orbits of comets in such clouds will be scrambled by white dwarf natal kicks. Although most comets will be unbound, some will be placed on low angular momentum orbits vulnerable to sublimation or tidal disruption. The dusty debris from these comets will manifest itself as a debris disk temporarily visible around newborn white dwarfs; examples of such disks may already have been seen in the Helix Nebula, and around several other young WDs. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will distinguish this hypothesis from alternatives such as a dynamically excited Kuiper Belt analogue. If interpreted as indeed being cometary in origin, the observation that >15% of young WDs possess such disks provides indirect evidence that low mass gas giants (thought necessary to produce an Oort cloud) are common in the out...

  20. The Empirical Determination of Convection in Pulsating White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Judith; Montgomery, Mike; Reed, Mike; Dalessio, James; Kepler, S. O.; Baran, Andrez; Fraga, Luciano

    2011-08-01

    We propose high speed photometric observations of the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf HS0507+0434B as part of a coordinated international campaign designed to determine the properties of convection in white dwarf atmospheres. Convection is one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. Asteroseismology has proven a powerful tool to attack this problem. White dwarf pulsations appear as local surface temperature variations, leading to local changes in the convection zone's depth and its ability to absorb/release energy. As the convection zone waxes and wanes, it modulates the local energy flux, leading to highly nonlinear light curves. We will use the observed nonlinearities in high precision light curves provided by SOAR, combined with accurate frequency, amplitude, and phase information provided by the Kitt Peak 2.1 m and the entire WET run to directly probe the nature of HS0507+0434B's convection zone.

  1. The formation of DA white dwarfs with thin hydrogen envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, L G; Corsico, A H; García-Berro, E; Gil-Pons, P

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of DA white dwarfs, the progenitors of which have experienced a late thermal pulse (LTP) shortly after the departure from the thermally pulsing AGB. To this end, we compute the complete evolution of an initially 2.7 Mo star all the way from the zero-age main sequence to the white dwarf stage. We find that most of the original H-rich material of the post-AGB remnant is burnt during the post-LTP evolution, with the result that, at entering its white dwarf cooling track, the remaining H envelope becomes 10^-6 Mo in agreement with asteroseismological inferences for some ZZ Ceti stars.

  2. Detection of a white dwarf in a visual binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    The F6 giant HD 160365 was detected to have a white dwarf companion about 8 arcsec south of the star. The UV energy distribution observed with IUE shows that the white dwarf has an effective temperature of 23,000 +/- 2000 K. If log g = 8 the Lya profile indicates an effective temperature around 24,500 K. Using the theoretical models by Wesemael et al. (1980) one finds a visual magnitude of m(V) about 16.5. For T(eff) = 24,500 K one expects for a white dwarf a luminosity of log L/L(solar) about 1.3 and M(V) about 10.67. This gives a distance modulus for the system of m(V) - M(V) = 5.83 and an absolute magnitude M(V)= 0.3 for the giant.

  3. Asteroseismology of pulsating DA white dwarfs with fully evolutionary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaus L.G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for asteroseismology of DA white dwarfs that consists in the employment of a large set of non-static, physically sound, fully evolutionary models representative of these stars. We already have applied this approach with success to pulsating PG1159 stars (GW Vir variables. Our white dwarf models, which cover a wide range of stellar masses, effective temperatures, and envelope thicknesses, are the result of fully evolutionary computations that take into account the complete history of the progenitor stars from the ZAMS. In particular, the models are characterized by self-consistent chemical structures from the centre to the surface, a crucial aspect of white dwarf asteroseismology. We apply this approach to an ensemble of 44 bright DAV (ZZ Ceti stars.

  4. The isolated massive DA white dwarf GD 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of accurate hydrogen line profiles from optical and ultraviolet spectrophotometry shows that the hot DA white dwarf GD 50 (WD 0346-011) has an exceptionally high surface gravity of log g = 9.0 + or - 0.15; the derived parameters imply a mass of 1.2 solar mass and a radius of 0.0057 solar mass, if an interior composed of carbon and oxygen is assumed. As such, it is the first well-studied, isolated DA white dwarf with a likely mass larger than that of Sirius B. Moreover, the derived mass is large enough to consider the possibility that the interior is composed of oxygen, neon, and magnesium. If GD 50 has evolved as a single object, it should be quite young. Alternatively, the star could have formed as the result of a merger of a close pair of white dwarfs. 48 refs

  5. Hot white dwarfs, OB subdwarfs and dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Neill; Wegner, Gary; Wickramasinghe, D. T.; Bessell, M. S.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a method of using UBV photographic photometry to survey obscured regions in the Galactic plane for hot white dwarfs and OB subdwarfs. From an initial survey of two regions, the first towards the Coalsack, and the second covering part of the Scorpius-Centaurus cloud, the authors have found at least six white dwarfs, one probable interacting binary, five B subdwarfs, and two O subdwarfs. The space densities computed from these, admittedly sparse, statistics are similar to those deduced from Green's analysis of the Palomar-Green survey and thus a factor of 3 higher than Fleming et al's recent reanalysis of those data. The authors find a space density of ?2.0×10-2stars pc-3 for white dwarfs with MV ? 13.0.

  6. Hot white dwarfs, OB subdwarfs and dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described which uses UBV photographic photometry to survey obscured regions in the Galactic plane for hot white dwarfs and OB subdwarfs. From an initial survey of two regions, the first towards the Coalsack and the second covering part of the Scorpius-Centaurus cloud, at least six white dwarfs, one probable interacting binary, five B subdwarfs, and two O subdwarfs have been found. The space densities computed from these, admittedly sparse, statistics are similar to those deduced from Green's (1980) analysis of the Palomar-Green survey and thus a factor of 3 higher than Fleming et al.'s (1986) reanalysis of those data. A space density of about 0.02 stars/cu pc for white dwarfs with M(V) less than or equal to 13.0 is found. 42 references

  7. White dwarf masses in cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Zorotovic, M.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The white dwarf (WD) mass distribution of cataclysmic variables (CVs) has recently been found to dramatically disagree with the predictions of the standard CV formation model. The high mean WD mass among CVs is not imprinted in the currently observed sample of CV progenitors and cannot be attributed to selection effects. Two possibilities have been put forward to solve this issue: either the WD grows in mass during CV evolution, or in a significant fraction of cases, CV formation is preceded by a (short) phase of thermal time-scale mass transfer (TTMT) in which the WD gains a sufficient amount of mass. Aims: Here we investigate if and under which conditions a phase of TTMT before CV formation or mass growth in CVs can bring theoretical predictions and observations into agreement. Methods: We employed binary population synthesis models using the binary_c/nucsyn code to simulate the present intrinsic CV population. To that end we incorporated aspects specific to CV evolution such as an appropriate mass-radius relation of the donor star and a more detailed prescription for the critical mass ratio for dynamically unstable mass transfer. We have also implemented a previously suggested wind from the surface of the WD during TTMT and tested the idea of WD mass growth during the CV phase by arbitrarily changing the accretion efficiency. We compare the model predictions of the TTMT and the mass growth model with the characteristics of CVs derived from observed samples. Results: We find that mass growth of the WDs in CVs fails to reproduce the observed WD mass distribution. In the case of TTMT, we are able to produce a large number of massive WDs if we assume significant mass loss from the surface of the WD during the TTMT phase. However, the model still produces too many CVs with helium WDs. Moreover, the donor stars are evolved in many of these post-TTMT CVs, which contradicts the observations. Conclusions: We conclude that in our current framework of CV evolution neither TTMT nor WD mass growth can fully explain either the observed WD mass or the period distribution in CVs.

  8. Globular cluster interstellar media: ionized and ejected by white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from white dwarfs can efficiently clear Galactic globular clusters (GCs) of their intracluster medium (ICM). This solves the problem of the missing ICM in clusters, which is otherwise expected to build up to easily observable quantities. To show this, we recreate the ionizing flux in 47 Tuc, following randomly generated stars through their asymptotic giant branch (AGB), post-AGB and white dwarf evolution. Each white dwarf can ionize all the material injected into the cluster by stellar winds for ˜3 Myr of its evolution: ˜40 such white dwarfs exist at any point. Every GC's ICM should be ionized. The neutral cloud in M15 should be caused by a temporary overdensity. A pressure-supported ICM will expand over the cluster's tidal radius, where it will be truncated, allowing Jeans escape. The modelled Jeans mass-loss rate approximates the total stellar mass-loss rate, allowing efficient clearing of ICM. Any cluster's ICM mass should equal the mass injected by its stars over the sound travel time between the cluster core and tidal radius. We predict ˜11.3 M? of ICM within 47 Tuc, cleared over ˜4 Myr, compared to a dynamical time-scale of 4.3 Myr. We present a new mass hierarchy, discussing the transition between GCs dwarf galaxies.

  9. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Bell, Keaton J.; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  10. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G.; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Context. White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. Aims: We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. Methods: We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal-poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. Results: We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars, only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for these purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, such as the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spheroid, or the adopted fraction of unresolved binaries. Moreover, since the cutoff of the observed luminosity has not yet been determined only the lower limits to the age of the halo population can be placed. Conclusions: We conclude that the current observed sample of the halo white dwarf population is still too small to obtain definite conclusions about the properties of the stellar halo, and the recently computed white dwarf cooling sequences, which incorporate residual hydrogen burning, should be assessed using metal-poor globular clusters.

  11. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (??) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of ?? ?< 10-11 ?B. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound

  12. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G. [Grupo de Evolución Estelar y Pulsaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Bertolami, M.M. Miller [Instituto de Astrofísica La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Kepler, S.O. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); García-Berro, E., E-mail: acorsico@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: marcelo@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: enrique.garcia-berro@upc.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades 5, 08860, Castelldefels (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (?{sub ?}) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of ?{sub ?} ?< 10{sup -11} ?{sub B}. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  13. Detached white-dwarf close-binary stars -- CV's extended family

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    I review detached binaries consisting of white dwarfs with either other white dwarfs or low mass main-sequence stars in tight orbits around them. Orbital periods have been measured for 15 white dwarf/white dwarf systems and 22 white dwarf/M dwarf systems. While small compared to the number of periods known for CVs (>300), I argue that each variety of detached system has a space density an order of magnitude higher that of CVs. While theory matches the observed distribution o...

  14. Do Some X-ray Stars Have White Dwarf Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Some Be stars which are intermittent C-ray sources may have white dwarf companions rather than neutron stars. It is not possible to prove or rule out the existence of Be+WD systems using X-ray or optical data. However, the presence of a white dwarf could be established by the detection of its EUV continuum shortward of the Be star's continuum turnover at 1OOOA. Either the detection or the nondetection of Be+WD systems would have implications for models of Be star variability, models of Be binary system formation and evolution, and models of wind-fed accretion.

  15. Do some x-ray stars have white dwarf companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccollum, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Some Be stars which are intermittent X-ray sources may have white dwarf companions rather than neutron stars. It is not possible to prove or rule out the existence of Be + WD systems using X-ray or optical data. However, the presence of a white dwarf could be established by the detection of its EUV continuum shortward of the Be star's continuum turnover at 100 A. Either the detection or the nondetection of Be + WD systems would have implications for models of Be star variability, models of Be binary system formation and evolution, and models of wind-fed accretion.

  16. Cool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Liebert, James; von Hippel, Ted; Williams, Kurtis A.; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Winget, D. E.; Levine, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    A reduced proper motion diagram utilizing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry and astrometry and USNO-B plate astrometry is used to separate cool white dwarf candidates from metal-weak, high-velocity main sequence Population II stars (subdwarfs) in the SDSS Data Release 2 imaging area. Follow-up spectroscopy using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, the MMT, and the McDonald 2.7m Telescope is used to demonstrate that the white dwarf and subdwarf loci separate cleanly in the r...

  17. Magnetic Field Evolution in an Accreting White Dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Cumming, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    I discuss the evolution of the magnetic field of an accreting white dwarf. I show that the ohmic decay time is 7-12 billion years for the lowest order decay mode, almost independent of core temperature or mass. I then show that the magnetic field structure is substantially altered by accretion if the white dwarf mass increases at a rate more than 1-5 x 10^(-10) solar masses per year. I discuss the implications of this result for observed systems, including the possible evolu...

  18. The White Dwarf Companions of 56 Per and HR 3643

    OpenAIRE

    Landsman, Wayne; Simon, Theodore; Bergeron, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained low-dispersion IUE spectra of the stars 56 Persei (F4 V) and HR 3643 (F7 II), as part of a survey of late-type stars with a 1565 A flux excess in the TD-1 ultraviolet sky survey. The IUE spectrum of each star reveals the presence of a hot white dwarf companion. We fit the Ly alpha profile and ultraviolet continuum using pure hydrogen models, but the distance of the primary star is also needed to uniquely constrain the white dwarf parameters. We derive Teff =...

  19. The formation of DA white dwarfs with thin hydrogen envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, L. G.; Bertolami, M. M. Miller; Córsico, A. H.; García-Berro, E.; Gil-Pons, P.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of DA white dwarfs, the progenitors of which have experienced a late thermal pulse (LTP) shortly after the departure from the thermally pulsing AGB. To this end, we compute the complete evolution of an initially 2.7 Mo star all the way from the zero-age main sequence to the white dwarf stage. We find that most of the original H-rich material of the post-AGB remnant is burnt during the post-LTP evolution, with the result that, at entering ...

  20. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G A; Helmi, Amina; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~ 3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the presen...

  1. The ELM Survey. IV. 24 White Dwarf Merger Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Kenyon, S J; Heinke, Craig O.; Agueros, M. A.; Kleinman, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass (ELM, 0.2 Msol) white dwarf candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 area. We identify seven new binary systems with 1-18 h orbital periods. Five of the systems will merge due to gravitational wave radiation within 10 Gyr, bringing the total number of merger systems found in the ELM Survey to 24. The ELM Survey has now quintupled the known merger white dwarf population. It has...

  2. The formation of massive white dwarfs in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White dwarfs (WD's) in cataclysmic binaries (CB's) contrast with single white dwarfs in that, while the masses of most single WD's fall into a narrow range of --0.12 M/sub sub solar/, the masses of WD's in CB's are distributed quite uniformly over almost the entire permitted mass range. This makes the discussion of the formation of higher mass (?1 M/sub sub solar/) WD's of particular interest, and may shed some light on the evolution of CB's in general

  3. Astro-archaeology - The white dwarfs and hot subwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1991-01-01

    By 'astroarcheology' is presently meant the effort to ascertain the Galaxy's past in light of what is found in its most ancient, white dwarf constituents. Attention is given to the controversial role of the hot subdwarfs and the theory of white dwarf spectral evolution, as well as to the concept of the 'Whole Earth Telescope', involving continuous photometric coverage of rapidly varying astronomical sources and thereby eliminating the otherwise troublesome diurnal gaps in data. Much higher resolution of the power spectra of these objects is attainable by these means than any current alternative.

  4. Evolutionary Models of White Dwarfs with Helium Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Driebe, T.; Schoenberner, D; Bloecker, T.; Herwig, F.

    1998-01-01

    We present seven evolutionary tracks for low-mass white dwarfs with helium cores, ranging in mass from 0.179 to 0.414 Msol. We generated the pre-white dwarf models from a 1 Msol sequence extending up to the tip of its red-giant branch by applying high mass-loss rates at appropriate positions, and we followed their evolution across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and down the cooling path. We discuss the internal structures and cooling properties of these new models and compa...

  5. Keck Speckle Imaging of the White Dwarf G29-38: No Brown Dwarf Companion Detected

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Koresko, Christopher D.; Brown, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    The white dwarf Giclas 29-38 has attracted much attention due to its large infrared excess and the suggestion that excess might be due to a companion brown dwarf. We observed this object using speckle interferometry at the Keck telescope, obtaining diffraction-limited resolution (55 milliarcseconds) at K band, and found it unresolved. Assuming the entire K band excess is due to a single point-like companion, we place an upper limit on the binary separation of 30 milliarcseco...

  6. White Dwarf - Red Dwarf Systems Resolved with the Hubble Space Telescope: I. First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; D. W. Hoard; Wachter, S.

    2006-01-01

    First results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys snapshot study of white dwarfs with likely red dwarf companions. Of 48 targets observed and analyzed so far, 27 are totally or partially resolved into two or more components, while an additional 15 systems are almost certainly unresolved binaries. These results provide the first direct empirical evidence for a bimodal distribution of orbital separations among binary systems containing at lea...

  7. White Dwarf - Red Dwarf Systems Resolved with the Hubble Space Telescope: I. First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2006-01-01

    First results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys snapshot study of white dwarfs with likely red dwarf companions. Of 48 targets observed and analyzed so far, 27 are totally or partially resolved into two or more components, while an additional 15 systems are almost certainly unresolved binaries. These results provide the first direct empirical evidence for a bimodal distribution of orbital separations among binary systems containing at lea...

  8. Hubble Space Telescope high resolution spectroscoy of the exposed white dwarf in the dwarf nova VW Hydri in quiescence: A rapidly rotating white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward M.; Huang, Min; Szkody, Paula; Cheng, Fu-Hua

    1995-01-01

    We obtained a far-ultraviolet spectrum of the dwarf nova VW Hyi in quiescence, with the Hubble Space Telescope Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph covering the region of the Si iv lambda(lambda)1393, 1402 resonance doublet. The broad, shallow Si iv doublet feature is fully resolved, has a total equivalent width of 2.8 A, and is the first metal absorption feature to be clearly detected in the exposed white dwarf. Our synthetic spectral analysis, using a model grid constructed with the code TLUSTY, resulted in a reasonable fit to a white dwarf photosphere with T(sub eff) = 22,000 +/- 2000 K, log g = 8.0 +/- 0.3, an approximately solar Si/H abundance, and a rotational velocity, v sin i approximately equal to 600 km/s. This rotation rate, while not definitive because it is based upon just one line transition, is 20% of the Keplerian (breakup) velocity of the white dwarf and hence does not account for the unexpectedly low boundary-layer luminosity inferred from the soft-X-ray/extreme ultra-violet bands where most of the boundary-layer luminosity should be radiated. The predicted boundary-layer luminosity for a 0.6 solar mass white dwarf accreting at the rate 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr and rotating at 600 km/s, corresponding to VW Hyi in quiescence, is 2 x 10(exp 32) ergs/s when proper account is taken of the rotational kinetic energy going into spinning up the white dwarf. If the boundary-layer area is equal to that of the white dwarf, then T(sub bl) = 24,000 K. This is essentially identical to the photspheric luminosity and temperature determined in far-ultraviolet photospheric analyses. If the boundary-layer area is 10(exp -3) of the white dwarf surface area, then T(sub bl) = 136,000 K.

  9. GRMHD formulation of highly super-Chandrasekhar rotating magnetised white dwarfs: Stable configurations of non-spherical white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Sathyawageeswar

    2015-01-01

    Here we extend the exploration of significantly super-Chandrasekhar magnetised white dwarfs by numerically computing axisymmetric stationary equilibria of differentially rotating magnetised polytropic compact stars in general relativity (GR), within the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime. We use a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) framework that describes rotating and magnetised axisymmetric white dwarfs, choosing appropriate rotation laws and magnetic field profiles (toroidal and poloidal). The numerical procedure for finding solutions in this framework uses the 3+1 formalism of numerical relativity, implemented in the open source XNS code. We construct equilibrium sequences by varying different physical quantities in turn, and highlight the plausible existence of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, with masses in the range of 2-3 solar mass, with central (deep interior) magnetic fields of the order of $10^{14}$ Gauss and differential rotation with surface time periods of about 1-10 seconds. We no...

  10. Evolution and colors of helium-core white dwarf stars with high-metallicity progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, L. G.; Panei, J. A.; Romero, A. D.; R. D. Rohrmann; Córsico, A. H.; García-Berro, E.; Bertolami, M. M. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of single and binary He-core white dwarfs in metal-rich clusters, we present a full set of evolutionary calculations and colors appropriate for the study of such white dwarfs. The paper is also aimed at investigating whether stable hydrogen burning may constitute a main source of energy for massive He-core white dwarfs resulting from high-metallicity progenitors. White dwarf sequences are derived by taking into account the evolutionary histo...

  11. The impact of chemical differentiation of white dwarfs on thermonuclear supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Eduardo; Althaus, Leandro G.; García-Berro, Enrique; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational settling of 22Ne in cooling white dwarfs can affect the outcome of thermonuclear supernovae. We investigate how the supernova energetics and nucleosynthesis are in turn influenced by this process. We use realistic chemical profiles derived from state-of-the-art white dwarf cooling sequences. The cooling sequences provide a link between the white dwarf chemical structure and the age of the supernova progenitor system. The cooling sequence of a 1 M_sun white dwarf was computed unt...

  12. Searching for white dwarfs candidates in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nale?yty, Miros?aw; Majczyna, Agnieszka; Ciechanowska, Anna; Madej, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Large amount of observational spectroscopic data are recently available from different observational projects, like Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It's become more urgent to identify white dwarfs stars based on data itself i.e. without modelling white dwarf atmospheres. In particular, existing methods of white dwarfs identification presented in Kleinman et al. (2004) and in Eisenstein et al. (2006) did not allow to find all the white dwarfs in examined data. We intend to test var...

  13. New white dwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S.O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Kleinman, Scot J.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Nitta, Atsuko; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Costa, José Eduardo da Silveira; Külebi, Baybars; Jordan, Stefan; Dufour, Patrick; Giommi, Paolo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 9 089 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spect...

  14. High-speed Photometric Observations of ZZ Ceti White Dwarf Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Green, E M; Limoges, M. -M.; Gianninas, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.; Dufour, P; O'Malley, C. J.; Guvenen, B.; Biddle, L. I.; Pearson, K.; Deyoe, T. W.; Bullivant, C. W.; Hermes, J. J.; Van Grootel, V.; Grosjean, M

    2015-01-01

    We present high-speed photometric observations of ZZ Ceti white dwarf candidates drawn from the spectroscopic survey of bright DA stars from the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog by Gianninas et al., and from the recent spectroscopic survey of white dwarfs within 40 parsecs of the Sun by Limoges et al. We report the discovery of six new ZZ Ceti pulsators from these surveys, and several photometrically constant DA white dwarfs, which we then use to refine the location of the ZZ C...

  15. Testing White Dwarf Crystallization Theory with Asteroseismology of the Massive Pulsating DA Star BPM 37093

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, T. S.; M. H. Montgomery; Kanaan, A.

    2004-01-01

    It was predicted more than 40 years ago that the cores of the coolest white dwarf stars should eventually crystallize. This effect is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in white dwarf cooling models, which are now routinely used to estimate the ages of stellar populations in both the Galactic disk and the halo. We are attempting to minimize this source of uncertainty by calibrating the models, using observations of pulsating white dwarfs. In a typical mass white dwarf...

  16. HST Observations of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of M4

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brad; Richer, Harvey; Fahlman, Greg; Stetson, Peter; Brewer, James; Currie, Thayne; Gibson, Brad; Ibata, Rodrigo; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We investigate in detail the white dwarf cooling sequence of the globular cluster Messier 4. In particular we study the influence of various systematic uncertainties, both observational and theoretical, on the determination of the cluster age from the white dwarf cooling sequence. These include uncertainties in the distance to the cluster and the extinction along the line of sight, as well as the white dwarf mass, envelope and core compositions and the white dwarf --main seq...

  17. Hot C-rich white dwarfs: testing the DB-DQ transition through pulsations

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.

    2009-01-01

    Hot DQ white dwarfs constitute a new class of white dwarf stars, uncovered recently within the framework of the SDSS project. Recently, three hot DQ white dwarfs have been reported to exhibit photometric variability with periods compatible with pulsation g-modes. Here, we present a nonadiabatic pulsation analysis of the recently discovered carbon-rich hot DQ white dwarf stars. One of our main aims is to test the convective-mixing picture for the origin of hot DQs through the...

  18. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) have gotten increasingly tight. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the limits on the companions of SNIa in SNR 0509-67.5 and SN1572 are M dwarfs. M dwarfs have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNIa: they have small but finite magnetic fields, and they flare frequently. These properties are ex...

  19. The evolutionary thermal response of a white dwarf to compressional heating by periodic dwarf nova accretion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal response of the underlying white dwarf in a cataclysmic variable to the periodic deposition of mass by a dwarf nova accretion event is simulated with a quasi-static stellar evolution code incorporating time variable accretion. After accretion at rates typical of dwarf nova outbursts (approx. 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -8)/yr) for outburst durations of days to 2 weeks, the radial infall is shut off and the evolution of the white dwarf is followed during dwarf nova quiescence. The matter is assumed to accrete softly with the same entropy as the white dwarf outer layers. In some sequences accretion is resumed and shut off repeatedly at intervals of months to simulate the thermal evolution of the white dwarf in typical dwarf novae such as SS Cygni and U Geminorum, between successive dwarf nova outbursts. Thermal timescales for white dwarf cooling following a given dwarf nova outburst depend upon the accretion rate, outburst duration, and white dwarf mass; they are nominally in the range 0.2-0.8 years for parameters typical of dwarf novae (white dwarf masses in the range 1.2-0.6 solar mass, outburst accretion rates in the range 1 x 10(exp -7)-10(exp -8) solar mass/yr, outburst durations in the range 7-14, days and quiescent intervals of 30-300 days). If the e-folding timescale of the white dwarf cooling is shorter than the quiescent interval bewteen outbursts, then the effect of compressional heating is too small to be observationally detectable.

  20. An independent test of the photometric selection of white dwarf candidates using LAMOST DR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.; Ren, J. J.; Koester, D.; Zhan, Y.; Hou, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yang, M.

    2015-09-01

    In previous work by Gentile Fusillo et al., we developed a selection method for white dwarf candidates which makes use of photometry, colours and proper motions to calculate a probability of being a white dwarf (PWD). The application of our method to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 10 resulted in ?66 000 photometrically selected objects with a derived PWD, approximately ?21 000 of which are high-confidence white dwarf candidates. Here, we present an independent test of our selection method based on a sample of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs from the Large Sky Area Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey. We do this by cross-matching all our ?66 000 SDSS photometric white dwarf candidates with the over 4 million spectra available in the third data release of LAMOST. This results in 1673 white dwarf candidates with no previous SDSS spectroscopy, but with available LAMOST spectra. Among these objects, we identify 309 genuine white dwarfs. We find that our PWD can efficiently discriminate between confirmed LAMOST white dwarfs and contaminants. Our white dwarf candidate selection method can be applied to any multiband photometric survey and in this work we conclusively confirm its reliability in selecting white dwarfs without recourse to spectroscopy. We also discuss the spectroscopic completeness of white dwarfs in LAMOST, as well as deriving effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses for the hydrogen-rich atmosphere white dwarfs in the newly identified LAMOST sample.

  1. Lithium production in the merging of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Longland, Richard; José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G

    2012-01-01

    The origin of R Coronae Borealis stars has been elusive for over 200 years. Currently, two theories for their formation have been presented. These are the Final Flash scenario, in which a dying asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star throws off its atmosphere to reveal the hydrogen poor, heavily processed material underneath, and the double degenerate scenario, in which two white dwarfs merge to produce a new star with renewed vigour. Some theories predict that the temperatures reached during the latter scenario would destroy any lithium originally present in the white dwarfs. The observed lithium content of some R Coronae Borealis stars, therefore, is often interpreted as an indication that the Final Flash scenario best describes their formation. In this paper, it is shown that lithium production can, indeed, occur in the merging of a helium white dwarf with a carbon-oxygen white dwarf if their chemical composition, particularly that of 3He, is fully considered. The production mechanism is described in detail, an...

  2. The frequency of planetary debris around young white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koester, Detlev; Farihi, Jay

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the results of the first unbiased survey for metal pollution among H-atmosphere (DA) white dwarfs with cooling ages of 20-200 Myr and 17000K 0.8 Msun is found to be currently accreting, which suggests a large fraction are double-degenerate mergers, and the merger discs do not commonly reform large planetesimals or otherwise pollute the remnant. We reconfirm our previous finding that two white dwarf Hyads are currently accreting rocky debris. At least 27%, and possibly up to ~50%, of all white dwarfs with cooling ages 20-200 Myr are accreting planetary debris. At Teff > 23000K, the luminosity of white dwarfs is likely sufficient to vaporize circumstellar dust, and hence no stars with strong metal-pollution are found. However, planetesimal disruption events should occur in this cooling age and Teff range as well, and likely result in short phases of high mass transfer rates. It appears that the formation of rocky planetary material is common around 2-3 Msun late B- and A-type stars.

  3. White Dwarf Stars in the HET Dark Energy Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Barbara; Winget, D.; Gebhardt, K.; Allende Prieto, C.; Shetrone, M.; Odewahn, S.; Montgomery, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this poster, we present the project that will survey all white dwarf stars observed in the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) observations in parallel mode. The final product will be a unique magnitude-limited catalog of as many as 10,000 stars. Since we will use data from an Integral-field Units, our survey will be free of the selection biases that plagued preceding surveys, e.g. the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The critical advantages of our program are our ability to produce a white dwarf luminosity function five magnitudes fainter than the one derived from the Palomar-Green survey and with a similar number of faint stars as the one from SDSS. Our project will help to derive a more precise age of the Galactic disk, and will provide fundamental information about the white dwarf population and the star formation history of the Milky Way, impacting the white dwarf field and many other fields of astronomy.

  4. First Detection of Krypton and Xenon in a White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 KrVI-VII and Xe VI-VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 plus or minus 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 plus or minus 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the-precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and thaI the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell nash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  5. FIRST DETECTION OF KRYPTON AND XENON IN A WHITE DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 Kr VI- VII and Xe VI- VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503–289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = –4.3 ± 0.5 and log Xe = –4.2 ± 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and that the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell flash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  6. First Detection of Krypton and Xenon in a White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 Kr VI- VII and Xe VI- VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 ± 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 ± 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and that the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell flash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  7. The brightest pure-H ultracool white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan, S; Pinfield, D J; Smith, L C; Zhang, Z H; Napiwotzki, R; Marocco, F; Day-Jones, A C; Gomes, J; Forde, K P; Lucas, P W; Jones, H R A

    2012-01-01

    We report the identification of LSR J0745+2627 in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) as a cool white dwarf with kinematics and age compatible with the thick-disk/halo population. LSR J0745+2627 has a high proper motion (890 mas/yr) and a high reduced proper motion value in the J band (H_J=21.87). We show how the infrared-reduced proper motion diagram is useful for selecting a sample of cool white dwarfs with low contamination. LSR J0745+2627 is also detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We have spectroscopically confirmed this object as a cool white dwarf using X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope. A detailed analysis of its spectral energy distribution reveals that its atmosphere is compatible with a pure-H composition model with an effective temperature of 3880+-90 K. This object is the brightest pure-H ultracool white dwarf (Teff<4000 K) ever identified. We have constrained the dis...

  8. The Mass Distribution of White Dwarfs: An Unwavering Obsession

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, P; Boudreault, S

    2006-01-01

    We discuss some of our current knowledge of the mass distribution of DA and non-DA stars using various methods for measuring white dwarf masses including spectroscopic, trigonometric parallax, and gravitational redshift measurements, with a particular emphasis on the problems encountered at the low end of the cooling sequence where energy transport by convection becomes important.

  9. Mass limits for non-degenerate white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain the dependence of the upper mass limit of white dwarf stars on the specific entropy per electron. For non-degenerate stars significantly larger masses are found. Stellar collapse as an entropy-producing process can therefore have a self-stabilizing influence on the stellar evolution. (orig.)

  10. Electrons as quasi-bosons in magnetic white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dryzek, J; Muñoz, G; Singleton, D; Dryzek, Jerzy; Kato, Akira; Munoz, Gerardo; Singleton, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    A white dwarf star achieves its equilibrium from the balancing of the gravitational compression against the Fermi degeneracy pressure of the electron gas. In field theory there are examples (e.g. the monopole-charge system) where a strong magnetic field can transform a boson into a fermion or a fermion into a boson. In some condensed matter systems (e.g. fractional quantum Hall systems) a strong magnetic field can transform electrons into effective fermions, or effective anyons. Based on these examples we investigate the possibility that the strong magnetic fields of some white dwarfs may transform some fraction of the electrons into effective bosons. This could have consequences for the structure of highly magnetized white dwarfs. It would alter the mass-radius relationship, and in certain instances one could envision a scenario where a white dwarf below the Chandrasekhar limit could nevertheless collapse into a neutron star due to a weakening of the electron degeneracy pressure. In addition the transformati...

  11. Empirical Determination of Convection in Pulsating White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Judith L.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M.; Reed, Mike; Shipman, Harry; Fraga, Luciano

    2013-02-01

    We propose high speed photometric observations of WD J1518+0658 with SOAR and the KPNO 2m as important components of a coordinated international campaign designed to survey the properties of convection in white dwarf atmospheres. Convection remains the largest source of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. Asteroseismology has proven a powerful tool to attack this problem. White dwarf pulsations appear as local surface temperature variations. The extreme temperature sensitivity of convection leads to local variations in the convection zone's depth. This in turn modulates the local energy flux, producing nonsinusoidal light curves. The observed nonlinearities provide a self-consistent observational test of convection in white dwarf atmospheres. WD J1518+0658 is a member of the newly discovered class of extremely low mass white dwarf pulsators (ELMVs). ELMVs offer the opportunity to extend our investigation to unexplored regions of lower effective temperatures and surface gravities, where conditions are closer to those found in main sequence stars. High precision light curves from SOAR, combined with frequency, amplitude, and phase information provided by the KPNO 2m and the entire WET run, will allow us to recover WD J1518+0658's convective thermal response timescale.

  12. The Frequency of Debris Disks at White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Sara D; Kilic, Mukremin; Leggett, S K; Dufour, P; Bloom, J S; Starr, D L

    2012-01-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3+2.7-1.2% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7Msol stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of white dwarf cooling ages; white dwarfs accrete debris from several generations of disks for ~10Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that white dwarfs accrete moons and d...

  13. Central stars of planetary nebulae: The white dwarf connection

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on the transition phase between central stars and white dwarfs, i.e. objects in the effective temperature range 100,000 - 200,000 K. We confine our review to hydrogen-deficient stars because the common H-rich objects are subject of the paper by Ziegler et al. in these proceedings. We address the claimed iron-deficiency in PG1159 stars and [WC] central stars. The discovery of new Ne VII and Ne VIII lines in PG1159 stars suggests that the identification of O VII and O VIII lines that are used for spectral classification of [WCE] stars is wrong. We then present evidence for two distinct post-AGB evolutionary sequences for H-deficient stars based on abundance analyses of the He-dominated O(He) stars and the hot DO white dwarf KPD0005+5106. Finally, we report on evidence for an H-deficient post-super AGB evolution sequence represented by the hottest known, carbon/oxygen-atmosphere white dwarf H1504+65 and the recently discovered carbon-atmosphere "hot DQ" white dwarfs.

  14. Three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We identify SDSS 0110+1326, SDSS 0303+0054 and SDSS 1435+3733 as three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and report on their follow-up observations. Orbital periods for the three systems are established through multi-season photometry. Time-resolved spectroscopic observations lead to the determination of the radial velocities of the secondary stars. A decomposition technique of the SDSS spectra is used to estimate the surface gravities and effective temperatures of the white dwarfs, as well as the spectral types of the secondaries. By combining the constraints from the spectral decomposition, the radial velocity data and the modeling of the systems' light curves, we determine the physical parameters of the stellar components. Two of the white dwarfs are of low mass (Mwd ? 0.4 Mo-dot), while the third white dwarf is unusually massive (MWD ? 0.8-0.9 Mo-dot) for a post-common envelope system.

  15. On a possible white-dwarf companion to HD 74389

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of a new white dwarf about 20 arcsec east of the A-type star HD 74389 is reported. A physical association is not highly probable. Because of the importance of binaries with degenerate components, attention is drawn to this star in the hope of stimulating further observations

  16. The white dwarf population within 40 pc of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S

    2016-01-01

    The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool to understand the properties of the Solar neighborhood, like its star formation history, and its age. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population within 40~pc from the Sun, and compare the results of this study with the properties of the observed sample. We use a state-of-the-art population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable white dwarf cooling sequences, an accurate description of the Galactic neighborhood, and a realistic treatment of all the known observational biases and selection procedures. We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, our simulations reproduce a previously unexplained feature of the bright branch of the white dwarf luminosity function, which we argue is due to a recent episode of star formation. We also derive the age of the Solar neighborhood employing the position of the observed cut-off of ...

  17. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, R; Althaus, L G; Isern, J; García-Berro, E

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for such purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, like the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spher...

  18. Chandra Grating Spectroscopy of Three Hot White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG1159 (PG1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD246). Aims. The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods. The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results. No metals could be identified in LB1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to T(sub eff) = 150 000 +/- 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GWVir class (PG1159-035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GWVir instability region. The result is in accordance with predictions from nonadiabatic stellar pulsation models. Such models are therefore reliable tools to investigate the interior structure of GW Vir variables. Conclusions. Our soft X-ray study reveals that the understanding of metal abundances in hot DA white dwarf atmospheres is still incomplete. On the other hand, model atmospheres of hydrogen-deficient PG1159-type stars are reliable and reproduce well the observed spectra from soft X-ray to optical wavelengths.

  19. Evolution of crystallizing pure 12C white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the first results of a quantitative exploration of white dwarf evolution for models incorporating an accurate dense plasma equation of state and a full treatment of partial ionization and convection in the envelope. We discuss in detail the results for a 1 M/sub sun/, pure 12C star. The cooing curve and luminosity function deviate appreciably from the behavior predicted by Mestel's cooling theory above log (L/L/sub sun/) approx. =-0.5 due to neutrino energy losses and below log (L/L/sub sun/) approx. =-3.5 due to Debye cooling. Crystallization occurs at GAMMAapprox. =160, and the effects produced by the release of latent heat are evident. The combined effect of increased heat capacity due to Coulomb interactions and release of latent heat during crystallization increases the stellar lifetime by nearly a factor of 3 in the phases preceding Debye cooling, as expected. Deep convective cooling appears less important than previously thought. Agreement between the theoretical luminosity function and the observational functions derived by Weidemann from the data of Luyten and of Eggen and Greenstein is generally good, and white dwarf lifetimes determined from the cooling curve are consistent with the ages of white dwarfs in clusters. Resolution of differences between the theoretical discovery function and the number of known white dwarfs at very high and low luminosities may provide new information concerning the distribution and origin of the white dwarfs. The direct effects of crystallization are too small to permit observational detection at present. Debye cooling may offer an indirect test, however, because its effect is dramatic and roughly composition independent. For this, unfortunately, an accurate observational luminosity function down to at least log (L/L/sub sun/) approx. =-5 appears needed

  20. Rate of formation of white dwarfs in stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation results in the rate of formation of white dwarfs being simply and accurately related to the luminosity, L, of a stellar system by the equation N/sub WD/=1.62 x 10-111> (L/L/sub sun/) yr-1. The parameter 1>=0.89 +- 0.05 for most stellar systems. For most systems the principal uncertainty in the determination of N/sub WD/ is due to that in L rather than to that in 1>. In the Galaxy one white dwarf is found to form every 3.9 years. The total number of planetary nebulae in the Galaxy is estimated to be 1600. The total accumulated number of white dwarfs in a stellar system is given by N/sub wD/=1.942>L/L/sub sun/. This is very much more uncertain for galaxies than is N/sub WD/ since the parameter 2> is very sensitive to the luminosity-averaged mass, M/sub T/, at the top of the main sequence for the various generations of stars in the galaxy. White dwarfs are found to compose about 1.3-3.5% of the mass of most galaxies. In globular clusters, where M/sub T/ is well defined, 2>=2.7. About one-fourth the mass of a typical globular cluster is composed of white dwarfs. The rate of formation and the accumulated numbers of neutron stars in stellar systems are also determined in this paper

  1. Nova explosion of mass-accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of mass-accreting white dwarfs has been computed from the onset of accretion through nova explosion. Two cases have been considered: a carbon-oxygen white dwarf of 1.3 Msub(solar mass) with the accretion rate of 1.0 x 10-10 Msub(solar mass) yr-1 and a helium white dwarf of 0.4 Msub(solar mass) with 1.0 x 10-8 Msub(solar mass) yr-1. Because the thermal evolution during the accretion phase has been fully taken into consideration in computation, the mass of the accreted hydrogen-rich envelope and the corresponding temperature distribution in the envelope have been determined. When a certain amount of the hydrogen-rich envelope has been formed, a hydrogen shell flash commences. The flashing shell lies in the midway between the bottom of the envelope and the stellar surface. In the case of the 1.3 Msub(solar mass) white dwarf, the flash has been found to grow strong enough to lead to a nova-like explosion, even for the normal abundance of CNO elements. The main driving mechanism of this explosion was a rapid transition of the envelope from white dwarf to supergiant characteristics. In order to compute such non-linear effects accurately we need very fine mesh points for the shells just overlying the burning shell in particular. Its importance is shown both by analyzing the stellar structure equation and by comparing our results with those obtained by other authors. (author)

  2. ZZ Ceti stars: a new class of pulsating white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of the ZZ Ceti stars as a new, distinct class of variable stars is proven by means of a photometric survey for rapid luminosity variations among white dwarfs. The null results of the survey are used to show that the ZZ Ceti stars are all DA white dwarfs that fall in a restricted region centered at (B-V) = +0.20 in the two-color diagram. A light curve and power spectrum of the light curve is presented for all ZZ Ceti stars. In general, the ZZ Ceti stars have complex, multi-periodic light curves. The periods fall in the range from about 200 s to 1000 s, and the luminosity variations range from about 0.01 mag to 0.30 mag in amplitude. These variables are single, physically similar stars pulsating in nonradial g-modes. Only three mechanisms - rotation, excitation of multiple nonradial modes, and coupling between modes - are sufficient to explain virtually all of the photometric complexities exhibited by the ZZ Ceti variables. The ZZ Ceti stars are found to be normal white dwarfs which occur in the temperature range from about 10500 K to 13500 K on the DA cooling sequence. The onset of variability among DA white dwarfs is shown to be an evolutionary effect; it is shown that at least 40% of all DA white dwarfs will cool to become ZZ Ceti variables. The ZZ Ceti stars are by far the most numerous intrinsic variables in the galaxy.Time-resolved Stroemgren photometry is used to examine the changes of the effective temperature, the radius, and the effective surface gravity with time during a pulsation in order to evaluate the relative contributions of these parameters to the total luminosity variation

  3. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M ?) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ?1%), high-cadence (?2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipses spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (?13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M ?) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R ?) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7? significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ? = (– 4 ± 5) × 10–5. Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).

  4. Searching for white dwarfs candidates in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amount of observational spectroscopic data are recently available from different observational projects, like Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It's become more urgent to identify white dwarfs stars based on data itself i.e. without modelling white dwarf atmospheres. In particular, existing methods of white dwarfs identification presented in Kleinman et al. (2004) and in Eisenstein et al. (2006) did not allow to find all the white dwarfs in examined data. We intend to test various criteria of searching for white dwarf candidates, based on photometric and spectral features.

  5. Detached white-dwarf close-binary stars CV's extended family

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R

    1999-01-01

    I review detached binaries consisting of white dwarfs with either other white dwarfs or low mass main-sequence stars in tight orbits around them. Orbital periods have been measured for 15 white dwarf/white dwarf systems and 22 white dwarf/M dwarf systems. While small compared to the number of periods known for CVs (>300), I argue that each variety of detached system has a space density an order of magnitude higher that of CVs. While theory matches the observed distribution of orbital periods of the white dwarf/white dwarf binaries, it predicts white dwarfs of much lower mass than observed. Amongst both types of binary are clear examples of helium core white dwarfs, as opposed to the usual CO composition; similar systems must exist amongst the CVs. White dwarf/M dwarf binaries suffer from selection effects which diminish the numbers seen at long and short periods. They are useful for the study of irradiation; I discuss evidence to suggest that Balmer emission is broadened by optical depth effects to an extent ...

  6. Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Helium Core White Dwarfs, Tidal Heating, and Observational Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Tidal dissipation in compact white dwarf (WD) binary systems significantly influences the physical conditions (such as surface temperature and rotation rate) of the WDs prior to mass transfer or merger. In these systems, the dominant tidal effects involve the excitation of gravity waves and their dissipation in the outer envelope of the star. We calculate the amplitude of tidally excited gravity waves in low-mass (0.3M_\\odot) helium-core (He) WDs as a function of the tidal forcing frequency \\omega. Like carbon-oxygen (CO) WDs studied in our previous paper, we find that the dimensionless tidal torque F(\\omega) (inversely proportional to the effective tidal quality factor) has an erratic dependence on \\omega. On average, F(\\omega) scales approximately as \\omega^6, and is several orders of magnitude smaller for He WDs than for CO WDs. We find that tidal torques can begin to synchronize the WD rotation when the orbital period is less than about a hour, although a nearly constant asynchronization is maintained eve...

  7. Chandra Observations of Magnetic White Dwarfs and their Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Noble, M.; Porter, J. G.; Winget, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of cool DA and DB white dwarfs have not yet been successful in detecting coronal X-ray emission, but observations of late-type dwarfs and giants show that coronae are common for these stars. To produce coronal X-rays, a star must have dynamo-generated surface magnetic fields and a well-developed convection zone. There is some observational evidence that the DA star LHS 1038 and the DB star GD 358 have weak and variable surface magnetic fields. It has been suggested that such fields can be generated by dynamo action, and since both stars have well-developed convection zones, theory predicts detectable levels of coronal X-rays from these white dwarfs. However, we present analysis of Chandra observations of both stars showing no detectable X-ray emission. The derived upper limits for the X-ray fluxes provide strong constraints on theories of formation of coronae around magnetic white dwarfs. Another important implication of our negative Chandra observations is the possibility that the magnetic fields of LHS 1038 and GD 358 are fossil fields.

  8. Effects of strong magnetic fields and rotation on white dwarf structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, B.; Schramm, S.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we compute models for relativistic white dwarfs in the presence of strong magnetic fields. These models possibly contribute to superluminous SNIa. With an assumed axisymmetric and poloidal magnetic field, we study the possibility of the existence of super-Chandrasekhar magnetized white dwarfs by solving numerically the Einstein-Maxwell equations, by means of a pseudospectral method. We obtain a self-consistent rotating and nonrotating magnetized white dwarf model. According to our results, a maximum mass for a static magnetized white dwarf is 2.13 M? in the Newtonian case, and 2.09 M? when taking into account general relativistic effects. Furthermore, we present results for rotating magnetized white dwarfs. The maximum magnetic field strength reached at the center of white dwarfs is of the order of 1015 G in the static case, whereas for magnetized white dwarfs, rotating with the Keplerian angular velocity, it is of the order of 1014 G .

  9. A THIRD HOT WHITE DWARF COMPANION DETECTED BY KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have found a system listed in the Kepler Binary Catalog (Porb = 3.273 days) that we have determined is comprised of a low-mass, thermally bloated, hot white dwarf orbiting an A star of about 2.3 Msun. In this work, we designate the object, KIC 10657664, simply as 'KHWD3' (Kepler Hot White Dwarf 3). We use the transit depth of ?0.66%, the eclipse depth of ?1.9%, and regular smooth periodic variations at the orbital frequency and twice the orbital frequency to analyze the system parameters. The smooth periodic variations are identified with the classical ellipsoidal light variation (ELV) and illumination (ILL) effects, and the newly utilized Doppler boosting (DB) effect. Given the measured values of R/a and inclination angle of the binary, both the ELV and DB effects are mostly sensitive to the mass ratio, q = M2/M1, of the binary. The two effects yield values of q which are somewhat inconsistent-presumably due to unidentified systematic effects-but which nonetheless provide a quite useful set of possibilities for the mass of the white dwarf (either 0.26 ± 0.04 Msun or 0.37 ± 0.08 Msun). All of the other system parameters are determined fairly robustly. In particular, we show that the white dwarf has a radius of 0.15 ± 0.01 Rsun, which is extremely bloated over the radius it would have as a fully degenerate object, and an effective temperature Teff?14,500 K. Binary evolution scenarios and models for this system are discussed. We suggest that the progenitor binary was comprised of a primary of mass ?2.2 Msun (the progenitor of the current hot white dwarf) and a secondary of mass ?1.4 Msun (the progenitor of the current A star in the system). We compare this new system with three other white dwarfs in binaries that likely were formed via stable Roche-lobe overflow (KOI-74, KOI-81, and the inner Regulus binary).

  10. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and planetary orbital evolution during the post-main-sequence lifetime of their stellar hosts.

  11. Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of the physics of compact physical object - white drafts, neutron stars and black holes, are stated. Modern representations on pulsars and compact X-ray sources are considerd. Investigation results on compact object accretion, gravitational radiation and collapse at usual and supermassive stars are discussed

  12. Physical properties of IP Pegasi: an eclipsing dwarf nova with an unusually cool white dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V.S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Hickman, R.; Gaensicke, B. T; Southworth, J

    2009-01-01

    We present high speed photometric observations of the eclipsing dwarf nova IP Peg taken with the triple-beam camera ULTRACAM mounted on the William Herschel Telescope. The primary eclipse in this system was observed twice in 2004, and then a further sixteen times over a three week period in 2005. Our observations were simultaneous in the Sloan u', g' and r' bands. By phase-folding and averaging our data we make the first significant detection of the white dwarf ingress in th...

  13. The atmospheres of cool white dwarfs of spectral type DA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to interpret the Stroemgren uvby colors of the cool hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs observed by Graham (1972), model atmospheres have been constructed in the range 7,000 <= Tsub(eff) <= 12,000 K and 7 <= log g <= 8.5. Metal abundances Esub(M) = Esub(M)(S) and Esub(M) = Esub(M)(S)/100 were assumed. The models include energy transport by convection and line-blanketing from Balmer and metal lines; all are corrected to constant energy flux. The theoretical colors derived are thoroughly discussed in view of the assumptions involved in the calculations. It is shown that the hydrogen-rich white dwarfs under consideration have gravities given by log g = 8.3, and that the metal abundances are reduced by at least a factor of 100 compared to the solar value. (orig.)

  14. On the origin of continuum polarization in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a model in which classical cyclotron emission from a hot corona can account for much of the continuum linear and circular polarization which has been observed at optical frequencies for several white dwarfs. Important features of our model are: (1) The degree of linear polarization (p) approx. = degree of circular polarization (q) for a variety of magnetic field configurations; (2) continuum polarization occurs in the optical only for surface magnetic field strengths B> or =108 gauss; (3) changes with wavelength in the handedness of circular polarization and in the position angle of the linear polarization occur naturally; and (4) the strong fields required imply severe shifting and smearing of sectral lines, for which there is evidence in some white dwarfs. Possible energy sources for and structures of such coronae are discussed. Observational tests of the model are suggested

  15. Thermogalvanomagnetic phenomena in neutron stars and white dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron thermal and electrical conductivities and thermoelectric coefficient are found and the induction and heat transfer equations are presented for the degenerate cores of white dwarfs and degenerate layers of the envelopes of neutron stars with the density rho11 g/cm3 in the presence of nonquantizing magnetic field. The scattering of electrons on ions and on phonons and impurities is taken into account. The thermogalvanomagnetic phenomena which can take place im neutron stars and white dwarfs are discussed: the drift of the magnetic field towards the surface or into the interior by the heat flow emerging from the star, various mechanisms of nonuniform heating connected with the magnetic field. It is pointed out that in degenerate stars some mechanisms of inhomogeneous heat release cause by magnetic field can take place

  16. Discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Fraga, L.

    2013-03-01

    Using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research telescope (SOAR) Optical Imager at the SOAR 4.1 m telescope, we report on the discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars. Our results represent an increase of about 20 per cent in the number of massive pulsators. We have detected both short and long periods, low and high amplitude pulsation modes, covering the whole range of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. In this paper, we present a first seismological study of the new massive pulsators based on the few frequencies detected. Our analysis indicates that these stars have masses higher than average, in agreement with the spectroscopic determinations. In addition, we study for the first time the ensemble properties of the pulsating white dwarf stars with masses above 0.8 M?. We found a bimodal distribution of the main pulsation period with the effective temperature for the massive DAVs, which indicates mode selection mechanisms.

  17. How much hydrogen is there in a white dwarf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James; Vennes, Stephane

    1991-01-01

    Stratified hydrogen/helium envelope models in diffusive equilibrium are calculated for a 0.6-solar-mass white dwarf for effective temperatures between 10,000 and 80,000 K in order to investigate the observational constraints placed on the total hydrogen mass. Convective mixing is included ab initio in the calculations, and synthetic spectra are used for comparing these models with observational materials. It is shown that evolutionary changes in the surface composition of white dwarfs cannot be explained by a model in which a small amount of hydrogen floats to the surface from initially being mixed in the outer parts of a helium envelope. It is pointed out that the shape of the hydrogen lines can be used for constraining theories of convective overshoot.

  18. The optical emission from oscillating white dwarf radiative shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, James N.; Rashed, Hussain; Wolff, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are due to the oscillatory instability of radiative shock waves discovered by Langer et al. (1981, 1092) is examined. The time-dependent optical spectra of oscillating radiative shocks produced by flows onto magnetic white dwarfs are calculated. The results are compared with the observations of the AM Her QPO sources V834 Cen, AN UMa, EF Eri, and VV Pup. It is found that the shock oscillation model has difficulties with aspects of the observations for each of the sources. For VV Pup, AN UMa, and V834 Cen, the cyclotron luminosities for the observed magnetic fields of these systems, based on our calculations, are large. The strong cyclotron emission probably stabilizes the shock oscillations. For EF Eri, the mass of the white dwarf based on hard X-ray observations is greater than 0.6 solar mass.

  19. PG 1346+082 - An interacting binary white dwarf system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.

    1987-01-01

    PG 1346+082 is both a photometric and a spectroscopic variable, spanning the B-magnitude range 13.6-17.2. High-speed photometric data reveal rapid flickering in the low-state light curve. The system also shows spectroscopic variations, displaying broad shallow He I absorption lines at maximum light and a weak emission feature at He I (4471 A) at minimum light. Hydrogen lines are conspicuous by their absence. Is is concluded that PG 1346+082 is an interacting binary white dwarf system. Furthermore, because continuum fits to IUE high-state data suggest temperatures consistent with membership in the DB white dwarf instability strip, it is suggested that some of the photometric variations may arise from pulsations.

  20. Asteroseismological bound on G/G from pulsating white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the secular variation of the period of nonradial pulsations of white dwarfs when a temporal dependence of the gravitational constant G is assumed. We consider models that reproduce accurately the main characteristics of the best studied DA (hydrogen-rich atmosphere) white dwarf G117-B15A. For this object it has been possible to measure the secular variation of the main observed period of 215.2 s (P=2.3±1.4x10-15 s-1) with unprecedented accuracy. Comparing our models with observations we obtain that for G-10 yr-1 0, the allowed values are 0 -11 yr-1 at the 2? confidence level, which are comparable to other bounds established by independent methods. We also show that in order to improve this bound significantly an improvement in the precision of the observed change in P which is too large to be reached in the foreseeable future is required

  1. Evolutionary models for pulsation studies of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large grid of equilibrium models suitable for adiabatic and nonadiabatic seismological investigations of pulsating white dwarfs of the DAV and DBV types is presented and discussed in detail. The basic structure of the models is that of a layered configuration consisting of an almost pure carbon core surrounded by an almost pure helium layer, itself surrounded by an almost pure hydrogen layer. Models are computed for three masses, and the helium layer mass is varied. The effects of varying the assumed convective efficiency are investigated. A special sequence is computed to explore the effects of changing the composition gradient scale height in transition regions. Models using two different sets of radiative opacities for the same compositions are obtained to test the sensitivity of the pulsation properties to this component of the constitutive physics. These experiments constitute by far the most extensive study that has been performed to provide suitable models for pulsating white dwarfs. 110 refs

  2. Mock LISA data challenge for the Galactic white dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present data analysis methods used in the detection and estimation of parameters of gravitational-wave signals from the white dwarf binaries in the mock LISA data challenge. Our main focus is on the analysis of challenge 3.1, where the gravitational-wave signals from more than 6x107 Galactic binaries were added to the simulated Gaussian instrumental noise. The majority of the signals at low frequencies are not resolved individually. The confusion between the signals is strongly reduced at frequencies above 5 mHz. Our basic data analysis procedure is the maximum likelihood detection method. We filter the data through the template bank at the first step of the search, then we refine parameters using the Nelder-Mead algorithm, we remove the strongest signal found and we repeat the procedure. We detect reliably and estimate parameters accurately of more than ten thousand signals from white dwarf binaries.

  3. The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Balberg, S; Balberg, Shmuel; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2000-01-01

    White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities than commonly found in normal stars, and pressure is created by degenerate fermion kinetic energy and particle interactions. As a result, white dwarfs and neutron stars offer unique cosmic laboratories for studying matter at very high densities. In this review we discuss the basic properties of condensed matter at extreme densities and summarize the extent to which these properties can be examined by observations of compact objects.

  4. Mock LISA Data Challenge for the galactic white dwarf binaries

    CERN Document Server

    B?aut, Arkadiusz; Królak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    We present data analysis methods used in detection and the estimation of parameters of gravitational wave signals from the white dwarf binaries in the Mock LISA Data Challenge. Our main focus is on the analysis of Challenge 3.1, where the gravitational wave signals from more than 50 mln. Galactic binaries were added to the simulated Gaussian instrumental noise. Majority of the signals at low frequencies are not resolved individually. The confusion between the signals is strongly reduced at frequencies above 5 mHz. Our basic data analysis procedure is the maximum likelihood detection method. We filter the data through the template bank at the first step of the search, then we refine parameters using the Nelder-Mead algorithm, we remove the strongest signal found and we repeat the procedure. We detect reliably and estimate parameters accurately of more than ten thousand signals from white dwarf binaries.

  5. Hot DQ White Dwarf Stars as Failed Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Bart H.; Clemens, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    Of the two hundred or so white dwarf stars showing spectroscopic signatures of carbon (the DQs), the hottest dozen are unique in having atmospheres dominated by carbon and oxygen. At least a third of these hot DQs are photometrically variable, and roughly 70% are magnetic. We provide evidence that the hot DQs are the result of CO-core white dwarf mergers that were not tuned to explode as type Ia supernovae (SNe). In this scenario, the variable hot DQs are magnetic rotators whose magnetic fields, fast rotation rates, and atmospheric composition are all explained by the merger. Consequently, their masses and formation rates will constrain type Ia SNe progenitors, and their field strengths and spin periods will provide observational constraints for models of double-degenerate mergers and magnetic field generation.

  6. Testing Common Envelopes on Double White Dwarf Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandez, Jose L. A.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lombardi, James C., Jr.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of a double white dwarf binary likely involves a common envelope (CE) event between a red giant and a white dwarf (WD) during the most recent episode of Roche lobe overflow mass transfer. We study the role of recombination energy with hydrodynamic simulations of such stellar interactions. We find that the recombination energy helps to expel the common envelope entirely, while if recombination energy is not taken into account, a significant fraction of the common envelope remains bound. We apply our numerical methods to constrain the progenitor system for WD 1101+364 - a double WD binary that has well-measured mass ratio of q=0.87±0.03 and an orbital period of 0.145 days. Our best-fit progenitor for the pre-common envelope donor is a 1.5 ? red giant.

  7. The white dwarf cooling sequence of 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller

    2014-01-01

    47 Tucanae is one of the most interesting and well observed and theoretically studied globular clusters. This allows us to study the reliability of our understanding of white dwarf cooling sequences, to confront different methods to determine its age, and to assess other important characteristics, like its star formation history. Here we present a population synthesis study of the cooling sequence of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. In particular, we study the distribution of effective temperatures, the shape of the color-magnitude diagram, and the corresponding magnitude and color distributions. We do so using an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences and an accurate modeling of the observational biases. We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. Thus, our study, rules out previous claims that there are still missing physics in the white dwarf cooling models at moderately high e...

  8. Testing common envelopes on double white dwarf binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Nandez, Jose L A; Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a double white dwarf binary likely involves a common envelope (CE) event between a red giant and a white dwarf (WD) during the most recent episode of Roche lobe overflow mass transfer. We study the role of recombination energy with hydrodynamic simulations of such stellar interactions. We find that the recombination energy helps to expel the common envelope entirely, while if recombination energy is not taken into account, a significant fraction of the common envelope remains bound. We apply our numerical methods to constrain the progenitor system for WD 1101+364 -- a double WD binary that has well-measured mass ratio of $q=0.87\\pm0.03$ and an orbital period of 0.145 days. Our best-fit progenitor for the pre-common envelope donor is a 1.5 $M_\\odot$ red giant.

  9. A Detailed Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of DQ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, P; Fontaine, G

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs based on improved model atmosphere calculations. In particular, we revise the atmospheric parameters of the trigonometric parallax sample of Bergeron, Leggett, & Ruiz, and discuss the astrophysical implications on the temperature scale and mean mass, as well as the chemical evolution of these stars. We also analyze 40 new DQ stars discovered in the first data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis confirms that effective temperatures derived from model atmospheres including carbon are significantly lower than the temperatures obtained from pure helium models. Similarly the mean mass of the trigonometric parallax sample, = 0.62 Mo, is significantly lower than that obtained from pure helium models, = 0.73 Mo, and more consistent with the spectroscopic mean mass of DB stars, = 0.59 Mo, the most likely progenitors of DQ white dwarfs. We find that DQ stars form a remarkably well defined sequence in a ...

  10. Quantum gases and white dwarfs with quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the effect of a generalized uncertainty principle produced by different approaches of quantum gravity within the Planck scale on statistical and thermodynamical properties of ideal fermion and boson gases. The partition function and some thermodynamical properties are investigated. The Bose–Einstein condensation and the ground state properties of fermion gases are also considered. The target approach is extended to a white dwarf as an application. The modified mass-radius relation is calculated. A decrease in the pressure of degenerate fermions due to the presence of quantum gravity leads to a contraction in the star radius. It is also found that the gravity background does not result in any change in white dwarf stability. (paper)

  11. S. Chandrasekhar: White Dwarfs, $H^-$ ion,.., Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2011-01-01

    This is a concise review, addressed to undergraduate students, of S. Chandrasekhar's oeuvre in astrophysics, ranging from his early studies on white dwarfs using relativistic quantum statistics to topics as diverse as dynamical friction, negative hydrogen ion, fluid dynamical instabilities, black holes and gravitational waves. The exposition is based on simple physical explanations in the context of observational astronomy. Black holes and their role as central engines of active, compact, high energy sources have been discussed.

  12. Progenitors of the Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Recent calculations of accretion-induced collapse of an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf into a neutron star [Piro & Thompson 2014] allow for a potentially detectable transient electromagnetic signal. Motivated by these results, I present theoretical rates and physical properties of binary stars that can produce accretion-induced collapse. The rates are presented for various types of host galaxies (e.g. old ellipticals versus spirals) and are differentiated by the donor star type (e.g. large...

  13. Electrons as quasi-bosons in magnetic white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Dryzek, Jerzy; Kato, Akira; Munoz, Gerardo; Singleton, Douglas(Department of Physics, California State University, Fresno, CA, 93740-8031, USA)

    2001-01-01

    A white dwarf star achieves its equilibrium from the balancing of the gravitational compression against the Fermi degeneracy pressure of the electron gas. In field theory there are examples (e.g. the monopole-charge system) where a strong magnetic field can transform a boson into a fermion or a fermion into a boson. In some condensed matter systems (e.g. fractional quantum Hall systems) a strong magnetic field can transform electrons into effective fermions, or effective any...

  14. Simulating a White Dwarf-dominated Galactic Halo

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2003-01-01

    Observational evidence has suggested the possibility of a Galactic halo which is dominated by white dwarfs (WDs). While debate continues concerning the interpretation of this evidence, it is clear that an initial mass function (IMF) biased heavily toward WD precursors (1 < m/Msol < 8), at least in the early Universe, would be necessary in generating such a halo. Within the framework of homogeneous, closed-box models of Galaxy formation, such biased IMFs lead to an unavoidabl...

  15. The white dwarf luminosity function – I. Statistical errors and alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Geijo, Enrique M.; Torres Gil, Santiago; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool for the study of the solar neighbourhood, since it allows the determination of the age of the Galactic disc. Over the years, several methods have been proposed to compute galaxy luminosity functions, from the most simple ones – counting sample objects inside a given volume – to very sophisticated ones – like the C- method, the STY method or the Choloniewski method, among others. However, only the 1/Vmax method is usually employed in com...

  16. GD 154: White dwarf with multi- and monoperiodic pulsation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bognár Zs.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the white dwarf GD 154 as an example where either monoperiodic or multiperiodic pulsation were found at different epochs. The mono-multi-monoperiodic stage seems to alternate. Many questions have been raised. Is this behaviour connected to the evolution of DAV stars? How often does it happen? Is there any regularity in this change of the pulsational behaviour or is it irregular?

  17. Lithium production in the merging of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Longland, Richard; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of R Coronae Borealis stars has been elusive for over 200 years. Currently, two theories for their formation have been presented. These are the Final Flash scenario, in which a dying asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star throws off its atmosphere to reveal the hydrogen poor, heavily processed material underneath, and the double degenerate scenario, in which two white dwarfs merge to produce a new star with renewed vigour. Some theories predict that the temperatures r...

  18. The white dwarf cooling sequence of 47 Tucanae

    OpenAIRE

    García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Torres Gil, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G.; Miller Bartolami, Marcelo M.

    2014-01-01

    Context. 47 Tucanae is one of the most interesting, well-observed, and theoretically studied globular clusters. This allows us to determine the reliability of our understanding of white dwarf cooling sequences, to compare different methods of determining its age, and to assess other important characteristics, such as its star formation history. Aims. Here we present a population synthesis study of the cooling sequence of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. In particular, we study the distributio...

  19. Stellar archaeology with Gaia: the Galactic white dwarf population

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensicke, Boris; Barstow, Martin; Bono, Giuseppe; Burleigh, Matt; Casewell, Sarah; Dhillon, Vik; Farihi, Jay; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Geier, Stephan; Gentile-Fusillo, Nicola; Hermes, JJ; Hollands, Mark; Istrate, Alina; Jordan, Stefan; Knigge, Christian; Manser, Christopher; Marsh, Tom; Nelemans, Gijs; Pala, Anna; Raddi, Roberto; Tauris, Thomas; Toloza, Odette; Veras, Dimitri; Werner, Klaus; Wilson, David

    2015-01-01

    Gaia will identify several 1e5 white dwarfs, most of which will be in the solar neighborhood at distances of a few hundred parsecs. Ground-based optical follow-up spectroscopy of this sample of stellar remnants is essential to unlock the enormous scientific potential it holds for our understanding of stellar evolution, and the Galactic formation history of both stars and planets.

  20. The cool magnetic DAZ white dwarf NLTT 10480.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 532, August (2011), A7/1-A7/8. ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ?R IAA301630901; GA ?R GAP209/10/0967; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarfs * individual star NLTT 10480 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  1. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Koester, D.; Ourique, G.; Romero, A. D.; Reindl, N.; Kleinman, S. J.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Valois, A. D. M.; Amaral, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon-dominated spectra (DQs). We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultracompact helium binary (AM CVn), one oxygen line-dominated white dwarf, 15 hot DO/PG1159s, 12 new cataclysmic variables, 36 magnetic white dwarf stars, 54 DQs, 115 helium-dominated white dwarfs, 148 white dwarf + main-sequence star binaries, 236 metal-polluted white dwarfs, 300 continuum spectra DCs, 230 hot subdwarfs, 2936 new hydrogen-dominated white dwarf stars, and 2675 cool hydrogen-dominated subdwarf stars. We calculate the mass distribution of all 5883 DAs with S/N ? 15 in DR12, including the ones in DR7 and DR10, with an average S/N = 26, corrected to the 3D convection scale, and also the distribution after correcting for the observed volume, using 1/Vmax.

  2. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Reindl, Nicole; Kleinman, Scot J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Valois, A Dean M; Amaral, Larissa A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultra-compact helium binary (AM CVn), one oxygen line dominated white dwarf, 15 hot DO/PG1159s, 12 new cataclysmic variables, 36 magnetic white dwarf stars, 54 DQs, 115 helium dominated white dwarfs, 148 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 236 metal polluted white dwarfs, 300 continuum spectra DCs, 230 hot subdwarfs, 2936 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars, and 2675 cool hydrogen dominated subdwarf stars. We calculate the mass distribution of all 5883 DAs with S/N>15 in DR12, including the ones in DR7 and DR10, with an average S/N=26, correc...

  3. Magnetic White Dwarfs from the SDSS. The First Data Release

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Beyond its goals related to the extragalactic universe, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is an effective tool for identifying stellar objects with unusual spectral energy distributions. Here we report on the 53 new magnetic white dwarfs discovered during the first two years of the survey, including 38 whose data are made public in the 1500 square-degree First Data Release. Discoveries span the magnitude range 16.3 < 20.5, and based on the recovery rate for previously-known magnetic white d...

  4. Evidence for Terrestrial Planetary System Remnants at White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J

    2010-01-01

    The last several years have brought about a dynamic shift in the view of exoplanetary systems in the post-main sequence, perhaps epitomized by the evidence for surviving rocky planetary bodies at white dwarfs. Coinciding with the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope, both space- and ground-based data have supported a picture whereby asteroid analogs persist at a significant fraction of cool white dwarfs, and are prone to tidal disruption when passing close to the compact stellar remnant. The ensuing debris can produce a detectable infrared excess, and the material gradually falls onto the star, polluting the atmosphere with heavy elements that can be used to determine the bulk composition of the destroyed planetary body. Based on the observations to date, the parent bodies inferred at white dwarfs are best described as asteroids, and have a distinctly rocky composition similar to material found in the inner Solar System. Their minimum masses are typical of large asteroids, and can approach or exceed the mass...

  5. White dwarf spins from low mass stellar evolution models

    CERN Document Server

    Suijs, M P L; Poelarends, A -J; Yoon, S -C; Heger, A; Herwig, F

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the spins of the compact remnants is a fundamental goal of the theory of stellar evolution. Here, we confront the predictions for white dwarf spins from evolutionary models including rotation with observational constraints. We perform stellar evolution calculations for stars in the mass range 1... 3$\\mso$, including the physics of rotation, from the zero age main sequence into the TP-AGB stage. We calculate two sets of model sequences, with and without inclusion of magnetic fields. From the final computed models of each sequence, we deduce the angular momenta and rotational velocities of the emerging white dwarfs. While models including magnetic torques predict white dwarf rotational velocities between 2 and 10 km s$^{-1}$, those from the non-magnetic sequences are found to be one to two orders of magnitude larger, well above empirical upper limits. We find the situation analogous to that in the neutron star progenitor mass range, and conclude that magnetic torques may be required in order t...

  6. Atmospheric parameters and carbon abundance for hot DB white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koester, Detlev; Gänsicke, Boris T

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters for hot DB (helium atmosphere) white dwarfs near effective temperatures of 25000K are extremely difficult to determine from optical spectroscopy. This is particularly unfortunate, because this is the range of variable DBV or V777 Her stars. Accurate atmospheric parameters are needed to help or confirm the asteroseismic analysis of these objects. Another important aspect is the new class of white dwarfs - the hot DQ - detected by Dufour et al. (2007), with spectra dominated by carbon lines. The analysis shows that their atmospheres are pure carbon. The origin of these stars is not yet understood, but they may have an evolutionary link with the hotter DBs as studied here. Our aim is to determine accurate atmospheric parameters and element abundances and study the implications for the evolution white dwarfs of spectral classes DB and hot DQ. High resolution UV spectra of five DBs are studied with model atmospheres. We determine stellar parameters and abundances or upper limits of C and Si....

  7. Tidal interaction and coalescence of close binary white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical processes which govern the interaction and final coalescence of close binary white dwarfs are examined. During the approach to mass transfer, the rate of accumulation of rotational energy by a white dwarf can exceed 10 to the 37th erg/s, raising the possibility that the initial phases of mass transfer are strongly influenced by tidal heating of the donor star. The potential energy released by accretion is incapable of removing more than a minor fraction of this material from the system, and numerical simulations show that the accreted envelope engulfs the donor star, leading to formation of common envelope binary before carbon can be ignited at the base of the accreted envelope. Unless shocks can lift the degeneracy of the donor core, a core mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar limit can be created, leading directly to core collapse and a supernova explosion, regardless of whether or not carbon is ignited in the nondegenerate envelope. It is plausible that most of the mass of the donor white dwarf is assimilated in a degenerate state by the accretor. 32 references

  8. ON THE FORMATION OF HOT DQ WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first full evolutionary calculations aimed at exploring the origin of hot DQ white dwarfs. These calculations consistently cover the whole evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Our calculations provide strong support for the diffusive/convective mixing picture for the formation of hot DQs. We find that the hot DQ stage is a short-lived stage and that the range of effective temperatures where hot DQ stars are found can be accounted for by different masses of residual helium and/or different initial stellar masses. In the frame of this scenario, a correlation between the effective temperature and the surface carbon abundance in DQs should be expected, with the largest carbon abundances expected in the hottest DQs. From our calculations, we suggest that most of the hot DQs could be the cooler descendants of some PG 1159 stars characterized by He-rich envelopes markedly smaller than those predicted by the standard theory of stellar evolution. At least for one hot DQ, the high-gravity white dwarf SDSS J142625.70+575218.4, an evolutionary link between this star and the massive PG 1159 star H1504+65, is plausible.

  9. Progenitors of the Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Recent calculations of accretion-induced collapse of an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf into a neutron star [Piro & Thompson 2014] allow for a potentially detectable transient electromagnetic signal. Motivated by these results, I present theoretical rates and physical properties of binary stars that can produce accretion-induced collapse. The rates are presented for various types of host galaxies (e.g. old ellipticals versus spirals) and are differentiated by the donor star type (e.g. large giant star versus compact helium-rich donor). Results presented in this thesis may help to guide near-future electromagnetic transient search campaigns to find likely candidates for accretion-induced collapse events. My predictions are based on binary evolution calculations that include the most recent updates on mass accretion and secular mass growth of white dwarfs. I find that the most likely systems that undergo accretion-induced collapse consist of an ONeMg white dwarf with a Hertzsprung gap star or a red giant ...

  10. THE SPECTRAL TYPES OF WHITE DWARFS IN MESSIER 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the spectra of 24 white dwarfs in the direction of the globular cluster Messier 4 obtained with the Keck/LRIS and Gemini/GMOS spectrographs. Determining the spectral types of the stars in this sample, we find 24 type DA and 0 type DB (i.e., atmospheres dominated by hydrogen and helium, respectively). Assuming the ratio of DA/DB observed in the field with effective temperature between 15,000-25,000 K, i.e., 4.2:1, holds for the cluster environment, the chance of finding no DBs in our sample simply due to statistical fluctuations is only 6 x 10-3. The spectral types of the ?100 white dwarfs previously identified in open clusters indicate that DB formation is strongly suppressed in that environment. Furthermore, all the ?10 white dwarfs previously identified in other globular clusters are exclusively type DA. In the context of these two facts, this finding suggests that DB formation is suppressed in the cluster environment in general. Though no satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon exists, we discuss several possibilities.

  11. The double-layered chemical structure in DB white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, L G

    2004-01-01

    We study the structure and evolution of white dwarf stars with helium-rich atmospheres (DB) in a self-consistent way with the predictions of time-dependent element diffusion. Our treatment of diffusion includes gravitational settling and chemical and thermal diffusion. OPAL radiative opacities for arbitrary metallicity and carbon-and oxygen-rich compositions are employed. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the diffusion-modeled double-layered chemical structure. This structure, which is characterized by a pure helium envelope atop an intermediate remnant shell rich in helium, carbon and oxygen, is expected for pulsating DB white dwarfs, assuming that they are descendants of hydrogen-deficient PG1159 post-AGB stars. We find that, depending on the stellar mass, if DB white dwarf progenitors are formed with a helium content smaller than \\approx 10^-3 M_*, a single-layered configuration is expected to emerge during the DB pulsation instability strip. We also explore the consequences of diffusively evolving ch...

  12. Towards an Understanding of the Atmospheres of Cool White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, P. M.; Saumon, D.; Holberg, J.; Leggett, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cool white dwarfs with Teff < 6000 K are the remnants of the oldest stars that existed in our Galaxy. Their atmospheres, when properly characterized, can provide valuable information on white dwarf evolution and ultimately star formation through the history of the Milky Way. Understanding the atmospheres of these stars requires joined observational effort and reliable atmosphere modeling. We discuss and analyze recent observations of the near-ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (IR) spectrum of several cool white dwarfs including DQ/DQp stars showing carbon in their spectra. We present fits to the entire spectral energy distribution (SED) of selected cool stars, showing that the current pure-hydrogen atmosphere models are quite reliable, especially in the near-UV spectral region. Recently, we also performed an analysis of the coolest known DQ/DQp stars investigating further the origin of the rm C2 Swan bands-like spectral features that characterize the DQp stars. We show that the carbon abundances derived for DQp stars fit the trend of carbon abundance with Teff seen in normal cool DQ stars. This further supports the recent conclusion of Kowalski (2010a) that DQp stars are DQ stars with pressure distorted Swan bands. However, we encounter some difficulties in reproducing the IR part of the SED of stars having a mixed He/H atmosphere. This indicates limitations in current models of the opacity in dense He/H fluids.

  13. 56Ni PRODUCTION IN DOUBLE-DEGENERATE WHITE DWARF COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive study of white dwarf collisions as an avenue for creating type Ia supernovae. Using a smooth particle hydrodynamics code with a 13-isotope, ?-chain nuclear network, we examine the resulting 56Ni yield as a function of total mass, mass ratio, and impact parameter. We show that several combinations of white dwarf masses and impact parameters are able to produce sufficient quantities of 56Ni to be observable at cosmological distances. We find that the 56Ni production in double-degenerate white dwarf collisions ranges from sub-luminous to the super-luminous, depending on the parameters of the collision. For all mass pairs, collisions with small impact parameters have the highest likelihood of detonating, but 56Ni production is insensitive to this parameter in high-mass combinations, which significantly increases their likelihood of detection. We also find that the 56Ni dependence on total mass and mass ratio is not linear, with larger-mass primaries producing disproportionately more 56Ni than their lower-mass secondary counterparts, and symmetric pairs of masses producing more 56Ni than asymmetric pairs.

  14. Examining Flare Rates in Close M dwarf + White Dwarf binary pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Becker, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a preliminary study to examine the statistical flare rates for M dwarfs with close white dwarf companions (WD+dM; typical separations disruption, tidal effects, and/or angular momentum exchange; increased stellar activity has long been attributed to an increase in stellar rotation. We examine the difference between the flare rates observed in close WD+dM binary systems and field M dwarfs. Our sample consists of a subset of 202 (70 of which are magnetically active) close WD+dM pairs from Morgan et al. that were observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, a transient observing mode where multi-epoch observations in the Sloan ugriz bands were obtained. We present results that will assist in identifying and categorizing transient phenomena and limiting expensive follow-up observations for future time-domain studies, such as LSST.

  15. COOL WHITE DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN THE SECOND DATA RELEASE OF THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have paired the second data release of the Large Area Survey of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey with the fifth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify 10 cool white dwarf candidates, from their photometry and astrometry. Of these 10, one was previously known to be a very cool white dwarf. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for seven of the candidates using the GMOS-N spectrograph on Gemini North, and have confirmed all seven as white dwarfs. Our photometry and astrometry indicate that the remaining two objects are also white dwarfs. The model analysis of the photometry and available spectroscopy shows that the seven confirmed new white dwarfs, and the two new likely white dwarfs, have effective temperatures in the range of T eff = 5400-6600 K. Our analysis of the previously known white dwarf confirms that it is cool, with T eff = 3800 K. The cooling age for this dwarf is 8.7 Gyr, while that for the nine ? 6000 K white dwarfs is 1.8-3.6 Gyr. We are unable to determine the masses of the white dwarfs from the existing data, and therefore we cannot constrain the total ages of the white dwarfs. The large cooling age for the coolest white dwarf in the sample, combined with its low estimated tangential velocity, suggests that it is an old member of the thin disk, or a member of the thick disk of the Galaxy, with an age of 10-11 Gyr. The warmer white dwarfs appear to have velocities typical of the thick disk or even halo; these may be very old remnants of low-mass stars, or they may be relatively young thin-disk objects with unusually high space motion.

  16. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  17. The fate of accreting white dwarfs: type I supernovae vs. collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of accreting white dwarfs is examined with respect to thermonuclear explosion or collapse. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy 1986. Effects of accretion and the fate of white dwarfs, models for type 1a and 1b supernovae, collapse induced by carbon deflagration at high density, and fate of double white dwarfs, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  18. The contribution of Oxygen-Neon white dwarfs to the MACHO content of the Galactic Halo

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Díaz, Judit; Torres Gil, Santiago; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Context. The interpretation of microlensing results towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) still remains controversial. White dwarfs have been proposed to explain these results and, hence, to contribute significantly to the mass budget of our Galaxy. However, several constraints on the role played by regular carbon-oxygen white dwarfs exist. Aims. Massive white dwarfs are thought to be made of a mixture of oxygen and neon. Correspondingly, their cooling rate is larger than those of...

  19. Ejection of globular cluster interstellar media through ionization by white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    UV radiation from white dwarfs can efficiently clear Galactic globular clusters (GCs) of their intra-cluster medium (ICM). This solves the problem of the missing ICM in clusters, which is otherwise expected to build up to easily observable quantities. To show this, we recreate the ionizing flux in 47 Tuc, following randomly generated stars through their AGB, post-AGB and white dwarf evolution. Each white dwarf can ionize all the material injected into the cluster by stellar ...

  20. A photometric selection of White Dwarf candidates in SDSS DR10

    OpenAIRE

    Fusillo, Nicola Pietro Gentile; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Greiss, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    We present a method which uses cuts in colour-colour and reduced proper motion-colour space to select white dwarfs without the recourse to spectroscopy while allowing an adjustable compromise between completeness and efficiency. Rather than just producing a list of white dwarf candidates, our method calculates a probability of being a white dwarf (Pwd) for any object with available multi band photometry and proper motion. We applied this method to all objects in the SDSS DR10 photometric foot...

  1. The impact of chemical differentiation of white dwarfs on thermonuclear supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    Aims. Gravitational settling of 22Ne in cooling white dwarfs can affect the outcome of thermonuclear supernovae. We investigate how the supernova energetics and nucleosynthesis are in turn influenced by this process. We use realistic chemical profiles derived from state-of-the-art white dwarf cooling sequences. The cooling sequences provide a link between the white dwarf chemical structure and the age of the supernova progenitor system. Methods. The cooling sequence of a 1 M whit...

  2. An independent test of the photometric selection of white dwarf candidates using LAMOST DR3

    OpenAIRE

    Fusillo, N. P. Gentile; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X. -W.; Ren, J. J.; D. Koester; Zhan, Y.; Hou, Y.; Wang, Y; Yang, M

    2015-01-01

    In Gentile Fusillo et al. (2015) we developed a selection method for white dwarf candidates which makes use of photometry, colours and proper motions to calculate a probability of being a white dwarf (Pwd). The application of our method to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 10 resulted in nearly 66,000 photometrically selected objects with a derived Pwd, approximately 21000 of which are high confidence white dwarf candidates. Here we present an independent test...

  3. Spectroscopic Identification of Faint White Dwarf Candidates in the Praesepe Open Star Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kurtis A.; Bolte, Michael; Liebert, James

    2004-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the remaining four candidate white dwarfs in Praesepe. All four candidates are quasars with redshifts between 0.8 and 2.8. One quasar, LB 6072, is observed to have a strong metal-line absorption system blueward of the quasar redshift. The lack of additional white dwarfs in Praesepe leaves the total known white-dwarf population of the cluster at five, well below the number expected from commonly-assumed initial mass functions, though s...

  4. Gaseous Material Orbiting the Polluted, Dusty White Dwarf HE1349-2305

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Carl; Dufour, P; Farihi, J.; Bochanski, J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Parsons, S.; Gaensicke, B.; D. Koester; Swift, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the polluted, dusty, helium-dominated atmosphere white dwarf star HE1349-2305. Optical spectroscopy reveals weak CaII infrared triplet emission indicating that metallic gas debris orbits and is accreted by the white dwarf. Atmospheric abundances are measured for magnesium and silicon while upper limits for iron and oxygen are derived from the available optical spectroscopy. HE1349-2305 is the first gas disk-hosting white dwarf sta...

  5. Finding rocky asteroids around white dwarfs by their periodic thermal emission

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Henry; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Since white dwarfs are small, the contrast between the thermal emission of an orbiting object and a white dwarf is dramatically enhanced compared to a main sequence host. Furthermore, rocky objects much smaller than the moon have no atmospheres and are tidally locked to the white dwarf. We show that this leads to temperature contrasts between their day and night side of order unity that should lead to temporal variations in infrared flux over an orbital period of $\\sim 0.2$ ...

  6. An Independent Calibration of Stellar Ages: HST Observations of White Dwarfs at V=25

    OpenAIRE

    von Hippel, Ted; Gilmore, Gerard; Jones, D.H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The white dwarf luminosity function of a stellar cluster will have a sharp truncation at a luminosity which is determined by the time since formation of the first white dwarfs in that cluster. Calculation of the dependence of this limiting luminosity on age requires relatively well-understood physics and is independent of stellar evolutionary models. Thus, measurement of the termination of the white dwarf luminosity function provides an independent method to determine the ag...

  7. On the maximum mass of general relativistic uniformly rotating white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct self-consistently the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The mass, the radius, the moment of inertia and quadrupole moment of rotating white dwarfs have been calculated as a function of both the central density and rotation period of the star. The maximum mass of rotating white dwarfs for stable configurations has been obtained. (author)

  8. On the Maximum Mass of General Relativistic Uniformly Rotating White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; 10.1142/S0218301311040177

    2012-01-01

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct self-consistently the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The mass, the radius, the moment of inertia and quadrupole moment of rotating white dwarfs have been calculated as a function of both the central density and rotation period of the star. The maximum mass of rotating white dwarfs for stable configurations has been obtained.

  9. A search for white dwarfs in the Galactic plane: the field and the open cluster population

    OpenAIRE

    Raddi, R; Catalan, S.; Gaensicke, B.T.; Hermes, J. J.; R. Napiwotzki; Koester, D.; Tremblay, P. -E.; Barentsen, G.; Farnhill, H.J.; Mohr-Smith, M.; Drew, J. E.; De Groot, P. J.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Parker, Q.A.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prospects for systematic searches of white dwarfs at low Galactic latitudes, using the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) H$\\alpha$ Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+). We targeted 17 white dwarf candidates along sightlines of known open clusters, aiming to identify potential cluster members. We confirmed all the 17 white dwarf candidates from blue/optical spectroscopy, and we suggest five of them to be likely cluster members. We estimated progenitor ages a...

  10. Finding the Instability Strip for Accreting Pulsating White Dwarfs from HST and Optical Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum; Gansicke, Boris T.; Henden, Arne; Templeton, Matthew; Holtzman, Jon; Montgomery, Michael H.; Howell, Steve B; Nitta, Atsuko; Sion, Edward M.; Schwartz, Richard D.; Dillon, William

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved low resolution Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra together with ground-based optical photometry and spectra are used to constrain the temperatures and pulsation properties of six cataclysmic variables containing pulsating white dwarfs. Combining our temperature determinations for the five pulsating white dwarfs that are several years past outburst with past results on six other systems shows that the instability strip for accreting pulsating white dwarf...

  11. Gaseous Material Orbiting the Polluted, Dusty White Dwarf HE1349-2305

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, Carl; Farihi, J; Bochanski, J; Burgasser, Adam J; Parsons, S; Gaensicke, B; Koester, D; Swift, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the polluted, dusty, helium-dominated atmosphere white dwarf star HE1349-2305. Optical spectroscopy reveals weak CaII infrared triplet emission indicating that metallic gas debris orbits and is accreted by the white dwarf. Atmospheric abundances are measured for magnesium and silicon while upper limits for iron and oxygen are derived from the available optical spectroscopy. HE1349-2305 is the first gas disk-hosting white dwarf star identified amongst previously known polluted white dwarfs. Further characterization of the parent body polluting this star will require ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  12. Cool White Dwarfs Identified in the Second Data Release of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bergeron, P; Nitta, A; 10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1506

    2009-01-01

    We have paired the Second Data Release of the Large Area Survey of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey with the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify ten cool white dwarf candidates, from their photometry and astrometry. Of these ten, one was previously known to be a very cool white dwarf. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for seven of the candidates using the GMOS-N spectrograph on Gemini North, and have confirmed all seven as white dwarfs. Our photometry and astrometry indicates that the remaining two objects are also white dwarfs. Model analysis of the photometry and available spectroscopy shows that the seven confirmed new white dwarfs, and the two new likely white dwarfs, have effective temperatures in the range Teff = 5400-6600 K. Our analysis of the previously known white dwarf confirms that it is cool, with Teff = 3800 K. The cooling age for this dwarf is 8.7 Gyr, while that of the nine ~6000 K white dwarfs is 1.8-3.6 Gyr. We are unable to determine the masses of the white ...

  13. GASEOUS MATERIAL ORBITING THE POLLUTED, DUSTY WHITE DWARF HE 1349–2305

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the polluted, dusty, helium-dominated atmosphere white dwarf star HE 1349–2305. Optical spectroscopy reveals weak Ca II infrared triplet emission indicating that metallic gas debris orbits and is accreted by the white dwarf. Atmospheric abundances are measured for magnesium and silicon while upper limits for iron and oxygen are derived from the available optical spectroscopy. HE 1349–2305 is the first gas disk-hosting white dwarf star identified among previously known polluted white dwarfs. Further characterization of the parent body polluting this star will require ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  14. LIMITS ON UNRESOLVED PLANETARY COMPANIONS TO WHITE DWARF REMNANTS OF 14 INTERMEDIATE-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer IRAC photometry of white dwarf remnants of 14 stars with M = 3-5 Msun. We do not detect mid-infrared excess around any of our targets. By demanding a 3? photometric excess at 4.5 ?m for unresolved companions, we rule out planetary mass companions down to 5, 7, or 10 M J for 13 of our targets based on the Burrows et al. substellar cooling models. Combined with previous IRAC observations of white dwarf remnants of intermediate-mass stars, we rule out ?10M J companions around 40 white dwarfs and ?5M J companions around 10 white dwarfs.

  15. HR2875: Spectroscopic discovery of the first B star + white dwarf binary

    OpenAIRE

    Burleigh, Matt; Barstow, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We report the discovery, in an Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) short wavelength spectrum, of an unresolved hot white dwarf companion to the 5th-magnitude B5Vp star HR2875. This is the first time that a non-interacting white dwarf$+$ B star binary has been discovered; previously, the the earliest type star known with a white dwarf companion was Sirius (A1V). Since the white dwarf must have evolved from a main sequence progenitor with a mass greater than that of a B5V star...

  16. HST Spectra of GW Librae: A Hot Pulsating White Dwarf in a Cataclysmic Variable

    OpenAIRE

    P. Szkody; Gansicke, B.; Howell, S.B.; E. Sion

    2002-01-01

    We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of the white dwarf in GW Lib, the only known non-radially pulsating white dwarf in a cataclysmic variable, and the first known DAZQ variable. The UV light curve reveals large amplitude (10%) pulsationsin the UV with the same periods (646, 376 and 237 s) as those seen at optical wavelengths, but the mean spectrum fits with an average white dwarf temperature (14,700K for a 0.6M_{odot} white dwarf) that is too hot to be in the ...

  17. RX J0648.0--4418: the fastest-spinning white dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Mereghetti, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    RX J0648.0-4418 is a post common-envelope X-ray binary composed of a hot subdwarf and one of the most massive white dwarfs with a dynamical mass measurement (1.28+/-0.05 M_sun). This white dwarf, with a spin period of 13.2 s, rotates more than twice faster than the white dwarf in the cataclysmic variable AE Aqr. The current properties of these two binaries, as well as their future evolution, are quite different, despite both contain a fast-spinning white dwarf. RX J0648.0-44...

  18. Discovery of a Bright, Extremely Low-Mass White Dwarf in a Close Double Degenerate System

    OpenAIRE

    Vennes, S.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Kawka, A.; NEMETH, P; Skinner, J. N.; Pigulski, A.; Steslicki, M.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Srodka, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright (V ~ 13.7), extremely low-mass white dwarf in a close double degenerate system. We originally selected GALEX J171708.5+675712 for spectroscopic follow-up among a group of white dwarf candidates in an ultraviolet-optical reduced proper-motion diagram. The new white dwarf has a mass of 0.18 M_solar and is the primary component of a close double degenerate system (P=0.246137 d, K_1 = 288 km/s) comprising a fainter white dwarf secondary with M...

  19. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennes, Stephane; Shipman, Harry L.; Thorstensen, John R.; Thejll, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or - 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or - 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star.

  20. Enigmas from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 White Dwarf Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, James; Smith, Paul S.; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T.

    2015-06-01

    We report results from a continuation of our searches for magnetic white dwarfs paired in a detached binary with a non-degenerate companion, using the Data Release 7 (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Some 19,712 spectroscopically-identified white dwarfs from the Kleinman et al. paper were examined, including 1,951 white dwarf - M dwarf pairs. The polar (AM Her) system ST LMi in a low state was found but later recognized not to be a detached pair. Our basic result is that the original situation reported 10 years ago is still the case with now very high statistical significance. Detached polar progenitors, apart from Low Accretion Rate Polars (LARPs), are not found. Magnetic white dwarfs likely form from mergers of (nonmagnetic) white dwarfs, while polars and intermediate polars emerge from common envelope evolution as close binaries - either Roche-lobe-filling mass transfer mode or LARPs.

  1. Search for carbon stars and DZ white dwarfs in SDSS spectra survey through machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, JianMin; Luo, ALi; Li, YinBi; Zhang, JianNan; Wei, Peng; Wu, YiHong; Wu, FuChao; Zhao, YongHeng

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stars and DZ white dwarfs are two types of rare objects in the Galaxy. In this paper, we have applied the label propagation algorithm to search for these two types of stars from Data Release Eight (DR8) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which is verified to be efficient by calculating precision and recall. From nearly two million spectra including stars, galaxies and QSOs, we have found 260 new carbon stars in which 96 stars have been identified as dwarfs and 7 identified as giants, and 11 composition spectrum systems (each of them consists of a white dwarf and a carbon star). Similarly, using the label propagation method, we have obtained 29 new DZ white dwarfs from SDSS DR8. Compared with PCA reconstructed spectra, the 29 findings are typical DZ white dwarfs. We have also investigated their proper motions by comparing them with proper motion distribution of 9,374 white dwarfs, and found that they satisfy the current observed white dwarfs by SDSS generally have large proper motions. In addition, we have estimated their effective temperatures by fitting the polynomial relationship between effective temperature and g-r color of known DZ white dwarfs, and found 12 of the 29 new DZ white dwarfs are cool, in which nine are between 6,000 K and 6,600 K, and three are below 6,000 K.

  2. A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY NN Ser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NN Ser is a short-period (P = 3.12 hr) close binary containing a very hot white dwarf primary with a mass of 0.535 Msun and a fully convective secondary with a mass of 0.111 Msun. The changes in the orbital period of the eclipsing binary were analyzed based on our five newly determined eclipse times together with those compiled from the literature. A small-amplitude (0fd00031) cyclic period variation with a period of 7.56 years was discovered to be superimposed on a possible long-term decrease. The periodic change was plausibly explained as the light-travel time effect via the presence of a tertiary companion. The mass of the tertiary companion is determined to be M3sin i' = 0.0107(±0.0017) Msun when a total mass of 0.646 Msun for NN Ser is adopted. For orbital inclinations i' ? 49.056, the mass of the tertiary component was calculated to be M 3 ? 0.014 Msun; thus it would be an extrasolar planet. The third body is orbiting the white dwarf-red dwarf eclipsing binary at a distance shorter than 3.29 AU. Since the observed decrease rate of the orbital period is about two orders larger than that caused by gravitational radiation, it can be plausibly interpreted by magnetic braking of the fully convective component, which is driving this binary to evolve into a normal cataclysmic variable.

  3. The Discovery of the Most Metal-Rich White Dwarf: Composition of a Tidally Disrupted Extrasolar Dwarf Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P; Kilic, M.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Lachapelle, F. -R.; Kleinman, S. J.; S. K. Leggett

    2010-01-01

    Cool white dwarf stars are usually found to have an outer atmosphere that is practically pure in hydrogen or helium. However, a small fraction have traces of heavy elements that must originate from the accretion of extrinsic material, most probably circumstellar matter. Upon examining thousands of Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra, we discovered that the helium-atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J073842.56+183509.6 shows the most severe metal pollution ever seen in the outermost layers of such stars....

  4. White dwarf axions, PAMELA data, and flipped-SU(5)

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Jihn E.; Kyae, Bumseok(Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735, Republic of Korea); Viollier, Raoul D.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there are two hints arising from physics beyond the standard model. One is a possible energy loss mechanism due to emission of very weakly interacting light particles from white dwarf stars, with a coupling strength ~ 0.7x10^{-13}, and another is the high energy positrons observed by the PAMELA satellite experiment. We construct a supersymmetric flipped-SU(5) model, SU(5)xU(1)_X with appropriate additional symmetries, [U(1)_H]_{gauge}x[U(1)_RxU(1)_\\Gamma]_{global}x...

  5. Feige 7: A hot, rotating magnetic white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue white dwarf suspect Feige 7 (=L795-7=GR 267) has been found to be magnetic with a rich optical spectrum and variable circular polarization. The polarization observations show a variation that is sinusoidal with amplitude 0.3%, a mean of nearly zero, and a period of 2.2 hours; an ephemeris is provided. The mean longitudinal field at peak polarization is estimated to be 5 megagauss. Spectra obtained with the Lick Observatory scanner and the UCSD Digicon at Steward Observatory are presented. The detailed absorption spectrum is shown to fit Zeeman patterns of hydrogen and neutral helium in the presence of a mean homogeneous surface field varying slightly with the polarization period from 18 to 20 megagauss. The star in fact provides the first confirmation of the theoretical spectra of hydrogen and helium in such high fields, inaccessible to laboratory measurement. It is argued that the period must be due to rotation, and an oblique rotator model with the rotation axis in the plane of the sky and at approx.24degree tilt angle to the magnetic axis is compatible with the available observations. The proper motion from Luyten and the Lowell Observatory is large enough to very nearly constrain the star to be degenerate, rather than a hot subdwarf; the blue continuum indicates that it is the hottest of the known magnetic degenerate stars. The observed combination of neutral helium and hydrogen lines (and at comparable intensities) may be unique among white dwarf stars. The star must have a helium-dominated atmosphere, but the relative H/He abundances could vary over the surface due to the influence of the magnetic field. Since Feige 7 is a recently formed white dwarf, calculations show that any quadrupole and octopole magnetic moments originally present would not yet have decayed; since there is no evidence for appreciable higher moments in the observed surface field, it is argued that the field was essentially a dipole at the time of the white dwarf's formation

  6. Spectral Analysis of Mid-IR Excesses of White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Bilíkovà, J.; Chu, Y.-H.; Su, K.; Gruendl, R. A.; T. Rauch

    2011-01-01

    In our Spitzer 24 \\mu m survey of hot white dwarfs (WDs) and archival Spitzer study of pre-WDs, i.e., central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs), we found mid-IR excesses for -15 WDs/pre-WDs. These mid-IR excesses are indicative of the presence of circumstellar dust that could be produced by sub-planetary objects. To further assess the nature of these IR-excesses, we have obtained Spitzer IRS, Gemini NIRI and Michelle, and KPNO 4m echelle spectra of these objects. In this pa...

  7. SGRs and AXPs as rotation powered massive white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Malheiro, Manuel; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    SGR 0418+5729 is a "Rosetta Stone" for deciphering the energy source of Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs). We show a model based on canonical physics and astrophysics for SGRs and AXPs powered by massive highly magnetized rotating white dwarfs (WDs), in total analogy with pulsars powered by rotating neutron stars (NSs). We predict for SGR 0418+5729 a lower limit for its spin-down rate, $\\dot{P} \\geq L_X P^3/(4\\pi^2 I)=1.18\\times 10^{-16}$ whe...

  8. Electrical conductivity of plasmas of DB white dwarf atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Sreckovic, V. A.; Ignjatovic, Lj. M.; Mihajlov, A. A.; Dimitrijevic, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The static electrical conductivity of non-ideal, dense, partially ionized helium plasma was calculated over a wide range of plasma parameters: temperatures $1\\cdot 10^{4}\\textrm{K} \\lesssim T \\lesssim 1\\cdot 10^{5}\\textrm{K}$ and mass density $1 \\times 10^{-6} \\textrm{g}/\\textrm{cm}^{3} \\lesssim \\rho \\lesssim 2 \\textrm{g}/\\textrm{cm}^{3}$. Calculations of electrical conductivity of plasma for the considered range of plasma parameters are of interest for DB white dwarf atmospheres with effecti...

  9. White dwarf masses derived from planetary nebulae modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    We compare the mass distribution of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) with those of their progeny, white dwarfs (WD). We use a dynamical method to measure masses with an uncertainty of 0.02 M$_\\odot$. The CSPN mass distribution is sharply peaked at $0.61 \\rm M_\\odot$. The WD distribution peaks at lower masses ($0.58 \\rm M_\\odot$) and shows a much broader range of masses. Some of the difference can be explained if the early post-AGB evolution is faster than predicted ...

  10. Thomson scattering in magnetic fields. [of white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The equation of transfer in Thomson scattering atmospheres with magnetic fields is solved using Monte Carlo methods. Two cases, a plane parallel atmosphere with a magnetic field perpendicular to the atmosphere, and a dipole star, are investigated. The wavelength dependence of polarization from plane-parallel atmosphere is qualitatively similar to that observed in the magnetic white dwarf Grw+70 deg 8247, and the field strength determined by the calculation, 320 MG, is quantitatively similar to that determined from the line spectrum. The dipole model does not resemble the data as well as the single plane-parallel atmosphere.

  11. Diffusion processes in Ap stars and white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion processes in a fully ionized, multicomponent plasma are investigated in the report. Kinetic phenomena due both to ions and to electrons are considered. The kinetic coefficients are calculated in the two-polynomial approximation of the Chapman--Enskog method. The influence of the magnetic field on transport phenomena is consistently taken into account. The results obtained are compared in detail with the results of other authors. In conclusion, possible astrophysical applications of the theory (surface layers of Ap stars and white dwarfs) are briefly discussed

  12. THE BINARY FRACTION OF LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe spectroscopic observations of 21 low-mass (?0.45 Msun) white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey obtained over four years. We use both radial velocities and infrared photometry to identify binary systems, and find that the fraction of single, low-mass WDs is ?30%. We discuss the potential formation channels for these single stars including binary mergers of lower-mass objects. However, binary mergers are not likely to explain the observed number of single low-mass WDs. Thus, additional formation channels, such as enhanced mass loss due to winds or interactions with substellar companions, are likely.

  13. V2051 Oph: a white dwarf eclipsing cataclysmic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some initial results are reported of a programme of spectroscopy and UBV photometry of the eclipsing cataclysmic variable V2051 Oph. An orbital period of 89.9 min is determined and strong evidence is found that the white dwarf component is eclipsed. Flickering activity is strong, but the orbital photometric hump is variable in strength. The spectrum is dominated by strong Balmer emission lines, with weaker He I lambda 4471 emission. All emission lines are double peaked and are severely distorted during eclipse. (author)

  14. Calcium-Rich Gap Transients: Tidal Detonations of White Dwarfs?

    OpenAIRE

    Sell, P. H.; Maccarone, T. J.; Kotak, R.; Knigge, C; D. J. Sand

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that at least some of the recently discovered class of calcium-rich gap transients are tidal detonation events of white dwarfs (WDs) by black holes (BHs) or possibly neutron stars. We show that the properties of the calcium-rich gap transients agree well with the predictions of the tidal detonation model. Under the predictions of this model, we use a follow-up X-ray observation of one of these transients, SN 2012hn, to place weak upper limits on the detonator ...

  15. Evidence for the White Dwarf Nature of Mira B

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloski, J. L.; Bildsten, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the accreting companion to Mira --- the prototypical pulsating asymptotic giant branch star --- has been a matter of debate for more than 25 years. Here we use a quantitative analysis of the rapid optical brightness variations from this companion, Mira B, which we observed with the Nickel telescope at Lick Observatory, to show that it is a white dwarf (WD). The amplitude of aperiodic optical variations on time scales of minutes to tens of minutes (approximately 0.2 mag) is consi...

  16. Death by Dynamics: Planetoid-Induced Explosions on White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    di Stefano, Rosanne; Fisher, Robert; Guillochon, James; Steiner, James F.

    2015-01-01

    At intervals as short as ten thousand years, each white dwarf (WD) passes within a solar radius of a planetoid, i.e., a comet, asteroid, or planet. Gravitational tidal forces tear the planetoid apart; its metal-rich debris falls onto the WD, enriching the atmosphere. A third of WDs exhibit atmospheric "pollution". For roughly every hundred planetoid disruptions, a planetoid collides with a WD. We simulate a small number of collisions, in which "death-by-dynamics" refers to the fate of the pla...

  17. Formation of undermassive single white dwarfs and the influence of planets on late stellar evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.A.; Tauris, Th.M.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a scenario to form low-mass, single, slow rotating white dwarfs from a solar-like star accompanied by a massive planet, or a brown dwarf, in a relatively close orbit (e.g. HD 89707). Such white dwarfs were recently found by Maxted & Marsh (1998). When the solar-like star ascends the giant branch it captures the planet and the subsequent spiral-in phase expels the envelope of the giant leaving a low-mass helium white dwarf remnant. In case the planet evaporizes, or...

  18. A Spitzer Search for Substellar Companions to Low Mass White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Mcleod, B.

    2009-01-01

    The formation scenarios for single low-mass (M < 0.45 Msol) white dwarfs include enhanced mass loss from a metal-rich progenitor star or a common envelope phase of a solar-like star with a close-in massive planet or a brown dwarf. Both scenarios suggest that low-mass white dwarfs may have planets. Here, we present a Spitzer IRAC search for substellar and planetary mass companions to 14 low-mass white dwarfs. One of our targets, HS 1653+7753, displays near- and mid-infrared f...

  19. An Ultramassive 1.28 M$_\\odot$ White Dwarf in NGC 2099

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, Jeffrey D; Tremblay, P -E; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bergeron, P

    2016-01-01

    With the Keck I Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer we have observed nine white dwarf candidates in the very rich open cluster NGC 2099 (M37). The spectroscopy shows seven to be DA white dwarfs, one to be a DB white dwarf, and one to be a DZ white dwarf. Three of these DA white dwarfs are consistent with singly evolved cluster membership: an ultramassive (1.28$^{+0.05}_{-0.08}$ M$_\\odot$) and two intermediate-mass (0.70 and 0.75 M$_\\odot$) white dwarfs. Analysis of their cooling ages allows us to calculate their progenitor masses and establish new constraints on the initial-final mass relation. The intermediate-mass white dwarfs are in strong agreement with previous work over this mass regime. The ultramassive white dwarf has $V$ = 24.5, $\\sim$2 mag fainter than the other two remnants. The spectrum of this star has lower quality, so the derived stellar properties (e.g., T$_{\\rm eff}$, log g) have uncertainties that are several times higher than the brighter counterparts. We measure these uncertainties and est...

  20. Stars with Unusual Compositions: Carbon and Oxygen in Cool White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P

    2011-01-01

    I present a broad historical review on cool white dwarf stars with carbon and/or oxygen detected at the photosphere. This book chapter covers the observational signatures, physical properties, and evolution of DQ, DBQ and Hot DQ white dwarfs, and also present an overview of the main challenges that future investigations of these types of object should try to address.

  1. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

    2014-11-01

    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young. PMID:25327247

  2. THE INITIAL-FINAL MASS RELATION AMONG WHITE DWARFS IN WIDE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the initial-final mass relation derived from 10 white dwarfs in wide binaries that consist of a main-sequence star and a white dwarf. The temperature and gravity of each white dwarf were measured by fitting theoretical model atmospheres to the observed spectrum using a ?2 fitting algorithm. The cooling time and mass were obtained using theoretical cooling tracks. The total age of each binary was estimated from the chromospheric activity of its main-sequence component to an uncertainty of about 0.17 dex in log t. The difference between the total age and white dwarf cooling time is taken as the main-sequence lifetime of each white dwarf. The initial mass of each white dwarf was then determined using stellar evolution tracks with a corresponding metallicity derived from spectra of their main-sequence companions, thus yielding the initial-final mass relation. Most of the initial masses of the white dwarf components are between 1 and 2 M?. Our results suggest a correlation between the metallicity of a white dwarf's progenitor and the amount of post-main-sequence mass loss it experiences—at least among progenitors with masses in the range of 1-2 M?. A comparison of our observations to theoretical models suggests that low-mass stars preferentially lose mass on the red giant branch.

  3. New population synthesis model: Preliminary results for close double white dwarf populations

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2011-01-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  4. New Insights on Pulsating White Dwarfs from 3D Radiation-Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fontaine, Gilles; Ludwig, Hans-Günter

    2015-08-01

    We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of 70 pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 7.0 log g position where the pulsations are driven, and the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate. Finally, we will present new results from non-adiabatic pulsation calculations.

  5. White Dwarfs for Calibrating the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn Smith, J.; Wester, William; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Fix, Mees B.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Gulledge, Deborah J.; McDonald, Christopher P.; Allam, Sahar S.; James, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is surveying some 5000 square degrees in the southern hemisphere in the grizY filter system using the new Dark Energy Camera. In order to verify meeting photometric calibration requirements, we are obtaining imaging of several hundred white dwarfs (confirmed and candidates) to select nearly 100 or more hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarfs for spectroscopy in the DES footprint. The spectra that are obtained will be extracted and used to derive synthetic spectra that can be compared with DES measurements from imaging in each of the DES grizY filters. This comparison should be able to verify and help calibrate the survey to a level better than 2% photometrically and to better than 0.5% in colors. We will discuss the observational and modeling effort required to develop a well-characterized DAs sample and present some preliminary results. This set would form the basis of a larger set of southern hemisphere survey calibration stars, and additionally serve as a legacy calibration set in the upcoming era of the LSST survey and the giant segmented mirror observatories. These stars will be used to establish and monitor the color zero points for the DES photometric system and can be used to search for systematic errors in the color zero points over the DES footprint. These stars will also be used as some of the primary standards for the DES photometric system which will allow nightly atmospheric monitoring during DES operations.

  6. Atmospheric Parameters and Carbon Abundance for Hot DB White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Detlev; Provencal, Judi; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate atmospheric parameters for DB (helium atmosphere) white dwarfs near 25000 K are difficult to determine, but are needed to help or confirm the asteroseismic analysis of these objects. Another important aspect is the new class of white dwarfs - the hot DQ - whose spectra are dominated by carbon lines. The origin of these stars is not yet understood, but they may have an evolutionary link with the hotter DBs as studied here. We use absolutely calibrated high-resolution UV spectra of five DBs in addition to available optical spectroscopy. We find photospheric C and no other heavy elements - with extremely high limits on the C/Si ratio - in two of the five objects. We compare various explanations for this unusual composition that have been proposed in the literature: accretion of interstellar or circumstellar matter, radiative levitation, carbon dredge-up from the deeper interior below the helium layer, and a residual stellar wind. None of these explanations is completely satisfactory, and the problem of the origin of the hot DQ remains an open question.

  7. Explosion of white dwarfs harboring hybrid CONe cores

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, E; Gutiérrez, J L; Doherty, C L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that off-centre carbon burning in a subset of intermediate-mass stars does not propagate all the way to the center, resulting in a class of hybrid CONe cores. Here, we consider the possibility that stars hosting these hybrid CONe cores might belong to a close binary system and, eventually, become white dwarfs accreting from a non-degenerate companion at rates leading to a supernova explosion. We have computed the hydrodynamical phase of the explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs harboring hybrid cores, assuming that the explosion starts at the center, either as a detonation (as may be expected in some degenerate merging scenarios) or as a deflagration (that afterwards transitions into a delayed detonation). We assume these hybrid cores are made of a central CO volume, of mass M(CO), surrounded by an ONe shell. We show that, in case of a pure detonation, a medium-sized CO-rich region, M(CO)<0.4 Msun, results in the ejection of a small fraction of the mantle while leaving a ...

  8. Minimal dielectric polarization stopping power in white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the energy loss of ions by arbitrarily degenerate electron fluid, in the framework of hydrodynamic model by incorporating the generalized relativistic degeneracy pressure, Wigner-Seitz cell Coulomb interactions, and electron spin-exchange pressures for a wide range of electron number-density regimes relevant to the solid density (SD), inertial confinement fusion (ICF), warm dense matter (WDM), and super-dense astrophysical objects, such as white dwarf (WD) stars. It is found that the use of non-relativistic degeneracy pressure for electron fluid, instead of the exact Chandrasekhar relativistic degeneracy pressure, for the ICF density regime and beyond can introduce significant relative error to the stopping power calculation. Therefore, current study may introduce a significant change to the ICF scheme of super-compressed fuel. It is further revealed that the relativistic degeneracy parameter, R 0, and the atomic number of constituent ions, Z, significantly affect the maximum stopping power velocity of ions. We also discover that the velocity-averaged energy loss function becomes minimal in electron number density typical of white dwarf stars, n 0?2×1030 cm-3. It is found that the characteristic density for the minimal ion beam energy loss does not depend on the value of other plasma parameters, such as the ion-electron collision rate and the ion temperature or its atomic number. The latter finding, in particular, may help in better understanding of fusion-burning waves in dense compact stars and their cooling mechanisms.

  9. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration. 32 refs

  10. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  11. Evolved Planetary Systems around Very Cool and Old White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Mark; Gänsicke, Boris; Koester, Detlev

    2015-06-01

    We have spectroscopically identified 61 very cool (below 9000 K) and old (1-7 Gyr) DZ white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). These stars have evaded prior detection as the extremely broad Ca H/K lines in the blue part of their spectra dramatically alter their colours, mixing them into the colour-space of intermediate redshift quasars. In most of these stars we detect photospheric Ca, Mg, Fe and Na. The coolest of these has Teff ? 5000 K corresponding to a cooling age of ˜ 7 Gyr. The only mechanism that can explain the large amounts of metal in the convection zones of these white dwarfs is accretion of planetary debris. Hence, these stars provide a lower limit on the onset of the formation of rocky material within the Milky Way, and, more generally, insight into the formation of early terrestrial planets. Additionally, we identify several of these DZ to have strong (0.6-10 MG) magnetic fields leading to an observed incidence of magnetism of 13 %.

  12. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  13. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration

  14. SGRs and AXPs: Massive Rotating White Dwarfs versus Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Malheiro, Manuel; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    The recent observations of SGR 0418+5729 offer an authentic Rosetta Stone for deciphering the energy source of Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs). The "magnetar" model, appeals to a yet untested new energy source in astrophysical systems: bulk magnetic energy. It leads for SGR 0418+5729 to results in contradiction with observations. It is shown how a consistent model for SGRs and AXPs can be expressed in terms of canonical physics and astrophysics within massive, fast rotating, and highly magnetized white dwarfs. The pioneering work of B. Paczynski (1990) on 1E 2259+586 is extended and further developed to describe the observed properties of all known SGRS and AXPs by assuming spin-down powered massive, fast rotating, and highly magnetized white dwarfs. Within this model, we obtain the theoretical prediction for the lower limit of the first time derivative of the rotational period of SGR 0418+5729, $\\dot{P} \\geq L_X P^3/(4\\pi^2 I)=1.18\\times 10^{-16}$ s/s being $L_X$ and $P$ th...

  15. Simplified Hydrostatic Carbon Burning in White Dwarf Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, Francisco; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We introduce two simplified nuclear networks that can be used in hydrostatic carbon burning reactions occurring in white dwarf interiors. They model the relevant nuclear reactions in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (COWDs) approaching ignition in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors, including the effects of the main e-captures and \\beta-decays that drive the convective Urca process. They are based on studies of a detailed nuclear network compiled by the authors and are defined by approximate sets of differential equations whose derivations are included in the text. The first network, N1, provides a good first order estimation of the distribution of ashes and it also provides a simple picture of the main reactions occurring during this phase of evolution. The second network, N2, is a more refined version of N1 and can reproduce the evolution of the main physical properties of the full network to the 5% level. We compare the evolution of the mole fraction of the relevant nuclei, the neutron excess, the photon ener...

  16. Thermonuclear Supernova Explosions From Hybrid White Dwarf Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald E.; Townsley, Dean; Calder, Alan; Denissenkov, Pavel; Herwig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent results in stellar evolution in which convective boundary mixing in SAGB stars can give rise to hybrid white dwarf (WD) stars with a C-O core inside an O-Ne shell, we simulate thermonuclear (Type Ia) supernovae from these hybrid progenitors. We use the FLASH code to perform multidimensional simulations in the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) explosion paradigm from progenitor models produced with the MESA stellar evolution code that include the thermal energetics of the Urca process. We performed a suite of DDT simulations over a range of ignition conditions and compare to previous results from a suite of C-O white dwarfs. Despite significant variability within each suite, distinguishing trends are apparent in their Ni-56 yields and the kinetic properties of their ejecta. We comment on the feasibility of these hybrid WD explosions as the source of some classes of observed subluminous events. This research was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-87ER40317 and by resources at the Institute for Advanced Computational Science at Stony Brook University. The software used in this work was in part developed by the DOE-supported ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago.

  17. Connections between Tilted Accretion Disks around White Dwarfs and Substellar Companions

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion disks in white dwarf systems are believed to be tilted. In a recent publication, the lift force has been suggested to be a source to disk tilt, a source that is likely relevant to all accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether a brown dwarf donor star accreting onto a white dwarf primary has enough mass to contribu...

  18. Absolute Proper Motions to B~22.5: IV. Faint, Low Velocity White Dwarfs and the White Dwarf Population Density Law

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, S R; Siegel, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    The reduced proper motion diagram (RPMD) for a complete sample of faint stars with high accuracy proper motions in the North Galactic Pole field SA57 is investigated. Eight stars with very large reduced proper motions are identified as faint white dwarf candidates. We discriminate these white dwarf candidates from the several times more numerous QSOs based on proper motion and variability. We discuss the implausibility that these stars could be any kind of survey contam...

  19. SWIFT J1644+57: A WHITE DWARF TIDALLY DISRUPTED BY A 104 M? BLACK HOLE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose that the remarkable object Swift J1644+57, in which multiple recurring hard X-ray flares were seen over a span of several days, is a system in which a white dwarf was tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole. Disruption of a white dwarf rather than a main-sequence star offers a number of advantages in understanding the multiple, and short, timescales seen in the light curve of this system. In particular, the short internal dynamical timescale of a white dwarf offers a more natural way of understanding the short rise times (?100 s) observed. The relatively long intervals between flares (?5 × 104 s) may also be readily understood as the period between successive pericenter passages of the remnant white dwarf. In addition, the expected jet power is larger when a white dwarf is disrupted. If this model is correct, the black hole responsible must have a mass ?5 M?.

  20. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF WHITE DWARFS: THE MISSING PLANETARY DEBRIS AROUND DZ STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera search for infrared excesses around white dwarfs, including 14 newly observed targets and 16 unpublished archived stars. We find a substantial infrared excess around two warm white dwarfs—J220934.84+122336.5 and WD 0843+516, the latter apparently being the hottest white dwarf known to display a close-in dust disk. Extending previous studies, we find that the fraction of white dwarfs with dust disks increases as the star's temperature increases; for stars cooler than 10,000 K, even the most heavily polluted ones do not have ?1000 K dust. There is tentative evidence that the dust disk occurrence is correlated with the volatility of the accreted material. In the Appendix, we modify a previous analysis to clarify how Poynting-Robertson drag might play an important role in transferring materials from a dust disk into a white dwarf's atmosphere.

  1. Luminosity and cooling of highly magnetised white dwarfs: Suppression of luminosity by strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Mukul; Mukerjee, Subroto

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the luminosity and cooling of highly magnetised white dwarfs. We consider white dwarfs with electron-degenerate core and nondegenerate surface layers where cooling occurs by diffusion of photons. We find the temperature and density profiles in the surface layers or envelope of white dwarfs for radially constant and varying magnetic fields by solving the magnetostatic equilibrium and photon diffusion equations in a Newtonian framework. We also obtain the properties of white dwarfs at the core-envelope interface, when the core is assumed to be practically isothermal due to large thermal conductivity. With the increase in magnetic field, the interface temperature and density are found to be increasing. While the interface radius also increases with the increase in magnetic field when the field is hypothesised to be constant throughout the star, the interface radius decreases for varying fields. However, for white dwarfs having fixed interface radius or interface temperature, we find that the lumin...

  2. Spectroscopic analysis of DA white dwarfs from the McCook and Sion catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some years now, we have been gathering optical spectra of DA white dwarfs in an effort to study and define the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. However, we have recently expanded this survey to include all the DA white dwarfs in the McCook and Sion catalog down to a limiting visual magnitude of V = 17.5. We present here a spectroscopic analysis of over 1000 DA white dwarfs from this ongoing survey. We have several specific areas of interest most notably the hot DAO white dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti instability strip, and the DA+dM binary systems. Furthermore, we present a comparison of the ensemble properties of our sample with those of other large surveys of DA white dwarfs, paying particular attention to the distribution of mass as a function of effective temperature.

  3. Radius constraints from high-speed photometry of 20 low-mass white dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carry out high-speed photometry on 20 of the shortest-period, detached white dwarf binaries known and discover systems with eclipses, ellipsoidal variations (due to tidal deformations of the visible white dwarf), and Doppler beaming. All of the binaries contain low-mass white dwarfs with orbital periods of less than four hr. Our observations identify the first eight tidally distorted white dwarfs, four of which are reported for the first time here. We use these observations to place empirical constraints on the mass-radius relationship for extremely low-mass (?0.30 M ?) white dwarfs. We also detect Doppler beaming in several of these binaries, which confirms their high-amplitude radial-velocity variability. All of these systems are strong sources of gravitational radiation, and long-term monitoring of those that display ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect spin-up of the tidal bulge due to orbital decay.

  4. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T; Cohen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks....

  5. Post-common envelope binaries from SDSS-X: The origin of low-mass white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Gomez-Moran, Ada Nebot; Schreiber, Matthias; Girven, Jonathan; Gansicke, Boris

    2010-01-01

    We present the first white dwarf mass distributions of a large and homogeneous sample of post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs) and wide white dwarf-main sequence binaries (WDMS) directly obtained from observations. Both distributions are statistically independent, with PCEBs showing a clear concentration of systems towards the low-mass end of the distribution, and the white dwarf mass distribution of wide WDMS binaries being similar to those of single white dwarfs. Our resul...

  6. HOT WHITE DWARF SHINES IN YOUNG STAR CLUSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A dazzling 'jewel-box' collection of over 20,000 stars can be seen in crystal clarity in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The young (40 million year old) cluster, called NGC 1818, is 164,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. The LMC, a site of vigorous current star formation, is an ideal nearby laboratory for studying stellar evolution. In the cluster, astronomers have found a young white dwarf star, which has only very recently formed following the burnout of a red giant. Based on this observation astronomers conclude that the red giant progenitor star was 7.6 times the mass of our Sun. Previously, astronomers have estimated that stars anywhere from 6 to 10 solar masses would not just quietly fade away as white dwarfs but abruptly self-destruct in torrential explosions. Hubble can easily resolve the star in the crowded cluster, and detect its intense blue-white glow from a sizzling surface temperature of 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit. IMAGE DATA Date taken: December 1995 Wavelength: natural color reconstruction from three filters (I,B,U) Field of view: 100 light-years, 2.2 arc minutes TARGET DATA Name: NGC 1818 Distance: 164,000 light-years Constellation: Dorado Age: 40 million years Class: Rich star cluster Apparent magnitude: 9.7 Apparent diameter: 7 arc minutes Credit: Rebecca Elson and Richard Sword, Cambridge UK, and NASA (Original WFPC2 image courtesy J. Westphal, Caltech) Image files are available electronically via the World Wide Web at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/1998/16 and via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html. GIF and JPEG images are available via anonymous ftp to oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo/GIF/9816.GIF and /pubinfo/JPEG/9816.jpg.

  7. Transit surveys for Earths in the habitable zones of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Agol, Eric

    2011-01-01

    To date the search for habitable Earth-like planets has primarily focused on nuclear burning stars. I propose that this search should be expanded to cool white dwarf stars that have expended their nuclear fuel. I define the continuously habitable zone of white dwarfs, and show that it extends from ~0.005 to 0.02 AU for white dwarfs with masses from 0.4 to 0.9 solar masses, temperatures less than 10,000 K, and habitable durations of at least 3 Gyr. As they are similar in size to Earth, white d...

  8. EX-111 Thermal Emission from Hot White Dwarfs: The Suggested He Abundance-Temperature Correlation. EX-112: The Unique Emission Line White Dwarf Star GD 356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the EXOSAT data analysis program is reported. EXOSAT observations for four white dwarfs (WD1031-115, WD0004+330, WD1615-154, and WD0109-264) were obtained. Counting rates were unexpectedly low, indicating that these objects have a substantial amount of x-ray absorbing matter in their photosheres. In addition, soft x-ray pulsations characterized by a 9.25 minute cycle were discovered in the DA white dwarf V471 Tauri. A residual x-ray flux from the K dwarf companion can be seen during the white dwarf eclipse at orbital phase 0.0. Pronounced dips in the soft x-ray light curve occur at orbital phases 0.15, 0.18, and 0.85. The dips may be correlated with the triangular Lagrangian points of the binary orbit. Smaller dips at phases near the eclipse may be associated with cool loops in the K star corona. Data for the white dwarf H1504+65 was also analyzed. This object is particularly unusual in that its photoshere is devoid of hydrogen and helium. Finally, existing data on the white dwarf Sirius B were analyzed to see what constraints from other data can be placed on the properties of this star. Interrelationships between radius, rotational velocity, and effective temperature were derived.

  9. Absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot subluminous stars from Voyager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberg, J. B.; Ali, B.; Carone, T. E.; Polidan, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Observations, obtained with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers, are presented of absolute fluxes for two well-known hot subluminous stars: BD + 28 deg 4211, an sdO, and G191 - B2B, a hot DA white dwarf. Complete absolute energy distributions for these two stars, from the Lyman limit at 912 A to 1 micron, are given. For BD + 28 deg 4211, a single power law closely represents the entire observed energy distribution. For G191 - B2B, a pure hydrogen model atmosphere provides an excellent match to the entire absolute energy distribution. Voyager absolute fluxes are discussed in relation to those reported from various sounding rocket experiments, including a recent rocket observation of BD + 28 deg 4211.

  10. Merging of Components in Close Binaries: Type Ia Supernovae, Massive White Dwarfs, and Ap stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomazov, A. I.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    The "Scenario Machine" (a computer code designed for studies of the evolution of close binaries) was used to carry out a population synthesis for a wide range of merging astrophysical objects: main-sequence stars with main-sequence stars; white dwarfs with white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; neutron stars with neutron stars and black holes; and black holes with black holes.We calculate the rates of such events, and plot the mass distributions for merging white dwar...

  11. Calcium-rich gap transients: tidal detonations of white dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, P. H.; Maccarone, T. J.; Kotak, R.; Knigge, C.; Sand, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesize that at least some of the recently discovered class of calcium-rich gap transients are tidal detonation events of white dwarfs (WDs) by black holes (BHs) or possibly neutron stars. We show that the properties of the calcium-rich gap transients agree well with the predictions of the tidal detonation model. Under the predictions of this model, we use a follow-up X-ray observation of one of these transients, SN 2012hn, to place weak upper limits on the detonator mass of this system that include all intermediate-mass BHs (IMBHs). As these transients are preferentially in the stellar haloes of galaxies, we discuss the possibility that these transients are tidal detonations of WDs caused by random flyby encounters with IMBHs in dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. This possibility has been already suggested in the literature but without connection to the calcium-rich gap transients. In order for the random flyby cross-section to be high enough, these events would have to be occurring inside these dense stellar associations. However, there is a lack of evidence for IMBHs in these systems, and recent observations have ruled out all but the very faintest dwarf galaxies and globular clusters for a few of these transients. Another possibility is that these are tidal detonations caused by three-body interactions, where a WD is perturbed towards the detonator in isolated multiple star systems. We highlight a number of ways this could occur, even in lower mass systems with stellar-mass BHs or neutron stars. Finally, we outline several new observational tests of this scenario, which are feasible with current instrumentation.

  12. THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVE OF THE UNIQUE DA WHITE DWARF BOKS 53856

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The faint (g = 16.9) hot white dwarf BOKS 53856 was observed by the Kepler Mission in short cadence mode during mid-2009. Analysis of these observations reveals a highly stable modulation with a period of 6.1375 hr and a 2.46% half-amplitude. The folded light curve has an unusual shape that is difficult to explain in terms of a binary system containing an unseen companion more luminous than an L0 brown dwarf. Optical spectra of BOKS 53856 show a Teff = 34,000 K, log g = 8.0 DA white dwarf. There are few, if any, known white dwarfs in this temperature range exhibiting photometric variations similar to those we describe. A magnetic spin-modulated white dwarf model can in principle explain the light curve, an interpretation supported by spectral observations of the H? line showing evidence of Zeeman splitting.

  13. Calcium-Rich Gap Transients: Tidal Detonations of White Dwarfs?

    CERN Document Server

    Sell, P H; Kotak, R; Knigge, C; Sand, D J

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that at least some of the recently discovered class of calcium-rich gap transients are tidal detonation events of white dwarfs (WDs) by black holes (BHs) or possibly neutron stars. We show that the properties of the calcium-rich gap transients agree well with the predictions of the tidal detonation model. Under the predictions of this model, we use a follow-up X-ray observation of one of these transients, SN 2012hn, to place weak upper limits on the detonator mass of this system that include all intermediate-mass BHs (IMBHs). As these transients are preferentially in the stellar haloes of galaxies, we discuss the possibility that these transients are tidal detonations of WDs caused by random flyby encounters with IMBHs in dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. This possibility has been already suggested in the literature but without connection to the calcium-rich gap transients. In order for the random flyby cross-section to be high enough, these events would have to be occurring inside these den...

  14. THE FREQUENCY OF DEBRIS DISKS AT WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3+2.7–1.2% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7 M ? stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of WD cooling ages; WDs accrete debris from several generations of disks for ?10 Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200 km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that WDs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as solar system asteroid analogs.

  15. Cooling of the white dwarf in U Geminorum between outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Knox S.; Sion, Edward M.; Huang, Min; Szkody, Paula

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained far-ultraviolet (1150-1610 A) spectra of U Gem with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope approximately 13 and 70 days after the end of a normal dwarf nova outburst of the system. Both spectra appear dominated by the White Dwarf (WD) in U Gem. At 1400 A, the flux from U Gem declined approximately 28% between the two observations. Detailed comparison of the spectra with solar abundance WD models suggest that average surface temperature of the WD surface cooled from approximately 39,400 K to approximately 32,100 K between the two observations. The main features which are not fitted well by WD models are absorption due to N V lambda lambda-1239, 1243 and emission at Lyman-alpha. These observations provide unambiguous confirmation that the WD in U Gem cools during quiescence, as was suggested by analyses of far-ultraviolet spectra obtained with International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT).

  16. White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters HST Observations of M4

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Ibata, R A; Pryor, C E; Bell, R A; Bolte, M; Bond, H E; Harris, W E; Hesser, J E; Holland, S; Ivanans, N; Mandushev, G I; Stetson, P B; Wood, M A; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Pryor, Carlton; Bell, Roger A.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Harris, William E.; Hesser, James E.; Holland, Steve; Ivanans, Nicholas; Mandushev, Georgi; Stetson, Peter B.; Wood, Matt A.

    1997-01-01

    Using WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have isolated a sample of 258 white dwarfs (WDs) in the Galactic globular cluster M4. Fields at three radial distances from the cluster center were observed and sizeable WD populations were found in all three. The location of these WDs in the color-magnitude diagram, their mean mass of 0.51($ \\pm 0.03$)M$_{\\odot}$, and their luminosity function confirm basic tenets of stellar evolution theory and support the results from current WD cooling theory. The WDs are used to extend the cluster main-sequence mass function upward to stars that have already completed their nuclear evolution. The WD/red dwarf binary frequency in M4 is investigated and found to be at most a few percent of all the main-sequence stars. The most ancient WDs found are about 9 Gyr old, a level which is set solely by the photometric limits of our data. Even though this is less than the age of M4, we discuss how these cooling WDs can eventually be used to check the turnoff ages of globular clusters a...

  17. THE FREQUENCY OF DEBRIS DISKS AT WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Sara D.; Patterson, Adam J.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Leggett, S. K. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Dufour, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L., E-mail: barber@nhn.ou.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3{sup +2.7} {sub -1.2}% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7 M {sub Sun} stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of WD cooling ages; WDs accrete debris from several generations of disks for {approx}10 Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200 km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that WDs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as solar system asteroid analogs.

  18. Type Ia Supernovae from Merging White Dwarfs I. Prompt Detonations

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Rainer; Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Merging white dwarfs are a possible progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). While it is not entirely clear if and when an explosion is triggered in such systems, numerical models suggest that a detonation might be initiated before the stars have coalesced to form a single compact object. Here we study such "peri-merger" detonations by means of numerical simulations, modeling the disruption and nucleosynthesis of the stars until the ejecta reach the coasting phase. Synthetic light curves and spectra are generated for comparison with observations. Three models are considered with primary masses 0.96 Msun, 1.06 Msun, and 1.20 Msun. Of these, the 0.96 Msun dwarf merging with an 0.81 Msun companion, with a Ni56 yield of 0.58 Msun, is the most promising candidate for reproducing common SNe Ia. The more massive mergers produce unusually luminous SNe Ia with peak luminosities approaching those attributed to "super-Chandrasekhar" mass SNe Ia. While the synthetic light curves and spectra of some of the models resemb...

  19. Compact objects for everyone: I. White dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon previous discussions on the structure of compact stars geared towards undergraduate physics students, a real experiment involving two upper-level undergraduate physics students, a beginning physics graduate and two advanced graduate students was conducted. A recent addition to the physics curriculum at Florida State University, The Physics of Stars, sparked quite a few students' interests in the subject matter involving stellar structure. This, coupled with Stars and statistical physics by Balian and Blaizot (1999 Am. J. Phys. 67 1189) and Neutron stars for undergraduates by Silbar and Reddy (2004 Am. J. Phys. 72 892), is the cornerstone of this small research group who tackled solving the structure equations for compact objects in the summer of 2004. Through the use of a simple finite-difference algorithm coupled to Microsoft Excel and Maple, solutions to the equations for stellar structure are presented in the Newtonian regime appropriate to the physics of white dwarf stars

  20. THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P ? 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g ? 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times 0.9 M? companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.