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Sample records for white dwarf g191-b2b

  1. Stellar laboratories II. New Zn IV and Zn V oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2014-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. In a recent analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B, 21 Zn IV lines were newly identified. Because of the lack of Zn IV data, transition probabilities of the isoelectronic Ge VI were adapted for a first, coarse determination of the photospheric Zn abundance. We performed new calculations of Zn IV and Zn V oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Zn IV - V spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. In the UV spectrum of G191-B2B, we identify 31 Zn IV and 16 Zn V lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in an...

  2. Stellar laboratories III. New Ba V, Ba VI, and Ba VII oscillator strengths and the barium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2014-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Reliable Ba V - VII oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. We newly calculated Ba V - VII oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba VI and Ba VII lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE0503-289. The Ba VI / Ba VII ionization equil...

  3. Stellar laboratories IV. New Ga IV, Ga V, and Ga VI oscillator strengths and the gallium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Quinet, P; Kruk, J W

    2015-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These atmospheres are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that are used to calculate them. Reliable Ga IV - VI oscillator strengths are used to identify Ga lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ga abundances. We newly calculated Ga IV - VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for analyzing of Ga lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. We unambiguously detected 20 isolated and 6 blended (with lines of other species) Ga V lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE0503-289. The identification of Ga IV and Ga VI lines is uncertain because th...

  4. Stellar laboratories. IV. New Ga iv, Ga v, and Ga vi oscillator strengths and the gallium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-05-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These atmospheres are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that are used to calculate them. Aims: Reliable Ga iv-vi oscillator strengths are used to identify Ga lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ga abundances. Methods: We newly calculated Ga iv-vi oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for analyzing of Ga lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We unambiguously detected 20 isolated and 6 blended (with lines of other species) Ga v lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The identification of Ga iv and Ga vi lines is uncertain because they are weak and partly blended by other lines. The determined Ga abundance is 3.5 ± 0.5 × 10-5 (mass fraction, about 625 times the solar value). The Ga iv/Ga v ionization equilibrium, which is a very sensitive indicator for the effective temperature, is well reproduced in RE 0503-289. We identified the strongest Ga iv lines (at 1258.801, 1338.129 Å) in the HST/STIS spectrum of G191-B2B and measured a Ga abundance of 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10-6 (about 22 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. The observed Ga iv-v line profiles in two white dwarf (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed us to determine the photospheric Ga abundance in white dwarfs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer.Tables 1-6, 11, 12 and 15 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables 7-9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A6

  5. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G 191-B2B

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Kruk, J W; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    H-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observation. We establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G 191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and ...

  6. The Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA: Establishing a Database of Synthetic Stellar Flux Standards I. NLTE Spectral Analysis of the DA-Type White Dwarf G191-B2B *,**,***,****

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims. We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at Teff =60 000 +/- 2000K and log g=7.60 +/- 0.05.We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions. The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare.

  7. Deuterium abundance toward G191-B2B Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, M; Hébrard, G; Désert, J M; Ferlet, R; Etangs, A L; Howk, J C; André, M; Blair, W P; Friedman, S D; Kruk, J W; Lacour, S; Moos, H W; Sembach, K R; Chayer, P; Jenkins, E B; Köster, D; Linsky, J L; Wood, B E; Oegerle, W R; Sonneborn, G; York, D G

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of the hot white dwarf G191-B2B, covering the wavelength region 905-1187A, were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). This data was used in conjunction with existing high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations to evaluate the total HI, DI, OI and NI column densities along the line of sight. Previous determinations of N(DI) based upon GHRS and STIS observations were controversial due to the saturated strength of the DI Lyman-alpha line. In the present analysis the column density of DI has been measured using only the unsaturated Lyman-beta and Lyman-gamma lines observed by FUSE. A careful inspection of possible systematic uncertainties tied to the modeling of the stellar continuum or to the uncertainties in the FUSE instrumental characteristics has been performed. The column densities derived are: log N(DI) = 13.40 +/-0.07, log N(OI) = 14.86 +/-0.07, and log N(NI) = 13.87 +/-0.07 quoted with 2-sigma uncertainties. The measurement of the HI column ...

  8. WHITE DWARFS

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, H.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal properties and neutrino emissivity of matter in the dense, degenerate cores of white dwarfs, together with efficient heat transport through the high-density envelopes of these stars, affect the theoretical white dwarf luminosity function. The most recent observational data show departures from the results of elementary cooling theory at both high and low luminosities. Extreme UV and soft x-ray observations from space show the necessity of neutrino cooling for white dwarfs, have be...

  9. Hot White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Sion, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    The article covers the physical properties and evolution of single white dwarfs ranging in temperature from 20,000K to 200,000 and higher, the hottest know electron-degenerate stars. After discussing the classification of their spectra, the author reviews the known properties, parameters, evolutionary state, as well as persisting and new puzzles regarding all spectroscopic subclasses of hot white dwarfs: the hot DA white dwarfs, the DAO white dwarfs, the PG1159 degenerates, ...

  10. Accreting White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hernanz, Margarita; Jose?, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Thermonuclear (type Ia) supernovae are explosions in accreting white dwarfs, but the exact scenario leading to these explosions is still unclear. An important step to clarify this point is to understand the behaviour of accreting white dwarfs in close binary systems. The characteristics of the white dwarf (mass, chemical composition, luminosity), the accreted material (chemical composition) and those related with the properties of the binary system (mass accretion rate), are...

  11. Carbon in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of obtaining a considerable carbon enhancement in nova envelopes to account for the occurrence of fast novae is examined in detail. No mechanism seems completely satisfactory from the point of view of stellar evolution and white dwarf structure, even considering evidence from single white dwarf observations

  12. White dwarf planets

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor Amy; Veras Dimitri; Villaver Eva; Mustill Alexander J.; Wyatt Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 ? 5?...

  13. Axions and White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia-berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use ...

  14. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  15. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in WDs, causing an overestimated surface gravity, and ultimately determine if these magnetic fields are likely developed through the star's own surface convection zone, or inherited from massive Ap/Bp progenitors. We discovered around 20 000 spectroscopic white dwarfs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with a corresponding increase in relatively rare varieties of white dwarfs, including the massive ones (Kleinman et al. 2013, ApJS, 204, 5, Kepler et al. 2013, MNRAS, 439, 2934). The mass distributions of the hydrogen-rich (DA) measured from fitting the spectra with model atmospheres calculated using unidimensinal mixing lenght-theory (MLT) shows the average mass (as measured by the surface gravity) increases apparently below 13 000K for DAs (e.g. Bergeron et al. 1991, ApJ, 367, 253; Tremblay et al. 2011, ApJ, 730, 128; Kleinman et al. 2013). Only with the tridimensional (3D) convection calculations of Tremblay et al. 2011 (A&A, 531, L19) and 2013 (A&A, 552, 13; A&A, 557, 7; arXiv 1309.0886) the problem has finally been solved, but the effects of magnetic fields are not included yet in the mass determinations. Pulsating white dwarf stars are used to measure their interior and envelope properties through seismology, and together with the luminosity function of white dwarf stars in clusters and around the Sun are valuable tools for the study of high density physics, and the history of stellar formation.

  16. Magnetic White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrario, Lilia; Martino, Domitilla; Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we review the current status of research on the observational and theoretical characteristics of isolated and binary magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs). Magnetic fields of isolated MWDs are observed to lie in the range 10^3-10^9G. While the upper limit cutoff appears to be real, the lower limit is more difficult to investigate. The incidence of magnetism below a few 10^3G still needs to be established by sensitive spectropolarimetric surveys conducted on 8m clas...

  17. White dwarfs and supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term evolution of accreting C-O white dwarfs in close binary systems may be a source of neutron stars and/or SNI explosions. We take into account the effects of solidification of the star's core on the speed of propagation of thermonuclear burning. We also consider the possible separation of oxygen from carbon as a result of solidification. By combining several degrees of chemical differentiation with different accretion rates, we show that the evolutionary outcome may range from total collapse (with formation of a neutron star) to partial disruption due to off-center ignition of carbon

  18. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  19. ASTRO-H White Paper - White Dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, K.; Yuasa, T.; Harayama, A.; Hayashi, T.; Ishida, M.; Long, K. S.; Terada, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Group, On Behalf Of The Astro-h Science Working

    2014-01-01

    Interacting binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion --- cataclysmic variables (CVs) in which the mass loss is via Roche-lobe overflow, and symbiotic stars in which the white dwarf captures the wind of a late type giant --- are relatively commonplace. They display a wide range of behaviors in the optical, X-rays, and other wavelengths, which still often baffles observers and theorists alike. They are likely to be a significant contributor to the Gal...

  20. The Lowest Mass White Dwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Mukremin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Brown, Warren R.; Koester, D.

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low mass white dwarfs are very rare objects likely formed in compact binary systems. We present MMT optical spectroscopy of 42 low mass white dwarf candidates serendipitously discovered in a survey for hypervelocity B-type stars. One of these objects, SDSS J0917+46, has Teff= 11,288 \\pm 72 K and log g = 5.48 \\pm 0.03; with an estimated mass of 0.17 M_sun, it is the lowest gravity/mass white dwarf currently known. However, 40 of the low mass candidates are normal DA...

  1. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity of white dwarfs can be inferred from spectroscopy, the internal structure of these compact stars can be unveiled only by means of asteroseismology, an approach based on the comparison between the observed pulsation periods of variable stars and the periods of appropriate theoretical models. In this communication, we first briefly describe the physical properties of white dwarf stars and the various families of pulsating white dwarfs known up to the present day, and then we present two recent analysis carried out by the La...

  2. White Dwarf Planets from GAIA

    OpenAIRE

    Silvotti, Roberto; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of high-precision astrometry with GAIA for detection of giant planetary companions to nearby white dwarfs. If one considers that, to date, no confirmed planets around single white dwarfs are known, the results from GAIA will be crucial to study the late-stage evolution of planetary systems and to verify the possibility that 2nd-generation planets are formed.

  3. Double white dwarfs and LISA

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Close pairs of white dwarfs are potential progenitors of Type Ia supernovae and they are common, with of order 100 – 300 million in the Galaxy. As such they will be significant, probably dominant, sources of the gravitational waves detectable by LISA. In the context of LISA's goals for fundamental physics, double white dwarfs are a source of noise, but from an astrophysical perspective, they are of considerable interest in their own right. In this paper I discuss our current kno...

  4. Astrophysics of white dwarf binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2007-01-01

    White dwarf binaries are the most common compact binaries in the Universe and are especially important for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors such as LISA. There are a number of open questions about binary evolution and the Galactic population of white dwarf binaries that can be solved using gravitational wave data and at the same time, our ever improving knowledge about these binaries will help to predict the signals that can be expected for LISA. In addition a numb...

  5. Magnetic White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, Lilia; Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we review the current status of research on the observational and theoretical characteristics of isolated and binary magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs). Magnetic fields of isolated MWDs are observed to lie in the range 10^3-10^9G. While the upper limit cutoff appears to be real, the lower limit is more difficult to investigate. The incidence of magnetism below a few 10^3G still needs to be established by sensitive spectropolarimetric surveys conducted on 8m class telescopes. Highly magnetic WDs tend to exhibit a complex and non-dipolar field structure with some objects showing the presence of higher order multipoles. There is no evidence that fields of highly magnetic WDs decay over time, which is consistent with the estimated Ohmic decay times scales of ~10^11 yrs. MWDs, as a class, also appear to be more massive than their weakly or non-magnetic counterparts. MWDs are also found in binary systems where they accrete matter from a low-mass donor star. These binaries, called magnetic Cataclysmic Variab...

  6. Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Lilia; de Martino, Domitilla; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we review the current status of research on the observational and theoretical characteristics of isolated and binary magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs). Magnetic fields of isolated MWDs are observed to lie in the range 103-109 G. While the upper limit cutoff near 109 G appears to be real, the lower limit is more difficult to investigate. The incidence of magnetism below a few 103 G still needs to be established by sensitive spectropolarimetric surveys-conducted on 8 m class telescopes. Highly magnetic WDs tend to exhibit a complex and non-dipolar field structure with some objects showing the presence of higher order multipoles. There is no evidence that fields of highly magnetic WDs decay over time, which is consistent with the estimated Ohmic decay times scales of ˜1011 yrs. The slow rotation periods (˜100 yrs) inferred for a large number of isolated MWDs in comparison to those of non-magnetic WDs (a few days) suggest that strong magnetic fields augment the braking of the stellar core. MWDs, as a class, also appear to be more massive (0.784±0.047 M?) than their weakly or non-magnetic counterparts (0.663±0.136 M?). MWDs are also found in binary systems where they accrete matter from a low-mass donor star. These binaries, called magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (MCVs), comprise about 20-25 % of all known CVs. Zeeman and cyclotron spectroscopy of MCVs have revealed the presence of fields in the range ˜7-230 MG. Complex field geometries have been inferred in the high field MCVs (the polars) whilst magnetic field strength and structure in the lower field group (intermediate polars, IPs) are much harder to establish. The MCVs exhibit an orbital period distribution which is similar to that of non magnetic CVs. Polars dominate the distribution at orbital periods ?4 h and IPs at longer periods. It has been argued that IPs above the 2-3 hr CV period gap with magnetic moments ? 5×1033 G cm3 may eventually evolve into polars. It is vital to enlarge the still incomplete sample of MCVs to understand not only their accretion processes but also their evolution. The origin of fields in MWDs is still being debated. While the fossil field hypothesis remains an attractive possibility, field generation within the common envelope of a binary system has been gaining momentum, since it would explain the absence of MWDs paired with non-degenerate companions and also the lack of relatively wide pre-MCVs.

  7. Observations of Ultracool White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Oppenheimer, B. R.; Saumon, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Jameson, R. F.; Hambly, N. C.; Chabrier, G.; Filippenko, A. V.; Coil, A. L.; Brown, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic and photometric measurements of the white dwarfs LHS 3250 and WD 0346+246. Along with F351-50, these white dwarfs are the coolest ones known, all with effective temperatures below 4000 K. Their membership in the Galactic halo population is discussed, and detailed comparisons of all three objects with new atmosphere models are presented. The new models consider the effects of mixed H/He atmospheres and indicate that WD 0346+246 and F351-50 have pr...

  8. Magnetic field topology of accreting white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reinsch, K; Beuermann, K; Jordan, S; Reinsch, Klaus; Euchner, Fabian; Beuermann, Klaus; Jordan, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We report first results of our systematic investigation of the magnetic field structure of rotating single magnetic white dwarfs and of white dwarfs in magnetic cataclysmic variables. The global magnetic field distributions on the isolated white dwarf HE1045-0908 and the accreting white dwarfs in EF Eri and CP Tuc have been derived from phase-resolved flux and polarization spectra obtained with FORS1 at the ESO VLT using the systematic method of Zeeman tomography.

  9. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Panei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  10. Gravitational Radiation from Strongly Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, J S

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic fields of white dwarfs distort their shape generating an anisotropic moment of inertia. A magnetized white dwarf which rotates obliquely relative to the symmetry axis has a mass quadrupole moment which varies in time, so it will emit gravitational radiation. LISA may be able to detect the gravitational waves from two nearby, quickly rotating white dwarfs.

  11. Gravitational radiation from strongly magnetized white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Jeremy S.

    2000-09-01

    The magnetic fields of white dwarfs distort their shape generating an anisotropic moment of inertia. A magnetized white dwarf that rotates obliquely relative to the symmetry axis has a mass quadrupole moment that varies in time, so it will emit gravitational radiation. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission may be able to detect the gravitational waves from two nearby, rapidly rotating white dwarfs.

  12. White dwarf research with Gaia

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The results of the Gaia mission will have tremendous influence on many topics in white dwarf research. In this paper the current status of the Gaia mission is described. At the end a short outlook on the release scenario and the expected accuracy of the Gaia data is provided.

  13. White Dwarf Research with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The results of the Gaia mission will have tremendous influence on many topics in white dwarf research. In this paper the current status of the Gaia mission is described. At the end a short outlook on the release scenario and the expected accuracy of the Gaia data is provided.

  14. G-dwarfs, white dwarfs and the local dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observed paucity of low metalicity stars (the G-dwarf problem), the observed paucity of low luminosity white dwarfs and the apparent overabundance of matter in the solar neighborhood are discussed in a single context. In particular, bimodal models of star formation with enhanced cooling of low luminosity white dwarfs may be able to simply solve the G-dwarf problem as well as the local dark matter problem without the overproduction of observable white dwarfs. Constraints from galactic chemical evolution are also discussed. 55 refs., 5 figs

  15. Diffusion coefficients in white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Saumon, D; Daligault, J

    2014-01-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  16. Double white dwarfs and LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R

    2011-01-01

    Close pairs of white dwarfs are potential progenitors of Type~Ia supernovae and they are common, with of order 100 -- 300 million in the Galaxy. As such they will be significant, probably dominant, sources of the gravitational waves detectable by LISA. In the context of LISA's goals for fundamental physics, double white dwarfs are a source of noise, but from an astrophysical perspective, they are of considerable interest in their own right. In this paper I discuss our current knowledge of double white dwarfs and their close relatives (and possible descendants) the AM~CVn stars. LISA will add to our knowledge of these systems by providing the following unique constraints: (i) an almost direct measurement of the Galactic merger rate of DWDs from the detection of short period systems and their period evolution, (ii) an accurate and precise normalisation of binary evolution models at the shortest periods, (iii) a determination of the evolutionary pathways to the formation of AM~CVn stars, (iv) measurements of the...

  17. Merging White Dwarfs and Thermonuclear Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkwijk, Marten H.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure, and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and our suggestion that these supern...

  18. White dwarfs and Galactic dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Chris; Holopainen, Janne; Holmberg, Johan

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the recent discovery by Oppenheimer et al. of old, cool white dwarf stars, which may be the first direct detection of Galactic halo dark matter. We argue here that the contribution of more mundane white dwarfs of the stellar halo and thick disc would contribute sufficiently to explain the new high velocity white dwarfs without invoking putative white dwarfs of the dark halo. This by no means rules out that dark matter has been found, but it does constrain the overall contribution b...

  19. ASTRO-H White Paper - White Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Mukai, K; Harayama, A; Hayashi, T; Ishida, M; Long, K S; Terada, Y; Tsujimoto, M

    2014-01-01

    Interacting binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion --- cataclysmic variables (CVs) in which the mass loss is via Roche-lobe overflow, and symbiotic stars in which the white dwarf captures the wind of a late type giant --- are relatively commonplace. They display a wide range of behaviors in the optical, X-rays, and other wavelengths, which still often baffles observers and theorists alike. They are likely to be a significant contributor to the Galactic ridge X-ray emission, and the possibility that some CVs or symbiotic stars may be the progenitors of some of the Type Ia supernovae deserves serious consideration. Furthermore, these binaries serve as excellent laboratories in which to study physics of X-ray emission from high density plasma, accretion physics, reflection, and particle acceleration. ASTRO-H is well-matched to the study of X-ray emission from many of these objects. In particular, the excellent spectral resolution of the SXS will enable dynamical studies of the X-ray e...

  20. Dyson Spheres around White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Semiz, I?brahim; Og?ur, Salim

    2015-01-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical structure that an advanced civilization might build around a star to intercept all of the star's light for its energy needs. One usually thinks of it as a spherical shell about one astronomical unit (AU) in radius, and surrounding a more or less Sun-like star; and might be detectable as an infrared point source. We point out that Dyson Spheres could also be built around white dwarfs. This type would avoid the need for artificial gravity tec...

  1. Summary of the Session, White Dwarf Pulsars and Rotating White Dwarf Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yukikatsu

    2015-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays remains a mystery, even over 100 years since their discovery. Neutron stars (NSs) are considered textbook cases of particle acceleration sites in our Galaxy, but many unresolved numerical problems remain. Searches for new acceleration sites are crucial for astrophysics. The magnetized white dwarfs (MWDs) have the same kind of rotating magnetosphere as NSs, and may be the source of up to 10% of galactic cosmic ray electrons. In the parallel session of the "white dwarf pulsars and rotating white dwarf theory", we focus on the current observational results on white dwarf pulsars, related theories of the radiation process both in white dwarfs and neutron stars, and the origin and rule of white dwarf pulsars, as well as surveying on the current theories of the internal structure and the equation of state of white dwarfs.

  2. Discovery of a T dwarf + white dwarf binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Day-Jones, A C; Ruiz, M T; Beaumont, H; Burningham, B; Gallardo, J; Gianninas, A; Bergeron, P; Napiwotzki, R; Jenkins, J S; Zhang, Z H; Murray, D; Catalan, S; Gomes, J

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first T dwarf + white dwarf binary system LSPM 1459+0857AB, confirmed through common proper motion and spectroscopy. The white dwarf is a high proper motion object from the LSPM catalogue that we confirm spectroscopically to be a relatively cool (Teff=5535+\\-45K) and magnetic (B~2MG) hydrogen-rich white dwarf, with an age of at least 4.8Gyrs. The T dwarf is a recent discovery from the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (ULAS 1459+0857), and has a spectral type of T4.5+\\-0.5 and a distance in the range 43-69pc. With an age constraint (inferred from the white dwarf) of >4.8Gyrs we estimate Teff=1200-1500K and logg=5.4-5.5 for ULAS 1459+0857, making it a benchmark T dwarf with well constrained surface gravity. We also compare the T dwarf spectra with the latest LYON group atmospheric model predictions, which despite some shortcomings are in general agreement with the observed properties of ULAS 1459+0857. The separation of the binary components (16,500-26,500AU, or 365 arcseconds on t...

  3. Dyson Spheres around White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Semiz, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical structure that an advanced civilization might build around a star to intercept all of the star's light for its energy needs. One usually thinks of it as a spherical shell about one astronomical unit (AU) in radius, and surrounding a more or less Sun-like star; and might be detectable as an infrared point source. We point out that Dyson Spheres could also be built around white dwarfs. This type would avoid the need for artificial gravity technology, in contrast to the AU-scale Dyson Spheres. In fact, we show that parameters can be found to build Dyson Spheres suitable --temperature- and gravity-wise-- for human habitation. This type would be much harder to detect.

  4. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning. PMID:23630372

  5. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  6. Circumstellar Disks at White Dwarfs: Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.

    2011-01-01

    The current picture painted by the observations of circumstellar dust at white dwarfs, and the consequent atmospheric pollution, is of a surviving planetary system. This chapter recounts in detail both the discovery and empirical characterization of dust disks at single white dwarfs, including all observational data available up to early 2011. Observations of the disks themselves and the accreted heavy elements within the stellar photospheres are consistent with tidally disr...

  7. Edmund Stoner and white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of a limiting mass for white dwarf stars is today usually attributed to Subramanian Chandrasekhar. However it appears that an article by Edmund Stoner, which appeared in the Philosophical Magazine in 1930, was the first publication to give a convincing demonstration of the existence of a limiting mass for white dwarfs. We examine here why it is that the contributions of Stoner and others towards this discovery have been largely forgotten.

  8. Magnetic fields of accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accreting acceleration of white dwarfs with magnetic fields is considered. Within the framework of the model, the values of magnetic dipole momenta have been estimated for pulsars in cataclysmic variables, namely in the DQ Her-type systems and the systems intermediate between these and the AM Her-type magnetic ones. The values of the maximum possible acceleration and slowing-down rates for rotation period of white dwarfs in such systems have been obtained

  9. Comparison of theoretical white dwarf cooling timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of white dwarf cooling times is paramount to place white dwarf cosmochronology of Galactic populations on more solid grounds. This issue is particularly relevant in view of the enhanced observational capabilities provided by the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, that will offer more avenues to employ white dwarfs as probes of Galactic evolution and test-beds of fundamental physics. We estimate for the first time the consistency of results obtained from two independent and widely used evolutionary codes (BaSTI and LPCODE) for white dwarf models with fixed mass and chemical stratification, when the same input physics is employed in both codes. We considered 0.55Msun white dwarf models with both pure carbon and uniform carbon-oxygen (50/50 mass fractions) core. We have assessed for the first time the maximum possible accuracy in the current estimates of white dwarf cooling times, resulting only from the different implementations of the stellar evolution equations and homogeneo...

  10. Nonlinear Analysis of Pulsating White Dwarf Lightcurves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Shipman, H.; WET TEam

    2015-06-01

    Convection remains one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. For example, Bergeron (1995) show that basic parameters such as flux, line profiles, energy distribution, color indices, and equivalent widths are extremely sensitive to the assumed convective parameterization. This is compelling, since we use our knowledge of these basic parameters to calibrate white dwarf cooling sequences, provide detailed estimates for the ages of individual white dwarfs, and determine the age of the Galactic disk. The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) is engaged in a long term project to empirically calibrate the physical properties of convection in pulsating white dwarfs by combining asteroseismology and analysis of nonlinear light curves. Nonsinusoidal distortions, in the form of narrow peaks and wider valleys, are observed in many pulsating white dwarf light curves. These are a reflection of the local depth of the convection zone, a value which varies during a pulsation cycle. Applying asteroseismology and convective light curve fitting to a wide sample of pulsating white dwarfs provides an empirical map of how the convective response time (the convection zone “depth”) varies as a function of effective temperature, and this can be compared with theoretical models, both MLT and hydrodynamic. This project has resulted in a large database of white dwarf lightcurves and pulsation frequencies. We present current results for DA and DB pulsators, and provide a few examples of interesting pulsation behavior seen along the way.

  11. Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, Summary of the session, White Dwarf Pulsars and Rotating White Dwarf Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, Yukikatsu

    2013-01-01

    This is the summary of the parallel session entitled "White Dwarf Pulsars and Rotating White Dwarf Theory", chaired by Yukikatsu Terada in Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting. The origin of cosmic rays remains a mystery, even over 100 years since their discovery. Neutron stars (NSs) are considered textbook cases of particle acceleration sites in our Galaxy, but many unresolved numerical problems remain. Searches for new acceleration sites are crucial for astrophysics. The magnetized white dwarfs (MWDs) have the same kind of rotating magnetosphere as NSs, and may be the source of up to 10% of galactic cosmic ray electrons. In the parallel session of the "white dwarf pulsars and rotating white dwarf theory", we focus on the current observational results on white dwarf pulsars, related theories of the radiation process both in white dwarfs and neutron stars, and the origin and rule of white dwarf pulsars, as well as surveying on the current theories of the internal structure and the equation of state of white dw...

  12. Six detached white-dwarf close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Morales-Rueda, L; Maxted, P F L; Nelemans, G; Karl, C; Napiwotzki, R; Moran, C K J

    2005-01-01

    We determine the orbits of four double degenerate systems (DDs), composed of two white dwarfs, and of two white dwarf -- M dwarf binaries. The four DDs, WD1022+050, WD1428+373, WD1824+040, and WD2032+188, show orbital periods of 1.157155(5) d, 1.15674(2) d, 6.26602(6) d and 5.0846(3) d respectively. These periods combined with estimates for the masses of the brighter component, based on their effective temperatures, allow us to constrain the masses of the unseen companions. We estimate that the upper limit for the contribution of the unseen companions to the total luminosity in the four DDs ranges between 10 and 20 per cent. In the case of the two white dwarf - M dwarf binaries, WD1042-690 and WD2009+622, we calculate the orbital parameters by fitting simultaneously the absorption line from the white dwarf and the emission core from the M-dwarf. Their orbital periods are 0.337083(1) d and 0.741226(2) d respectively. We find signatures of irradiation on the inner face of WD2009+622's companion. We calculate th...

  13. New cooling sequences for old white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Renedo, Isabel; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Romero, Alejandra D; Corsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, Rene D; Garcia-Berro, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs. This is done by evolving white dwarf progenitors from the zero age main sequence, through the core hydrogen burning phase, the helium burning phase and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. Complete evolutionary sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and for two different metallicities: Z=0.01, which is representative of the solar neighborhood, and Z=0.001, which is appropriate for the study of old stellar systems, like globular clusters. During the white dwarf cooling stage we compute self-consistently the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important, the diffusive evolution of the elements in the outer layers and, finally, we also take into account all the relevant energy sources in the deep interior of the white dwarf, like the release of latent heat and the release of gravitational energy due to carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystall...

  14. Supernovae from White Dwarfs Near Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Wilson, James R.; Dearborn, David S. P.

    2005-07-01

    We describe a new thermonuclear explosion model for Type I (or Type II) supernovae whereby relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (or red-giant core) as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear or thermonuclear reactions so that an explosion ensues. We have considered three possible environments: 1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass (˜ 10 20 M?) black hole; 2) white dwarfs encountering a massive (˜ 1 3 × 103 M?) black hole in a dense globular cluster; and 3) white dwarfs passing a supermassive (˜ 106 109 M?) black hole in a dense galactic core. We estimate the rate at which such events could occur to be significantly less than the rate of normal Type Ia supernovae for all three classes. Nevertheless, they should be frequent enough to warrant a search for this new class of supernova. We show results of three-dimensional thermonuclear burn calculations of white dwarfs or red-giant cores ignited near a supermassive black hole. Such an event might have produced the observed "mixed-morphology" Sgr A East supernova remnant (SNR) in the Galactic core.

  15. Supernovae from White Dwarfs Near Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new thermonuclear explosion model for Type I (or Type II) supernovae whereby relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (or red-giant core) as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear or thermonuclear reactions so that an explosion ensues. We have considered three possible environments: 1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass (? 10 - 20 Msun ) black hole; 2) white dwarfs encountering a massive (? 1 - 3 x 103 Msun ) black hole in a dense globular cluster; and 3) white dwarfs passing a supermassive (? 106 - 109 Msun ) black hole in a dense galactic core. We estimate the rate at which such events could occur to be significantly less than the rate of normal Type Ia supernovae for all three classes. Nevertheless, they should be frequent enough to warrant a search for this new class of supernova. We show results of three-dimensional thermonuclear burn calculations of white dwarfs or red-giant cores ignited near a supermassive black hole. Such an event might have produced the observed 'mixed-morphology' Sgr A East supernova remnant (SNR) in the Galactic core

  16. Unlocking the secrets of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horn, Hugh M

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs, each containing about as much mass as our Sun but packed into a volume about the size of Earth, are the endpoints of evolution for most stars. Thousands of these faint objects have now been discovered, though only a century ago only three were known. They are among the most common stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, and they have become important tools in understanding the universe. Yet a century ago only three white dwarfs were known.   The existence of these stars completely baffled the scientists of the day, and solving the mysteries of these strange objects required revolutionary advances in science and technology, including the development of quantum physics, the construction and utilization of large telescopes, the invention of the digital computer, and the ability to make astronomical observations from space.   This book tells the story of the growth in our understanding of white dwarf stars, set within the context of the relevant scientific and technological advances. Part popular science, ...

  17. Deriving the Ages of Field White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Ted; van Dyk, David; Si, Shijing; Montgomery, Michael; O'Malley, Erin; Robinson, Elliot; Stenning, David; Stein, Nathan; Kraczek, Elizabeth Jeffery; Jefferys, William H.; Webster, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    We apply a self-consistent and robust Bayesian statistical approach along with modern model ingredients to determine the posterior distributions of ages, distances, and ZAMS masses of old field white dwarfs from the Galactic disk, thick disk, and halo. Our technique requires only quality optical and near-IR photometry to derive ages with ? 15% uncertainties. We additionally predict the capabilities of these techniques in the GAIA era, when we will possess distances accurate to 1-2% for thousands of white dwarfs.

  18. Magnetic White Dwarf Stars in the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Jordan, Stefan; Kleinman, Scot J; Kulebi, Baybars; Koester, Detlev; Peçanha, Viviane; Castanheira, Bárbara G; Nitta, Atsuko; Costa, José Eduardo da Silveira; Winget, Don Earl; Kanaan, Antonio; Fraga, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    To obtain a better statistics on the occurrence of magnetism among white dwarfs, we searched the spectra of the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) in the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for Zeeman splittings and estimated the magnetic fields. We found 521 DAs with detectable Zeeman splittings, with fields in the range from around 1 MG to 733 MG, which amounts to 4% of all DAs observed. As the SDSS spectra have low signal-to-noise ratios, we carefully investigated by simulations with theoretical spectra how reliable our detection of magnetic field was.

  19. Pulsation in carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs: A new chapter in white dwarf asteroseismology

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, G; Brassard, P; Dufour, P; Green, E M; Liebert, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present some of the results of a survey aimed at exploring the asteroseismological potential of the newly-discovered carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs. We show that, in certains regions of parameter space, carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs may drive low-order gravity modes. We demonstrate that our theoretical results are consistent with the recent exciting discovery of luminosity variations in SDSS J1426+5752 and some null results obtained by a team of scientists at McDonald Ob...

  20. Magnetic fields of accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accretion-disk spinup of magnetized white dwarfs in cataclysmic binary systems is discussed. A model approach yields the magnetic dipole moment and maximum possible spinup and spindown rates for eight such objects in systems of DQ Her type or intermediate between these and the stronger-field AM Her binaries. 55 references

  1. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetic fields within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations show that in mergers in which the two white dwarfs have different masses a disc around the central compact object is formed. If the central object is magnetized it can interact with the disc through its magnetosphere. The torque applied by the disc changes the spin of the star, whereas the transferred angular momentum from the star to the disc determines the properties of the disc. In this work we build a model for the disc evolution under the effect of magnetic accretion, and for the angular momentum evolution of the star, which can be compared with the observations. Our model pre...

  2. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the fi ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  3. Helium White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Ken J.; Idan, Irit; Bildsten, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Binary evolution predicts a population of helium core (M < 0.5 Msol) white dwarfs (WDs) that are slowly accreting hydrogen-rich material from low mass main sequence or brown dwarf donors with orbital periods less than four hours. Four binaries are presently known in the Milky Way that will reach such a mass-transferring state in a few Gyr. Despite these predictions and observations of progenitor binaries, there are still no secure cases of helium core WDs among the mass-tran...

  4. Offset magnetic dipoles in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various authors have reported observations of the flux and circular polarization for the four stars KPD 0253 + 5052, PG 1658 + 441, PG 1533 - 057 and K 813 - 14. On the basis of the observational data, the stars were classified as magnetic white dwarfs. To place constraints on the magnetic field strengths and geometries of these stars, the relevant authors qualitatively compared the data with available theory and, in two cases, used a model of optically thin hydrogen threaded by a magnetic field. In this paper, a more detailed model for magnetic white dwarfs is used to assess the results previously obtained for these four stars. For one star (KPD 0253 + 5052), clear evidence is found for deviation from a centered dipole field structure. The observational data for the other stars are not uniquely explained by centered dipole models. The observations can be interpreted, however, through the additional use of dipole field geometries offset from the stellar center. 15 refs

  5. The SDSS White Dwarf - M Star Library

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Østensen, Roy H

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), originally targeted at quasi-stellar objects, has provided us with a wealth of astronomical byproducts through the last decade. Since then, the number of white dwarfs (WDs) with physically bound main-sequence star companions (mostly dM stars) has increased radically, allowing for fundamentally new insights into stellar physics. Different methods for the retrieval and follow-up analysis of SDSS WD-dM binaries have been applied in the literature, leading to a rising number of WD-dM catalogs. Here we present a detailed literature search, coupled with our own hunting for SDSS WD-dMs by color selection, the outcome being named the "SDSS White Dwarf - M Star Library". We also explain improvements of our automated spectral analysis method.

  6. General Relativistic and Newtonian White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of Newton's gravity and general relativity. In both cases Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the field equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the Chandrasekhar equation of state. The region of stability of RWDs is constructed taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse $\\beta$-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant angular momentum $J$ sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation period $\\sim0.28$ s in both cases and maximum rotating masses $\\sim1.534 M_{\\odot}$ and $\\sim1.516 M_{\\odot}$ for the Newtonian and general relativistic WDs, respectively. By using the turning point method we show that general relativistic WDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable whereas the Newtonian WDs are stable.

  7. Watch This Space: Observing Merging White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Webbink, Ronald F

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will open the low-frequency (0.1-100 mHz) part of the gravitational wave spectrum to direct observation. Of order 3600 galactic close binary white dwarfs will be individually resolvable in its all-sky spectrum, of which a dozen systems are expected to be on the verge of merger, showing the effects of strong tidal heating and/or early onset of tidal mass transfer. Optical study of these systems would provide important insights into tidal dissipation mechanisms, and internal heating in merging white dwarfs that sets ignition conditions for potential type Ia supernovae. Theoretical modeling and instrumentation programs are needed now to enable a campaign for optical identifications to exploit this opportunity.

  8. Simulating Black Hole White Dwarf Encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Rosswog, S; Hix, W R; Dan, M

    2008-01-01

    The existence of supermassive black holes lurking in the centers of galaxies and of stellar binary systems containing a black hole with a few solar masses has been established beyond reasonable doubt. The idea that black holes of intermediate masses ($\\sim 1000$ \\msun) may exist in globular star clusters has gained credence over recent years but no conclusive evidence has been established yet. An attractive feature of this hypothesis is the potential to not only disrupt solar-type stars but also compact white dwarf stars. In close encounters the white dwarfs can be sufficiently compressed to thermonuclearly explode. The detection of an underluminous thermonuclear explosion accompanied by a soft, transient X-ray signal would be compelling evidence for the presence of intermediate mass black holes in stellar clusters. In this paper we focus on the numerical techniques used to simulate the entire disruption process from the initial parabolic orbit, over the nuclear energy release during tidal compression, the su...

  9. White dwarfs as astroparticle physics laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; Garci?a-berro Montilla, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    White dwarfs are well studied objects. The relative simplic- ity of their physics allows to obtain very detailed models which can be ultimately compared with their observed properties. Among them there is a specific class of stars, the ZZ–Ceti stars that are character- ized by the extreme stability of their periods of pulsation. The rate of change of the period is closely related to the characteristic cooling time of the star, which can be accurately computed. This propert...

  10. Hot DQ White Dwarfs: Something Different

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P; Fontaine, G.; J. Liebert; Schmidt, G. D.; Behara, N.

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of all the known Hot DQ white dwarfs in the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) recently found to have carbon dominated atmospheres. Our spectroscopic and photometric analysis reveals that these objects all have effective temperatures between ~18,000 and 24,000 K. The surface composition is found to be completely dominated by carbon, as revealed by the absence of Hbeta and HeI 4471 lines (or determination of trace amount ...

  11. Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of the physics of compact objects - white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are stated. State equations and models of superdnse objects are discussed with provision for effects of the general relativity theory. For compact objects physical properties in the ground state are analyzed. The structure of stars is studied, when analyzing effect of differnt disturbances on these objects: rotations, magnetic fields, thermal fluxes accretion etc

  12. Detonations in white dwarf dynamical interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aznar-Siguán, Gabriela; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; José, Jordi; Isern, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    In old, dense stellar systems collisions of white dwarfs are a rather frequent phenomenon. Here we present the results of a comprehensive set of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of close encounters of white dwarfs aimed to explore the outcome of the interaction and the nature of the final remnants for different initial conditions. Depending on the initial conditions and the white dwarf masses, three different outcomes are possible. Specifically, the outcome of the interaction can be either a direct or a lateral collision or the interaction can result in the formation of an eccentric binary system. In those cases in which a collision occurs, the infalling material is compressed and heated such that the physical conditions for a detonation may be reached during the most violent phases of the merger. While we find that detonations occur in a significant number of our simulations, in some of them the temperature increase in the shocked region rapidly lifts degeneracy, leading to the quenching of the bu...

  13. The WFCAM transit survey and cool white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from our search for cool white dwarfs in the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey. Repeat observations starting in 2007 allowed to produce deep stacked images in J and measure proper motions. We combine this with deep optical imaging to select cool white dwarf candidates (Teff < 5000?K. About 27 cool white dwarf candidates with proper motions above 0.10 arcsec/yr were identified in one of the fields representing 1/8th of the survey area. Follow-up spectroscopy with the 10.2?m GTC telescope at La Palma confirmed the white dwarf status for all observed candidates. On-going work is being carried out to increase the sample of cool white dwarfs that will allow a more comprehensive study of the thick disk/halo white dwarf population.

  14. Formation and appearance of pulsar-like white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, Nazar

    2014-01-01

    Accretion-driven spin-up of a magnetized white dwarf in a close binary system is discussed. We address a situation in which the magnetic field of the white dwarf is screening during the accretion phase and re-generating due to the field diffusion through the accreted material after it. We find this scenario to be effective for a formation of massive pulsar-like white dwarfs.

  15. GRMHD formulation of highly super-Chandrasekhar magnetized white dwarfs: stable configurations of non-spherical white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2015-05-01

    The topic of magnetized super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs is in the limelight, particularly in the last few years, since our proposal of their existence. By full-scale general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) numerical analysis, we confirm in this work the existence of stable, highly magnetized, significantly super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs with mass more than 3 solar mass. While a poloidal field geometry renders the white dwarfs oblate, a toroidal field makes them prolate retaining an overall quasi-spherical shape, as speculated in our earlier work. These white dwarfs are expected to serve as the progenitors of over-luminous type Ia supernovae.

  16. Pulsations in carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs: A new chapter in white dwarf asteroseismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present some of the results of a survey aimed at exploring the asteroseismological potential of the newly-discovered carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs. We show that, in certains regions of parameter space, carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs may drive low-order gravity modes. We demonstrate that our theoretical results are consistent with the recent exciting discovery of luminosity variations in SDSS J1426+5752 and some null results obtained by a team of scientists at McDonald Observatory. We also present follow-up photometric observations carried out by ourselves at the Mount Bigelow 1.6-m telescope using the new Mont4K camera. The results of follow-up spectroscopic observations at the MMT are also briefly reported, including the surprising discovery that SDSS J1426+5752 is not only a pulsating star but that it is also a magnetic white dwarf with a surface field near 1.2 MG. The discovery of g-mode pulsations in SDSS J1426+5752 is quite significant in itself as it opens a fourth asteroseismological 'window', after the GW Vir, V777 Her, and ZZ Ceti families, through which one may study white dwarfs.

  17. Pulsations in carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs: A new chapter in white dwarf asteroseismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, G; Brassard, P [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Dufour, P; Green, E M; Liebert, J, E-mail: fontaine@astro.umontreal.c, E-mail: brassard@astro.umontreal.c, E-mail: dufourpa@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: bgreen@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: liebert@as.arizona.ed [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    We present some of the results of a survey aimed at exploring the asteroseismological potential of the newly-discovered carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs. We show that, in certains regions of parameter space, carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs may drive low-order gravity modes. We demonstrate that our theoretical results are consistent with the recent exciting discovery of luminosity variations in SDSS J1426+5752 and some null results obtained by a team of scientists at McDonald Observatory. We also present follow-up photometric observations carried out by ourselves at the Mount Bigelow 1.6-m telescope using the new Mont4K camera. The results of follow-up spectroscopic observations at the MMT are also briefly reported, including the surprising discovery that SDSS J1426+5752 is not only a pulsating star but that it is also a magnetic white dwarf with a surface field near 1.2 MG. The discovery of g-mode pulsations in SDSS J1426+5752 is quite significant in itself as it opens a fourth asteroseismological 'window', after the GW Vir, V777 Her, and ZZ Ceti families, through which one may study white dwarfs.

  18. Mass Transfer between Double White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, T. R.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three periodically variable stars have recently been discovered (V407 Vul, P=9.5 min; ES Cet, P=10.3 min; RX J0806.3+1527, P=5.3 min) with properties that suggest that their photometric periods are also their orbital periods, making them the most compact binary stars known. If true, this might indicate that close, detached, double white dwarfs are able to survive the onset of mass transfer caused by gravitational wave radiation and emerge as the semi-detached, hydrogen-defic...

  19. The white dwarf masses in cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameury, J. M.; Lasota, J. P.; King, A. R.

    1988-04-01

    The mechanism proposed by Hameury et al. (1988) for the 114-min periodicity in 6 of the 13 known AM Her magnetic cataclysmic variables (MCVs) is examined in the light of published observational data on EXO 033319-2554.2, a newly discovered 126-min-period MCV (Giommi et al., 1987; Beuermann and Thomas, 1987). The techniques used to estimate the masses of the white-dwarf primaries in MCVs are discussed, and it is concluded that the mass of EXO 033319-2554.2 is significantly greater (by 0.25-0.60 solar mass) than that in the MCVs with 114-min periodicity.

  20. White dwarfs in common proper motion binaries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arazimová, Eva; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    San Francisco : Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010 - (Prša, A.), s. 147-148 ISBN 978-1-58381-750-6. - (ASP Conference Series. 435). [Binaries - Key to Comprehension of the Universe. Brno (CZ), 08.06.2009-12.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R GD205/08/H005; GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA300030908; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA301630901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarfs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Dark-matter admixed white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, S. -c; Chu, M. -c; Lin, L. -m; Wong, K. -w

    2013-01-01

    We study the equilibrium structures of white dwarfs with dark matter cores formed by non-self-annihilating dark matter DM particles with mass ranging from 1 GeV to 100 GeV, which are assumed to form an ideal degenerate Fermi gas inside the stars. For DM particles of mass 10 GeV and 100 GeV, we find that stable stellar models exist only if the mass of the DM core inside the star is less than O(10^-3) Msun and O(10^-6) Msun, respectively. The global properties of these stars, ...

  2. Constraints of the neutrino magnetic moment from white dwarf cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    1992-03-01

    The neutrino magnetic moment provides an additional energy emission in stars. It will accelerate the white dwarf cooling process and reduce the life time of the white dwarf, but it causes a conflict with the observation. Observational constraints are used to derive an upper limit for the neutrino magnetic moment: munu is about 4.0 x 10 exp -12 mu sub B.

  3. SED Signatures of Jovian Planets Around White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ignace, R

    2001-01-01

    The problem of detecting Jovian-sized planets orbiting White Dwarf stars is considered. Significant IR excesses result from warm Jupiters orbiting a White Dwarf of $T_{\\rm eff}=10000$ K at a distance of $\\sim 10^3$ White Dwarf radii (corresponding to $\\sim 10^2$ Jupiter radii or a few tenths of an AU) with an orbital period of $\\sim 100$ days. Such a planet will have a 10 micron flux density at its Wien peak that is comparable to the emission of the White Dwarf at that wavelength. Although the White Dwarf is much hotter than the planet, the planet will have peak brightness at the IR, well into the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the White Dwarf, plus Jovians are about 10 times larger than White Dwarfs, so there is a substantial gain in the planet to star brightness contrast as compared to planets around Main Sequence stars. In the solar neighborhood, there are 51 White Dwarf stars within 13 pc of the Sun. At 10 pc, the IR flux density of ``warm'' Jupiters (a few hundred Kelvin) will fall in the range 10--100 micro-Jan...

  4. A double white dwarf with a paradoxical origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Tauris, T. M.; Istrate, A. G.; Badenes, C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hermes, J. J.; Kengkriangkrai, S.; Kilic, M.; Koester, D.; Mullally, F.; Prasert, N.; Steeghs, D.; Thompson, S. E.; Thorstensen, J. R.

    2015-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of the 4.6-h-period double white dwarf SDSS J125733.63+542850.5. Combined with Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical data, these reveal that the massive white dwarf (secondary) has an effective temperature T2 = 13 030 ± 70 ± 150 K and a surface gravity log g2 = 8.73 ± 0.05 ± 0.05 (statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively), leading to a mass of M2 = 1.06 M?. The temperature of the extremely low-mass white dwarf (primary) is substantially lower at T1 = 6400 ± 37 ± 50 K, while its surface gravity is poorly constrained by the data. The relative flux contribution of the two white dwarfs across the spectrum provides a radius ratio of R1/R2 ? 4.2, which, together with evolutionary models, allows us to calculate the cooling ages. The secondary massive white dwarf has a cooling age of ˜1 Gyr, while that of the primary low-mass white dwarf is likely to be much longer, possibly ?5 Gyr, depending on its mass and the strength of chemical diffusion. These results unexpectedly suggest that the low-mass white dwarf formed long before the massive white dwarf, a puzzling discovery which poses a paradox for binary evolution.

  5. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs

  6. Spectropolarimetric Survey of Hydrogen-rich White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawka, A.; Vennes, S.; Schmidt, G. D.; Wickramasinghe, D. T.; Koch, R.

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 61 southern white dwarfs searching for magnetic fields using Zeeman spectropolarimetry. Our objective is to obtain a magnetic field distribution for these objects and, in particular, to find white dwarfs with weak fields. We found one possible candidate (WD 0310-688) that may have a weak magnetic field of -6.1+/-2.2 kG. Next, we determine the fraction and distribution of magnetic white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and investigate the probability of finding more of these objects based on the current incidence of magnetism in white dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun. We have also analyzed the spectra of the white dwarfs to obtain effective temperatures and surface gravities.

  7. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi; a-Berro, Enrique Garcí

    2010-01-01

    Abridged. White dwarf stars are the final evolutionary stage of the vast majority of stars, including our Sun. The study of white dwarfs has potential applications to different fields of astrophysics. In particular, they can be used as independent reliable cosmic clocks, and can also provide valuable information about the fundamental parameters of a wide variety of stellar populations, like our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. In addition, the high densities and temperatures characterizing white dwarfs allow to use these stars as cosmic laboratories for studying physical processes under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved in terrestrial laboratories. They can be used to constrain fundamental properties of elementary particles such as axions and neutrinos, and to study problems related to the variation of fundamental constants. In this work, we review the essentials of the physics of white dwarf stars. Special emphasis is placed on the physical processes that lead to the formation of white dwarfs ...

  8. White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field - What's New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiss, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Koester, D.; Bell, K.; Breedt, E.; Steeghs, D.

    2015-06-01

    As white dwarfs cool, they go through instability strips by exhibiting periodic variations about the mean intensity of their light. Asteroseismology can probe the interiors of white dwarfs and provide an insight on their compositions, rotation period, mass, temperature and luminosity, by studying their pulsations. We present our deep optical photometric survey: the Kepler-INT Survey. We find 43 new white dwarfs in the Kepler field, chosen on the basis of their colours. We also discovered nine new pulsating white dwarfs and present Kepler data for four of them. Rotational splitting is detected in all four stars, indicating spin periods of a few days, which confirms that the majority of white dwarfs are slow rotators.

  9. The incidence of magnetic fields in cool DZ white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hollands, Mark; Koester, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence of magnetic fields among the coolest white dwarfs. Their spectra usually do not exhibit any absorption lines as the bound-bound opacities of hydrogen and helium are vanishingly small. Probing these stars for the presence of magnetic fields is therefore extremely challenging. However, external pollution of a cool white dwarf by, e.g., planetary debris, leads to the appearance of metal lines in its spectral energy distribution. These lines provide a unique tool to identify and measure magnetism in the coolest and oldest white dwarfs in the Galaxy. We report the identification of 7 strongly metal polluted, cool (T_eff < 8000 K) white dwarfs with magnetic field strengths ranging from 1.9 to 9.6 MG. An analysis of our larger magnitude-limited sample of cool DZ yields a lower limit on the magnetic incidence of 13+/-4 percent, noticeably much higher than among hot DA white dwarfs.

  10. Freak waves in white dwarfs and magnetars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabry, R. [Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia); International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Moslem, W. M. [International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Shukla, P. K. [International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    We report properties of ion acoustic freak waves that propagate in a plasma composed of warm ions and ultrarelativistic electrons and positrons. The dynamics of the nonlinear freak waves is governed by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The possible region for the freak waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of white dwarfs and magnetars corona. It is found that for low wave number, the nonlinear ion-acoustic wave packets are structurally stable in magnetars corona than in white dwarfs. However, for large wave numbers the situation is opposite. The critical wave number threshold (k{sub c}), which indicates where the modulational instability sets in, is defined for both applications. It is seen that near to k{sub c} the freak wave amplitude becomes high, but it decreases whenever we stepped away from k{sub c}. For the wave numbers close to k{sub c}, the increase of the unperturbed density ratio of positrons-to-electrons ({beta}) would lead to increase the freak wave amplitude, but for larger wave numbers the amplitude decreases with the increase of {beta}.

  11. Simulating black hole white dwarf encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Stephan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hix, W. Raphael; Dan, M.

    2008-07-01

    The existence of supermassive black holes lurking in the centers of galaxies and of stellar binary systems containing a black hole with a few solar masses has been established beyond reasonable doubt. The idea that black holes of intermediate masses (˜1000M) may exist in globular star clusters has gained credence over recent years but no conclusive evidence has been established yet. An attractive feature of this hypothesis is the potential to not only disrupt solar-type stars but also compact white dwarf stars. In close encounters the white dwarfs can be sufficiently compressed to thermonuclearly explode. The detection of an underluminous thermonuclear explosion accompanied by a soft, transient X-ray signal would be compelling evidence for the presence of intermediate mass black holes in stellar clusters. In this paper we focus on the numerical techniques used to simulate the entire disruption process from the initial parabolic orbit, over the nuclear energy release during tidal compression, the subsequent ejection of freshly synthesized material and the formation process of an accretion disk around the black hole.

  12. Open Science Project in White Dwarf Research

    CERN Document Server

    Vornanen, Tommi

    2012-01-01

    I will propose a new way of advancing white dwarf research. Open science is a method of doing research that lets everyone who has something to say about the subject take part in the problem solving process. Already now, the amount of information we gather from observations, theory and modelling is too vast for any one individual to comprehend and turn into knowledge. And the amount of information just keeps growing in the future. A platform that promotes sharing of thoughts and ideas allows us to pool our collective knowledge of white dwarfs and get a clear picture of our research field. It will also make it possible for researchers in fields closely related to ours (AGB stars, planetary nebulae etc.) to join the scientific discourse. In the first stage this project would allow us to summarize what we know and what we don't, and what we should search for next. Later, it could grow into a large collaboration that would have the impact to, for example, suggest instrument requirements for future telescopes to sa...

  13. Asteroseismological Analysis of Rich Pulsating White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bischoff-Kim, A

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of the asteroseismological analysis of two rich DAVs, G38-29 and R808, recent targets of the Whole Earth Telescope. 20 periods between 413 s and 1089 s were found in G38-29's pulsation spectrum, while R808 is an even richer pulsator, with 24 periods between 404 s and 1144 s. Traditionally, DAVs that have been analyzed asteroseismologically have had fewer than half a dozen modes. Such a large number of modes presents a special challenge to white dwarf asteroseismology, but at the same time has the potential to yield a detailed picture of the interior chemical make-up of DAVs.We explore this possibility by varying the core profiles as well as the layer masses.We use an iterative grid search approach to find best fit models for G38-29 and R808 and comment on some of the intricacies of fine grid searches in white dwarf asteroseismology.

  14. WHITE DWARF/M DWARF BINARIES AS SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, MV ?> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and MV ?> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogenLuminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  15. WHITE DWARF/M DWARF BINARIES AS SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, J. Craig, E-mail: wheel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-10-20

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, M{sub V} {approx}> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and M{sub V} {approx}> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  16. Fingering Convection and its Consequences for Accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Vauclair, Gérard; Deal, Morgan; Wachlin, F. C.

    2015-06-01

    A number of white dwarf stars show absoption lines of heavy elements in their spectra. Many of them also exhibit infra-red excess in their spectral energy distribution. These observations prove that these white dwarfs are surrounded by an orbiting debris disk resulting from the disruption of rocky planetesimals, remnants of the primordial planetary system. Part of the material from the debris disk is accreted onto the white dwarfs, explaining the presence of heavy elements in their outer layers. Previous attempts to estimate the accretion rates have overlooked the importance of the fingering convection. The fingering convection is an instability triggered by the accumulation in the white dwarf outer layers of material heavier than the underlying H-rich (for the DA) or the He-rich (for the DB) composition. The fingering convection induces a deep mixing of the accreted material. Our preliminary simulations of the fingering convection show that the effect may be important in DA white dwarfs. The accretion rates needed in order to reproduce the observed heavy element abundances exceed by order of magnitudes the accretion rates estimated when this extra-mixing is ignored. By contrast, in the cases of the DB white dwarfs that we have considered in our simulations the fingering convection either does not occur or has very little effects on the derived accretion rates. We have undertaken a systematic exploration of the consequences of the fingering convection in accreting white dwarfs.

  17. Search for the coolest white dwarfs in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan, S; Hodgkin, S; Pinfield, D; Hornillos, D Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    A number of so-called ultra-cool white dwarfs have been detected in different surveys so far. However, based on anecdotal evidence it is believed that most or all of these ultra-cool white dwarfs are low-mass products of binary evolution and thus not representative for the oldest white dwarfs. Their low mass causes relatively high luminosity making them the first cool white dwarfs detected in relatively shallow surveys. Deeper observations are needed for the oldest, high mass white dwarfs with the longest cooling times. We report results of an ongoing project that combines deep IR and optical data. This combination plus proper motion information will allow an unambiguous identification of very cool white dwarfs, since the spectral energy distributions are very different from other types of stellar objects. The atmospheric parameters that can be derived from the spectral energy distributions together with the proper motions inferred from the IR data can be used to construct the white dwarf luminosity functions...

  18. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    van Oirschot, Pim; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G A; Helmi, Amina; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~ 3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference w...

  19. Isochrones and Luminosity Functions for Old White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A; Straniero, O; Fahlman, G G; Richer, Harvey B.; Hansen, Brad; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, Alessandro; Straniero, Oscar; Fahlman, Gregory G.

    1999-01-01

    Using a new grid of models of cooling white dwarfs, we calculate isochrones and luminosity functions in the Johnson-Kron/Cousins and HST filter sets for systems containing old white dwarfs. These new models incorporate a non-grey atmosphere which is necessary to properly describe the effects of molecular opacity at the cool temperatures of old white dwarfs. The various functions calculated and extensively tabulated and plotted are meant to be as utilitarian as possible for observers so all results are listed in quantities that observers will obtain. The tables and plots developed should eventually prove critical in interpreting the results of HST's Advanced Camera observations of the oldest white dwarfs in nearby globular clusters, in understanding the results of searches for old white dwarfs in the Galactic halo, and in determining ages for star clusters of all ages using white dwarfs. As a practical application we demonstrate the use of these results by deriving the white dwarf cooling age of the old Galact...

  20. Pulsation in carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs: A new chapter in white dwarf asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Fontaine, G; Dufour, P; Green, E M; Liebert, J

    2009-01-01

    We present some of the results of a survey aimed at exploring the asteroseismological potential of the newly-discovered carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs. We show that, in certains regions of parameter space, carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs may drive low-order gravity modes. We demonstrate that our theoretical results are consistent with the recent exciting discovery of luminosity variations in SDSS J1426+5752 and some null results obtained by a team of scientists at McDonald Observatory. We also present follow-up photometric observations carried out by ourselves at the Mount Bigelow 1.6-m telescope using the new Mont4K camera. The results of follow-up spectroscopic observations at the MMT are also briefly reported, including the surprising discovery that SDSS J1426+5752 is not only a pulsating star but that it is also a magnetic white dwarf with a surface field near 1.2 MG. The discovery of $g$-mode pulsations in SDSS J1426+5752 is quite significant in itself as it opens a fourth asteroseismological "window", af...

  1. Constructing Synchronously Rotating Double White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Even, Wesley

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a self-consistent-field technique similar to the one described by Hachisu, Eriguchi, & Nomoto (1986b) that can be used to construct detailed force-balanced models of synchronously rotating, double white dwarf (DWD) binaries that have a wide range of total masses, mass ratios, and separations. In addition to providing a computational tool that can be used to provide quiet initial starts for dynamical studies of the onset of mass transfer in DWD systems, we show that this SCF technique can be used to construct model sequences that mimic the last portion of the detached inspiral phase of DWD binary evolutions, and semi-detached model sequences that mimic a phase of conservative mass transfer.

  2. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 105-106 years.

  3. The white dwarf cooling sequence in NGC 6791

    OpenAIRE

    Bedin, L. R.; Salaris, M.; Piotto, G; King, I. R.; Anderson, J.; Cassisi, S.; Momany, Y.; #, ||

    2005-01-01

    In the old, populous, and metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791 we have used deep HST/ACS images to track the white dwarf cooling sequence down to m_F606W~28.5. The white dwarf luminosity function shows a well defined peak at m_F606W~27.4, and a bending to the blue in the color--magnitude diagram. If this peak corresponds to the end of the white dwarf cooling sequence the comparison with theoretical isochrones provides a cluster age estimate of ~2.4 Gyr, in sharp contrast with th...

  4. Kinematics and Velocity Ellipsoid of the Solar Neighborhood White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Elsanhoury, W H; Abdel-Rahman, H I

    2015-01-01

    To determine the velocity ellipsoid of the solar neighborhood white dwarfs, we use the space velocity components of stars. Two samples of white dwarfs are used, 20 pc and 25 pc samples. Beside the two main samples, the solar velocity and velocity dispersions are calculated for the four subsamples, namely DA, non - DA, hot and cool white dwarfs. Comparison between the results of 20 pc sample and those of 25 pc sample gives good agreement, while the comparison between the other subsamples gives bad agreement. Dependence of the velocity dispersions and solar velocity on the chemical composition and effective temperatures are discussed.

  5. A low-temperature companion to a white dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, E. E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared object located about 120 AU from the white dwarf GD165 has been discovered. With the exception of the possible brown dwarf companion to Giclas 29-38 reported last year, the companion to GD165 is the coolest (2100 K) dwarf star ever reported and, according to some theoretical models, it should be a substellar brown dwarf with a mass between 0.06 and 0.08 solar mass. These results, together with newly discovered low-mass stellar companions to white dwarfs, change the investigation of very low-mass stars from the study of a few chance objects to that of a statistical distribution. In particular, it appears that very low-mass stars and perhaps even brown dwarfs could be quite common in the Galaxy.

  6. General Relativistic White Dwarfs and Their Astrophysical Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We consider applications of general relativistic uniformly-rotating white dwarfs to several astrophysical phenomena related to the spin-up and the spin-down epochs and to delayed type Ia supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, where we estimate the "spinning down" lifetime due to magnetic-dipole braking. In addition, we describe the physical properties of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars as massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs. Particularly we consider one of the so-called low-magnetic-field magnetars SGR 0418+5729 as a massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarf and give bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia, and magnetic field by requiring the general relativistic uniformly-rotating configurations to be stable.

  7. A Young White Dwarf with an Infrared Excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Pantoja, B.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Su, K. Y. L.; Meng, H. Y. A.

    2015-06-01

    Using observations of Spitzer/IRAC, we report the serendipitous discovery of excess infrared emission from a single white dwarf PG 0010+280. At a temperature of 27,220 K and a cooling age of 16 Myr, it is the hottest and youngest white dwarf to display an excess at 3–8 ?m. The infrared excess can be fit by either an opaque dust disk within the tidal radius of the white dwarf or a 1300 K blackbody, possibly from an irradiated substellar object or a re-heated giant planet. PG 0010+280 has two unique properties that are different from white dwarfs with a dust disk: (i) relatively low emission at 8 ?m and (ii) non-detection of heavy elements in its atmosphere from high-resolution spectroscopic observations with Keck/HIRES. The origin of the infrared excess remains unclear.

  8. General relativistic white dwarfs and their astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    We consider applications of general relativistic uniformly-rotating white dwarfs to several astrophysical phenomena related to the spin-up and the spin-down epochs and to delayed type Ia supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, where we estimate the "spinning down" lifetime due to magnetic-dipole braking. In addition, we describe the physical properties of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars as massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs. Particularly we consider one of the so-called low-magnetic-field magnetars SGR 0418+5729 as a massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarf and give bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia, and magnetic field by requiring the general relativistic uniformly-rotating configurations to be stable.

  9. General relativistic white dwarfs and their astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider applications of general relativistic uniformly-rotating white dwarfs to several astrophysical phenomena related to the spin-up and the spin-down epochs and to delayed type Ia supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, where we estimate the 'spinning down' lifetime due to magnetic-dipole braking. In addition, we describe the physical properties of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars as massive rapidly-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs. Particularly we consider one of the so-called low-magnetic-field magnetars SGR 0418+5729 as a massive rapidly-rotating highly- magnetized white dwarf and give bounds for the mass, radius, moment of inertia, and magnetic field by requiring the general relativistic uniformly rotating configurations to be stable.

  10. A Young White Dwarf with an Infrared Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, S; Pantoja, B; Klein, B; Zuckerman, B; Su, K Y L; Meng, H Y A

    2015-01-01

    Using observations of Spitzer/IRAC, we report the serendipitous discovery of excess infrared emission from a single white dwarf PG 0010+280. At a temperature of 27,220 K and a cooling age of 16 Myr, it is the hottest and youngest white dwarf to display an excess at 3-8 $\\mu$m. The infrared excess can be fit by either an opaque dust disk within the tidal radius of the white dwarf or a 1300 K blackbody, possibly from an irradiated substellar object or a re-heated giant planet. PG 0010+280 has two unique properties that are different from white dwarfs with a dust disk: (i) relatively low emission at 8 $\\mu$m and (ii) non-detection of heavy elements in its atmosphere from high-resolution spectroscopic observations with Keck/HIRES. The origin of the infrared excess remains unclear.

  11. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, Leandro G.; Co?rsico, Alejandro H.; Isern, Jordi; A-berro, Enrique Garci?

    2010-01-01

    Abridged. White dwarf stars are the final evolutionary stage of the vast majority of stars, including our Sun. The study of white dwarfs has potential applications to different fields of astrophysics. In particular, they can be used as independent reliable cosmic clocks, and can also provide valuable information about the fundamental parameters of a wide variety of stellar populations, like our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. In addition, the high densities and temper...

  12. QUIESCENT NUCLEAR BURNING IN LOW-METALLICITY WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Althaus, Leandro G. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); García-Berro, Enrique [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades 5, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain)

    2013-09-20

    We discuss the impact of residual nuclear burning in the cooling sequences of hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs with very low metallicity progenitors (Z = 0.0001). These cooling sequences are appropriate for the study of very old stellar populations. The results presented here are the product of self-consistent, fully evolutionary calculations. Specifically, we follow the evolution of white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence through all the evolutionary phases, namely the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. This is done for the most relevant range of main-sequence masses, covering the most usual interval of white dwarf masses—from 0.53 M {sub ?} to 0.83 M {sub ?}. Due to the low metallicity of the progenitor stars, white dwarfs are born with thicker hydrogen envelopes, leading to more intense hydrogen burning shells as compared with their solar metallicity counterparts. We study the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important and find that nuclear energy sources play a key role during long periods of time, considerably increasing the cooling times from those predicted by standard white dwarf models. In particular, we find that for this metallicity and for white dwarf masses smaller than about 0.6 M {sub ?}, nuclear reactions are the main contributor to the stellar luminosity for luminosities as low as log (L/L {sub ?}) ? –3.2. This, in turn, should have a noticeable impact in the white dwarf luminosity function of low-metallicity stellar populations.

  13. The ages of very cool hydrogen-rich white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Salaris, M.; Garcia-berro, E.; Hernanz, M.; Isern, J.; Saumon, D.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is essentially a cooling process that depends primarily on the energy stored in their degenerate cores and on the transparency of their envelopes. In this paper we compute accurate cooling sequences for carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with hydrogen dominated atmospheres for the full range of masses of interest. For this purpose we use the most accurate available physical inputs for both the equation of state and opacities of the envelope and for the ...

  14. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference with a bottom-heavy IMF is small. A burst of star formation 13 Gyr ago fits slightly better than a star formation burst 10 Gyr ago and also slightly better than continuous star formation 10-13 Gyr ago. Gaia will be the first instument to constrain the bright end of the field halo WDLF, where contributions from binary WDs are considerable. Many of these will have He cores, of which a handful have atypical surface gravities (log g 0 in our standard model for WD cooling. These so called pre-WDs, if observed, can help us to constrain white dwarf cooling models and might teach us something about the fraction of halo stars that reside in binaries. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Simplified Hydrostatic Carbon Burning in White Dwarf Interiors

    OpenAIRE

    Fo?rster, F.; Lesaffre, P.; Podsiadlowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce two simplified nuclear networks that can be used in hydrostatic carbon burning reactions occurring in white dwarf interiors. They model the relevant nuclear reactions in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (COWDs) approaching ignition in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors, including the effects of the main e-captures and \\beta-decays that drive the convective Urca process. They are based on studies of a detailed nuclear network compiled by the authors and are defined ...

  16. Time dependent white dwarf radiative shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the oscillatory instability of white dwarf radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv. We extend previous works by examining spherical shocks dominated by: (1) bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling; and (2) bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling when the effects of electron thermal conduction are not negligible. The results of our calculations allow us to delineate stability regimes as a function of the dwarf mass, M/sub d/, and the accretion rate, M0. We parameterize M0 in terms of the optical depth to electron scattering through the preshock flow, tau/sub es/. In the Compton cooling and bremsstrahlung case, the shocks are unstable to low order oscillation modes if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.7 +- 0.1) M/sub solar/ for tau/sub es/ = 14, and if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.9 +- 0.1) M/sub solar/ for tau/sub es/ = 1. When electron thermal conduction is added, low order oscillation modes are unstable only if M/sub d/ less than or equal to (0.3 +- 0.1) M/sub sun mass/. The unstable modes have approximate oscillation periods of 1.1 tau/sub br/ and 0.63 tau/sub br/, where tau/sub br/ is the bremsstrahlung cooling time scale of the postshock plasma. Our results can be scaled to magnetically funneled accretion flows as long as cyclotron emission contributes less than about 10% of the postshock cooling. 14 refs., 1 fig

  17. A double white dwarf with a paradoxical origin?

    CERN Document Server

    Bours, M C P; Gaensicke, B T; Tauris, T M; Istrate, A G; Badenes, C; Dhillon, V S; Gal-Yam, A; Hermes, J J; Kengkriangkrai, S; Kilic, M; Koester, D; Mullally, F; Prasert, N; Steeghs, D; Thompson, S E; Thorstensen, J R

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of the 4.6 h period double white dwarf SDSS J125733.63+542850.5. Combined with Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical data, these reveal that the massive white dwarf (secondary) has an effective temperature T2 = 13030 +/- 70 +/- 150 K and a surface gravity log g2 = 8.73 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.05 (statistical and systematic uncertainties respectively), leading to a mass of M2 = 1.06 Msun. The temperature of the extremely low-mass white dwarf (primary) is substantially lower at T1 = 6400 +/- 37 +/- 50 K, while its surface gravity is poorly constrained by the data. The relative flux contribution of the two white dwarfs across the spectrum provides a radius ratio of R1/R2 = 4.2, which, together with evolutionary models, allows us to calculate the cooling ages. The secondary massive white dwarf has a cooling age of about 1 Gyr, while that of the primary low-mass white dwarf is likely to be much longer, possibly larger than 5 Gyrs, depending on its mass and the strength of chemical di...

  18. Optical spectroscopy of candidate Alpha Persei white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Geier, S; Lodieu, N; Hambly, N C

    2015-01-01

    As part of an investigation into the high mass end of the initial mass-final mass relation we performed a search for new white dwarf members of the nearby (172.4 pc), young (80-90 Myr) $\\alpha$ Persei open star cluster. The photometric and astrometric search using the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and SuperCOSMOS sky surveys discovered 14 new white dwarf candidates. We have obtained medium resolution optical spectra of the brightest 11 candidates using the William Herschel Telescope and confirmed that while 7 are DA white dwarfs, 3 are DB white dwarfs and one is an sdOB star, only three have cooling ages within the cluster age, and from their position on the initial mass-final mass relation, it is likely none are cluster members. This result is disappointing, as recent work on the cluster mass function suggests that there should be at least one white dwarf member, even at this young age. It may be that any white dwarf members of $\\alpha$ Per are hidden within binary systems, as is the case in the Hyades clus...

  19. ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF COMPACT WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newfound prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, MHe ?) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (Menv ? 10–3 M?) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 106 yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight the fact that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H-burning stage.

  20. ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF COMPACT WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.edu, E-mail: jdrsteinfadt@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    The newfound prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, M{sub He} < 0.2 M{sub Sun }) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (M{sub env} {approx} 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 10{sup 6} yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight the fact that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H-burning stage.

  1. Hot DQ White Dwarfs: Something Different

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, P; Liebert, J; Schmidt, G D; Behara, N

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of all the known Hot DQ white dwarfs in the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) recently found to have carbon dominated atmospheres. Our spectroscopic and photometric analysis reveals that these objects all have effective temperatures between ~18,000 and 24,000 K. The surface composition is found to be completely dominated by carbon, as revealed by the absence of Hbeta and HeI 4471 lines (or determination of trace amount in a few cases). We find that the surface gravity of all objects but one seems to be ''normal'' and around log g = 8.0 while one is likely near log g = 9.0. The presence of a weak magnetic field is directly detected by spectropolarimetry in one object and is suspected in two others. We propose that these strange stars could be cooled down versions of the weird PG1159 star H1504+65 and form a new family of hydrogen and helium deficient objects following the post-AGB phase. Finally, we present the results of full nonadiabatic calculations de...

  2. Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kissin, Yevgeni

    2015-01-01

    The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. We find that the downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope can, by itself, trigger dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary in an isolated intermediate-mass star. A solar-mass star must receive additional angular momentum following its rotational braking on the main sequence, either by a merger with a planet, or by tidal interaction in a stellar binary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: i) the outer third of a ~0.55$M_\\odot$ WD is processed during the shell burning phases of the progenitor; ii) escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and iii) intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a rela...

  3. White dwarf cooling and large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories of fundamental interactions with large extra dimensions have recently become very popular. Astrophysical bounds from the Sun, red giants, and SN 1987a have already been derived by other authors for the theory proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. In this paper we consider the G117-B15A pulsating white dwarf (ZZ Ceti star) for which the secular rate at which the period of its fundamental mode increases has been accurately measured and claimed that this mode of G117-B15A is perhaps the most stable oscillation ever recorded in the optical band. Because an additional channel of energy loss (Kaluza-Klein gravitons) would speed up the cooling rate, one is able to use the aforementioned stability to derive a bound on theories with large extra dimensions. Within the framework of the theory with large extra dimensions proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali we find the lower bound on string compactification scale Ms>14.3 TeV/c2 which is more stringent than solar or red-giant bounds

  4. Discovery of an ultramassive pulsating white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, J J; Castanheira, Barbara G; Gianninas, A; Winget, D E; Montgomery, M H; Brown, Warren R; Harrold, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    We announce the discovery of the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere (DA) white dwarf (WD) ever discovered, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a 12,030 +/- 210 K WD with a log(g) = 9.08 +/- 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20 +/- 0.03 Msun. Stellar evolution models indicate that the progenitor of such a high-mass WD endured a stable carbon-burning phase, producing an oxygen-neon-core WD. The discovery of pulsations in GD 518 thus offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a WD with a possible oxygen-neon core. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425-595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7%, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, which exhibit non-radial g-mode pulsations driven by a hydrogen partial ionization zone. Successfully unraveling both the total mass and core ...

  5. Two component charged condensate in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the formation of a condensate of charged spin-0 nuclei inside white dwarf cores, studied in [G. Gabadadze, R.A. Rosen, JCAP 0810 (2008) 030, (arXiv:0806.3692)] and [G. Gabadadze, D. Pirtskhalava, JCAP 0905 (2009) 017, (arXiv:0904.4267)], is pursued further. It has been shown, for cores composed mainly of one element (helium or carbon), that after condensation phonons become massive and the specific heat drops by about two orders of magnitude. In this Letter we extend that analysis by considering the coexistence of the nuclei of both types (helium and carbon), whose condensation points are generically different. An effective field theory is developed to describe the system when both elements are condensed. The spectrum of fluctuations of this two component charged condensate possesses a collective massless mode with ??k2. Assuming that the fraction of the less abundant element is greater than ?1/100, the thermal history changes as follows: There is a softer discontinuity in the average specific heat after the condensation of first sector, resulting in slower cooling and a milder drop in luminosity function. The specific heat remains almost constant until the condensation of the second sector, then starts to declines as T3/2.

  6. Two Component Charged Condensate in White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of the formation of a condensate of charged spin-0 nuclei inside white dwarf cores, studied in arXiv:0806.3692 and arXiv:0904.4267, is pursued further. It has been shown, for cores composed mainly of one element (Helium or Carbon), that after condensation phonons become massive and the specific heat drops by about two orders of magnitude. In this note we extend that analysis by considering the coexistence of the nuclei of both types (Helium and Carbon), whose condensation points are generically different. An effective field theory is developed to describe the system when both elements are condensed. The spectrum of fluctuations of this two component charged condensate possesses a collective massless mode with $\\omega \\propto {\\bf k}^2$. Assuming that the fraction of the less abundant element is greater than about 1/100, the thermal history changes as follows: There is a softer discontinuity in the average specific heat after the condensation of first sector, resulting in slower cooling and a m...

  7. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s–1, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M ?; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M ?. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ?3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M ?) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  8. White dwarf masses in cataclysmic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnen, T P G; Schreiber, M R

    2015-01-01

    The white dwarf (WD) mass distribution of cataclysmic variables (CVs) has recently been found to dramatically disagree with the predictions of the standard CV formation model. The high mean WD mass among CVs is not imprinted in the currently observed sample of CV progenitors and cannot be attributed to selection effects. Two possibilities have been put forward: either the WD grows in mass during CV evolution, or in a significant fraction of cases, CV formation is preceded by a (short) phase of thermal time-scale mass transfer (TTMT) in which the WD gains a sufficient amount of mass. We investigate if either of these two scenarios can bring theoretical predictions and observations into agreement. We employed binary population synthesis models to simulate the present intrinsic CV population. We incorporated aspects specific to CV evolution such as an appropriate mass-radius relation of the donor star and a more detailed prescription for the critical mass ratio for dynamically unstable mass transfer. We also imp...

  9. Accreting White Dwarfs as Universal Accretion Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Christian

    Accreting white dwarfs (AWDs) are numerous, bright and nearby, making them excellent laboratories for the study of accretion physics. Since their accretion flows are unaffected by relativistic effects or ultra-strong magnetic fields, they provide a crucial "control" group for efforts to understand more complex/compact systems, such as accreting neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). Here, I will review recent work on AWDs, which has revealed that these superficially simple systems actually exhibit the full range of accretion-related phenomenology seen in accreting NSs and BHs. For example, (i) AWDs undergo mass loss in the form of both disk winds and radio jets; (ii) their disk winds are only seen in high-Mdot states, similar to what is observed in accreting BHs; (iii) they exhibit (possibly hysteretic) outbursts produced by disk instabilities, as also seen in NS and BH transients; and (iv) they produce accretion-induced stochastic variability ("flickering") that exhibits the same rms-flux relation as observed in low-mass X-ray binaries and AGN. Based on this rich and shared phenomenology, it is reasonable to hope that much of accretion physics is universal. In this context, AWDs hold great promise as observational testing grounds for attempts to model and understand these physics.

  10. TIDAL INTERACTIONS IN MERGING WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q 1 ? 7 x 1010 and Q 2 ? 2 x 107, for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q 1 for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  11. New White Dwarf Stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Kleinman, Scot J; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Nitta, Atsuko; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Costa, José Eduardo da Silveira; Külebi, Baybars; Jordan, Stefan; Dufour, Patrick; Giommi, Paolo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 9 088 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spectra on helium atmosphere white dwarfs, 71 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 171 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 327 continuum dominated DCs, 397 metal polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium dominated white dwarfs, 647 subdwarfs and 6887 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars.

  12. White Dwarf - Red Dwarf Systems Resolved with the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Full Snapshot Survey Results

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Wachter, S

    2010-01-01

    {Abrigded} Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets which remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of y...

  13. Dissecting accretion and outflows in accreting white dwarf binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Martino, D; Balman, S; Bernardini, F; Bianchini, A; Bode, M; Bonnet-Bidaud, J -M; Falanga, M; Greiner, J; Groot, P; Hernanz, M; Israel, G; Jose, J; Motch, C; Mouchet, M; Norton, A J; Nucita, A; Orio, M; Osborne, J; Ramsay, G; Rodriguez-Gil, P; Scaringi, S; Schwope, A; Traulsen, I; Tamburini, F

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of accreting white dwarfs. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  14. A Search for Fine Wines: Discovering Close Red Dwarf-White Dwarf Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Mark; Finch, C. T.; Hambly, N. C.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.; Riedel, A. R.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    Like fine wines, stars come in both red and white varieties. Here we present initial results of the Fine Wines Project that targets red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. The two scientific goals of Fine Wines are (1) to develop methods to estimate ages for red dwarfs based on the cooling ages of the white dwarfs, and (2) to identify suitable pairs for dynamical mass determinations of white dwarfs to probe their interior structures. Here we focus on the search for Fine Wines, including sample selection, elimination of false positives, and initial reconnaissance. The sample was extracted via color-color plots from a pool of more than 30,000 proper motion systems examined during the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) and UCAC3 Proper Motion (UPM) surveys. The initial sample of 75 best candidates is being observed for BVRI photometry and 3500-9500 A spectroscopy to confirm whether or not the systems are red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. Early results indicate that roughly 50% of the candidates selected are indeed Fine Wine systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST 09-08402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  15. White Dwarf - Red Dwarf Systems Resolved with the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Full Snapshot Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets which remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) am...

  16. The First Mid-Infrared Spectra of Cool White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Mullally, Fergal; Reach, William T; von Hippel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    We present the first mid-infrared spectra of two cool white dwarfs obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We also present 3.5-8 micron photometry for 19 cool white dwarfs with 5000K < Teff < 9000K. We perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis of these white dwarfs by fitting their UBVRIJHK and Spitzer photometry with state-of-the-art model atmospheres, and demonstrate that the optical and infrared spectral energy distributions of cool white dwarfs are well reproduced by our grid of models. Our mid-IR photometry and 7.5-14.5 micron spectrum of WD0018-267 are consistent with a Teff = 5720K, pure hydrogen white dwarf model atmosphere. On the other hand, LHS 1126 remains peculiar with significant mid-IR flux deficits in all IRAC bands and a featureless spectrum in the 5.2-7.5 micron range. Even though this deficit is attributed to collision induced absorption (CIA) due to molecular hydrogen, the shape of the deficit cannot be explained with current CIA opacity calculations. The infrared portion of th...

  17. Gravitational settling of 22Ne and white dwarf evolution

    CERN Document Server

    García--Berro, E; Córsico, A H; Isern, J

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of the sedimentation of the trace element 22Ne in the cooling of white dwarfs. In contrast with previous studies, which adopted a simplified treatment of the effects of 22Ne sedimentation, this is done self-consistently for the first time, using an up-to-date stellar evolutionary code in which the diffusion equation is coupled with the full set of equations of stellar evolution. Due the large neutron excess of 22Ne, this isotope rapidly sediments in the interior of the white dwarf. Although we explore a wide range of parameters, we find that using the most reasonable assumptions concerning the diffusion coefficient and the physical state of the white dwarf interior the delay introduced by the ensuing chemical differentation is minor for a typical 0.6 Msun white dwarf. For more massive white dwarfs, say M_Wd about 1.0 Msun, the delay turns out to be considerably larger. These results are in qualitatively good accord with those obtained in previous studies, but we find that the magnitude of...

  18. Evolutionary calculations of phase separation in crystallizing white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M H; Winget, D E; Wood, M A

    1999-01-01

    We present an exploration of the significance of Carbon/Oxygen phase separation in white dwarf stars in the context of self-consistent evolutionary calculations. Because phase separation can potentially increase the calculated ages of the oldest white dwarfs, it can affect the age of the Galactic disk as derived from the downturn in the white dwarf luminosity function. We find that the largest possible increase in ages due to phase separation is 1.5 Gyr, with a most likely value of approximately 0.6 Gyr, depending on the parameters of our white dwarf models. The most important factors influencing the size of this delay are the total stellar mass, the initial composition profile, and the phase diagram assumed for crystallization. We find a maximum age delay in models with masses of 0.6 solar masses, which is near the peak in the observed white dwarf mass distribution. We find that varying the opacities (via the metallicity) has little effect on the calculated age delays. In the context of Galactic evolution, a...

  19. A Multi-Survey Approach to White Dwarf Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Sayres, Conor; Bergeron, P; Dufour, P; Davenport, James R A; AlSayyad, Yusra; Tofflemire, Benjamin M

    2012-01-01

    By selecting astrometric and photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the L{\\'e}pine & Shara Proper Motion North Catalog (LSPM-North), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the USNO-B1.0 catalog, we use a succession of methods to isolate white dwarf candidates for follow-up spectroscopy. Our methods include: reduced proper motion diagram cuts, color cuts, and atmospheric model adherence. We present spectroscopy of 26 white dwarfs obtained from the CTIO 4m and APO 3.5m telescopes. Additionally, we confirm 28 white dwarfs with spectra available in the SDSS DR7 database but unpublished elsewhere, presenting a total of 54 WDs. We label one of these as a recovered WD while the remaining 53 are new discoveries. We determine physical parameters and estimate distances based on atmospheric model analyses. Three new white dwarfs are modeled to lie within 25 pc. Two additional white dwarfs are confirmed to be metal-polluted (DAZ). Follow-up time series photometry confirms another object to be ...

  20. Signs of a faint disc population at polluted white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bergfors, Carolina; Dufour, Patrick; Rocchetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Observations of atmospheric metals and dust discs around white dwarfs provide important clues to the fate of terrestrial planetary systems around intermediate mass stars. We present Spitzer IRAC observations of 15 metal polluted white dwarfs to investigate the occurrence and physical properties of circumstellar dust created by the disruption of planetary bodies. We find subtle infrared excess emission consistent with warm dust around KUV 15519+1730 and HS 2132+0941, and weaker excess around the DZ white dwarf G245-58, which, if real, makes it the coolest white dwarf known to exhibit a 3.6 micron excess and the first DZ star with a bright disc. All together our data corroborate a picture where 1) discs at metal-enriched white dwarfs are commonplace and most escape detection in the infrared (possibly as narrow rings), 2) the discs are long lived, having lifetimes on the order of 10^6 yr or longer, and 3) the frequency of bright, infrared detectable discs decreases with age, on a timescale of roughly 500 Myr, su...

  1. On high proper motion white dwarfs from photographic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Reylé, C; Creze, M; Reyle, Celine; Robin, Annie C.; Creze, Michel

    2001-01-01

    The interpretation of high proper motion white dwarfs detected by Oppenheimer et al (2001) was the start of a tough controversy. While the discoverers identify a large fraction of their findings as dark halo members, others interpret the same sample as essentially made of disc and/or thick disc stars. We use the comprehensive description of galactic stellar populations provided by the "Besancon" model to produce a realistic simulation of Oppenheimer et al. data, including all observational selections and calibration biases. The conclusion is unambiguous: Thick disc white dwarfs resulting from ordinary hypotheses on the local density and kinematics are sufficient to explain the observed objects, there is no need for halo white dwarfs. This conclusion is robust to reasonable changes in model ingredients. The main cause of the misinterpretation seems to be that the velocity distribution of a proper motion selected star sample is severely biased in favour of high velocities. This has been neglected in previous an...

  2. Deriving Precise Ages of Field White Dwarfs using Bayesian Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Aaron; Hippel, von; Si, Shijing; van Dyk, David; Montgomery, Michael; Robinson, Elliot; Stenning, David; Stein, Nathan; Kraczek, Elizabeth Jeffery; Jefferys, William H.; O'Malley, Erin

    2015-06-01

    We apply a self-consistent and robust Bayesian statistical approach along with modern model ingredients to determine the posterior age distributions for nine DC field white dwarfs. Our technique requires only quality optical and near-IR photometry to derive ages with uncertainties that range from as little as 4% to as much as 27%, depending on the star. We use these results to demonstrate the non-Gaussian nature of white dwarf age posteriors and to compare the effect on ages of two modern initial final mass relations. We additionally predict the capabilities of our Bayesian technique in the GAIA era, when we will possess distances accurate to 1-2%for thousands of white dwarfs.

  3. Understanding the Cool DA White Dwarf, G29-38

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinman, S J; Winget, D E; Clemens, J C; Bradley, P A; Kanaan, A; Provencal, J L; Claver, C F; Watson, T K; Yanagida, K; Nitta, A; Dixson, J S; Wood, M A; Grauer, A D; Hine, B P; Fontaine, G; Liebert, J; Sullivan, D J; Wickramasinghe, D T; Marar, K; Seetha, S; Ashoka, B N; Meistas, E; Leibowitz, E M; Moskalik, P; Krzesínski, J; Solheim, J E; Bruvold, A; Kurtz, D W; Warner, B; Martínez, P; Vauclair, G; Dolez, N; Chevreton, M; Barstow, M A; Kepler, S O; Giovannini, O; Augusteijn, T; Hansen, C J; Kawaler, S D; Liebert, James; Martinez, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The white dwarfs are promising laboratories for the study of cosmochronology and stellar evolution. Through observations of the pulsating white dwarfs, we can measure their internal structures and compositions, critical to understanding post main sequence evolution, along with their cooling rates, allowing us to calibrate their ages directly. The most important set of white dwarf variables to measure are the oldest of the pulsators, the cool DAVs, which have not previously been explored through asteroseismology due to their complexity and instability. Through a time-series photometry data set spanning ten years, we explore the pulsation spectrum of the cool DAV, G29-38 and find an underlying structure of 19 (not including multiplet components) normal-mode, probably l=1 pulsations amidst an abundance of time variability and linear combination modes. Modelling results are incomplete, but we suggest possible starting directions and discuss probable values for the stellar mass and hydrogen layer size. For the fir...

  4. Evaporation and Accretion of Extrasolar Comets Following White Dwarf Kicks

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of observational evidence suggest that white dwarfs receive small birth kicks due to anisotropic mass loss. If other stars possess extrasolar analogues to the Solar Oort cloud, the orbits of comets in such clouds will be scrambled by white dwarf natal kicks. Although most comets will be unbound, some will be placed on low angular momentum orbits vulnerable to sublimation or tidal disruption. The dusty debris from these comets will manifest itself as a debris disk temporarily visible around newborn white dwarfs; examples of such disks may already have been seen in the Helix Nebula, and around several other young WDs. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will distinguish this hypothesis from alternatives such as a dynamically excited Kuiper Belt analogue. If interpreted as indeed being cometary in origin, the observation that >15% of young WDs possess such disks provides indirect evidence that low mass gas giants (thought necessary to produce an Oort cloud) are common in the out...

  5. Atypical Thermonuclear Supernovae from Tidally Crushed White Dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suggestive evidence has accumulated that intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) exist in some globular clusters. Some stars will inevitably wander sufficiently close to the hole to suffer a tidal disruption. IMBHs can disrupt not only solar-type stars but also compact white dwarf stars. We investigate the fate of white dwarfs that approach the hole close enough to be disrupted and compressed to such an extent that explosive nuclear burning is triggered. Based on a precise modeling of the gas dynamics together with the nuclear reactions, it is argued that thermonuclear ignition is a natural outcome for white dwarfs of all masses passing well within the tidal radius. A good fraction of the star is accreted, yielding high luminosities that persist for up to a year. A peculiar, underluminous thermonuclear explosion accompanied by a soft X-ray transient signal would, if detected, be a compelling testimony for the presence of an IMBH

  6. Tidal Resonance in White Dwarf-Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Y.; Blandford, R. D.

    2000-12-01

    Recent X-ray evidence supports the existence of intermediate mass ( ~ 103--105 Msun) black holes in galaxies, and white dwarfs are known to be common endpoints of stellar evolution. Thus, in general, encounters between intermediate mass black holes and white dwarfs seem unavoidable, and binaries might be formed through gravitational bremsstrahlung or tidal capture. We consider the subsequent orbital evolution in the Newtonian approximation before tidal disruption. The orbit will evolve rapidly due to gravitational radiation and there will be resonances with internal normal modes of the white dwarf. The modes will in turn affect the orbital evolution through back-reaction. The mode amplitudes may become nonlinear and heat the star through damping or breaking. This could possibly result in a type Ia supernova explosion in a relativistically deep gravitational well. Possible implications of this scenario will be suggested.

  7. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kepler, S. O.; García-Berro, E.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (??) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pi dot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pi dot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of ?? lesssim 10-11 ?B. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  8. An Update on the Quirks of Pulsating, Accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Hermes, J. J.; Toloza, Odette

    2015-06-01

    At the 18th European White Dwarf Workshop, we reported results for several dwarf novae containing pulsating white dwarfs that had undergone an outburst in 2006-2007. HST and optical data on the white dwarfs in GW Lib, EQ Lyn and V455 And all showed different behaviors in the years following their outbursts. We continued to follow these objects for the last 2 years, providing timescales of 6-7 years past outburst. All three reached their optical quiescent values within 4 years but pulsational stability has not returned. EQ Lyn showed its pre-outburst pulsation period after 3 years, but it continues to show photometric variability that alternates between pulsation and disk superhump periods while remaining at quiescence. V455 And has almost reached its pre-outburst pulsation period, while GW Lib still remains heated and with a different pulsation spectrum than at quiescence. These results indicate that asteroseismology provides a unique picture of the effects of outburst heating on the white dwarf.

  9. The formation of massive white dwarfs in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White dwarfs (WD's) in cataclysmic binaries (CB's) contrast with single white dwarfs in that, while the masses of most single WD's fall into a narrow range of --0.12 M/sub sub solar/, the masses of WD's in CB's are distributed quite uniformly over almost the entire permitted mass range. This makes the discussion of the formation of higher mass (?1 M/sub sub solar/) WD's of particular interest, and may shed some light on the evolution of CB's in general

  10. Astro-archaeology - The white dwarfs and hot subwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1991-01-01

    By 'astroarcheology' is presently meant the effort to ascertain the Galaxy's past in light of what is found in its most ancient, white dwarf constituents. Attention is given to the controversial role of the hot subdwarfs and the theory of white dwarf spectral evolution, as well as to the concept of the 'Whole Earth Telescope', involving continuous photometric coverage of rapidly varying astronomical sources and thereby eliminating the otherwise troublesome diurnal gaps in data. Much higher resolution of the power spectra of these objects is attainable by these means than any current alternative.

  11. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~ 3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the presen...

  12. White dwarfs vs. neutron stars - Properties, constraints, and analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    Theoretical expectations and observational constraints pertaining to fundamental properties of white dwarfs and neutron stars are reviewed, including masses, angular velocities and rotation periods, moments of inertia and radii, magnetic fields, space velocities, formation processes, birthrates in the Galaxy, and compositions. Neutron star models are much more constrained by the data than are white dwarf model, even though uncertainties in the equation of state leave much more flexibility in the former. Certain analogies which can be drawn between the two classes support the hypothesis that rapidly rotating pulsars are typically the products of interacting binary systems.

  13. Evolution and colors of helium-core white dwarf stars with high-metallicity progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, L. G.; Panei, J. A.; Romero, A. D.; R. D. Rohrmann; Córsico, A. H.; García-Berro, E.; Bertolami, M. M. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of single and binary He-core white dwarfs in metal-rich clusters, we present a full set of evolutionary calculations and colors appropriate for the study of such white dwarfs. The paper is also aimed at investigating whether stable hydrogen burning may constitute a main source of energy for massive He-core white dwarfs resulting from high-metallicity progenitors. White dwarf sequences are derived by taking into account the evolutionary histo...

  14. GRMHD formulation of highly super-Chandrasekhar rotating magnetised white dwarfs: Stable configurations of non-spherical white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Sathyawageeswar

    2015-01-01

    Here we extend the exploration of significantly super-Chandrasekhar magnetised white dwarfs by numerically computing axisymmetric stationary equilibria of differentially rotating magnetised polytropic compact stars in general relativity (GR), within the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime. We use a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) framework that describes rotating and magnetised axisymmetric white dwarfs, choosing appropriate rotation laws and magnetic field profiles (toroidal and poloidal). The numerical procedure for finding solutions in this framework uses the 3+1 formalism of numerical relativity, implemented in the open source XNS code. We construct equilibrium sequences by varying different physical quantities in turn, and highlight the plausible existence of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, with masses in the range of 2-3 solar mass, with central (deep interior) magnetic fields of the order of $10^{14}$ Gauss and differential rotation with surface time periods of about 1-10 seconds. We no...

  15. Rotation of the accreting white dwarfs and diversity of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider rotation of progenitor white dwarfs for a possible source of the diversity of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Hydrostatic structure of rotating white dwarfs with different masses are calculated. Evolutionary sequences of white dwarfs are explored and the effect of 'supercritical' rotation in binary system is examined. Possible effects of rotation to cause diversity of SNe Ia are discussed

  16. White Dwarf - Red Dwarf Systems Resolved with the Hubble Space Telescope: I. First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2006-01-01

    First results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys snapshot study of white dwarfs with likely red dwarf companions. Of 48 targets observed and analyzed so far, 27 are totally or partially resolved into two or more components, while an additional 15 systems are almost certainly unresolved binaries. These results provide the first direct empirical evidence for a bimodal distribution of orbital separations among binary systems containing at lea...

  17. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, R; Althaus, L G; Isern, J; García-Berro, E

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for such purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, like the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spher...

  18. The White Dwarf in AE Aqr Brakes Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Mauche, C W

    2006-01-01

    Taking advantage of the very precise de Jager et al. optical white dwarf orbit and spin ephemerides; ASCA, XMMN, and Chandra X-ray observations spread over 10 yrs; and a cumulative 27 yr baseline, we have found that in recent years the white dwarf in AE Aqr is spinning down at a rate that is slightly faster than predicted by the de Jager et al. spin ephemeris. At the present time, the observed period evolution is consistent with either a cubic term in the spin ephemeris with Pdouble_dot = 3.46(56)E-19 per d, which is inconsistent in sign and magnitude with magnetic-dipole radiation losses, or an additional quadratic term with Pdot = 2.0(1.0)E-15 d/d, which is consistent with a modest increase in the accretion torques spinning down the white dwarf. Regular monitoring, in the optical, ultraviolet, and/or X-rays, is required to track the evolution of the spin period of the white dwarf in AE Aqr.

  19. Binary Star Origin of High Field Magnetic White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tout, C A; Liebert, J; Ferrario, L; Pringle, J E

    2008-01-01

    White dwarfs with surface magnetic fields in excess of $1 $MG are found as isolated single stars and relatively more often in magnetic cataclysmic variables. Some 1,253 white dwarfs with a detached low-mass main-sequence companion are identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey but none of these is observed to show evidence for Zeeman splitting of hydrogen lines associated with a magnetic field in excess of 1MG. If such high magnetic fields on white dwarfs result from the isolated evolution of a single star then there should be the same fraction of high field white dwarfs among this SDSS binary sample as among single stars. Thus we deduce that the origin of such high magnetic fields must be intimately tied to the formation of cataclysmic variables. CVs emerge from common envelope evolution as very close but detached binary stars that are then brought together by magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. We propose that the smaller the orbital separation at the end of the common envelope phase, the stronger ...

  20. On the mass of the white dwarf in UZ Fornacis

    CERN Document Server

    Schwope, A D; Beuermann, K; Schwope, Axel D.; Mengel, Sabine; Beuermann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the eclipsing AM Herculis star UZ For obtained when the system was in its low state of accretion. Faint residual Halpha-emission and NaI absorption were used to trace the secondary star and infer its orbital velocity K_2. The measured radial velocity amplitude of NaI K_2 * sin(i) = 285 \\pm 50 kmps suggests a low-mass white dwarf with M_wd = 0.44 visible only for part of the orbital cycle and supposed to originate only on the illuminated hemisphere facing the white dwarf, displays a similar radial velocity amplitude, K'_2 sin(i) = 308 \\pm 27 kmps. The standard K_2-correction applied by us then suggests a white dwarf mass of up to 1 Msun. Compared with earlier results the new ones enlarge the window in which the white dwarf mass may lie and resolves the conflict between mass estimates based on photometry and spectroscopy. They leave some ambiguity in the location of emission and absorption components in these and former observations.

  1. Population synthesis for symbiotic stars with white dwarf accretors

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, G; Han, Z; Lu, Guoliang; Yungelson, Lev; Han, Zhanwen

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of symbiotic stars with white dwarf accretors by means of a population synthesis code. We estimate the total number of symbiotic stars with white dwarf accretors in the Galaxy as 1,200 - 15,000. This range is compatible with observational estimates. Two crucial physical parameters that define the birthrate and number of symbiotic stars are the efficiency of accretion by white dwarfs (which greatly depends on the separation of components after common envelope stage and stellar wind velocity) and the mass of the hydrogen layer which the white dwarf can accumulate prior to the hydrogen ignition. The theoretical estimate of the Galactic occurrence rate of symbiotic novae ranges from about 1.3 to about 13.5 per year out of which weak symbiotic novae comprise about 0.5 to 6.0 per year, depending on the model assumptions. We simulate the distributions of symbiotic stars over orbital periods, masses of components, mass-loss rates of cool components, mass-accretion rates of hot com...

  2. The White Dwarf Luminosity Function: The Shape of Things to Come

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hippel, T; Munn, J A; Harris, H; Williams, K; Liebert, J; Winget, D E; Metcalfe, T S; Shipman, H; Wood, M A; Oswalt, T; Kleinman, S; Kleinman, A N

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new survey for cool white dwarfs that supplements Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry with USNO proper motions and follow-up spectroscopy. To date we have discovered and spectroscopically confirmed 80 new moderate temperature and cool white dwarfs. We have also found a handful of high-velocity white dwarfs and we expect a sizable fraction of these to be thick disk or possibly halo objects. Our survey is designed to find ~10,000 new white dwarfs, although only ~60 will be among the faintest white dwarfs (M(V) >= 16), where most of the age-sensitivity resides. We discuss an extension of our survey to V ~ 22.

  3. ZZ Ceti stars: a new class of pulsating white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of the ZZ Ceti stars as a new, distinct class of variable stars is proven by means of a photometric survey for rapid luminosity variations among white dwarfs. The null results of the survey are used to show that the ZZ Ceti stars are all DA white dwarfs that fall in a restricted region centered at (B-V) = +0.20 in the two-color diagram. A light curve and power spectrum of the light curve is presented for all ZZ Ceti stars. In general, the ZZ Ceti stars have complex, multi-periodic light curves. The periods fall in the range from about 200 s to 1000 s, and the luminosity variations range from about 0.01 mag to 0.30 mag in amplitude. These variables are single, physically similar stars pulsating in nonradial g-modes. Only three mechanisms - rotation, excitation of multiple nonradial modes, and coupling between modes - are sufficient to explain virtually all of the photometric complexities exhibited by the ZZ Ceti variables. The ZZ Ceti stars are found to be normal white dwarfs which occur in the temperature range from about 10500 K to 13500 K on the DA cooling sequence. The onset of variability among DA white dwarfs is shown to be an evolutionary effect; it is shown that at least 40% of all DA white dwarfs will cool to become ZZ Ceti variables. The ZZ Ceti stars are by far the most numerous intrinsic variables in the galaxy.Time-resolved Stroemgren photometry is used to examine the changes of the effective temperature, the radius, and the effective surfaceure, the radius, and the effective surface gravity with time during a pulsation in order to evaluate the relative contributions of these parameters to the total luminosity variation

  4. NLTT5306: The shortest Period Detached White Dwarf + Brown Dwarf Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, P R; Burleigh, M R; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, B T; Lawrie, K; Cappetta, M; Girven, J; Napiwotzki, R

    2012-01-01

    We have spectroscopically confirmed a brown dwarf mass companion to the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf NLTT5306. The white dwarf's atmospheric parameters were measured using Sloan Digital Sky Survey and X-Shooter spectroscopy as T_eff=7756+/-35K and log(g)=7.68+/-0.08, giving a mass for the primary of M_WD=0.44+/-0.04 M_sun, at a distance of 71+/-4 pc with a cooling age of 710+/-50 Myr. The existence of the brown dwarf secondary was confirmed through the near-infrared arm of the X-Shooter data and a spectral type of dL4-dL7 was estimated using standard spectral indices. Combined radial velocity measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, X-Shooter and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's High Resolution Spectrograph of the white dwarf gives a minimum mass of 56+/-3 M_jup for the secondary, confirming the substellar nature. The period of the binary was measured as 101.88+/-0.02 mins using both the radial velocity data and i'-band variability detected with the INT. This variability indicates 'day' side heating of ...

  5. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No int of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and planetary orbital evolution during the post-main-sequence lifetime of their stellar hosts.

  6. Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of the physics of compact physical object - white drafts, neutron stars and black holes, are stated. Modern representations on pulsars and compact X-ray sources are considerd. Investigation results on compact object accretion, gravitational radiation and collapse at usual and supermassive stars are discussed

  7. The Search for Planets Around Pulsating White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, D. E.; Cochran, W. D.; Endl, M.; Kanaan, A.; Kepler, S. O.; Mukadam, A.; Mullally, F.; Nather, R. E.; Reaves, D.; Slaughter, D.; Sullivan, D. J.; von Hippel, T.

    We are implementing a proven technique to search for extrasolar planets with a different sensitivity from other methods, using the pulsations of white dwarf stars as intrinsic clocks. We will search more than one hundred stars over the next decade for the effects of reflex orbital motion in changing light travel times and accelerations caused by any planets orbiting these stars. To become a white dwarf, a main sequence star must pass through the red giant phase, which might consume its inner planets but is likely to leave more distant ones intact. Our technique is sensitive to parent stars with progenitors of 1-4 solar masses, a range of metallicities, and planets in the range 2-20 AU. This range of parameters is largely unexplored and is likely to remain so until space based missions are launched.

  8. A Detailed Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of DQ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, P; Fontaine, G

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs based on improved model atmosphere calculations. In particular, we revise the atmospheric parameters of the trigonometric parallax sample of Bergeron, Leggett, & Ruiz, and discuss the astrophysical implications on the temperature scale and mean mass, as well as the chemical evolution of these stars. We also analyze 40 new DQ stars discovered in the first data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis confirms that effective temperatures derived from model atmospheres including carbon are significantly lower than the temperatures obtained from pure helium models. Similarly the mean mass of the trigonometric parallax sample, = 0.62 Mo, is significantly lower than that obtained from pure helium models, = 0.73 Mo, and more consistent with the spectroscopic mean mass of DB stars, = 0.59 Mo, the most likely progenitors of DQ white dwarfs. We find that DQ stars form a remarkably well defined sequence in a ...

  9. Testing common envelopes on double white dwarf binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Nandez, Jose L A; Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a double white dwarf binary likely involves a common envelope (CE) event between a red giant and a white dwarf (WD) during the most recent episode of Roche lobe overflow mass transfer. We study the role of recombination energy with hydrodynamic simulations of such stellar interactions. We find that the recombination energy helps to expel the common envelope entirely, while if recombination energy is not taken into account, a significant fraction of the common envelope remains bound. We apply our numerical methods to constrain the progenitor system for WD 1101+364 -- a double WD binary that has well-measured mass ratio of $q=0.87\\pm0.03$ and an orbital period of 0.145 days. Our best-fit progenitor for the pre-common envelope donor is a 1.5 $M_\\odot$ red giant.

  10. Merging Binary Stars and the magnetic white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, Gordon P; Tout, Christopher A; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T; Hurley, Jarrod R

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic dynamo driven by differential rotation generated when stars merge can explain strong fields in certain classes of magnetic stars, including the high field magnetic white dwarfs (HFMWDs). In their case the site of the differential rotation has been variously proposed to be within a common envelope, the massive hot outer regions of a merged degenerate core or an accretion disc formed by a tidally disrupted companion that is subsequently incorporated into a degenerate core. We synthesize a population of binary systems to investigate the stellar merging hypothesis for observed single HFMWDs. Our calculations provide mass distribution and the fractions of white dwarfs that merge during a common envelope phase or as double degenerate systems in a post common envelope phase. We vary the common envelope efficiency parameter alpha and compare with observations. We find that this hypothesis can explain both the observed incidence of magnetism and the mass distribution of HFMWDs for a wide range of alpha. In ...

  11. The atmospheres of cool white dwarfs of spectral type DA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to interpret the Stroemgren uvby colors of the cool hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs observed by Graham (1972), model atmospheres have been constructed in the range 7,000 <= Tsub(eff) <= 12,000 K and 7 <= log g <= 8.5. Metal abundances Esub(M) = Esub(M)(S) and Esub(M) = Esub(M)(S)/100 were assumed. The models include energy transport by convection and line-blanketing from Balmer and metal lines; all are corrected to constant energy flux. The theoretical colors derived are thoroughly discussed in view of the assumptions involved in the calculations. It is shown that the hydrogen-rich white dwarfs under consideration have gravities given by log g = 8.3, and that the metal abundances are reduced by at least a factor of 100 compared to the solar value. (orig.)

  12. Infrared Signatures of Disrupted Minor Planets at White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Zuckerman, B

    2009-01-01

    Spitzer Space Observatory IRAC and MIPS photometric observations are presented for 20 white dwarfs with T 3e8 g/s display a warm infrared excess from orbiting dust; the likely result of a tidally-destroyed minor planet. This benchmark accretion rate lies between the dust production rates of 1e6 g/s in the solar system zodiacal cloud and 1e10 g/s often inferred for debris disks at main sequence A-type stars. It is estimated that between 1% and 3% of all single white dwarfs with cooling ages less than around 0.5 Gyr possess circumstellar dust, signifying an underlying population of minor planets.

  13. Evidence of Precession of the White Dwarf in Cataclysmic Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, G; Neustroev, V

    2006-01-01

    Cataclysmic Variables (CV) are close binary systems, in which the primary, the more massive star, is a white dwarf. CVs usually exhibit a number of periodicities, most of which are now understood. However, recently, a new phenomenon was discovered that does not fit the standard picture. Two objects have been discovered to show periods that are much longer than orbital, and have no relation to it, either in light curves or in radial velocity (RV) variations measured from spectroscopy. Here, we show that the precession of the fast rotating magnetically accreting white dwarf can successfully explain these phenomena. The theory of compact objects predicts certain relations between the spin and precession periods, and our finding provides a good test for the theory and establishes a qualitative model to be explored both theoretically and observationally. Detection of precession can become a powerful tool in searching for the internal properties of compact stars, which would be otherwise inaccessible for us.

  14. Weak magnetic fields in white dwarfs and their direct progenitors?

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, S; Landstreet, J; Fossati, L; Valyanin, G G; Monin, D; Wade, G A; Werner, K; O'Toole, S J

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a re-analysis of polarimetric data of central stars of planetary nebulae, hot subdwarfs, and white dwarfs taken with FORS1 (FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph) on the VLT (Very Large Telescope), and added a large number of new observations in order to increase the sample. A careful analysis of the observations using only one wavelength calibration for the polarimetrically analysed spectra and for all positions of the retarder plate of the spectrograph is crucial in order to avoid spurious signals. We find that the previous detections of magnetic fields in subdwarfs and central stars could not be confirmed while about 10% of the observed white dwarfs have magnetic fields at the kilogauss level.

  15. Asteroseismological bound on G/G from pulsating white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the secular variation of the period of nonradial pulsations of white dwarfs when a temporal dependence of the gravitational constant G is assumed. We consider models that reproduce accurately the main characteristics of the best studied DA (hydrogen-rich atmosphere) white dwarf G117-B15A. For this object it has been possible to measure the secular variation of the main observed period of 215.2 s (P=2.3±1.4x10-15 s-1) with unprecedented accuracy. Comparing our models with observations we obtain that for G-10 yr-1 0, the allowed values are 0 -11 yr-1 at the 2? confidence level, which are comparable to other bounds established by independent methods. We also show that in order to improve this bound significantly an improvement in the precision of the observed change in P which is too large to be reached in the foreseeable future is required

  16. A gaseous metal disk around a white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Gänsicke, B T; Southworth, J; Rebassa-Mansergas, A

    2006-01-01

    The destiny of planetary systems through the late evolution of their host stars is very uncertain. We report a metal-rich gas disk around a moderately hot and young white dwarf. A dynamical model of the double-peaked emission lines constrains the outer disk radius to just 1.2 solar radii. The likely origin of the disk is a tidally disrupted asteroid, which has been destabilised from its initial orbit at a distance of more than 1000 solar radii by the interaction with a relatively massive planetesimal object or a planet. The white dwarf mass of 0.77 solar masses implies that planetary systems may form around high-mass stars.

  17. Hot DQ White Dwarf Stars as Failed Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Bart H.; Clemens, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    Of the two hundred or so white dwarf stars showing spectroscopic signatures of carbon (the DQs), the hottest dozen are unique in having atmospheres dominated by carbon and oxygen. At least a third of these hot DQs are photometrically variable, and roughly 70% are magnetic. We provide evidence that the hot DQs are the result of CO-core white dwarf mergers that were not tuned to explode as type Ia supernovae (SNe). In this scenario, the variable hot DQs are magnetic rotators whose magnetic fields, fast rotation rates, and atmospheric composition are all explained by the merger. Consequently, their masses and formation rates will constrain type Ia SNe progenitors, and their field strengths and spin periods will provide observational constraints for models of double-degenerate mergers and magnetic field generation.

  18. Quantum gases and white dwarfs with quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the effect of a generalized uncertainty principle produced by different approaches of quantum gravity within the Planck scale on statistical and thermodynamical properties of ideal fermion and boson gases. The partition function and some thermodynamical properties are investigated. The Bose–Einstein condensation and the ground state properties of fermion gases are also considered. The target approach is extended to a white dwarf as an application. The modified mass-radius relation is calculated. A decrease in the pressure of degenerate fermions due to the presence of quantum gravity leads to a contraction in the star radius. It is also found that the gravity background does not result in any change in white dwarf stability. (paper)

  19. Low heat conduction in white dwarf boundary layers?

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F K; Meyer-Hofmeister, E; Burwitz, V

    2008-01-01

    X-ray spectra of dwarf novae in quiescence observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton provide new information on the boundary layers of their accreting white dwarfs. Comparison of observations and models allows us to extract estimates for the thermal conductivity in the accretion layer and reach conclusions on the relevant physical processes. We calculate the structure of the dense thermal boundary layer that forms under gravity and cooling at the white dwarf surface on accretion of gas from a hot tenuous ADAF-type coronal inflow. The distribution of density and temperature obtained allows us to calculate the strength and spectrum of the emitted X-ray radiation. They depend strongly on the values of thermal conductivity and mass accretion rate. We apply our model to the dwarf nova system VW Hyi and compare the spectra predicted for different values of the thermal conductivity with the observed spectrum. We find a significant deviation for all values of thermal conductivity that are a sizable fraction of the Spitzer c...

  20. A Detailed Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of DQ White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs based on improved model atmosphere calculations. In particular, we revise the atmospheric parameters of the trigonometric parallax sample of Bergeron, Leggett, & Ruiz, and discuss the astrophysical implications on the temperature scale and mean mass, as well as the chemical evolution of these stars. We also analyze 40 new DQ stars discovered in the first data release of the Sloan Dig...

  1. The cool magnetic DAZ white dwarf NLTT 10480.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 532, August (2011), A7/1-A7/8. ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ?R IAA301630901; GA ?R GAP209/10/0967; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarfs * individual star NLTT 10480 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  2. Magnetic Accreting White Dwarfs in the XMM-Newton Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, D.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Falanga, M.; Masetti, N.; Matt, G.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (MCVs) are the brightest X-ray sources among accreting white dwarf binaries. They were recently found to constitute a non-negligible fraction of galactic hard (>20 keV) X-ray sources suggesting a still hidden but potentially important population. XMM-Newton allowed to identify the true nature of many new CV candidates, to infer unexpected X-ray properties and their link with fundamental parameters of the accreting primaries.

  3. Death by Dynamics: Planetoid-Induced Explosions on White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    di Stefano, Rosanne; Fisher, Robert; Guillochon, James; Steiner, James F.

    2015-01-01

    At intervals as short as ten thousand years, each white dwarf (WD) passes within a solar radius of a planetoid, i.e., a comet, asteroid, or planet. Gravitational tidal forces tear the planetoid apart; its metal-rich debris falls onto the WD, enriching the atmosphere. A third of WDs exhibit atmospheric "pollution". For roughly every hundred planetoid disruptions, a planetoid collides with a WD. We simulate a small number of collisions, in which "death-by-dynamics" refers to t...

  4. Tidal resonance locks in inspiraling white dwarf binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Burkart, Joshua; Quataert, Eliot; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the tidal response of helium and carbon/oxygen (C/O) white dwarf (WD) binaries inspiraling due to gravitational wave emission. We show that resonance locks, previously considered in binaries with an early-type star, occur universally in WD binaries. In a resonance lock, the orbital and spin frequencies evolve in lockstep, so that the tidal forcing frequency is approximately constant and a particular normal mode remains resonant, producing efficient tidal dissipa...

  5. Weak magnetic fields in white dwarfs and their direct progenitors?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, S.; Bagnulo, S.; Landstreet, J.; Fossati, L.; Valyanin, G. G.; Monin, D.; Wade, G. A.; Werner, K.; O Toole, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a re-analysis of polarimetric data of central stars of planetary nebulae, hot subdwarfs, and white dwarfs taken with FORS1 (FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph) on the VLT (Very Large Telescope), and added a large number of new observations in order to increase the sample. A careful analysis of the observations using only one wavelength calibration for the polarimetrically analysed spectra and for all positions of the retarder plate of the spect...

  6. S. Chandrasekhar: White Dwarfs, $H^-$ ion,.., Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2011-01-01

    This is a concise review, addressed to undergraduate students, of S. Chandrasekhar's oeuvre in astrophysics, ranging from his early studies on white dwarfs using relativistic quantum statistics to topics as diverse as dynamical friction, negative hydrogen ion, fluid dynamical instabilities, black holes and gravitational waves. The exposition is based on simple physical explanations in the context of observational astronomy. Black holes and their role as central engines of active, compact, high energy sources have been discussed.

  7. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bode T.; Shcherbakov R.V.; Haas R.; Laguna P.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, ? ? ?t?5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disru...

  8. Stellar archaeology with Gaia: the Galactic white dwarf population

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensicke, Boris; Barstow, Martin; Bono, Giuseppe; Burleigh, Matt; Casewell, Sarah; Dhillon, Vik; Farihi, Jay; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Geier, Stephan; Gentile-Fusillo, Nicola; Hermes, JJ; Hollands, Mark; Istrate, Alina; Jordan, Stefan; Knigge, Christian; Manser, Christopher; Marsh, Tom; Nelemans, Gijs; Pala, Anna; Raddi, Roberto; Tauris, Thomas; Toloza, Odette; Veras, Dimitri; Werner, Klaus; Wilson, David

    2015-01-01

    Gaia will identify several 1e5 white dwarfs, most of which will be in the solar neighborhood at distances of a few hundred parsecs. Ground-based optical follow-up spectroscopy of this sample of stellar remnants is essential to unlock the enormous scientific potential it holds for our understanding of stellar evolution, and the Galactic formation history of both stars and planets.

  9. Search for Planets around Pulsating White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, F.; Winget, D. E.; Kepler, S. O.

    2005-12-01

    We present initial results from our search for planets around variable white dwarf stars. White dwarf stars are the end point of stellar evolution for 98% of main sequence stars. Theoretical calculations (Sackmann 1993; Duncan & Lissauer 1998) predict that planets further than 1 AU from their parent star will survive the red giant phase. When a hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf (DA) cools to about 12000K it becomes a variable star. A subset of these stars exhibit pulsational stability that rivals atomic clocks (? {P} ˜ 10-15; Kepler et al. 2005). The reflex orbital motion of the star around the center of mass of the system due to the presence of a planet changes the light travel time of these stable pulses and hence their observed arrival time on earth, providing a method to detect the planet. Because we are measuring change in distance to the star, planets in long period orbits are easier to detect, complementing the Doppler shift method. This work is supported by grant from the NASA Origins program, NAG5-13094 and performed in part under contract with JPL through the Michelson Fellowship Program.

  10. Dark halo baryons not in ancient halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Creze, M; Robin, A C; Reylé, C; McCracken, H J; Cuillandre, J C; Lefèvre, O; Mellier, Y

    2004-01-01

    Having ruled out the possibility that stellar objects be the main contributor of the dark matter embedding galaxies, microlensing experiments cannot exclude the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the Milky Way dark halo might be made of MACHOs with masses in the range $0.5-0.8 \\msun$. Ancient white dwarfs are generally considered the most plausible candidates for such MACHOs. We report the results of a search for such white dwarfs in a proper motion survey covering a 0.16 sqd field at three epochs at high galactic latitude, and 0.938 sqd at two epochs at intermediate galactic latitude (VIRMOS survey), using the CFH telescope. Both surveys are complete to I = 23, with detection efficiency fading to 0 at I = 24.2. Proper motion data are suitable to separate unambiguously halo white dwarfs identified by belonging to a non rotating system. No candidates were found within the colour-magnitude-proper motion volume where such objects can be safely discriminated from any standard population as well as from pos...

  11. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Kepler, S O; García-Berro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. By comparing the theoretical rate of change of period expected for this star with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment. Our upper limit for the neutrino magnetic dipole moment is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compat...

  12. Describing SGRs/AXPs as fast and magnetized white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Malheiro, M

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, observational evidence has mounted that SGRs/AXPs belong to a particular class of pulsars. Furthermore, fast and very magnetic white dwarfs have been observed, and recently two SGRs with low magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G, namely SGR 0418+5729 and Swift J1822.3-1606 were discovered with a period of $P\\sim9.08$ s and $P\\sim8.44$ s, respectively. These new discoveries opens the question of the nature of SGRs/AXPs, emerging alternative scenarios, in particular the white dwarf (WD) pulsar model. These astronomical observations have based an alternative description of the SGRs/AXPs expressed on rotating highly magnetized and very massive WDs. In this new description, several observational properties are easy understood and well explained as a consequence of the large radius of a massive white dwarf that manifests a new scale of mass density, moment of inertia, rotational energy, and magnetic dipole moment in comparison with the case of neutron stars. In this contribution, we will ...

  13. White Dwarf based evaluation of the GALEX absolute calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Camarota, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a revised photometric calibration of the \\emph{Galaxy Evolution Explorer} magnitudes, based on measurements of DA white dwarfs. The photometric magnitudes of white dwarfs measured by \\emph{GALEX} are compared to predicted magnitudes based on independent spectroscopic data (108 stars) and alternately to \\emph{IUE} UV fluxes of the white dwarfs (218 stars). The results demonstrate a significant non-linear correlation and small offset between archived \\emph{GALEX} fluxes and observed and predicted UV fluxes for our sample. The primary source of non-linearity may be due to detector dead time corrections for brighter stars, but it should be noted that there was a predicted non-linearity in the fainter stars as well. Sample expressions are derived which 'correct' observed \\emph{GALEX} magnitudes to an absolute magnitude scale that is linear with respect, and directly related, to the \\emph{Hubble Space Telescope} photometric scale. These corrections should be valid for stars dimmer than magnitud...

  14. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Holes and the EUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kent S.

    White dwarfs are recognized as formally analogous to neutron stars being stellar configurations where the thermal contribution to support is secondary. Both stellar types exist with various intrinsic parameters (spin mass magnetic field temperature/age) and environmental parameters (accretion environment if any characterized by overall rate and flow geometry). Comparison of analogous systems using scalings of these parameters can be fruitful e.g. comparison of stars with similar magnetic moments. Source class characterization is mature enough that such analogies can be used to compare theoretical ideas across a wide dynamic range in parameters one example being theories of quasiperioic oscillations. However the white dwarf side of this program is limited by available high resolution spectroscopy and photometry in the EUV. EUV observation is challenging but this is where white dwarf spectral energy distributions often reach maximum values. (For neutron stars the same role is played by X-rays.) Two types of cataclysmic variable systems exemplified by AM Her and EX Hya are used to illustrate these ideas in detail. Dynamical timescales and envisioned spectroscopic performance parameters of next-generation EUV satellites make possible a new level of source modeling that blends timing and spectroscopic tests. Extensions to include black holes are also considered.

  15. The age-metallicity dependence for white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, A D; Kepler, S O

    2015-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on the metallicity dependence of the initial$-$to$-$final mass relation and its influence on white dwarf age determinations. We compute a grid of evolutionary sequences from the main sequence to $\\sim 3\\, 000$ K on the white dwarf cooling curve, passing through all intermediate stages. During the thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch no third dredge-up episodes are considered and thus the photospheric C/O ratio is below unity for sequences with metallicities larger than $Z=0.0001$. We consider initial metallicities from $Z=0.0001$ to $Z=0.04$, accounting for stellar populations in the galactic disk and halo, with initial masses below $\\sim 3M_{\\odot}$. We found a clear dependence of the shape of the initial$-$to$-$final mass relation with the progenitor metallicity, where metal rich progenitors result in less massive white dwarf remnants, due to an enhancement of the mass loss rates associated to high metallicity values. By comparing our theoretical computations with semi em...

  16. Discovery of New Ultracool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, E; Harris, H C; Subba-Rao, M; Anderson, S; Kleinman, S J; Liebert, J; Brewington, H; Brinkmann, J; Harvanek, M; Krzesínski, J; Lamb, D Q; Long, D; Neilsen, E H; Newman, P R; Nitta, A; Snedden, S A; Gates, Evalyn; Gyuk, Geza; Harris, Hugh C.; Subbarao, Mark; Anderson, Scott; Liebert, James; Brewington, Howard; Harvanek, Michael; Krzesinski, Jurek; Lamb, Don Q.; Long, Dan; Neilsen, Eric H.; Newman, Peter R.; Nitta, Atsuko; Snedden, Stephanie A.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of five very cool white dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Four are ultracool, exhibiting strong collision induced absorption (CIA) from molecular hydrogen and are similar in color to the three previously known coolest white dwarfs, SDSS J1337+00, LHS 3250 and LHS 1402. The fifth, an ultracool white dwarf candidate, shows milder CIA flux suppression and has a color and spectral shape similar to WD 0346+246. All five new white dwarfs are faint (g > 18.9) and have significant proper motions. One of the new ultracool white dwarfs, SDSS J0947, appears to be in a binary system with a slightly warmer (T_{eff} ~ 5000K) white dwarf companion.

  17. Feige 7: A hot, rotating magnetic white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue white dwarf suspect Feige 7 (=L795-7=GR 267) has been found to be magnetic with a rich optical spectrum and variable circular polarization. The polarization observations show a variation that is sinusoidal with amplitude 0.3%, a mean of nearly zero, and a period of 2.2 hours; an ephemeris is provided. The mean longitudinal field at peak polarization is estimated to be 5 megagauss. Spectra obtained with the Lick Observatory scanner and the UCSD Digicon at Steward Observatory are presented. The detailed absorption spectrum is shown to fit Zeeman patterns of hydrogen and neutral helium in the presence of a mean homogeneous surface field varying slightly with the polarization period from 18 to 20 megagauss. The star in fact provides the first confirmation of the theoretical spectra of hydrogen and helium in such high fields, inaccessible to laboratory measurement. It is argued that the period must be due to rotation, and an oblique rotator model with the rotation axis in the plane of the sky and at approx.24degree tilt angle to the magnetic axis is compatible with the available observations. The proper motion from Luyten and the Lowell Observatory is large enough to very nearly constrain the star to be degenerate, rather than a hot subdwarf; the blue continuum indicates that it is the hottest of the known magnetic degenerate stars. The observed combination of neutral helium and hydrogen lines (and at comparable intensities) may be unique among white dwarf stars. s) may be unique among white dwarf stars. The star must have a helium-dominated atmosphere, but the relative H/He abundances could vary over the surface due to the influence of the magnetic field. Since Feige 7 is a recently formed white dwarf, calculations show that any quadrupole and octopole magnetic moments originally present would not yet have decayed; since there is no evidence for appreciable higher moments in the observed surface field, it is argued that the field was essentially a dipole at the time of the white dwarf's formation

  18. Detection of a white dwarf companion to the white dwarf binary SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R; Steeghs, D; Southworth, J; Koester, D; Harris, V; Merry, L

    2010-01-01

    SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5 (hereafter SDSSJ1257+5428) is a white dwarf from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey recently shown to exhibit high-amplitude radial velocity variations on a period of 4.56 hours suggesting that it has either a neutron star or black-hole binary companion. At a distance of only 48 pc, this would make it the closest remnant of a supernova known and imply that such systems are common in our Galaxy and others. Here we present optical spectroscopy that shows that the companion star in SDSSJ1257+5428 is in fact another white dwarf. SDSSJ1257+5428's spectrum is thus a composite, with narrow line cores from a cool, low mass white dwarf (7000 K; 0.2 Msun), and broad wings from its hotter, high-mass companion (10,000 K; > 1 Msun). We present evidence that suggests that the high-mass star is rapidly rotating with v sin i = 500 to 1000 km/s. This suggests that the most recent phase of mass transfer was long-lasting and stable as against the usually-assumed common envelope phase. Within the constraints se...

  19. The fate of accreting white dwarfs: type I supernovae vs. collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of accreting white dwarfs is examined with respect to thermonuclear explosion or collapse. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy 1986. Effects of accretion and the fate of white dwarfs, models for type 1a and 1b supernovae, collapse induced by carbon deflagration at high density, and fate of double white dwarfs, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  20. The contribution of Oxygen-Neon white dwarfs to the MACHO content of the Galactic Halo

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Díaz, Judit; Torres Gil, Santiago; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Context. The interpretation of microlensing results towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) still remains controversial. White dwarfs have been proposed to explain these results and, hence, to contribute significantly to the mass budget of our Galaxy. However, several constraints on the role played by regular carbon-oxygen white dwarfs exist. Aims. Massive white dwarfs are thought to be made of a mixture of oxygen and neon. Correspondingly, their cooling rate is larger than those of...

  1. Constraining white-dwarf kicks in globular clusters : III. Cluster Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Heyl, Jeremy S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations of white dwarfs in globular clusters indicate that these stars may get a velocity kick during their time as giants. This velocity kick could originate naturally if the mass loss while on the asymptotic giant branch is slightly asymmetric. The kicks may be large enough to dramatically change the radial distribution of young white dwarfs, giving them larger energies than other stars in the cluster. As these energetic white dwarfs travel through the cluster ...

  2. An independent test of the photometric selection of white dwarf candidates using LAMOST DR3

    OpenAIRE

    Fusillo, N. P. Gentile; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X. -W.; Ren, J. J.; D. Koester; ZHAN, Y.; Hou, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yang, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Gentile Fusillo et al. (2015) we developed a selection method for white dwarf candidates which makes use of photometry, colours and proper motions to calculate a probability of being a white dwarf (Pwd). The application of our method to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 10 resulted in nearly 66,000 photometrically selected objects with a derived Pwd, approximately 21000 of which are high confidence white dwarf candidates. Here we present an independent test...

  3. On the maximum mass of general relativistic uniformly rotating white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct self-consistently the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The mass, the radius, the moment of inertia and quadrupole moment of rotating white dwarfs have been calculated as a function of both the central density and rotation period of the star. The maximum mass of rotating white dwarfs for stable configurations has been obtained. (author)

  4. White Dwarfs Near Black Holes: A New Paradigm for Type I Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G J.

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations indicating the possibility of a new class of Type I supernovae. In this new paradigm relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear reactions so that athermonuclear runaway ensues. We consider three possible environments: 1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass black hole; 2) white dwarf...

  5. On the possibility of using seismic probes to study the core composition in pulsating white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J. P.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2012-01-01

    White dwarfs correspond to the final stages of stellar evolution of solar-type stars. In these objects, production of energy by nuclear burning has ended which means that a white dwarf simply cools down over the course of the next billion years. It is now known that white dwarfs spend some of their cooling history in an instability strip. The pulsating white dwarfs with an hydrogen atmosphere (called DAV or ZZ Ceti stars) show non-radial oscillation modes with periods in the...

  6. Landau quantization and mass-radius relation of magnetized White Dwarfs in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D N

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several white dwarfs have been proposed with masses significantly above the Chandrasekhar limit, known as Super-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs, to account for the overluminous Type Ia supernovae. In the present work, Equation of State of a completely degenerate relativistic electron gas in magnetic field based on Landau quantization of charged particles in a magnetic field is developed. The mass-radius relations for magnetized White Dwarfs are obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. The effects of the magnetic energy density and pressure contributed by a density-dependent magnetic field are treated properly to find the stability configurations of realistic magnetic White Dwarf stars.

  7. Gaseous Material Orbiting the Polluted, Dusty White Dwarf HE1349-2305

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, Carl; Farihi, J; Bochanski, J; Burgasser, Adam J; Parsons, S; Gaensicke, B; Koester, D; Swift, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the polluted, dusty, helium-dominated atmosphere white dwarf star HE1349-2305. Optical spectroscopy reveals weak CaII infrared triplet emission indicating that metallic gas debris orbits and is accreted by the white dwarf. Atmospheric abundances are measured for magnesium and silicon while upper limits for iron and oxygen are derived from the available optical spectroscopy. HE1349-2305 is the first gas disk-hosting white dwarf star identified amongst previously known polluted white dwarfs. Further characterization of the parent body polluting this star will require ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  8. HR2875: Spectroscopic discovery of the first B star + white dwarf binary

    OpenAIRE

    Burleigh, Matt; Barstow, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We report the discovery, in an Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) short wavelength spectrum, of an unresolved hot white dwarf companion to the 5th-magnitude B5Vp star HR2875. This is the first time that a non-interacting white dwarf$+$ B star binary has been discovered; previously, the the earliest type star known with a white dwarf companion was Sirius (A1V). Since the white dwarf must have evolved from a main sequence progenitor with a mass greater than that of a B5V star...

  9. A new kind of pulsator in the DB valley of white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent systematic surveys providing massive datasets of white dwarf stars show that there is still a deficit of a factor of 2.5 in the ratio of white dwarfs showing helium absorption lines to those with hydrogen absorption lines in the temperature range 30 000 K < Teff < 45 000 K. Since all white dwarfs have to evolve through this temperature range along similar sequences in the color-magnitude diagram, this implies that most of the helium atmosphere white dwarfs evolve into hydrogen atmosphere hot DA stars in that temperature range and then back again to helium atmosphere white dwarfs. I describe possible scenarios for this chameleon-like disguises of white dwarfs with helium dominant atmospheres and a new kind of pulsating white dwarfs predicted to appear near the lower end of the temperature range 45 000-30 000 K from these scenarios. Recently searches have discovered a pulsating DA white dwarf, WD1017-138, in the predicted temperature range. This discovery opens the possibility of a direct test of the explanation for the deficit of helium atmosphere white dwarfs at these temperatures by asteroseismic probing of the atmospheric layers of the hot DAV stars.

  10. Examining Flare Rates in Close M dwarf + White Dwarf binary pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Becker, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a preliminary study to examine the statistical flare rates for M dwarfs with close white dwarf companions (WD+dM; typical separations flare rates. Our analysis of M dwarfs with close WD companions demonstrated that the M dwarfs are more active than their field counterparts. One implication of having a close binary companion is presumed to be increased stellar rotation through disk-disruption, tidal effects, and/or angular momentum exchange; increased stellar activity has long been attributed to an increase in stellar rotation. We examine the difference between the flare rates observed in close WD+dM binary systems and field M dwarfs. Our sample consists of a subset of 202 (70 of which are magnetically active) close WD+dM pairs from Morgan et al. that were observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, a transient observing mode where multi-epoch observations in the Sloan ugriz bands were obtained. We present results that will assist in identifying and categorizing transient phenomena and limiting expensive follow-up observations for future time-domain studies, such as LSST.

  11. The Dynamics of White Dwarfs, Black Holes and Stellar Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegg, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    This thesis contains topics related mostly to the dynamics of white dwarfs (chapter 2), the dynamics of stars around binary super massive black holes (chapters 4, 5 and 6) and dynamics in the singular isothermal sphere (chapter 7). In chapter 2 the kinematics of young ( 0.95 M? ) are also investigated, and it is shown that they are consistent with the majority being formed via single-star evolution from massive progenitor stars. In chapter 3 it is shown that the coolest, oldest white dwarfs can be identified photometrically from their unique colors, and five new ultracool white dwarfs are spectroscopically confirmed. In chapter 4 it is shown that close binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) should produce a burst of tidal disruptions of up to 0.1 yr-1 as they form. The quiescent rate is ˜ 10-5 yr-1 per galaxy, and it is therefore shown that binary SMBHs can potentially be identified via multiple tidal disruptions from the same system. In chapter 5 we perform more extensive simulations of the dynamics of stars around binary SMBHs to better quantify and understand the stellar dynamics. By incorporating general relativistic corrections, we also investigate the processes undergone by compact remnants orbiting the binary SMBHs, analyzing both objects that plunge directly into the SMBHs, and those that undergo extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs). The potential used to mimic general relativistic precession in these simulations is novel, and more accurate for the type of nearly parabolic orbits considered in this work: It is described in chapter 6. In chapter 7 an analytic solution to the manner in which stars diffuse in the background of a singular isothermal sphere is developed. It is shown a self-similar solution should exist, and this solution is found.

  12. A Double White-Dwarf Cooling Sequence in {\\omega} Centauri

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Salaris, M.; Cassisi, S.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G; Bergeron, P

    2013-01-01

    We have applied our empirical-PSF-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of {\\omega} Cen, and found a well-defined split in the right part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of ~2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along th...

  13. Origin of the rotation rates of single white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Spruit, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    I argue that the rotation of white dwarfs is not a remnant of the angular momentum of their main sequence progenitors but a result of the mass loss process on the AGB. Weak magnetic fields, if present in stellar interiors, are likely to maintain approximately uniform rotation in stars, both on the main sequence and on the giant branches. The nearly uniform rotation of the core of the Sun is evidence for the existence of such fields. Exactly axisymmetric mass loss on the AGB ...

  14. On the mass of the white dwarf in UZ Fornacis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwope, Axel D.; Mengel, Sabine; Beuermann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the eclipsing AM Herculis star UZ For obtained when the system was in its low state of accretion. Faint residual Halpha-emission and NaI absorption were used to trace the secondary star and infer its orbital velocity K_2. The measured radial velocity amplitude of NaI K_2 * sin(i) = 285 \\pm 50 kmps suggests a low-mass white dwarf with M_wd = 0.44 \\pm 0.15 Msun (1 sigma-errors). The Halpha emission line on the other hand, visible only ...

  15. Gravitational settling of 22Ne and white dwarf evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a--berro, E.; Althaus, L. G.; Co?rsico, A. H.; Isern, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of the sedimentation of the trace element 22Ne in the cooling of white dwarfs. In contrast with previous studies, which adopted a simplified treatment of the effects of 22Ne sedimentation, this is done self-consistently for the first time, using an up-to-date stellar evolutionary code in which the diffusion equation is coupled with the full set of equations of stellar evolution. Due the large neutron excess of 22Ne, this isotope rapidly sediments in the ...

  16. Gravitational waves from double white dwarfs and AM CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I give a brief overview of our model for the galactic population of compact binaries that is used to predict the low-frequency gravitational wave signal from the galaxy, and discuss recent observational developments that will enable us to test and improve this model. The SPY project will discover some 150 new close double white dwarfs and, recently, two ROSAT sources turned out to be new AM CVn candidates, one with an orbital period of only 5 min. I give an update on the expected binaries that will be resolved by LISA and discuss what we can learn about the galactic population of compact binaries once LISA gives her first results

  17. Accreting White Dwarfs as Supersoft X-ray Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Mariko

    2009-01-01

    I review various phenomena associated with mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in the view of supersoft X-ray sources. When the mass-accretion rate is low (\\dot M_{acc} < a few \\times 10^{-7} M_\\sun yr^{-1}), hydrogen nuclear burning is unstable and nova outbursts occur. A nova is a transient supersoft X-ray source (SSS) in its later phase which timescale depends strongly on the WD mass. The X-ray turn on/off time is a good indicator of the WD mass. At an intermediate mass-acc...

  18. Deriving Precise Ages for Field White Dwarfs using Bayesian Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Aaron; von Hippel, Ted; Bayesian Analysis of Stellar Evolution (BASE)

    2015-01-01

    We apply a self-consistent and robust Bayesian statistical approach along with a range of modern model ingredients to determine the ages, distances, and ZAMS masses of old field white dwarfs with hydrogen, helium, and mixed atmosphere types. We find that age, distance, and ZAMS mass are correlated in a manner that is too complex to be captured by traditional error propagation techniques. In cases where we can determine the composition of the atmosphere, our technique requires only quality optical and near-IR photometry to derive ages with GAIA era, when thousands of WDs will have distances accurate to <2%.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Mid-IR Excesses of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bilíkovà, J; Su, K; Gruendl, R A; Rauch, T

    2011-01-01

    In our Spitzer 24 \\mu m survey of hot white dwarfs (WDs) and archival Spitzer study of pre-WDs, i.e., central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs), we found mid-IR excesses for -15 WDs/pre-WDs. These mid-IR excesses are indicative of the presence of circumstellar dust that could be produced by sub-planetary objects. To further assess the nature of these IR-excesses, we have obtained Spitzer IRS, Gemini NIRI and Michelle, and KPNO 4m echelle spectra of these objects. In this paper we present the analysis of these spectroscopic observations and discuss the nature of these IR excesses.

  20. Enigmas from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 Kleinman White Dwarf Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Liebert, James; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We report results from a continuation of our searches for high field magnetic white dwarfs paired in a detached binary with non degenerate companions. We made use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog of Kleinman et al. (2013) with 19,712 spectroscopically-identified white dwarfs. These include 1,735 white dwarf plus M dwarf detached pairs (almost 10\\% of the Kleinman at al.'s list). No new pairs were found, although we did recover the polar (AM~Herculis system) ST\\,LM...

  1. New population synthesis model: Preliminary results for close double white dwarf populations

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2011-01-01

    An update is presented to the software package SeBa for simulating single star and binary evolution in which new stellar evolution tracks have been implemented. SeBa is applied to study the population of close double white dwarf and the delay time distribution of double white dwarf mergers that may lead to Supernovae Type Ia.

  2. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

    2014-11-01

    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young. PMID:25327247

  3. Tidal disruption and ignition of white dwarfs by moderately massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rosswog; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Hix, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the tidal disruption of white dwarfs by moderately massive black holes, with particular reference to the centers of dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Special attention is given to the fate of white dwarfs of all masses that approach the black hole close enough to be disrupted and severely compressed to such extent that explosive nuclear burning can be triggered. Consistent modeling of the gas dynamics together with the nuclear reac...

  4. Connections between Tilted Accretion Disks around White Dwarfs and Substellar Companions

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion disks in white dwarf systems are believed to be tilted. In a recent publication, the lift force has been suggested to be a source to disk tilt, a source that is likely relevant to all accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether a brown dwarf donor star accreting onto a white dwarf primary has enough mass to contribu...

  5. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T; Cohen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks....

  6. A search for kilogauss magnetic fields in white dwarfs and hot subdwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Valyavin, G; Fabrika, S; Reisenegger, A; Wade, G A; Han, I; Monin, D; Han, Inwoo

    2006-01-01

    We present new results of a survey for weak magnetic fields among DA white dwarfs with inclusion of some brighter hot subdwarf stars. We have detected variable circular polarization in the Halpha line of the hot subdwarf star Feige 34 (SP: sdO). From these data, we estimate that the longitudinal magnetic field of this star varies from -1.1 +/- 3.2 kG to +9.6 +/- 2.6 kG, with a mean of about +5 kG and a period longer than 2 h. In this study, we also confirm the magnetic nature of white dwarf WD1105-048 and present upper limits of kilogauss longitudinal magnetic fields of 5 brightest DA white dwarfs. Our data support recent finding that 25% of white dwarfs have kilogauss magnetic fields. This frequency also confirms results of early estimates obtained using the magnetic field function of white dwarfs.

  7. Swift J1644+57: A White Dwarf Tidally Disrupted by a 104 M ? Black Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolik, Julian H.; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-12-01

    We propose that the remarkable object Swift J1644+57, in which multiple recurring hard X-ray flares were seen over a span of several days, is a system in which a white dwarf was tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole. Disruption of a white dwarf rather than a main-sequence star offers a number of advantages in understanding the multiple, and short, timescales seen in the light curve of this system. In particular, the short internal dynamical timescale of a white dwarf offers a more natural way of understanding the short rise times (~100 s) observed. The relatively long intervals between flares (~5 × 104 s) may also be readily understood as the period between successive pericenter passages of the remnant white dwarf. In addition, the expected jet power is larger when a white dwarf is disrupted. If this model is correct, the black hole responsible must have a mass <~ 105 M ?.

  8. SWIFT J1644+57: A WHITE DWARF TIDALLY DISRUPTED BY A 104 M? BLACK HOLE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose that the remarkable object Swift J1644+57, in which multiple recurring hard X-ray flares were seen over a span of several days, is a system in which a white dwarf was tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole. Disruption of a white dwarf rather than a main-sequence star offers a number of advantages in understanding the multiple, and short, timescales seen in the light curve of this system. In particular, the short internal dynamical timescale of a white dwarf offers a more natural way of understanding the short rise times (?100 s) observed. The relatively long intervals between flares (?5 × 104 s) may also be readily understood as the period between successive pericenter passages of the remnant white dwarf. In addition, the expected jet power is larger when a white dwarf is disrupted. If this model is correct, the black hole responsible must have a mass ?5 M?.

  9. The ages of very cool hydrogen-rich white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, M; Hernanz, M; Isern, J; Saumon, D S

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is essentially a cooling process that depends primarily on the energy stored in their degenerate cores and on the transparency of their envelopes. In this paper we compute accurate cooling sequences for carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with hydrogen dominated atmospheres for the full range of masses of interest. For this purpose we use the most accurate available physical inputs for both the equation of state and opacities of the envelope and for the thermodynamic quantities of the degenerate core. We also investigate the role of the latent heat in the computed cooling sequences. We present separately cooling sequences in which the effects of phase separation of the carbon-oxygen binary mixture upon crystallization have been neglected, and the delay introduced in the cooling times when this mechanism is properly taken into account, in order to compare our results with other published cooling sequences which do not include a treatment of this phenomenon. We find that the cooling ages of...

  10. Discovery of Two Relativistic Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, R T

    2000-01-01

    We have discovered two recycled pulsars in relativistic orbits as part of the first high-frequency survey of intermediate Galactic latitudes. PSR J1157-5112 is a 44 ms pulsar and the first recycled pulsar with an ultra-massive (M > 1.14 Mo) white dwarf companion. Millisecond pulsar J1757-5322 is a relativistic circular-orbit system which will coalesce due to the emission of gravitational radiation in less than 9.5 Gyr. Of the ~40 known circular orbit pulsars, J1757-5322 and J1157-5112 have the highest projected orbital velocities. There are now three local neutron-star/white-dwarf binaries that will coalesce in less than a Hubble time, implying a large coalescence rate for these objects in the local Universe. Systems such as J1141-6545 (Kaspi et al. 2000) are potential gamma-ray burst progenitors and dominate the coalescence rate, whilst lighter systems make excellent progenitors of millisecond pulsars with planetary or ultra-low mass companions.

  11. Simplified Hydrostatic Carbon Burning in White Dwarf Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, Francisco; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We introduce two simplified nuclear networks that can be used in hydrostatic carbon burning reactions occurring in white dwarf interiors. They model the relevant nuclear reactions in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (COWDs) approaching ignition in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors, including the effects of the main e-captures and \\beta-decays that drive the convective Urca process. They are based on studies of a detailed nuclear network compiled by the authors and are defined by approximate sets of differential equations whose derivations are included in the text. The first network, N1, provides a good first order estimation of the distribution of ashes and it also provides a simple picture of the main reactions occurring during this phase of evolution. The second network, N2, is a more refined version of N1 and can reproduce the evolution of the main physical properties of the full network to the 5% level. We compare the evolution of the mole fraction of the relevant nuclei, the neutron excess, the photon ener...

  12. Minimal dielectric polarization stopping power in white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the energy loss of ions by arbitrarily degenerate electron fluid, in the framework of hydrodynamic model by incorporating the generalized relativistic degeneracy pressure, Wigner-Seitz cell Coulomb interactions, and electron spin-exchange pressures for a wide range of electron number-density regimes relevant to the solid density (SD), inertial confinement fusion (ICF), warm dense matter (WDM), and super-dense astrophysical objects, such as white dwarf (WD) stars. It is found that the use of non-relativistic degeneracy pressure for electron fluid, instead of the exact Chandrasekhar relativistic degeneracy pressure, for the ICF density regime and beyond can introduce significant relative error to the stopping power calculation. Therefore, current study may introduce a significant change to the ICF scheme of super-compressed fuel. It is further revealed that the relativistic degeneracy parameter, R 0, and the atomic number of constituent ions, Z, significantly affect the maximum stopping power velocity of ions. We also discover that the velocity-averaged energy loss function becomes minimal in electron number density typical of white dwarf stars, n 0?2×1030 cm-3. It is found that the characteristic density for the minimal ion beam energy loss does not depend on the value of other plasma parameters, such as the ion-electron collision rate and the ion temperature or its atomic number. The latter finding, in particular, may help in better understanding of fusion-burning waves in dense compact stars and their cooling mechanisms.

  13. Calcium and magnesium in the helium white dwarf GD 401

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calcium abundance (Ca/Heapprox.6--9 x 10-9) has been derived for the DB degenerate object GD 401 using spectrum synthesis techniques and observational data acquired with the SIT spectrograph. From these data we have also derived upper limits for the Mg/He and Fe/He ratios of approx.1 x 10-8 and approx.6 x 10-9, respectively. The errors on these abundances are relatively high (factors of approx.5--10), since we used a cooler model (T/sub e/=8800 K; cf. 9500 K, Greenstein) and abundances of the electron donors (C, N, O, H) which are uncertain because of the lack of observable features. However, two conclusions can be made from this analysis: (1) calcium is deficient relative to the Sun, contrary to the estimates of Liebert et al., and (2) the Mg/Ca ratio limit is much smaller than the solar value, in contrast to the results of the two other well-studied metal-line white dwarfs (Ross 640, van Maanen 2). The second result for GD 401 is at variance with recent diffusion theories for white dwarfs, which generally predict light-to-heavy element ratios larger than the Sun. If more detailed model atmospheres confirm these results, GD 401 may reflect abundance ratios from recently accreted interstellar material which has noncosmic abundances

  14. DA WHITE DWARFS OBSERVED IN THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong [Key Lab for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lepine, Sebastien [Department of Astrophysics, Division of Physical Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY (United States); Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Jin Ge [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-08-01

    A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

  15. Detached white dwarf main-sequence star binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Willems, B

    2004-01-01

    We considered the formation of detached white dwarf main-sequence star (WDMS) binaries through seven evolutionary channels subdivided according to the evolutionary process that gives rise to the formation of the white dwarf or its helium-star progenitor: dynamically stable Roche-lobe overflow (Algol-type evolution), dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow (common-envelope evolution), or stellar winds (single star evolution). We examine the sensitivity of the population to changes in the amount of mass lost from the system during stable Roche-lobe overflow, the common-envelope ejection efficiency, and the initial mass ratio or initial secondary mass distribution. In the case of a flat initial mass ratio distribution, the local space density of WDMS binaries is of the order of 10^{-3}/pc^3. This number decreases to 10^{-4}/pc^3 when the initial mass ratio distribution is approximately proportional to the inverse of the initial mass ratio. More than 75% of the WDMS binary population stems from wide systems in w...

  16. White dwarfs as a source of constraints on exotic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Malec, B

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review main ideas underlying the constraints on exotic physics coming from Astrophysics already used by the others. Next we present a new bound coming from the White Dwarf cooling. Such stringent bound is possible due to accurate measurements offered by astro-seismology. Specifically we consider the G117-B15A pulsating white dwarf (ZZ Ceti star) for which the speed of the period increase has been accurately measured for its fundamental oscillation mode. It has been claimed that this mode detected in G117-B15A is perhaps the most stable oscillation ever recorded in the optical band. Then we review our result concerning the bounds on compactification scale in the theory with large extra dimensions according to Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali (1998). Because an additional channel of energy loss (Kaluza-Klein gravitons) would speed up the cooling rate, one is able to use the aforementioned stability to derive a bound on compactification scale. We find the lower bound on compactificatio...

  17. SGRs and AXPs: Massive Rotating White Dwarfs versus Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Malheiro, Manuel; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    The recent observations of SGR 0418+5729 offer an authentic Rosetta Stone for deciphering the energy source of Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs). The "magnetar" model, appeals to a yet untested new energy source in astrophysical systems: bulk magnetic energy. It leads for SGR 0418+5729 to results in contradiction with observations. It is shown how a consistent model for SGRs and AXPs can be expressed in terms of canonical physics and astrophysics within massive, fast rotating, and highly magnetized white dwarfs. The pioneering work of B. Paczynski (1990) on 1E 2259+586 is extended and further developed to describe the observed properties of all known SGRS and AXPs by assuming spin-down powered massive, fast rotating, and highly magnetized white dwarfs. Within this model, we obtain the theoretical prediction for the lower limit of the first time derivative of the rotational period of SGR 0418+5729, $\\dot{P} \\geq L_X P^3/(4\\pi^2 I)=1.18\\times 10^{-16}$ s/s being $L_X$ and $P$ th...

  18. The White Dwarf Population in NGC 1039 (M34) and the White Dwarf Initial-Final Mass Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Kate H R; Bolte, M; Koester, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    We present the first detailed photometric and spectroscopic study of the white dwarfs (WDs) in the field of the ~225 Myr old (log tau_cl = 8.35) open cluster NGC 1039 (M34) as part of the ongoing Lick-Arizona White Dwarf Survey. Using wide-field UBV imaging, we photometrically select 44 WD candidates in this field. We spectroscopically identify 19 of these objects as WDs; 17 are hydrogen-atmosphere DA WDs, one is a helium-atmosphere DB WD, and one is a cool DC WD that exhibits no detectable absorption lines. We find an effective temperature (T_eff) and surface gravity (log g) for each DA WD by fitting Balmer-line profiles from model atmospheres to the observed spectra. WD evolutionary models are then invoked to derive masses and cooling times for each DA WD. Of the 17 DAs, five are at the approximate distance modulus of the cluster. Another WD with a distance modulus 0.45 mag brighter than that of the cluster could be a double-degenerate binary cluster member, but is more likely to be a field WD. We place the...

  19. EX-111 Thermal Emission from Hot White Dwarfs: The Suggested He Abundance-Temperature Correlation. EX-112: The Unique Emission Line White Dwarf Star GD 356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the EXOSAT data analysis program is reported. EXOSAT observations for four white dwarfs (WD1031-115, WD0004+330, WD1615-154, and WD0109-264) were obtained. Counting rates were unexpectedly low, indicating that these objects have a substantial amount of x-ray absorbing matter in their photosheres. In addition, soft x-ray pulsations characterized by a 9.25 minute cycle were discovered in the DA white dwarf V471 Tauri. A residual x-ray flux from the K dwarf companion can be seen during the white dwarf eclipse at orbital phase 0.0. Pronounced dips in the soft x-ray light curve occur at orbital phases 0.15, 0.18, and 0.85. The dips may be correlated with the triangular Lagrangian points of the binary orbit. Smaller dips at phases near the eclipse may be associated with cool loops in the K star corona. Data for the white dwarf H1504+65 was also analyzed. This object is particularly unusual in that its photoshere is devoid of hydrogen and helium. Finally, existing data on the white dwarf Sirius B were analyzed to see what constraints from other data can be placed on the properties of this star. Interrelationships between radius, rotational velocity, and effective temperature were derived.

  20. Remarkable spectral variability on the spin period of the accreting white dwarf in V455 And

    CERN Document Server

    Bloemen, S; De Smedt, K; Vos, J; Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R; Rodriguez-Gil, P

    2012-01-01

    We present spin-resolved spectroscopy of the accreting white dwarf binary V455 And. With a suggested spin period of only 67s, it has one of the fastest spinning white dwarfs known. To study the spectral variability on the spin period of the white dwarf, we observed V455 And with 2s integration times, which is significantly shorter than the spin rate of the white dwarf. To achieve this cadence, we used the blue arm of the ISIS spectrograph at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, equipped with an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD). Strong coherent signals were detected in our time series, which lead to a robust determination of the spin period of the white dwarf (Pspin=67.619 +/- 0.002 s). Folding the spectra on the white dwarf spin period uncovered very complex emission line variations in Hgamma, He I 4472 and He II 4686. We attribute the observed spin phase dependence of the emission line shape to the presence of magnetically controlled accretion onto the white dwarf via accretion curtains, consistent with an ...

  1. An independent test of the photometric selection of white dwarf candidates using LAMOST DR3

    CERN Document Server

    Fusillo, N P Gentile; Gänsicke, B T; Liu, X -W; Ren, J J; Koester, D; Zhan, Y; Hou, Y; Wang, Y; Yang, M

    2015-01-01

    In Gentile Fusillo et al. (2015) we developed a selection method for white dwarf candidates which makes use of photometry, colours and proper motions to calculate a probability of being a white dwarf (Pwd). The application of our method to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 10 resulted in nearly 66,000 photometrically selected objects with a derived Pwd, approximately 21000 of which are high confidence white dwarf candidates. Here we present an independent test of our selection method based on a sample of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs from the LAMOST (Large Sky Area Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) survey. We do this by cross matching all our $\\sim$66,000 SDSS photometric white dwarf candidates with the over 4 million spectra available in the third data release of LAMOST. This results in 1673 white dwarf candidates with no previous SDSS spectroscopy, but with available LAMOST spectra. Among these objects we identify 309 genuine white dwarfs. We find that our Pwd can efficiently di...

  2. New phase diagrams for dense carbon-oxygen mixtures and white dwarf evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi; Córsico, Alejandro H; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller

    2011-01-01

    Cool white dwarfs are reliable and independent stellar chronometers. The most common white dwarfs have carbon-oxygen dense cores. Consequently, the cooling ages of very cool white dwarfs sensitively depend on the adopted phase diagram of the carbon-oxygen binary mixture. A new phase diagram of dense carbon-oxygen mixtures appropriate for white dwarf interiors has been recently obtained using direct molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we explore the consequences of this phase diagram in the evolution of cool white dwarfs. To do this we employ a detailed stellar evolutionary code and accurate initial white dwarf configurations, derived from the full evolution of progenitor stars. We use two different phase diagrams, that of Horowitz et al. (2010), which presents an azeotrope, and the phase diagram of Segretain & Chabrier (1993), which is of the spindle form. We computed the evolution of 0.593 and 0.878M_sun white dwarf models during the crystallization phase, and we found that the energy released...

  3. On the incidence of weak magnetic fields in DA white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Landstreet, J D; Valyavin, G G; Fossati, L; Jordan, S; Monin, D; Wade, G

    2012-01-01

    Context: About 10% of white dwarfs have magnetic fields with strength in the range between about 10^5 and 3x10^8 G. It is not known whether the remaining white dwarfs are not magnetic, or if they have a magnetic field too weak to be detected with the techniques adopted in the large surveys. Aims. We describe the results of the first survey specifically devised to clarify the detection frequency of kG-level magnetic fields in cool DA white dwarfs. Methods: Using the FORS1 instrument of the ESO VLT, we have obtained Balmer line circular spectropolarimetric measurements of a small sample of cool (DA6 - DA8) white dwarfs. Using FORS and UVES archive data, we have also revised numerous white dwarf field measurements previously published in the literature. Results: We have discovered an apparently constant longitudinal magnetic field of \\sim9.5 kG in the DA6 white dwarf WD2105-820. This star is the first weak-field white dwarf that has been observed sufficiently to roughly determine the characteristics of its field...

  4. Dwarf novae white dwarf surface brightness distributions: dispelling boundary layer assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, Mellony K.; O'Donoghue, Darragh

    2015-05-01

    Estimates of white dwarf radii from photometric observations of eclipsing cataclysmic variables critically depend on the shape of the emitting region which has traditionally been assumed to be spherical and unchanging. Derivative analysis of light curves can reveal the shape of the emitting boundary layer but requires high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), fast photometry of the central, compact object. With this objective, 18 light curves were obtained from high time resolution observations of OY Car using the Southern African Large Telescopes (SALT) Imaging Camera (SALTICAM). The technique of total variation regularization, adapted and applied here for the first time to astronomical time series data, combined with the high SNR provided by SALTICAM, allowed analysis of the light curves on an individual basis. This showed that the shape of the emitting region does indeed vary significantly; the boundary layer emission changes on an orbital cycle-to-cycle basis. This implies that previous analyses have led to overestimates of the white dwarf's radius. Nearly all of the light curves presented here did not match previously proposed models for the boundary layer's surface brightness distribution.

  5. Calcium-rich gap transients: tidal detonations of white dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, P. H.; Maccarone, T. J.; Kotak, R.; Knigge, C.; Sand, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesize that at least some of the recently discovered class of calcium-rich gap transients are tidal detonation events of white dwarfs (WDs) by black holes (BHs) or possibly neutron stars. We show that the properties of the calcium-rich gap transients agree well with the predictions of the tidal detonation model. Under the predictions of this model, we use a follow-up X-ray observation of one of these transients, SN 2012hn, to place weak upper limits on the detonator mass of this system that include all intermediate-mass BHs (IMBHs). As these transients are preferentially in the stellar haloes of galaxies, we discuss the possibility that these transients are tidal detonations of WDs caused by random flyby encounters with IMBHs in dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. This possibility has been already suggested in the literature but without connection to the calcium-rich gap transients. In order for the random flyby cross-section to be high enough, these events would have to be occurring inside these dense stellar associations. However, there is a lack of evidence for IMBHs in these systems, and recent observations have ruled out all but the very faintest dwarf galaxies and globular clusters for a few of these transients. Another possibility is that these are tidal detonations caused by three-body interactions, where a WD is perturbed towards the detonator in isolated multiple star systems. We highlight a number of ways this could occur, even in lower mass systems with stellar-mass BHs or neutron stars. Finally, we outline several new observational tests of this scenario, which are feasible with current instrumentation.

  6. SEISMOLOGY OF A MASSIVE PULSATING HYDROGEN ATMOSPHERE WHITE DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our observations of the new pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J132350.28+010304.22. We discovered periodic photometric variations in frequency and amplitude that are commensurate with nonradial g-mode pulsations in ZZ Ceti stars. This, along with estimates for the star's temperature and gravity, establishes it as a massive ZZ Ceti star. We used time-series photometric observations with the 4.1 m SOAR Telescope, complemented by contemporary McDonald Observatory 2.1 m data, to discover the photometric variability. The light curve of SDSS J132350.28+010304.22 shows at least nine detectable frequencies. We used these frequencies to make an asteroseismic determination of the total mass and effective temperature of the star: M* = 0.88 ± 0.02 M? and Teff = 12, 100 ± 140 K. These values are consistent with those derived from the optical spectra and photometric colors.

  7. Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Influence of Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Tidal interactions play an important role in the evolution and ultimate fate of compact white dwarf (WD) binaries. Not only do tides affect the pre-merger state (such as temperature and rotation rate) of the WDs, but they may also determine which systems merge and which undergo stable mass transfer. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the effects of rotation on tidal angular momentum transport in binary stars, with specific calculations applied to WD stellar models. We incorporate the effect of rotation using the traditional approximation, in which the dynamically excited gravity waves within the WDs are transformed into gravito-inertial Hough waves. The Coriolis force has only a minor effect on prograde gravity waves, and previous results predicting the tidal spin-up and heating of inspiraling WDs are not significantly modified. However, rotation strongly alters retrograde gravity waves and inertial waves, with important consequences for the tidal spin-down of accreting WDs. We identify new dynamical tidal...

  8. MASS CONSTRAINTS FROM ECLIPSE TIMING IN DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I demonstrate that an effect similar to the Roemer delay, familiar from timing radio pulsars, should be detectable in the first eclipsing double white dwarf (WD) binary, NLTT 11748. By measuring the difference of the time between the secondary and primary eclipses from one-half period (4.6 s), one can determine the physical size of the orbit and hence constrain the masses of the individual WDs. A measurement with uncertainty sun when combined with good-quality (-1) radial velocity data, although the eccentricity must also be known to high accuracy (±10-3). Mass constraints improve as P -1/2 (where P is the orbital period), so this works best in wide binaries and should be detectable even for non-degenerate stars, but such constraints require the mass ratio to differ from 1, as well as undistorted orbits.

  9. Cosmological Physics with Black Holes (and Possibly White Dwarfs)

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen; Kocsis, Bence

    2008-01-01

    The notion that microparsec-scale black holes can be used to probe gigaparsec-scale physics may seem counterintuitive, at first. Yet, the gravitational observatory LISA will detect cosmologically-distant coalescing pairs of massive black holes, accurately measure their luminosity distance and help identify an electromagnetic counterpart or a host galaxy. A wide variety of new black hole studies and a gravitational version of Hubble's diagram become possible if host galaxies are successfully identified. Furthermore, if dark energy is a manifestation of large-scale modified gravity, deviations from general relativistic expectations could become apparent in a gravitational signal propagated over cosmological scales, especially when compared to the electromagnetic signal from a same source. Finally, since inspirals of white dwarfs into massive black holes at cosmological distances may permit pre-merger localizations, we suggest that careful monitoring of these events and any associated electromagnetic counterpart...

  10. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, P.; Haas, R.; Shcherbakov, R. V.; Bode, T.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, ? ? t-5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1-3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ˜3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ˜10-18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  11. Cosmological physics with black holes (and possibly white dwarfs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menou, Kristen; Haiman, Zoltan; Kocsis, Bence

    2008-05-01

    The notion that microparsec-scale black holes can be used to probe gigaparsec-scale physics may seem counterintuitive, at first. Yet, the gravitational observatory LISA will detect cosmologically-distant coalescing pairs of massive black holes, accurately measure their luminosity distance and help identify an electromagnetic counterpart or a host galaxy. A wide variety of new black hole studies and a gravitational version of Hubble's diagram become possible, if host galaxies are successfully identified. Furthermore, if dark energy is a manifestation of large-scale modified gravity, deviations from general relativistic expectations could become apparent in a gravitational signal propagated over cosmological scales, especially when compared to the electromagnetic signal from a same source. Finally, since inspirals of white dwarfs into massive black holes at cosmological distances may permit pre-merger localizations, we suggest that careful monitoring of these events and any associated electromagnetic counterpart could lead to high-precision cosmological measurements with LISA.

  12. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, ? ? ?t?5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3?yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ?3.2?Hz and strain amplitudes of ?10?18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  13. Compact objects for everyone: I. White dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon previous discussions on the structure of compact stars geared towards undergraduate physics students, a real experiment involving two upper-level undergraduate physics students, a beginning physics graduate and two advanced graduate students was conducted. A recent addition to the physics curriculum at Florida State University, The Physics of Stars, sparked quite a few students' interests in the subject matter involving stellar structure. This, coupled with Stars and statistical physics by Balian and Blaizot (1999 Am. J. Phys. 67 1189) and Neutron stars for undergraduates by Silbar and Reddy (2004 Am. J. Phys. 72 892), is the cornerstone of this small research group who tackled solving the structure equations for compact objects in the summer of 2004. Through the use of a simple finite-difference algorithm coupled to Microsoft Excel and Maple, solutions to the equations for stellar structure are presented in the Newtonian regime appropriate to the physics of white dwarf stars

  14. Models of Vortices and Spirals in White Dwarf's Accretion Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Boneva, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The main aim in the current survey is to suggest models of the development of structures, such as vortices and spirals, in accretion white dwarf's binaries. Numerical methods and simulations are applied on the bases of hydrodynamic analytical considerations. It is suggested in the theoretical model the perturbation's parameters of the accretion flow, which are caused by the influences of the tidal wave over the flux of accretion matter around the secondary star. The results of numerical code application on the disturbed flow reveal an appearing of structure with spiral shape due to the tidal interaction in the close binaries. Our further simulations give the solution, which expresses the formation of vortical configurations in the accretion disc's zone. The evolution of vortices in areas of the flow's interaction is explored using single vortex and composite vortex models. Gas in the disc matter is considered to be compressible and non-ideal. The longevity of all these structures is different and each depends...

  15. Detectability of substellar companions around white dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    Silvotti, Roberto; Lattanzi, Mario; Morbidelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To date not a single-bona fide planet has been identified orbiting a single white dwarf. In fact we are ignorant about the final configuration of >95% of planetary systems. Theoretical models predict a gap in the final distribution of orbital periods, due to the opposite effects of stellar mass loss (planets pushed outwards) and tidal interactions (planets pushed inwards) during the RGB and the AGB stellar expansions. Over its five year primary mission, Gaia is expected to astrometrically detect the first (few tens of) WD massive planets/BDs giving first evidence that WD planets exist, at least those in wide orbits. In this article we present preliminary results of our simulations of what Gaia should be able to find in this field.

  16. White dwarf masses and nova efficiency in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that current ideas for forming the period gap in cataclysmic variables (CVs) give a simple explanation for the spike in the observed distribution of magnetic CVs, provided that they have a bimodal distribution of white dwarf masses M1 at the start of their secular evolution. The majority should have M1 very close to a value of ? 0.6-0.7 Msolar masses and form at periods of ? 4-6 hr, with a much smaller group having larger M1 and forming at periods up to 10 hr. Nova explosions remove almost exactly the accreted mass for the low-mass group, so that M1 remains at the initial value of ? 0.6-0.7 Msolar masses while the high-mass group may lose small amounts of mass. These conclusions are supported by nova theory and offer the possibility of an observational test of gap forming hypotheses. (author)

  17. White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters HST Observations of M4

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Ibata, R A; Pryor, C E; Bell, R A; Bolte, M; Bond, H E; Harris, W E; Hesser, J E; Holland, S; Ivanans, N; Mandushev, G I; Stetson, P B; Wood, M A; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Pryor, Carlton; Bell, Roger A.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Harris, William E.; Hesser, James E.; Holland, Steve; Ivanans, Nicholas; Mandushev, Georgi; Stetson, Peter B.; Wood, Matt A.

    1997-01-01

    Using WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have isolated a sample of 258 white dwarfs (WDs) in the Galactic globular cluster M4. Fields at three radial distances from the cluster center were observed and sizeable WD populations were found in all three. The location of these WDs in the color-magnitude diagram, their mean mass of 0.51($ \\pm 0.03$)M$_{\\odot}$, and their luminosity function confirm basic tenets of stellar evolution theory and support the results from current WD cooling theory. The WDs are used to extend the cluster main-sequence mass function upward to stars that have already completed their nuclear evolution. The WD/red dwarf binary frequency in M4 is investigated and found to be at most a few percent of all the main-sequence stars. The most ancient WDs found are about 9 Gyr old, a level which is set solely by the photometric limits of our data. Even though this is less than the age of M4, we discuss how these cooling WDs can eventually be used to check the turnoff ages of globular clusters a...

  18. Calcium-Rich Gap Transients: Tidal Detonations of White Dwarfs?

    CERN Document Server

    Sell, P H; Kotak, R; Knigge, C; Sand, D J

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that at least some of the recently discovered class of calcium-rich gap transients are tidal detonation events of white dwarfs (WDs) by black holes (BHs) or possibly neutron stars. We show that the properties of the calcium-rich gap transients agree well with the predictions of the tidal detonation model. Under the predictions of this model, we use a follow-up X-ray observation of one of these transients, SN 2012hn, to place weak upper limits on the detonator mass of this system that include all intermediate-mass BHs (IMBHs). As these transients are preferentially in the stellar haloes of galaxies, we discuss the possibility that these transients are tidal detonations of WDs caused by random flyby encounters with IMBHs in dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. This possibility has been already suggested in the literature but without connection to the calcium-rich gap transients. In order for the random flyby cross-section to be high enough, these events would have to be occurring inside these den...

  19. Type Ia Supernovae from Merging White Dwarfs I. Prompt Detonations

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Rainer; Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Merging white dwarfs are a possible progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). While it is not entirely clear if and when an explosion is triggered in such systems, numerical models suggest that a detonation might be initiated before the stars have coalesced to form a single compact object. Here we study such "peri-merger" detonations by means of numerical simulations, modeling the disruption and nucleosynthesis of the stars until the ejecta reach the coasting phase. Synthetic light curves and spectra are generated for comparison with observations. Three models are considered with primary masses 0.96 Msun, 1.06 Msun, and 1.20 Msun. Of these, the 0.96 Msun dwarf merging with an 0.81 Msun companion, with a Ni56 yield of 0.58 Msun, is the most promising candidate for reproducing common SNe Ia. The more massive mergers produce unusually luminous SNe Ia with peak luminosities approaching those attributed to "super-Chandrasekhar" mass SNe Ia. While the synthetic light curves and spectra of some of the models resemb...

  20. Reaching the End of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence in NGC 6791

    OpenAIRE

    Bedin, L. R.; King, I. R.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G; Salaris, M.; Cassisi, S.; Serenelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present new observations of the white dwarf sequence of the old open cluster NGC 6791. The brighter peak previously observed in the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) is now better delineated, and the second, fainter peak that we suggested earlier is now confirmed. A careful study suggests that we have reached the end of the white dwarf sequence. The WDs that create the two peaks in the WDLF show a significant turn to the blue in the color-magnitude diagram. The discr...

  1. Constraining white-dwarf kicks in globular clusters : III. Cluster Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, Jeremy S

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations of white dwarfs in globular clusters indicate that these stars may get a velocity kick during their time as giants. This velocity kick could originate naturally if the mass loss while on the asymptotic giant branch is slightly asymmetric. The kicks may be large enough to dramatically change the radial distribution of young white dwarfs, giving them typically larger velocities than other stars of similar mass in the cluster. As these fast moving white dwarfs travel through the cluster they can impart their excess kinetic energy on the other stars in the cluster, providing a new heat source for globular clusters, especially during their youth.

  2. Features of the mass transfer in magnetic cataclysmic variables with fast-rotating white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isakova, Polina; Bisikalo, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The flow structure in magnetic cataclysmic variables was investigated taking into account the effects of strong magnetic field and fast rotation of the white dwarf. We modeled the AE Aqr system as a unique object that has the rotation period of the white dwarf is about 1000 times shorter than the orbital period of the binary system. Observations show that in spite of fast rotation of the white dwarf some part of the stream from the inner Lagrange point comes into the Roche lobe region. We analyzed possible mechanisms preventing material to outflow from the system.

  3. Limits on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from the luminosity function of hot white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel Miller

    2014-01-01

    Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs, where neutrino processes are dominant. We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the value of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment ($\\mu_\

  4. White dwarfs stripped by massive black holes: sources of coincident gravitational and electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zalamea, Ivan; Menou, Kristen; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs inspiraling into black holes of mass $\\MBH\\simgt 10^5M_\\odot$ are detectable sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band. In many of these events, the white dwarf begins to lose mass during the main observational phase of the inspiral. The mass loss starts gently and can last for thousands of orbits. The white dwarf matter overflows the Roche lobe through the $L_1$ point at each pericenter passage and the mass loss repeats periodically. The process occurs ve...

  5. THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bagnulo, S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Kowalski, P. M. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Sterzik, M. F., E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: M.R.Patel@open.ac.uk, E-mail: r.busuttil@open.ac.uk, E-mail: sba@arm.ac.uk, E-mail: kowalski@gfz-potsdam.de, E-mail: denis.shulyak@gmail.com, E-mail: msterzik@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2012-09-20

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for {approx}8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10{sup 2} (10{sup 4}) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

  6. The habitability and detection of Earth-like planets orbiting cool white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Haswell, C A; Patel, M R; Busuttil, R; Kowalski, P M; Shulyak, D V; Sterzik, M F

    2012-01-01

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the Continuous Habitable Zone (CHZ) for ~8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarisation due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf is 10^2 (10^4) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterisation. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M_sun white dwarf will be distorted by...

  7. Strongly magnetized electron degenerate gas: Highly super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Upasana

    2013-01-01

    We consider a relativistic, degenerate, electron gas under the influence of a strong magnetic field, which describes magnetized white dwarfs. Landau quantization changes the density of states available to the electrons, thus modifying the underlying equation of state. We obtain the mass-radius relations for such white dwarfs and show that it is possible to have magnetized white dwarfs with a mass significantly greater than the Chandrasekhar limit in the range 2.3 - 2.6 M_sun. Recent observations of peculiar type Ia supernovae - SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg - seem to suggest super-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with masses up to 2.4 - 2.8 M_sun, as their most likely progenitors and interestingly our results lie within the observational limits.

  8. Testing Fundamental Particle Physics with the Galactic White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Melendez, B. E.; Althaus, L. G.; Isern, J.

    2015-06-01

    Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to test the possible properties and existence of fundamental weakly interacting subelectronvolt particles. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs. We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the values of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (??) and the axion-electron coupling constant (gae) of DFSZ-axions.

  9. WhiteDwarf.org - Establishing a permanent endowment for the Whole Earth Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, T S

    2002-01-01

    White Dwarf Research Corporation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to scientific research and public education on topics relevant to white dwarf stars. It was founded in 1999 in Austin, Texas to help fulfill the need for an alternative research center where scarce funding dollars could be used more efficiently, and to provide a direct link between astronomers who study white dwarf stars and the general public. Due to its administrative simplicity, WDRC can facilitate the funding of multi-institutional and international collaborations, provide seamless grant portability, minimize overhead rates, and actively seek non-governmental funding sources. I describe the motivation for, and current status of, one of the long-term goals of WDRC: to establish a permanent endowment for the operation of the Whole Earth Telescope. I pay particular attention to fund-raising efforts through the website at http://WhiteDwarf.org/donate/

  10. Testing Fundamental Particle Physics with the Galactic White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to test the possible properties and existence of fundamental weakly interacting subelectronvolt particles. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs. We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the values of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment ($\\mu_\

  11. AE Aquarii: The first white dwarf in the family of spin-powered pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, N R

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of Doppler H-alpha tomogram of the nova-like star AE Aquarii suggests that the dipole magnetic moment of the white dwarf is close to 1.5E+34 G cm^3. This is consistent with the lower limit to the magnetic field strength of the white dwarf derived from observations of circularly polarized optical emission of the system. The rapid braking of the white dwarf and the nature of pulsing hard X-ray emission recently detected with SUZAKU space telescope under these conditions can be explained in terms of spin-powered pulsar mechanism. A question about the origin of strongly magnetized white dwarf in the system remains, however, open. Possible evolutionary tracks of AE Aquarii are briefly discussed.

  12. The White Dwarf Population in the 2QZ and Sloan Surveys.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vennes, S.; Kawka, Adela; Croom, S.M.; Boyle, B.J.; Smith, R.J.; Shanks, T.; Outram, P.; Miller, L.; Loaring, N.

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2005 - (Sion, E.), s. 49-60 ISBN 1-4020-3693-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : white dwarf * stellar population Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Special and general relativity with applications to white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Glendenning, Norman K

    2007-01-01

    Special and General Relativity are concisely developed together with essential aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Problem sets are provided for many chapters, making the book ideal for a course on the physics of white dwarf and neutron star interiors.

  14. Neutrino Emission and Oscillations in White Dwarf Matter Accreting onto a Primordial Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the neutrinos emitted during an accretion of white dwarf matter by a primordial black hole are considered. The possibility of detecting these neutrinos and their oscillations is discussed

  15. Resonance model for high-frequency QPOs in white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu?niak, W?odzimierz

    2008-05-01

    High-frequency QPOs reflect non-linear, and likely resonant, oscillations in accretion disks. In black holes, and probably in neutron stars, but not in white dwarfs, strong gravity plays a crucial role in their formation.

  16. Neutrino emission and oscillations in white dwarf matter accreting onto a primordial black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the neutrinos emitted during an accretion of a white dwarf substance by a primordial black hole are considered. The possibility to detect these neutrinos and their oscillations is discussed

  17. Enigmas from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 Kleinman White Dwarf Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Liebert, James; Wickramasinghe, Dayal; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We report results from a continuation of our searches for high field magnetic white dwarfs paired in a detached binary with non degenerate companions. We made use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog of Kleinman et al. (2013) with 19,712 spectroscopically-identified white dwarfs. These include 1,735 white dwarf plus M dwarf detached pairs (almost 10\\% of the Kleinman at al.'s list). No new pairs were found, although we did recover the polar (AM~Herculis system) ST\\,LMi in a low state of accretion. With the larger sample the original situation reported ten years ago remains intact now at a much higher level of statistical significance: in the selected SDSS sample, high field magnetic white dwarfs are not found in an apparently-detached pairing with an M dwarf, unless they are a magnetic CV in a low state of accretion. This finding strengthens the case that the fields in the isolated high field magnetic white dwarfs are generated by stellar mergers but also raises questions on the nature of the progenito...

  18. The Extent and Cause of the Pre-White Dwarf Instability Strip

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, M. Sean

    1999-01-01

    One of the least understood aspects of white dwarf evolution is the process by which they are formed. We are aided, however, by the fact that many H- and He-deficient pre-white dwarfs (PWDs) are multiperiodic g-mode pulsators. Pulsations in PWDs provide a unique opportunity to probe their interiors, which are otherwise inaccesible to direct observation. Until now, however, the nature of the pulsation mechanism, the precise boundaries of the instability strip, and the mass di...

  19. The Laminar Flame Speedup by Neon-22 Enrichment in White Dwarf Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, Francis X.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-oxygen white dwarfs contain neon-22 formed from alpha-captures onto nitrogen during core He burning in the progenitor star. In a white dwarf (type Ia) supernova, the neon-22 abundance determines, in part, the neutron-to-proton ratio and hence the abundance of radioactive nickel-56 that powers the lightcurve. The neon-22 abundance also changes the burning rate and hence the laminar flame speed. We tabulate the flame speedup for different initial carbon and neon-22 abun...

  20. Zeeman tomography of magnetic white dwarfs, I. Reconstruction of the field geometry from synthetic spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Euchner, F.; Jordan, S.; Beuermann, K.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Hessmann, F. V.

    2002-01-01

    We have computed optical Zeeman spectra of magnetic white dwarfs for field strengths between 10 and 200MG and effective temperatures between 8000 and 40000K. They form a database containing 20628 sets of flux and circular polarization spectra. A least-squares optimization code based on an evolutionary strategy can recover relatively complex magnetic field topologies from phase-resolved synthetic Zeeman spectra of rotating magnetic white dwarfs. We consider dipole and quadrup...

  1. Supernova Type Ia progenitors from merging double white dwarfs: Using a new population synthesis model

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2012-01-01

    The study of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) has lead to greatly improved insights into many fields in astrophysics, however a theoretical explanation of the origin of these events is still lacking. We investigate the potential contribution to the SNIa rate from the population of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. We aim to develope a model that fits the observed SNIa progenitors as well as the observed close double white dwarf population. We differentiate between two scen...

  2. The Initiation and Propagation of Helium Detonations in White Dwarf Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Ken J.; Moore, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear ".Ia" supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the p...

  3. New High-Proper Motion White Dwarfs in the NLTT Catalog and Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, S.

    San Francisco : Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2005 - (Koester, D.; Moehler, D.), s. 101-106 - (ASP Conference Series. 334). [European Workshop on White Dwarfs /14./. Kiel (AT), 19.07.2004-23.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/02/0445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : white dwarfs * Solar neighborhood * stellar atmospheres Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass C+O white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Reinecke, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    First results of simulations are presented which compute the dynamical evolution of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, consisting of equal amounts of carbon and oxygen, from the onset of violent thermonuclear burning, by means of a new two-dimensional numerical code. Since in the interior of such a massive white dwarf nuclear burning progresses on microscopic scales as a sharp discontinuity, a so-called flamelet, which cannot be resolved by any numerical scheme, and since on ...

  5. PG 2131+066: A Test of Pre-White Dwarf Asteroseismology

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, M.; Kawaler, Steven D.; O'Brien, M. Sean

    2000-01-01

    PG 2131+066 is a composite-spectrum binary with a hot pulsating PG 1159-type pre-white dwarf and an early M-type main sequence star. Analysis of Whole Earth Telescope observations of the pulsating pre-white dwarf component provided an asteroseismological determination of its mass, luminosity, and effective temperature. These determinations allowed Kawaler et al. (1995) to determine the distance to this star. In this paper, we refine the asteroseismological distance determina...

  6. Merging White Dwarf/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, C.L.; S. E. Woosley; Herant, M.; Davies, Melvyn B.

    1998-01-01

    The merger of compact binaries, especially black holes and neutron stars, is frequently invoked to explain gamma-ray bursts (GRB's). In this paper, we present three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the relatively neglected mergers of white dwarfs and black holes. During the merger, the white dwarf is tidally disrupted and sheared into an accretion disk. Nuclear reactions are followed and the energy release is negligible. Peak accretion rates are ~0.05 Msun/s (less f...

  7. Observing white dwarfs orbiting massive black holes in the gravitational wave and electro-magnetic window

    OpenAIRE

    Sesana, A.; Vecchio, A.; Eracleous, M.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a potentially new class of gravitational wave sources consisting of a white dwarf coalescing into a massive black hole in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\msun. These sources are of particular interest because the gravitational wave signal produced during the inspiral phase can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and is promptly followed, in an extended portion of the black hole and white dwarf mass parameter space, by an electro-magnetic signal...

  8. The Star Formation History of the Solar Neighbourhood from the White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rowell, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The termination in the white dwarf luminosity function is a standard diagnostic tool for measuring the total age of nearby stellar populations. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for inverting the full white dwarf luminosity function to obtain a maximum likelihood estimate of the time varying star formation rate of the host stellar population. Tests with synthetic data demonstrate that the algorithm converges over a wide class of underlying star formation rate forms. T...

  9. The Future Evolution of White Dwarf Stars Through Baryon Decay and Time Varying Gravitational Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Ketchum, Jacob A.; Fred C. Adams

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility that the fundamental ``constants'' of nature could vary with time, this paper considers the long term evolution of white dwarf stars under the combined action of proton decay and variations in the gravitational constant. White dwarfs are thus used as a theoretical laboratory to study the effects of possible time variations, especially their implications for the future history of the universe. More specifically, we consider the gravitational const...

  10. White dwarfs and neutron stars in globular cluster X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is predicted that globular clusters contain at least as many cataclysmic variables, which contain white dwarfs, as bright X-ray sources, which contain neutron stars. The consequences of the frequent formation of temporarily bound triple systems (resonance scattering) are examined including; the extra enhancement of neutron star capture with respect to white dwarf capture, the considerable probability of actual collisions between stars, and the presence of cataclysmic variables in the outer regions of globular clusters. (U.K.)

  11. Does an Average White Dwarf Have Enough Mass to Prevent an Accretion Disk Tilt?

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent publication, we introduce the lift force as a common source to accretion disk tilt that is likely relevant to accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether the average white dwarf has enough mass to prevent a disk tilt in non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) with accretion disks. Assuming a white dwarf mass of 0...

  12. Type Ia supernovae from merging white dwarfs. I. Prompt detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merging white dwarfs are a possible progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Numerical models suggest that a detonation might be initiated before the stars have coalesced to form a single compact object. Here we study such prompt detonations by means of numerical simulations, modeling the disruption and nucleosynthesis of the stars until the ejecta reach the coasting phase, and generating synthetic light curves and spectra. Three models are considered with primary masses 0.96 M ?, 1.06 M ?, and 1.20 M ?. Of these, the 0.96 M ? dwarf merging with a 0.81 M ? companion, with an 56Ni yield of 0.58 M ?, is the most promising candidate for reproducing common SNe Ia. The more massive mergers produce unusually luminous SNe Ia with peak luminosities approaching those attributed to 'super-Chandrasekhar' mass SNe Ia. While the synthetic light curves and spectra of some of the models resemble observed SNe Ia, the significant asymmetry of the ejecta leads to large orientation effects. The peak bolometric luminosity varies by more than a factor of two with the viewing angle, and the velocities of the spectral absorption features are lower when observed from angles where the light curve is brightest. The largest orientation effects are seen in the ultraviolet, where the flux varies by more than an order of magnitude. The set of three models roughly obeys a width-luminosity relation, with the brighter light curves declining more slowly in the B band. Spectral features due to unburned carbon from the secondary star are also seen in some cases.

  13. The white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamida, Annalisa; Sahu, K. C.; Anderson, J.; Casertano, S.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Sokol, J.; Bond, H. E.; Ferguson, H. C.; Livio, M.; Salaris, M.; Ferraro, I.; Valenti, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present F606W,F814W (V,I)-band time-series data of ~1 million stars in the low-reddening Sagittarius window in the Galactic bulge. Images were collected with the Advanced Camera far Surveys (ACS) and the Wide Field Camera 3 mounted on the Hubble Space Telescope. The total field of view is ~ 17x18 arcminutes, which was observed approximately every two weeks for two consecutive years, with the principal aim to detect a hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Here we present some results based on the combined deep images of the four ACS fields. The final photometric catalog of ~ 1 million stars reaches down to V ~ 31 mag. Proper motions were also measured, with an accuracy of better than ~ 0.15 mas/yr at V ~ 26 mag in both coordinates. We were then able to separate disk and bulge stars and obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. Together with several candidate extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars we were able to identify for the first time a clearly defined white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the bulge. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a fraction of the WDs is systematically redder than the canonical cooling tracks for CO-core DA WDs. This evidence would suggest the presence of He-core WDs in the bulge, formed in close binaries, as has been found in some Galactic globular and open clusters. The presence of close binaries in the EHB and WD bulge population is further supported by the finding of two EHB ellipsoidal variables and a candidate dwarf nova in outburst in one of the ACS fields.

  14. The White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamida, A.; Sahu, K.; Anderson, J.; Casertano, S.; Brown, T.; Cassisi, S.; Sokol, J.; Bond, H.; Ferguson, H.; Livio, M.; Salaris, M.; Valenti, J.

    2015-05-01

    We collected F606W- and F814W-band time series data of the Sagittarius low-reddening window in the Galactic bulge with the Advanced Camera far Surveys mounted on the Hubble Space Telescope. We sampled the region approximately every two weeks over the period of one year, with the principal aim to detect a potential hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. We present preliminary results here based on a photometric catalog including ?3 ×105 stars down to F606W ? 31 mag. Proper motions were also measured, with an accuracy better than ? 0.5 mas/yr at F606W ? 28 mag in both coordinates. We were then able to separate disk and bulge stars and obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. Together with a dozen candidate extreme horizontal branch stars we were able to identify for the first time a clearly defined white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the bulge. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a substantial fraction of the WDs (? 40%) is systematically redder than the canonical cooling tracks for CO-core DA WDs. This evidence would suggest the presence of a significant number of He-core WDs in the bulge, formed in close binaries, as has been found in some Galactic globular and open clusters. The presence of close binaries in the bulge population is further supported by the detection of a candidate dwarf nova in outburst and a few candidate cataclysmic variables in quiescence in the same field.

  15. Physical Properties of the Current Census of Northern White Dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Limoges, M -M; Lépine, S

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the physical properties of our current census of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun, based on an exhaustive spectroscopic survey of northern hemisphere candidates from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database. Our method for selecting white dwarf candidates is based on a combination of theoretical color-magnitude relations and reduced proper motion diagrams. We reported in an earlier publication the discovery of nearly 200 new white dwarfs, and we present here the discovery of an additional 133 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 96 DA, 3 DB, 24 DC, 3 DQ, and 7 DZ stars. We further identify 178 white dwarfs that lie within 40 pc of the Sun, representing a 40% increase of the current census, which now includes 492 objects. We estimate the completeness of our survey at between 66 and 78%, allowing for uncertainties in the distance estimates. We also perform a homogeneous model atmosphere analysis of this 40 pc sample and find a large fraction of massive white dwarfs, in...

  16. Finding rocky asteroids around white dwarfs by their periodic thermal emission

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Since old white dwarfs are exceptionally dim, the contrast between the thermal emission of an orbiting object and a white dwarf is dramatically enhanced compared to a main sequence host. Furthermore, rocky objects much smaller than the moon have no atmospheres and are tidally locked to the white dwarf if they orbit near the Roche zone. We show that this leads to temperature contrasts between their day and night side of order unity that should lead to temporal variations in infrared flux over an orbital period of ~ 0.2 to ~ 2 days. Ground based telescopes could detect objects with a mass as small as 1% of the lunar mass $M_L$ around Sirius B with a few hours of exposure. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) may be able to detect objects as small as $10^{-3} M_L$ around most nearby white dwarfs. The tightest constraints will typically be placed on 12,000 K white dwarfs, whose Roche zone coincides with the dust sublimation zone. Constraining the abundance of minor planets around white dwarfs as a function of th...

  17. Evidence for the Spin-powered Pulsar-like White Dwarf in AE Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhsanov, N. R.; Beskrovnaya, N. G.

    The degenerate companion of the close binary system AE Aquarii is the white dwarf rotating with the 33 s period, which is spinning down with the rate dot{P} = 5.64 × 10-14 s s-1. Under this condition the spindown power, Lsd= I?dot?~= 6× 1033 erg s-1, proves to be larger than the observed UV and X-ray luminosities of the system by a factor of 120 and even than its bolometrical luminosity by a factor of more than five. The interpretation of this phenomenon under various assumptions about the state of the white dwarf is the subject of this contribution. We report the presently derived parameters of the white dwarf and show that its rapid braking can be explained in terms of the canonical spin-powered pulsar mechanism provided the magnetic moment of the white dwarf ~ 1.4 1034 G cm3 (that implies the magnetic field strength at its surface of 50 MG). The model of AE Aqr in the frame of this approach as well as the possible origin of the fast rotating, strongly magnetized white dwarf are discussed. We conclude that the spin-powered pulsar-like white dwarf model is currently the most plausible interpretation of AE Aqr.

  18. The white dwarf cooling sequence of NGC 6791: an unique tool for stellar astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, E; Renedo, I; Camacho, J; Althaus, L G; Córsico, A H; Salaris, M; Isern, J

    2011-01-01

    NGC 6791 is a well-studied, metal-rich open cluster that is so close to us that can be imaged down to luminosities fainter than that of the termination of its white dwarf cooling sequence, thus allowing for an in-depth study of its white dwarf population. We use a Monte Carlo simulator that employs up-to-date evolutionary cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres, with carbon-oxygen and helium cores. The cooling sequences for carbon-oxygen cores account for the delays introduced by both Ne^22 sedimentation in the liquid phase and by carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. We do not find evidence for a substantial fraction of helium-core white dwarfs, and hence our results support the suggestion that the origin of the bright peak of the white dwarf luminosity function can only be attributed to a population of unresolved binary white dwarfs. Moreover, our results indicate that the number distribution of secondary masses of the population of unresolved ...

  19. Merging White Dwarf/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Herant, Marc; Davies, Melvyn B.

    1999-08-01

    The merger of compact binaries, especially black holes and neutron stars, is frequently invoked to explain gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, we present three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the relatively neglected mergers of white dwarfs and black holes. During the merger, the white dwarf is tidally disrupted and sheared into an accretion disk. Nuclear reactions are followed, and the energy release is negligible. Peak accretion rates are ~0.05 Msolar s-1 (less for lower mass white dwarfs) and last for approximately a minute. Many of the disk parameters can be explained by a simple analytic model that we derive and compare to our simulations. This model can be used to predict accretion rates for white dwarf and black hole (or neutron star) masses that are not simulated here. Although the mergers studied here create disks with larger radii and longer accretion times than those from the merger of double neutron stars, a larger fraction of the white dwarf's mass becomes part of the disk. Thus the merger of a white dwarf and a black hole could produce a long-duration GRB. The event rate of these mergers may be as high as 10-6 yr-1 per galaxy.

  20. Dynamical determination of the quadrupole mass moment of a white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, L

    2006-01-01

    In this letter we dynamically determine the quadrupole mass moment Q of the magnetic white dwarf WD 0137-349 by analyzing the period of the recently discovered brown dwarf moving around it in a close 2-hr orbit. It turns out that a purely Newtonian model for the orbit of WD 0137-349B, assumed circular and equatorial, is adequate, given the present-day accuracy in knowing the orbital parameters of such a binary system. Our result is Q=(-1.4615 +/- 0.9004) 10^47 kg m^2. It is the first dynamical, model-independent measurement of the quadrupole mass moment of a white dwarf.

  1. A Double White-Dwarf Cooling Sequence in {\\omega} Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, A; Salaris, M; Cassisi, S; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Bergeon, P

    2013-01-01

    We have applied our empirical-PSF-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of {\\omega} Cen, and found a well-defined split in the right part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of ~2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along the cluster main sequence. The blue WDCS is populated by the evolved stars of the He-normal component (~0.55 Msun CO-core DA objects) while the red WDCS hosts the end-products of the He-rich population (~0.46 Msun objects, ~10% CO-core and ~90% He-core WDs). The He-core WDs correspond to He-rich stars that missed the central He-ignition, and we estimate their fraction by analyzing the population ratios along the cluster horizontal branch.

  2. A DOUBLE WHITE-DWARF COOLING SEQUENCE IN ? CENTAURI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied our empirical-point-spread-function-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of ? Cen, and found a well-defined split in the bright part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of ?2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along the cluster main sequence. The blue WDCS is populated by the evolved stars of the He-normal component (?0.55 M? CO-core DA objects), while the red WDCS hosts the end products of the He-rich population (?0.46 M? objects, and ?10% CO-core and ?90% He-core WDs). The He-core WDs correspond to He-rich stars that missed the central He ignition, and we estimate their fraction by analyzing the population ratios along the cluster horizontal branch.

  3. A Double White-dwarf Cooling Sequence in ? Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Salaris, M.; Cassisi, S.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Bergeron, P.

    2013-06-01

    We have applied our empirical-point-spread-function-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of ? Cen, and found a well-defined split in the bright part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of ~2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along the cluster main sequence. The blue WDCS is populated by the evolved stars of the He-normal component (~0.55 M ? CO-core DA objects), while the red WDCS hosts the end products of the He-rich population (~0.46 M ? objects, and ~10% CO-core and ~90% He-core WDs). The He-core WDs correspond to He-rich stars that missed the central He ignition, and we estimate their fraction by analyzing the population ratios along the cluster horizontal branch. Based on archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  4. A DOUBLE WHITE-DWARF COOLING SEQUENCE IN {omega} CENTAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Cassisi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Bedin, L. R. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Piotto, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' Galileo Galilei' , Universita di Padova, v.co dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Bergeron, P., E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    We have applied our empirical-point-spread-function-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of {omega} Cen, and found a well-defined split in the bright part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of {approx}2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along the cluster main sequence. The blue WDCS is populated by the evolved stars of the He-normal component ({approx}0.55 M{sub Sun} CO-core DA objects), while the red WDCS hosts the end products of the He-rich population ({approx}0.46 M{sub Sun} objects, and {approx}10% CO-core and {approx}90% He-core WDs). The He-core WDs correspond to He-rich stars that missed the central He ignition, and we estimate their fraction by analyzing the population ratios along the cluster horizontal branch.

  5. On the white dwarf cooling sequence with extremely large telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bono, G; Gilmozzi, R

    2012-01-01

    We present new diagnostics of white dwarf (WD) cooling sequences and luminosity functions (LFs) in the near-infrared (NIR) bands that will exploit the sensitivity and resolution of future extremely large telescopes. The collision-induced absorption (CIA) of molecular hydrogen causes a clearly defined blue turn-off along the WD (WDBTO) cooling sequences and a bright secondary maximum in the WD LFs. These features are independent of age over a broad age range and are minimally affected by metal abundance. This means that the NIR magnitudes of the WDBTO are very promising distance indicators. The interplay between the cooling time of progressively more massive WDs and the onset of CIA causes a red turn-off along the WD (WDRTO) cooling sequences and a well defined faint peak in the WD LFs. These features are very sensitive to the cluster age, and indeed the K-band magnitude of the faint peak increases by 0.2--0.25 mag/Gyr for ages between 10 and 14 Gyr. On the other hand, the faint peak in the optical WD LF incre...

  6. The cooling time of white dwarf for type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiang-Cun; Li, Zhong-Mu

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a key role in measuring cosmological parameters, in which the Phillips relation is adopted. However, the origin of the relation is still unclear. Several parameters are suggested, e.g. the relative content of carbon to oxygen (C/O) and the central density of white dwarf (WD) at ignition. These parameters are mainly determined by initial WD mass and its cooling time, respectively. Using the progenitor model developed by Meng & Yang (2010a), we present the distributions of the initial WD mass and the cooling time. We do not find any correlation between there parameters. However, we notice that the range of the WD mass decreases, while its average value increases with the cooling time. This results could provide a constraint when simulating the SNe Ia explosion, i.e. the WDs with a high C/O usually have a lower central density at ignition, while those having a highest central density at ignition generally have a lower C/O. The cooling time is mainly determined by the evolutio...

  7. MEASURING THE ROTATIONAL PERIODS OF ISOLATED MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burleigh, Matthew R.; Lawrie, Katherine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, Thomas R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Knigge, Christian [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-10

    We present time-series photometry of 30 isolated magnetic white dwarfs, surveyed with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope between 2002 August and 2003 May. We find that 9 were untestable due to varying comparison stars, but of the remaining 21, 5 (24%) are variable with reliably derived periods, while a further 9 (43%) are seen to vary during our study, but we were unable to derive the period. We interpret the variability to be the result of rotation of the objects. We find no correlation between rotation period and mass, temperature, magnetic field, or age. We have found variability in 9 targets with low magnetic field strengths and temperatures low enough for partially convective atmospheres, which we highlight as candidates for polarimetry to search for starspots. Most interestingly, we have found variability in one target, PG1658+441, which has a fully radiative atmosphere in which conventional starspots cannot form, but a magnetic field strength that is too low to cause magnetic dichroism. The source of variability in this target remains a mystery.

  8. Dynamical tides in compact white dwarf binaries: influence of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jim; Lai, Dong

    2014-11-01

    Tidal interactions play an important role in the evolution and ultimate fate of compact white dwarf (WD) binaries. Not only do tides affect the pre-merger state (such as temperature and rotation rate) of the WDs, but they may also determine which systems merge and which undergo stable mass transfer. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the effects of rotation on tidal angular momentum transport in binary stars, with specific calculations applied to WD stellar models. We incorporate the effect of rotation using the traditional approximation, in which the dynamically excited gravity waves within the WDs are transformed into gravitoinertial Hough waves. The Coriolis force has only a minor effect on prograde gravity waves, and previous results predicting the tidal spin-up and heating of inspiraling WDs are not significantly modified. However, rotation strongly alters retrograde gravity waves and inertial waves, with important consequences for the tidal spin-down of accreting WDs. We identify new dynamical tidal forcing terms that arise from a proper separation of the equilibrium and dynamical tide components; these new forcing terms are very important for systems near synchronous rotation. Additionally, we discuss the impact of Stokes drift currents on the wave angular momentum flux. Finally, we speculate on how tidal interactions will affect supersynchronously rotating WDs in accreting systems.

  9. White dwarfs as the maximal soft x-ray scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we explore the effect of density on the structure formation and the electromagnetic wave (EMw) elastic scattering on quantum plasmas, using the generalized quantum hydrodynamic model valid for a wide range of the plasma density and relativistic degeneracy. It is found that the electron quantum diffraction effect caused by the Bohm potential has a fundamental effect on the ion correlations in a degenerate electron fluid and crystallization in quantum plasmas in the solid-density regime and beyond. The ion correlations and structure formation are shown to be fundamentally affected by the plasma density and the relativistic degeneracy parameters. Moreover, distinct behavior is shown to exist between the non-relativistic and relativistic matter density regimes, regarding the normalized EMw elastic scattering cross-sections. It is theoretically discovered that the maximal Thomson scattering coincides with the average density of a typical white dwarf corresponding to the soft X-ray wavelength regime. Current research can be very useful in plasma optical diagnostic methods for a wide range of electron number-density from warm dense matter and inertial confinement fusion to the astrophysical compact objects

  10. Death by Dynamics: Planetoid-Induced Explosions on White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Guillochon, James; Steiner, James F

    2015-01-01

    At intervals as short as ten thousand years, each white dwarf (WD) passes within a solar radius of a planetoid, i.e., a comet, asteroid, or planet. Gravitational tidal forces tear the planetoid apart; its metal-rich debris falls onto the WD, enriching the atmosphere. A third of WDs exhibit atmospheric "pollution". For roughly every hundred planetoid disruptions, a planetoid collides with a WD. We simulate a small number of collisions, in which "death-by-dynamics" refers to the fate of the planetoid. We also compute the energies and likely durations of a broad sample of collision events, and identify detection strategies at optical and X-ray wavelengths. Collisions with the most massive planetoids can be detected in external galaxies. Some may trigger nuclear burning. If one in $\\sim 10^7-10^8$ of WD-planetoid collisions creates the conditions needed for a Type Ia supernova (SN~Ia), "death-by-dynamics" would also refer to the fate of the WD, and could provide a novel channel for the production of SN~Ia. We con...

  11. The pulsar-like white dwarf in AE Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhsanov, Nazar R.

    1998-10-01

    The spindown power of the compact companion in the close binary system AE Aqr essentially exceeds the bolometrical luminosity of the system. The interpretation of this phenomenon under various assumptions about the state and the nature of the primary companion is discussed. It is shown that the rapid braking on the compact companion of AE Aqr can be explained in terms of the pulsar mechanism provided the magnetic moment of the compact star mu ga 1.4 x 10(34) {R_mm G cm(3}) , that implies a magnetic field strength at the surface of the white dwarf of about 50 MG. Under this condition the spindown power is used predominantly for the generation of magneto-dipole waves and particle acceleration. A stream-fed, diskless mass-exchange picture with the average rate of mass transfer dot {M} ~ (0.5/5) x 10(17) {R_mm g s(-1}) is expected in the frame of the suggested model. Similarity of some properties of the X-ray emission observed from AE Aqr and canonical radio pulsars in the ROSAT energy range (e.g. the power law spectrum of pulsing component with alpha ~ -2 and the ratio L_{R_mm X}/L_{R_mm sd} ~ 10(-3) ) allows to suggest common mechanisms of particle acceleration and the polar cap heating in these systems.

  12. Accreting White Dwarfs as Supersoft X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Mariko

    2009-01-01

    I review various phenomena associated with mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in the view of supersoft X-ray sources. When the mass-accretion rate is low (\\dot M_{acc} < a few \\times 10^{-7} M_\\sun yr^{-1}), hydrogen nuclear burning is unstable and nova outbursts occur. A nova is a transient supersoft X-ray source (SSS) in its later phase which timescale depends strongly on the WD mass. The X-ray turn on/off time is a good indicator of the WD mass. At an intermediate mass-accretion rate an accreting WD becomes a persistent SSS with steady hydrogen burning. For a higher mass-accretion rate, the WD undergoes "accretion wind evolution" in which the WD accretes matter from the equatorial plane and loses mass by optically thick winds from the other directions. Two SSS, namely RX J 0513-69 and V Sge, are corresponding objects to this accretion wind evolution. We can specify mass increasing WDs from light-curve analysis based on the optically thick wind theory using multiwavelength observational data including opt...

  13. A Search for Pulsations in Helium White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Steinfadt, Justin D R; Kaplan, David L; Fulton, Benjamin J; Howell, Steve B; Marsh, T R; Ofek, Eran O; Shporer, Avi

    2011-01-01

    The recent plethora of sky surveys, especially the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, have discovered many low-mass (M < 0.45 Msun) white dwarfs that should have cores made of nearly pure helium. These WDs come in two varieties; those with masses 0.2 < M < 0.45 Msun and H envelopes so thin that they rapidly cool, and those with M < 0.2 Msun (often called extremely low mass, ELM, WDs) that have thick enough H envelopes to sustain 10^9 years of H burning. In both cases, these WDs evolve through the ZZ Ceti instability strip, Teff ~= 9,000-12,000 K, where g-mode pulsations always occur in Carbon/Oxygen WDs. This expectation, plus theoretical work on the contrasts between C/O and He core WDs, motivated our search for pulsations in 13 well characterized helium WDs. We report here on our failure to find any pulsators amongst our sample. Though we have varying amplitude limits, it appears likely that the theoretical expectations regarding the onset of pulsations in these objects requires closer consideration. In ...

  14. Laboratory Measurements of White Dwarf Photospheric Spectral Lines: H?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Gomez, T. A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Nagayama, T.

    2015-06-01

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. Here we present time-resolved measurements of H? and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, ne, and n = 2 level population, n2. Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from ne ? 4 to ?30 × 1016 cm?3 throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n2 to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ?55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This supports our electron-temperature determination of Te ? 1.3 eV (?15,000 K) after this time. At ne ? 1017 cm?3, we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced ?2) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. This work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines.

  15. Turbulent Mixing on Helium-accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-03-01

    An attractive scenario for producing Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a double detonation, where detonation of an accreted helium layer triggers ignition of a C/O core. Whether or not such a mechanism can explain some or most SNe Ia depends on the properties of the helium burning, which in turn is set by the composition of the surface material. Using a combination of semi-analytic and simple numerical models, I explore when turbulent mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities during the accretion process can mix C/O core material up into the accreted helium. Mixing is strongest at high accretion rates, large white dwarf (WD) masses, and slow spin rates. The mixing would result in subsequent helium burning that better matches the observed properties of SNe Ia. In some cases, there is considerable mixing that can lead to more than 50% C/O in the accreted layer at the time of ignition. These results will hopefully motivate future theoretical studies of such strongly mixed conditions. Mixing also has implications for other types of WD surface explosions, including the so-called .Ia supernovae, the calcium-rich transients (if they arise from accreting WDs), and metal-enriched classical novae.

  16. Turbulent Mixing on Helium-Accreting White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    An attractive scenario for producing Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a double detonation, where detonation of an accreted helium layer triggers ignition of a C/O core. Whether or not such a mechanism can explain some or most SNe Ia depends on the properties of the helium burning, which in turn is set by the composition of the surface material. Using a combination of semi-analytic and simple numerical models, I explore when turbulent mixing due to hydrodynamic instabilities during the accretion process can mix C/O core material up into the accreted helium. Mixing is strongest at high accretion rates, large white dwarf (WD) masses, and slow spin rates. The mixing would result in subsequent helium burning that better matches the observed properties of SNe Ia. In some cases, there is considerable mixing that can lead to more than 50% C/O in the accreted layer at the time of ignition. These results will hopefully motivate future theoretical studies of such strongly mixed conditions. Mixing also has implications for...

  17. Dusty Disks around White Dwarfs I: Origin of Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Lin, D N C; Liu, X -W

    2010-01-01

    A significant fraction of the mature FGK stars have cool dusty disks at least an orders of magnitudes brighter than the solar system's outer zodiacal light. Since such dusts must be continually replenished, they are generally assumed to be the collisional fragments of residual planetesimals analogous to the Kuiper Belt objects. At least 10% of solar type stars also bear gas giant planets. The fraction of stars with known gas giants or detectable debris disks (or both) appears to increase with the stellar mass. Here, we examine the dynamical evolution of systems of long-period gas giant planets and residual planetesimals as their host stars evolve off the main sequence, lose mass, and form planetary nebula around remnant white dwarf cores. The orbits of distant gas giant planets and super-km-size planetesimals expand adiabatically. During the most intense AGB mass loss phase, sub-meter-size particles migrate toward their host stars due to the strong hydrodynamical drag by the intense stellar wind. Along their ...

  18. Type Ia supernovae from exploding oxygen-neon white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Marquardt, Kai S; Ruiter, Ashley J; Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Kromer, Markus; Pakmor, Ruediger; Roepke, Friedrich K

    2015-01-01

    The progenitor problem of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unsolved. Most of these events are thought to be explosions of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs), but for many of the explosion scenarios, particularly those involving the externally triggered detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar mass WD (sub-M Ch WD), there is also a possibility of having an oxygen-neon (ONe) WD as progenitor. We simulate detonations of ONe WDs and calculate synthetic observables from these models. The results are compared with detonations in CO WDs of similar mass and observational data of SNe Ia. We perform hydrodynamic explosion simulations of detonations in initially hydrostatic ONe WDs for a range of masses below the Chandrasekhar mass (M Ch), followed by detailed nucleosynthetic postprocessing with a 384-isotope nuclear reaction network. The results are used to calculate synthetic spectra and light curves, which are then compared with observations of SNe Ia. We also perform binary evolution calculations to determine the nu...

  19. Every Interacting Double White Dwarf Binary May Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ken J.

    2015-05-01

    Interacting double white dwarf (WD) binaries can give rise to a wide variety of astrophysical outcomes ranging from faint thermonuclear and Type Ia supernovae to the formation of neutron stars and stably accreting AM Canum Venaticorum systems. One key factor affecting the final outcome is whether mass transfer remains dynamically stable or instead diverges, leading to the tidal disruption of the donor and the merger of the binary. It is typically thought that for low ratios of the donor mass to the accretor mass, mass transfer remains stable, especially if accretion occurs via a disk. In this Letter, we examine low mass ratio double WD binaries and find that the initial phase of hydrogen-rich mass transfer leads to a classical nova-like outburst on the accretor. Dynamical friction within the expanding nova shell shrinks the orbit and causes the mass transfer rate to increase dramatically above the accretor's Eddington limit, possibly resulting in a binary merger. If the binary survives the first hydrogen-rich nova outbursts, dynamical friction within the subsequent helium-powered nova shells pushes the system even more strongly toward merger. While further calculations are necessary to confirm this outcome for the entire range of binaries previously thought to be dynamically stable, it appears likely that most, if not all, interacting double WD binaries will merge during the course of their evolution.

  20. The white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Calamida, A; Anderson, J; Casertano, S; Brown, T; Cassisi, S; Sokol, J; Bond, H; Ferguson, H; Livio, M; Salaris, M; Valenti, J

    2013-01-01

    We collected F606W- and F814W-band time-series data of the Sagittarius low-reddening window in the Galactic bulge with the Advanced Camera far Surveys mounted on the Hubble Space Telescope. We sampled the region approximately every two weeks for one year, with the principal aim to detect a hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. We present preliminary results here based on a photometric catalog including ~3*10^5 stars down to F606W ~ 31 mag. Proper motions were also measured, with an accuracy of better than ~ 0.5 mas/yr at F606W ~ 28 mag in both coordinates. We were then able to separate disk and bulge stars and to obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. Together with a dozen candidate extreme horizontal branch stars we were able to identify for the first time a clearly defined white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the bulge. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a substantial fraction of the WDs (~40%) is syst...

  1. Gravitational Settling of 22Ne in Liquid White Dwarf Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Bildsten, Lars; Hall, David M.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear reactions that occur in the stellar progenitors of white dwarfs (WDs) lead to an internal composition of 12C, 16O, and a ``contaminant'' nucleus, 22Ne. The 22Ne is produced by helium captures on 14N left from hydrogen burning via the CNO cycle. By virtue of its two excess neutrons (relative to the predominant A=2Z nuclei), a downward force of 2m_pg is exerted on 22Ne in the WD interior. This biases its diffusive equilibrium, forcing 22Ne to settle towards the center of the WD. We discuss the physics of the gravitational settling when the WD is in the liquid state and the luminosity generated by it. This modifies the cooling of WD's with masses in excess of a solar mass. The current uncertainties in the microphysics even allow for solutions where a 1.2M_\\odot WD remains mostly liquid for a few Gyrs due to the internal heating from 22Ne sedimentation. This highlights the need for an accurate calculation of the inter-diffusion coefficient, especially in the quantum liquid regime relevant for high mas...

  2. Every interacting double white dwarf binary may merge

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Ken J

    2015-01-01

    Interacting double white dwarf binaries can give rise to a wide variety of astrophysical outcomes ranging from faint thermonuclear and Type Ia supernovae to the formation of neutron stars and stably accreting AM Canum Venaticorum systems. One key factor affecting the final outcome is whether mass transfer remains dynamically stable or instead diverges, leading to the tidal disruption of the donor and the merger of the binary. It is typically thought that for low ratios of the donor mass to the accretor mass, mass transfer remains stable, especially if accretion occurs via a disk. In this Letter, we examine disk-accreting binaries with extremely low mass ratios and find that the initial phase of hydrogen-rich mass transfer leads to a classical nova-like outburst on the accretor. Dynamical friction within the expanding nova shell shrinks the orbit and causes the mass transfer rate to increase dramatically above the accretor's Eddington limit, resulting in a binary merger. While further calculations are necessar...

  3. The accretion and spreading of matter on white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Fisker, J L; Bürger, T; Fisker, Jacob Lund; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Burger, Tom

    2005-01-01

    For a slowly rotating non-magnetized white dwarf the accretion disk extends all the way to the star. Here the matter impacts and spreads towards the poles as new matter continuously piles up behind it. We have solved the 3d compressible Navier-Stokes equations on an axisymmetric grid to determine the structure of this boundary layer for different viscosities corresponding to different accretion rates. The high viscosity cases show a spreading BL which sets off a gravity wave in the surface matter. The accretion flow moves supersonically over the cusp making it susceptible to the rapid development of gravity wave and/or Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. This BL is optically thick and extends more than 30 degrees to either side of the disk plane after 3/4 of a Keplerian rotation period (t=19s). The low viscosity cases also show a spreading BL, but here the accretion flow does not set off gravity waves and it is optically thin.

  4. White-Dwarf Kicks and Implications for Barium Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Izzard, Robert G; Church, Ross P

    2010-01-01

    The formation mechanism of the barium stars is thought to be well understood. Barium-rich material, lost in a stellar wind from a thermally-pulsing asymptotic-giant branch star in a binary system, is accreted by its companion main-sequence star. Now, many millions of years later, the primary is an unseen white dwarf and the secondary has itself evolved into a giant which displays absorption lines of barium in its spectrum and is what we call a barium star. A similar wind-accretion mechanism is also thought to form the low-metallicity CH and carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. Qualitatively the picture seems clear but quantitatively it is decidedly murky: several key outstanding problems remain which challenge our basic understanding of binary-star physics. Barium stars with orbital periods less than about 4,000 days should -- according to theory -- be in circular orbits because of tidal dissipation, yet they are often observed to be eccentric. Only one barium-star period longer than 10^4 days has been published...

  5. White Dwarfs for Calibrating the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn Smith, J.; Wester, W.; Tucker, D. L.; Fix, M.; Head, H.; Allam, S. S.; Marriner, J.; James, D.; Calibration, DES

    2014-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will survey some 5000 square degrees in the southern hemisphere in the grizY filter system using the newly commissioned Dark Energy Camera. In order to verify meeting photometric calibration requirements, we are obtaining the spectra of nearly 100 or more hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarfs in the DES footprint. The spectra that are obtained will be extracted and used to derive synthetic spectra that can be compared with DES measurements from imaging in each of the DES grizY filters. This comparison should be able to verify and help calibrate the survey to a level better than 2% photometrically and to better than 0.5% in colors. We will discuss the observational and modeling effort required to develop a well-characterized DAs sample. This set would form the basis of a larger set of southern hemisphere survey calibration stars. These stars will be used to establish and monitor the color zero points for the DES photometric system and can be used to search for systematic errors in the color zero points over the DES footprint. These stars will also be used as some of the primary standards for the DES photometric system which will allow nightly atmospheric monitoring during DES operations.

  6. Evidence for an oscillation of the magnetic axis of the white dwarf in the polar DP Leonis

    OpenAIRE

    Beuermann, K.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F. V.; Schwope, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    From 1979 to 2001, the magnetic axis of the white dwarf in the polar DP Leo slowly rotated by 50 deg in azimuth, possibly indicating a small asynchronism between the rotational and orbital periods of the magnetic white dwarf. We have obtained phase-resolved orbital light curves between 2009 and 2013, which show that this trend has not continued in recent years. Our data are consistent with the theoretically predicted oscillation of the magnetic axis of the white dwarf about ...

  7. An aluminum/calcium-rich, iron-poor, white dwarf star: evidence for an extrasolar planetary lithosphere?

    OpenAIRE

    Zuckerman, B.; D. Koester; Dufour, P; Melis, Carl; Klein, B.; Jura, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of elements heavier than helium in white dwarf atmospheres is often a signpost for the existence of rocky objects that currently or previously orbited these stars. We have measured the abundances of various elements in the hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs G149-28 and NLTT 43806. In comparison with other white dwarfs with atmospheres polluted by heavy elements, NLTT 43806 is substantially enriched in aluminum but relatively poor in iron. We compare the relative a...

  8. White dwarf atmosphere models with Ly-$\\alpha$ opacity in the analysis of the white dwarf cooling sequence of NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Piotr M

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the importance of pure hydrogen white dwarf atmosphere models with Ly-$\\rm \\alpha$ far red wing opacity in the analysis of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the globular cluster NGC 6397. Our recently improved atmosphere models account for the previously missing opacity from the Ly-$\\rm \\alpha$ hydrogen line broadened by collisions of the absorbing hydrogen atoms with molecular and atomic hydrogen. These models are the first that well reproduce the UV colors and spectral energy distributions of cool white dwarfs with $T_{\\rm eff}<6000 \\rm K$ observed in the Galactic Disk. Fitting the observed $F814W$ magnitude and $F606W-F814W$ color we obtained a value for the true distance modulus, $\\mu=12.00 \\pm 0.02$, that is in agreement with recent analyses. We show that the stars at the end of the cooling sequence appear to be $\\rm \\sim 160 K$ cooler when models that account for Ly-$\\rm \\alpha$ opacity are used. This indicates that the age of NGC 6397 derived from the white dwarf cooling sequence using ...

  9. SGRs and AXPs as rotation powered massive white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda Hernandez, Jorge Armando

    2012-07-01

    SGR 0418+5729 is a ``Rosetta Stone'' for deciphering the energy source of Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs). We show a model based on canonical physics and astrophysics for SGRs and AXPs powered by massive highly magnetized rotating white dwarfs (WDs), in total analogy with pulsars powered by rotating neutron stars (NSs). We predict for SGR 0418+5729 a lower limit for its spin-down rate, \\dot{P} ? L_X P^3/(4?^2 I)=1.18× 10^{-16} where I is the moment of inertia of the WD. We show for SGRs and AXPs that, the occurrence of the glitch and the gain of rotational energy, is due to the release of gravitational energy associated to the contraction and decrease of the moment of inertia of the WDs. The steady emission and the outburst following the glitch are explained by the loss of rotational energy of the Wds, in view of the much larger moment of inertia of the WDs, as compared to the one of NSs and/or quark stars. There is no need here to invoke the unorthodox concept of magnetic energy release due to decay of overcritical magnetic fields, as assumed in the magnetar model. A new astrophysical scenario for the SGRs and AXPs associated to Supernova remnants is presented. The observational campaigns of the X-ray Japanese satellite Suzaku on AE Aquarii and the corresponding theoretical works by Japanese groups and recent results of the Hubble Space Telescope, give crucial information for our theoretical model. Follow-on missions of Hubble Telescope and VLT are highly recommended to give further observational evidence of this most fundamental issue of relativistic astrophysics: the identification of the true SGRs/AXPs energy source.

  10. SGRs and AXPs as Rotation-Powered Massive White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Manuel; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2012-06-01

    SGR 0418+5729 is a ``Rosetta Stone'' for deciphering the energy source of Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs). We present a model based on canonical physics and astrophysics for SGRs and AXPs powered by massive highly magnetized rotating white dwarfs (WDs), in total analogy with pulsars powered by rotating neutron stars (NSs). We predict for SGR 0418+5729 a lower limit for its spin-down rate, dot{P} ? LX P3 /(4?2I) = 1.18 × 10-16, where I is the moment of inertia of the WD. We show for SGRs and AXPs that the occurrence of the glitch and the gain of rotational energy is due to the release of gravitational energy associated to the contraction and decrease of the moment of inertia of the WDs. The steady emission and the outburst following the glitch are explained by the loss of rotational energy of the WDs, in view of the much larger moment of inertia of the WDs, as compared to that of NSs and/or quark stars. There is no need here to invoke the unorthodox concept of magnetic energy release due to the decay of overcritical magnetic fields, as assumed in the magnetar model. A new astrophysical scenario for the SGRs and AXPs associated to Supernova remnants is presented. The observational campaigns of the X-ray Japanese satellite Suzaku on AE Aquarii and the corresponding theoretical works by Japanese groups and recent results of the Hubble Space Telescope, give crucial information for our theoretical model. Follow-on missions of Hubble Telescope and VLT are highly recommended to give further observational evidence of this most fundamental issue of relativistic astrophysics: the identification of the true SGRs/AXPs energy source.

  11. The eclipsing post-common envelope binary CSS21055: a white dwarf with a probable brown-dwarf companion

    OpenAIRE

    Beuermann, K.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F. V.; Backhaus, U.; Boesch, A.; Husser, T. -o; Nortmann, L.; Schmelev, A.; Springer, R.

    2013-01-01

    We report photometric observations of the eclipsing close binary CSS21055 (SDSS J141126+200911) that strongly suggest that the companion to the carbon-oxygen white dwarf is a brown dwarf with a mass between 0.030 and 0.074 Msun. The measured orbital period is 121.73min and the totality of the eclipse lasts 125s. If confirmed, CSS21055 would be the first detached eclipsing WD+BD binary. Spectroscopy in the eclipse could provide information about the companion's evolutionary s...

  12. The eclipsing post-common envelope binary CSS21055: a white dwarf with a probable brown-dwarf companion

    CERN Document Server

    Beuermann, K; Hessman, F V; Backhaus, U; Boesch, A; Husser, T -O; Nortmann, L; Schmelev, A; Springer, R

    2013-01-01

    We report photometric observations of the eclipsing close binary CSS21055 (SDSS J141126+200911) that strongly suggest that the companion to the carbon-oxygen white dwarf is a brown dwarf with a mass between 0.030 and 0.074 Msun. The measured orbital period is 121.73min and the totality of the eclipse lasts 125s. If confirmed, CSS21055 would be the first detached eclipsing WD+BD binary. Spectroscopy in the eclipse could provide information about the companion's evolutionary state and atmospheric structure.

  13. A second case of outbursts in a pulsating white dwarf observed by Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, J J; Bell, Keaton J; Chote, P; Gaensicke, B T; Kawaler, Steven D; Clemens, J C; Dunlap, B H; Winget, D E; Armstrong, D J

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of a new phenomenon in pulsating white dwarf stars: large-amplitude outbursts at timescales much longer than the pulsation periods. The cool (Teff = 11,010 K), hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf PG 1149+057 was observed nearly continuously for more than 78.8 d by the extended Kepler mission in K2 Campaign 1. The target showed 10 outburst events, recurring roughly every 8 d and lasting roughly 15 hr, with maximum flux excursions up to 45% in the Kepler bandpass. We demonstrate that the outbursts affect the pulsations and therefore must come from the white dwarf. Additionally, we argue that these events are not magnetic reconnection flares, and are most likely connected to the stellar pulsations and the relatively deep surface convection zone. PG 1149+057 is now the second cool pulsating white dwarf to show this outburst phenomenon, after the first variable white dwarf observed in the Kepler mission, KIC 4552982. Both stars have the same effective temperature, within the uncertain...

  14. Evolutionary calculations of carbon dredge-up in helium envelope white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, J; José, J; Donald, James Mac; Hernanz, Margarita; José, Jordi; Physics, Department of; Delaware, University of; Catalunya, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de; Unit, CSIC Research; Nexus-201, Edifici; Nuclear, Departament de Fí sica i Enginyeria; Balaguer, Avda. Ví ctor

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooling helium atmosphere white dwarfs using a full evolutionary code, specifically developed for following the effects of element diffusion and gravitational settling on white dwarf cooling. The major difference between this work and previous work is that we use more recent opacity data from the OPAL project. Since, in general, these opacities are higher than those available ten years ago, at a given effective temperature, convection zones go deeper than in models with older opacity data. Thus convective dredge-up of observationally detectable carbon in helium atmosphere white dwarfs can occur for thicker helium layers than found by Pelletier et al (1986). We find that the range of observed C to He ratios in different DQ white dwarfs of similar effective temperature is well explained by a range of initial helium layer mass between $10^{-3}$ and $10^{-2} M_{\\odot}$, in good agreement with stellar evolution theory, assuming a typical white dwarf mass of $0.6 M_{\\odot}$. We also ...

  15. Discovery of Two New Thermally Bloated Low-Mass White Dwarfs Among the Kepler Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaport, S; Levine, A; Sanchis-Ojeda, R; Gandolfi, D; Nowak, G; Palle, E; Prsa, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new low-mass, thermally bloated, hot white dwarfs among the Kepler sample of eclipsing binaries. These are KIC 9164561 and KIC 10727668 with orbital periods of 1.2670 and 2.3058 days, respectively. The current primary in both systems is an A star of about 2 Msun. This brings the number of similar binaries among the Kepler sample to six, and the two new systems have the shortest orbital periods among them. The white dwarf in KIC 9164561 has the largest thermal bloating, compared to its cold degenerate radius, of about a factor of 14. We utilize RV measurements of the A star in KIC 9164561 to determine the white dwarf mass rather accurately: 0.197 +/- 0.005 Msun. The mass of the white dwarf in KIC 10727668 is based on the Doppler boosting signal in the Kepler photometry, and is less accurately determined to be 0.266 +/- 0.035 Msun. Based on the inferred radii and effective temperatures of these two white dwarfs we are able to make an independent theoretical estimate of their masse...

  16. Additional Ultracool White Dwarfs Found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, H C; Gyuk, G; Subba-Rao, M; Anderson, S F; Hall, P B; Munn, J A; Liebert, J; Knapp, G R; Bizyaev, D; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Pan, K; Schneider, D P; Smith, J A

    2008-01-01

    We identify seven new ultracool white dwarfs discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The SDSS photometry, spectra, and proper motions are presented, and additional BVRI data are given for these and other previously discovered ultracool white dwarfs. The observed colors span a remarkably wide range, qualitatively similar to colors predicted by models for very cool white dwarfs. One of the new stars (SDSS J1251+44) exhibits strong collision-induced absorption (CIA) in its spectra, while the spectra and colors of the other six are consistent with mild CIA. Another of the new discoveries (SDSS J2239+00A) is part of a binary system -- its companion is also a cool white dwarf, and other data indicate that the companion exhibits an infrared flux deficiency, making this the first binary system composed of two CIA white dwarfs. A third discovery (SDSS J0310-00) has weak Balmer emission lines. The proper motions of all seven stars are consistent with membership in the disk or thick disk.

  17. New UltraCool and Halo White Dwarf Candidates in SDSS Stripe 82

    CERN Document Server

    Vidrih, S; Hewett, P C; Evans, N W; Gilmore, G; Hodgkin, S; Smith, M; Wyrzykowski, L; Belokurov, V; Fellhauer, M; Irwin, M J; McMahon, R G; Zucker, D; Munn, J A; Lin, H; Miknaitis, G; Harris, H C; Lupton, R H; Schneider, D P

    2007-01-01

    A 2.5 x 100 degree region along the celestial equator (Stripe 82) has been imaged repeatedly from 1998 to 2005 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A new catalogue of ~4 million light-motion curves, together with over 200 derived statistical quantities, for objects in Stripe 82 brighter than r~21.5 has been constructed by combining these data by Bramich et al. (2007). This catalogue is at present the deepest catalogue of its kind. Extracting the ~130000 objects with highest signal-to-noise ratio proper motions, we build a reduced proper motion diagram to illustrate the scientific promise of the catalogue. In this diagram disk and halo subdwarfs are well-separated from the cool white dwarf sequence. Our sample of 1049 cool white dwarf candidates includes at least 8 and possibly 21 new ultracool DA type white dwarfs (T_eff < 4000K) and one new ultracool DB type white dwarf candidate identified from their SDSS optical and UKIDSS infrared photometry. At least 10 new halo white dwarfs are also identified from their...

  18. On the possibility of using seismic probes to study the core composition in pulsating white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J P

    2012-01-01

    White dwarfs correspond to the final stages of stellar evolution of solar-type stars. In these objects, production of energy by nuclear burning has ended which means that a white dwarf simply cools down over the course of the next billion years. It is now known that white dwarfs spend some of their cooling history in an instability strip. The pulsating white dwarfs with an hydrogen atmosphere (called DAV or ZZ Ceti stars) show non-radial oscillation modes with periods in the range 100 - 1200s. In this work we try to illustrate how the oscillation p-mode frequencies of idealized white dwarf models change as the result of a different chemical composition in the core, with the ultimate goal of determining the chemical stratification from seismic observations. The presence of acoustic glitches in the internal structure results in a periodic signal in the frequencies. We find that this signal depends on the chemical stratification/composition of the core in a form that can be analytically modelled.

  19. The Hyades Cluster: Identification of a Planetary System and Escaping White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, B; Xu, S; Jura, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, some hot DA-type white dwarfs have been proposed to plausibly be escaping members of the Hyades. We used hydrogen Balmer lines to measure the radial velocities of seven such stars and confirm that three, and perhaps two others, are/were indeed cluster members and one is not. The other candidate Hyad is strongly magnetic and its membership status remains uncertain. The photospheres of at least one quarter of field white dwarf stars are "polluted" by elements heavier than helium that have been accreted. These stars are orbited by extended planetary systems that contain both debris belts and major planets. We surveyed the seven classical single Hyades white dwarfs and the newly identified (escaping) Hyades white dwarfs and found calcium in the photosphere of LP 475-242 of type DBA (now DBAZ), thus implying the presence of an orbiting planetary system. The spectrum of white dwarf GD 31, which may be, but probably is not, an escaping member of the Hyades, displays calcium absorption lines; these originat...

  20. Effects of strong magnetic fields and rotation on white dwarf structure

    CERN Document Server

    Franzon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compute relativistic stars models for the structure of white dwarfs under the influence of strong magnetic field and rotation. The magnetic field is assumed to be poloidal and axisymmetric. We find a maximum mass for a static magnetized white dwarf of about 2.13 $\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$ in the Newtonian case and a value of 2.09 $\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$ taking into account general relativistic effects. We also present properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs and we show that the maximum mass is shifted from a mass of $\\sim$ 1.40 $\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$ for non-rotating white dwarf to $\\sim$ 1.45 $\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$ in the keplerian limit. We present also results for rotating magnetized white dwarfs calculated in a self$-$consistent way by solving the Maxwell and Einstein equations together. The maximum field strength obtained is about $10^{15}\\,$G at the center of the star in the static and $10^{14}\\,$G in the rotating case.

  1. A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE STUDY OF THE DEBRIS DISKS AROUND FOUR SDSS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope data of four isolated white dwarfs that were previously known to harbor circumstellar gaseous disks. Infrared Array Camera photometry shows a significant infrared excess in all of the systems, SDSS0738+1835, SDSS0845+2257, SDSS1043+0855, and SDSS1617+1620, indicative of a dusty extension to those disks. The 4.5 ?m excesses seen in SDSS0738, SDSS0845, and SDSS1617 are 7.5, 5.7, and 4.5 times the white dwarf contribution, respectively. In contrast, in SDSS1043, the measured flux density at 4.5 ?m is only 1.7 times the white dwarf contribution. We compare the measured IR excesses in the systems to models of geometrically thin, optically thick disks, and find that we are able to match the measured spectral energy distributions to within 3? of the uncertainties, although disks with unfeasibly hot inner dust temperatures generally provide a better fit than those below the dust sublimation temperature. Possible explanations for the dearth of dust around SDSS1043+0855 are briefly discussed. Including our previous study of SDSS1228+1040, all five white dwarfs with gaseous debris disks have significant amounts of dust around them. It is evident that gas and dust can coexist around these relatively warm, relatively young white dwarfs.

  2. The frequency and infrared brightness of circumstellar discs at white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetto, M.; Farihi, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Bergfors, C.

    2015-05-01

    White dwarfs whose atmospheres are polluted by terrestrial-like planetary debris have become a powerful and unique tool to study evolved planetary systems. This paper presents results for an unbiased Spitzer Infrared Array Camera search for circumstellar dust orbiting a homogeneous and well-defined sample of 134 single white dwarfs. The stars were selected without regard to atmospheric metal content but were chosen to have (1) hydrogen-rich atmospheres, (2) 17 000 Hubble Space Telescope COS snapshot. Five white dwarfs were found to host an infrared bright dust disc, three previously known, and two reported here for the first time, yielding a nominal 3.7^{+2.4}_{-1.0} per cent of white dwarfs in this post-main-sequence age range with detectable circumstellar dust. Remarkably, the complementary Hubble observations indicate that a fraction of 27 per cent show metals in their photosphere that can only be explained with ongoing accretion from circumstellar material, indicating that nearly 90 per cent of discs escape detection in the infrared, likely due to small emitting surface area. This paper also presents the distribution of disc fractional luminosity as a function of cooling age for all known dusty white dwarfs, suggesting possible disc evolution scenarios and indicating an undetected population of circumstellar discs.

  3. Likely detection of water-rich asteroid debris in a metal-polluted white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddi, R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.; Farihi, J.; Hermes, J. J.; Scaringi, S.; Breedt, E.; Girven, J.

    2015-06-01

    The cool white dwarf SDSS J124231.07+522626.6 exhibits photospheric absorption lines of eight distinct heavy elements in medium resolution optical spectra, notably including oxygen. The Teff = 13 000 K atmosphere is helium-dominated, but the convection zone contains significant amounts of hydrogen and oxygen. The four most common rock-forming elements (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) account for almost all the accreted mass, totalling at least 1.2 × 1024 g, similar to the mass of Ceres. The time-averaged accretion rate is 2 × 1010 g s-1, one of the highest rates inferred among all known metal-polluted white dwarfs. We note a large oxygen excess, with respect to the most common metal oxides, suggesting that the white dwarf accreted planetary debris with a water content of ?38 per cent by mass. This star, together with GD 61, GD 16, and GD 362, form a small group of outliers from the known population of evolved planetary systems accreting predominantly dry, rocky debris. This result strengthens the hypothesis that, integrated over the cooling ages of white dwarfs, accretion of water-rich debris from disrupted planetesimals may significantly contribute to the build-up of trace hydrogen observed in a large fraction of helium-dominated white dwarf atmospheres.

  4. White dwarf evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity progenitors: The impact of third dredge-up

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Córsico, Alejandro H; García-Berro, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We present new white dwarf evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity progenitors. White dwarf sequences have been derived from full evolutionary calculations that take into account the entire history of progenitor stars, including the thermally-pulsing and the post-asymptotic giant branch phases. We show that for progenitor metallicities in the range 0.00003--0.001, and in the absence of carbon enrichment due to the occurrence of a third dredge-up episode, the resulting H envelope of the low-mass white dwarfs is thick enough to make stable H burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This has a significant impact on white dwarf cooling times. This result is independent of the adopted mass-loss rate during the thermally-pulsing and post-AGB phases, and the planetary nebulae stage. We conclude that in the absence of third dredge-up episodes, a significant part of the evolution of low-mass white dwarfs resulting from low-metallicity progenitors is dominated by stable H burning. Our study...

  5. Reaching the End of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence in NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; Piotto, G; Salaris, M; Cassisi, S; Serenelli, A

    2008-01-01

    We present new observations of the white dwarf sequence of the old open cluster NGC 6791. The brighter peak previously observed in the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) is now better delineated, and the second, fainter peak that we suggested earlier is now confirmed. A careful study suggests that we have reached the end of the white dwarf sequence. The WDs that create the two peaks in the WDLF show a significant turn to the blue in the color-magnitude diagram. The discrepancy between the age from the WDs and that from the main sequence turnoff remains, and we have an additional puzzle in the second peak in the WDLF. Canonical WD models seem to fail --at least at ~25%-level-- in reproducing the age of clusters of this metallicity. We discuss briefly possible ways of arriving at a theoretical understanding of the WDLF.

  6. On the Dissociation Equilibrium of H2 in Very Cool, Helium-Rich White Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, P M

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation equilibrium of $\\rm H_2$ in very cool, helium-rich white dwarf atmospheres. We present the solution of the non-ideal chemical equilibrium for the dissociation of molecular hydrogen in a medium of dense helium. We find that at the photosphere of cool white dwarfs of $T_{\\rm eff}\\rm=4000 K$, the non-ideality results in an increase of the mole fraction of molecular hydrogen by up to a factor of $\\sim 10$, compared to the equilibrium value for the ideal gas. This increases the $\\rm H_{2}-He$ CIA opacity by an order of magnitude and will affect the determination of the abundance of hydrogen in very cool, helium-rich white dwarfs.

  7. The Initiation and Propagation of Helium Detonations in White Dwarf Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Ken J

    2014-01-01

    Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear ".Ia" supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the previously neglected effects of C/O pollution and a full nuclear reaction network, and we consider hotspots with spatially constant pressure in addition to constant density hotspots. We find that the inclusion of these effects significantly decreases the minimum hotspot size for helium-rich detonation ignition, making detonations far more plausible during turbulent shell convection or during double white dwarf mergers. The increase in burning rate also decreases the minimum shell mass in which a helium detonation can successfully propagate ...

  8. Zeeman tomography of magnetic white dwarfs, I. Reconstruction of the field geometry from synthetic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Euchner, F; Beuermann, K; Gänsicke, B T; Hessman, F V

    2002-01-01

    We have computed optical Zeeman spectra of magnetic white dwarfs for field strengths between 10 and 200MG and effective temperatures between 8000 and 40000K. They form a database containing 20628 sets of flux and circular polarization spectra. A least-squares optimization code based on an evolutionary strategy can recover relatively complex magnetic field topologies from phase-resolved synthetic Zeeman spectra of rotating magnetic white dwarfs. We consider dipole and quadrupole components which are non-aligned and shifted off-centre. The model geometries include stars with a single high-field spot and with two spots separated by approx. 90 degrees. The accuracy of the recovered field structure increases with the signal-to-noise ratio of the input spectra and is significantly improved if circular polarization spectra are included in addition to flux spectra. We discuss the strategies proposed so far to unravel the field geometries of magnetic white dwarfs.

  9. Excess Infrared Radiation from a Massive DAZ White Dwarf: GD362 - a Debris Disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, M; Leggett, S K; Winget, D E; Kilic, Mukremin; Hippel, Ted von

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of excess K-band radiation from a massive DAZ white dwarf star, GD362. Combining infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations, we show that the excess radiation cannot be explained by a stellar or substellar companion, and is likely to be caused by a debris disk. This would be only the second such system known, discovered 18 years after G29-38, the only single white dwarf currently known to be orbited by circumstellar dust. Both of these systems favor a model with accretion from a surrounding debris disk to explain the metal abundances observed in DAZ white dwarfs. Nevertheless, observations of more DAZs in the mid-infrared are required to test if this model can explain all DAZs.

  10. Strengthening the Case for Asteroidal Accrection: Evidence for Subtle and Diverse Disks at White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Lee, J -E; Zuckerman, B

    2010-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC 3-8 micron and AKARI IRC 2-4 micron photometry are reported for ten white dwarfs with photospheric heavy elements; nine relatively cool stars with photospheric calcium, and one hotter star with a peculiar high carbon abundance. A substantial infrared excess is detected at HE 2221-1630, while modest excess emissions are identified at HE 0106-3253 and HE 0307+0746, implying these latter two stars have relatively narrow (Delta r < 0.1 Rsol) rings of circumstellar dust. A likely 7.9 micron excess is found at PG 1225-079 and may represent, together with G166-58, a sub-class of dust ring with a large inner hole. The existence of attenuated disks at white dwarfs substantiates the connection between their photospheric heavy elements and the accretion of disrupted minor planets, indicating many polluted white dwarfs may harbor orbiting dust, even those lacking an obvious infrared excess.

  11. Super-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs with Magnetic-dependent Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Qi-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, some over-luminous Ia supernovaes are found, suggesting that their progenitors are white dwarfs more massive than the Chandrasekhar limit, which perhaps result from ultra-strong magnetic field inside the white dwarfs. We present an equation of state, explicitly magnetic-dependent and analytically practicable, and observe that the change of equation of states due to magnetic field waning along radium will so significantly influence the configuration of a white dwarf as that its density does not monotonically decrease, but goes down at first, re-peaks near the crust and falls off again. As a supernovae will, in the single degenerate Ia supernovae system, leave the remnant of its companion and a neutron star (pulsar star), we point out that the observations of these objects can put our model into tests

  12. Constraining the photon-axion coupling constant with magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light pseudoscalar particle, dubbed the axion, borne out of the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem in QCD remains elusive. One avenue of inferring its existence is through its coupling to electromagnetic radiation. So far, laboratory experiments have dedicated all efforts to detect the axion in the mass range 10-6a-3 eV with a photon-axion coupling strength ga??-10 GeV-1, where the limits are derived from astrophysical considerations. In this study, we present a novel way of constraining ga?? by looking at the level of linear polarization in the radiation emerging from magnetic white dwarfs. We find that photon-axion oscillations in white dwarf magnetospheres can enhance the degree of linear polarization. Observing that most magnetic white dwarfs show only 5% linear polarization, we derive upper limits on ga?? for different axion masses.

  13. White dwarfs stripped by massive black holes: sources of coincident gravitational and electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zalamea, Ivan; Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs inspiraling into black holes of mass $\\MBH\\simgt 10^5M_\\odot$ are detectable sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band. In many of these events, the white dwarf begins to lose mass during the main observational phase of the inspiral. The mass loss starts gently and can last for thousands of orbits. The white dwarf matter overflows the Roche lobe through the $L_1$ point at each pericenter passage and the mass loss repeats periodically. The process occurs very close to the black hole and the released gas can accrete, potentially creating a bright source of radiation with luminosity close to the Eddington limit, $L\\sim 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This class of inspirals offers a promising scenario for dual detections of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation.

  14. From Accretion to Explosion and Beyond: Transforming White Dwarfs to Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Harris, R.

    2010-02-01

    White dwarfs accreting at high rates can grow in mass, exhibiting episodes of supersoft-source activity. Some can achieve the Chandrasekhar mass and will either become Type Ia supernovae or else will collapse, becoming neutron stars. We consider white dwarfs with giant donors, computing the rates of both supernovae and collapses. For the collapses, we follow each system to the end of accretion. Some of these systems will appear as ultraluminous x-ray sources and some will go on to become low-mass black holes. This scenario should be fairly common in young stellar populations and links a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. Indeed, it is a veritable cornucopia for the high-energy astrophysicist, offering accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, supersoft sources, ultraluminous sources, and neutron star and black hole binaries in globular clusters.

  15. White dwarfs stripped by massive black holes: sources of coincident gravitational and electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalamea, I.; Menou, K.; Beloborodov, A. M.

    2010-11-01

    White dwarfs inspiralling into black holes of mass MBH >~ 105 Msolar are detectable sources of gravitational waves in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) band. In many of these events, the white dwarf begins to lose mass during the main observational phase of the inspiral. The mass-loss starts gently and can last for thousands of orbits. The white dwarf matter overflows the Roche lobe through the L1 point at each pericentre passage and the mass-loss repeats periodically. The process occurs very close to the black hole and the released gas can accrete, creating a bright source of radiation with luminosity close to the Eddington limit, L ~ 1043ergs-1. This class of inspirals offers a promising scenario for dual detections of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation.

  16. White dwarfs stripped by massive black holes: EMRIs with coincident gravitational and electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalamea, Ivan; Menou, Kristen; Beloborodov, Andrei

    White dwarfs inspiraling into black holes of mass MBH ˜ 105 are bright sources of gravita-tional waves in the LISA band. In many of these events, the white dwarf begins to lose mass during the main observational phase of the inspiral. The mass loss starts gently and can last for thousands of orbits. The white dwarf matter overflows the Roche lobe through the L1 point at each pericenter passage and the mass loss repeats periodically. The process occurs very close to the black hole and the released gas can accrete, creating a bright source of radiation with luminosity close to the Eddington limit, N ˜ 1043 erg/s. This class of inspirals offers a promising scenario for dual detections of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation.

  17. White-dwarf red-giant mergers, early-type R stars, J stars and lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xianfei

    2013-01-01

    Early-type R stars and J stars are a special type of carbon star, having enhanced nitrogen ($\\rm [N/Fe]\\approx 0.5$), lithium, a low \\iso{12}{C}/\\iso{13}{C} ratio ($<15$) and no s-element enhancements. The merger of a helium white dwarf with a red giant is regarded to be a possible model for the origin of early-type R stars, but the details of nucleosynthesis are not clear. In this paper we investigate three possible channels for helium white-dwarf + red-giant mergers, and find that, amongst the three, only a high-mass helium white dwarf subducted into a low core-mass red giant can make an early-type R star. Nucleosynthesis of elements carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and lithium correspond well with the observations. Furthermore, we find that the J stars may represent a short and luminous stage in the evolution of an early-R star.

  18. The Future Evolution of White Dwarf Stars Through Baryon Decay and Time Varying Gravitational Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ketchum, Jacob A

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility that the fundamental ``constants'' of nature could vary with time, this paper considers the long term evolution of white dwarf stars under the combined action of proton decay and variations in the gravitational constant. White dwarfs are thus used as a theoretical laboratory to study the effects of possible time variations, especially their implications for the future history of the universe. More specifically, we consider the gravitational constant $G$ to vary according to the parametric relation $G = G_0 (1 + t/t_\\ast)^{-p}$, where the time scale $t_\\ast$ is the same order as the proton lifetime. We then study the long term fate and evolution of white dwarf stars. This treatment begins when proton decay dominates the stellar luminosity, and ends when the star becomes optically thin to its internal radiation.

  19. The Post-Merger Magnetized Evolution of White Dwarf Binaries: The Double-Degenerate Channel of Sub-Chandrasekhar Type Ia Supernovae and the Formation of Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Suoqing; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Tzeferacos, Petros; Jordan, George; Lee, Dongwook; Loren-Aguilar, Pablo; Cremer, Pascal; Behrends, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a crucial role as standardizable cosmological candles, though the nature of their progenitors is a subject of active investigation. Recent observational and theoretical work has pointed to merging white dwarf binaries, referred to as the double-degenerate channel, as the possible progenitor systems for some SNe Ia. Additionally, recent theoretical work suggests that mergers which fail to detonate may produce magnetized, rapidly-rotating white dwarfs. In this paper, we present the first multidimensional simulations of the post-merger evolution of white dwarf binaries to include the effect of the magnetic field. In these systems, the two white dwarfs complete a final merger on a dynamical timescale, and are tidally disrupted, producing a rapidly-rotating white dwarf merger surrounded by a hot corona and a thick, differentially-rotating disk. The disk is strongly susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and we demonstrate that this leads to the rapid growth of an i...

  20. Connections Between Tilted Accretion Disks Around White Dwarfs and Substellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2010-01-01

    Accretion disks in white dwarf systems are believed to be tilted. In a recent publication, the lift force has been suggested to be a source to disk tilt, a source that is likely relevant to all accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether a brown dwarf donor star accreting onto a white dwarf primary has enough mass to contribute to disk tilt. We also would like to obtain whether a white dwarf - brown dwarf close binary system has enough mass to induce and maintain a disk tilt of four degrees. We adopt SDSS 103533.03+055158.4 as our model system which has a mass transfer rate of \\( (10\\pm2) \\times 10^{-12} \\) M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. We find that the brown dwarf in SDSS 1035 does not have enough mass to contribute to disk tilt. We find a gross magnitude of the minimum mass transfer rate to be $\\sim10^{-10}$M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. We conclude that SDSS 1035 does not ...

  1. Connections between Tilted Accretion Disks around White Dwarfs and Substellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2011-01-01

    Accretion disks in white dwarf systems are believed to be tilted. In a recent publication, the lift force has been suggested to be a source to disk tilt, a source that is likely relevant to all accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether a brown dwarf donor star accreting onto a white dwarf primary has enough mass to contribute to disk tilt. We also would like to obtain whether a white dwarf - brown dwarf close binary system has enough mass to induce and maintain a disk tilt of four degrees. We adopt SDSS 103533.03+055158.4 as our model system which has a mass transfer rate of (10 \\pm 2) x 10-12 M* yr-1. We find that the brown dwarf in SDSS 1035 does not have enough mass to contribute to disk tilt. We find a gross magnitude of the minimum mass transfer rate to be - 10-10 M* yr-1 . We conclude that SDSS 1035 does not seem to have a high enough mass transfer rat...

  2. Trans-iron group elements in hot helium-rich white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Our recent detection of twelve trans-iron group elements (Z=30-56) in the hot helium-rich white dwarf (i.e. spectral type DO) RE0503-289 is a unique discovery. This phenomenon was never observed before in any white dwarf. Abundance analyses hitherto performed for five species (Zn, Ge, Kr, Xe, Ba) reveal values between 155 and 23000 times solar. There are reasons to believe that these extreme overabundances are connected to the evolutionary history of the DO white dwarfs. They are the outcome of a late helium-shell flash that consumes all hydrogen in the stellar envelope and at the same time dredges up helium-rich intershell matter that is enriched with s-process elements. These elements were synthesised in the preceding AGB phase of the evolution. We argue that if RE0503-289 is a typical representative of the DO white dwarfs, then all DOs with similar effective temperature should also show these extraordinary chemical diversity and overabundances. In order to prove this hypothesis, we want to obtain FUV spectra of two other hot DO white dwarfs plus a representative of the PG1159 stars, which are thought to be immediate progenitors of DO white dwarfs. If all three targets show the same heavy-metal abundance pattern, then these objects hold the promise that their metal abundances can be used to constrain AGB star nucleosynthesis. If otherwise RE0503-289 remains a unique object, then an alternative evolutionary scenario (binary WD merger) is probably responsible for its extreme element abundances.

  3. A numerical study of the rotational behavior of the white dwarf in DQ Herculis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiriou, P. J.; Gerouannis, V. S.

    It is well-known that the optical pulsations in DQ Her are due to emission from the magnetic poles of the white dwarf. As the white dwarf spins on its axis, the magnetic poles sweep into and out of the line of sight due to the fact that the magnetic axis and the spin axis are not aligned, that is, the DQ Her white dwarf is an `oblique rotator'. So, a central question is if an initially axisymmetric model simulating the DQ Her white dwarf before its `turn-over' (where the term `turn-over' describes the process by which the magnetic axis gets inclining relative to the spin axis at a progressively increasing angle, the so-called `turn-over angle') is indeed susceptible to turn-over. For the puprose of resolving this problem, we compute several axisymmetric models of the DQ Her white dwarf. Our results show that, for both the rotation periods proposed on the basis of the observational evidence regarding the optical pulsations of DQ Her (i.e., 71 s or 142 s), the moment of inertia along the rotation axis is less than the corresponding moment of inertia along the remaining two principal axes of the axisymmetric configuration, I_33 magnetic field (tending to derive prolate equidensity surfaces) dominates over rotation (tending, in turn, to derive oblate equidensity surfaces), mainly in the interior of the star. The situation I_11 > I_33 is known as `dynamical asymmetry', and can cause a turn-over of the magnetic symmetry axis with respect to the rotation axis, eventually deriving a nonaxisymmetric configuration corresponding to the so-called `perpendicular rotator' with turn-over angle almost equal to 90^°. In this view, our results explain why the DQ Her white dwarf is now an oblique rotator.

  4. Observing white dwarfs orbiting massive black holes in the gravitational wave and electro-magnetic window

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Eracleous, M; Sigurdsson, S

    2008-01-01

    We consider a potentially new class of gravitational wave sources consisting of a white dwarf coalescing into a massive black hole in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\msun. These sources are of particular interest because the gravitational wave signal produced during the inspiral phase can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and is promptly followed, in an extended portion of the black hole and white dwarf mass parameter space, by an electro-magnetic signal generated by the tidal disruption of the star, detectable with X-ray, optical and UV telescopes. This class of sources could therefore yield a considerable number of scientific payoffs, that include precise cosmography at low redshift, demographics of black holes in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\Msun, insights into dynamical interactions and populations of white dwarfs in the cores of dwarf galaxies, as well as a new probe into the structure and equation of state of white dwarfs. By modelling the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation pr...

  5. Creating and measuring white dwarf photospheres in a terrestrial laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Ross Edward

    2014-08-01

    As the ultimate fate of nearly all stars, including our Sun, white dwarfs (WDs) hold rich and informative histories in their observable light. To determine a fundamental parameter of WDs, mass, we perform the first measurement of the average gravitational redshift of an ensemble of WDs. We find a larger mean mass than that determined from the primary and expansive technique known as the spectroscopic method. The potential inaccuracy of this method has broad astrophysical implications, including for our understanding of Type 1a supernova progenitors and for constraining the age of the Universe. This motivates us to investigate the WD atmosphere models used with the spectroscopic method, particularly the input theoretical line profiles, by developing a new experimental platform to create plasmas at WD photospheric conditions (Te~1 eV, ne~1017 cm-3). Instead of observing WD spectra to infer the plasma conditions at the surface of the star, we set the conditions and measure the emergent spectra in the laboratory. X-rays from a z-pinch dynamic hohlraum generated at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories irradiate a gas cell to initiate formation of a large (120x20x10 mm or 24 cm3) plasma. We observe multiple Balmer lines from our plasma in emission and in absorption simultaneously along relatively long (~120 mm) lines of sight perpendicular to the heating radiation. Using a large, radiation-driven plasma aides us to achieve homogeneity along our observed lines of sight. With time-resolved spectroscopy we measure lines at a range of electron densities that spans an order of magnitude, and we do this within one pulsed power shot experiment. Observing our plasma in absorption not only provides the signal-to-noise to measure relative line shapes, it allows us to measure relative line strengths because the lines share the same lower level population. This constrains the theoretical reduction factors used to describe ionization potential depression or the occupation probabilities associated with these Balmer lines. We compare our measured line shapes with the theoretical ones used in WD atmosphere models as part of the first fruits of this rich experimental platform.

  6. THE POST-MERGER MAGNETIZED EVOLUTION OF WHITE DWARF BINARIES: THE DOUBLE-DEGENERATE CHANNEL OF SUB-CHANDRASEKHAR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THE FORMATION OF MAGNETIZED WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Suoqing; Fisher, Robert T. [University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Department of Physics, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); Garcia-Berro, Enrique [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Tzeferacos, Petros; Jordan, George; Lee, Dongwook [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Loren-Aguilar, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Cremer, Pascal [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Behrends, Jan [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-08-20

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a crucial role as standardizable cosmological candles, though the nature of their progenitors is a subject of active investigation. Recent observational and theoretical work has pointed to merging white dwarf binaries, referred to as the double-degenerate channel, as the possible progenitor systems for some SNe Ia. Additionally, recent theoretical work suggests that mergers which fail to detonate may produce magnetized, rapidly rotating white dwarfs. In this paper, we present the first multidimensional simulations of the post-merger evolution of white dwarf binaries to include the effect of the magnetic field. In these systems, the two white dwarfs complete a final merger on a dynamical timescale, and are tidally disrupted, producing a rapidly rotating white dwarf merger surrounded by a hot corona and a thick, differentially rotating disk. The disk is strongly susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and we demonstrate that this leads to the rapid growth of an initially dynamically weak magnetic field in the disk, the spin-down of the white dwarf merger, and to the subsequent central ignition of the white dwarf merger. Additionally, these magnetized models exhibit new features not present in prior hydrodynamic studies of white dwarf mergers, including the development of MRI turbulence in the hot disk, magnetized outflows carrying a significant fraction of the disk mass, and the magnetization of the white dwarf merger to field strengths {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} G. We discuss the impact of our findings on the origins, circumstellar media, and observed properties of SNe Ia and magnetized white dwarfs.

  7. The bottom of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the old open cluster NGC 2158

    CERN Document Server

    Bedin, L R; King, I R; Piotto, G; Anderson, J; Cassisi, S

    2009-01-01

    We use 10 orbits of Advanced Camera for Surveys observations to reach the end of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the solar-metallicity open cluster NGC 2158. Our photometry and completeness tests show that the end falls at magnitude m_F606W = 27.5 +/- 0.15, which implies an age between ~1.8 and ~2.0 Gyr, consistent with the age of 1.9 +/- 0.2 Gyr obtained from fits to the main-sequence turn-off. The faintest white dwarfs show a clear turn toward bluer colors, as predicted by theoretical isochrones.

  8. The bottom of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the old open cluster NGC 2158

    OpenAIRE

    Bedin, L. R.; Salaris, M.; King, I. R.; Piotto, G; Anderson, J.; Cassisi, S.

    2009-01-01

    We use 10 orbits of Advanced Camera for Surveys observations to reach the end of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the solar-metallicity open cluster NGC 2158. Our photometry and completeness tests show that the end falls at magnitude m_F606W = 27.5 +/- 0.15, which implies an age between ~1.8 and ~2.0 Gyr, consistent with the age of 1.9 +/- 0.2 Gyr obtained from fits to the main-sequence turn-off. The faintest white dwarfs show a clear turn toward bluer colors, as predicte...

  9. A study of colliding white dwarfs acting as a progenitor of Supernova 1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Thomas; Chang, P.

    2014-01-01

    Supernova Ia may be the result of colliding white dwarfs. To explore this possibility, we study of how varying the parameters of two 0.6M white dwarf stars colliding affects the final nickel and silicon yield using the FLASH 4.0 hydrodynamics code. Impact parameters starting at 0 (head on) and ranging to 5e8 km were studied. Production of 56Ni and 28Si were recorded for each parameter and we found that only collision parameters of 0, 2 and supposedly 1e8 would produce 56Ni > 0.1M necessary to produce a Type 1a Supernova.

  10. Spectropolarimetry and Infrared Photometry of Magnetic White Dwarfs: Vacuum Polarization Effect or Magnetic CIA?

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Y N; Larionov, V M; Naidenov, I D; Natsvlishvili, T M; Piotrovich, M Y; Gnedin, Yu. N.

    2004-01-01

    We present brief review of two probable physical mechanisms that can explain the results of photometric and spectropolarimetric observations of magnetic white dwarfs: vacuum polarization effect into a strong magnetic field and, so-called, magnetic collision induced absorption (magnetic CIA). Both mechanisms provide observed rotation of polarization ellipse and suppression of spectral energy distributions. The results of spectropolarimetric observations of magnetic white dwarfs made at Russian BTA-6m and the results of the near infrared photometric observations with Russian-Italian AZT-24 telescope located at Campo Imperatore are also presented.

  11. The temperature scale of hot DA white dwarfs - Temperatures from far-ultraviolet continuum fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David S.; Basri, Gibor; Bowyer, Stuart

    1990-01-01

    Observed far-UV to visible flux ratios of all DA white dwarfs hotter than about 25,000 K are compared with ratios predicted by models in order to derive effective temperatures for the stars. All suitable IUE spectra of seven hot DA white dwarfs for which accurate temperatures based on hydrogen line profiles were available are used to derive a flux correction to the 1980 IUE absolute calibration. Application of the corrections to the IUE spectra results in derived temperature which are consistent with the line profile temperatures.

  12. Radiative Activity of Magnetic White Dwarf Undergoing Lorentz-Force Torsional Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrukov, S. I.; Yu, J. W.; Xu, R. X.; Molodtsova, I. V.

    We study radiative activity of magnetic white dwarf undergoing torsional vibrations about axis of its own dipole magnetic moment under the action of Lorentz restoring force. It is shown that pulsating white dwarf can convert its vibration energy into the energy of magneto-dipole emission, oscillating with the frequency equal to the frequency of Alfvén torsional vibrations, provided that internal magnetic field is decayed. The most conspicuous feature of the vibration energy powered radiation in question is the lengthening of periods of oscillating emission; the rate of period elongation is determined by the rate magnetic field decay.

  13. Radiative activity of magnetic white dwarf undergoing Lorentz-force-driven torsional vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S I; Xu, R X; Molodtsova, I V

    2010-01-01

    We study radiative activity of magnetic white dwarf undergoing torsional vibrations about axis of its own dipole magnetic moment under the action of Lorentz restoring force. It is shown that pulsating white dwarf can convert its vibration energy into the energy of magneto-dipole emission, oscillating with the frequency equal to the frequency of Alfv\\'en torsional vibrations, provided that internal magnetic field is decayed. The most conspicuous feature of the vibration energy powered radiation in question is the lengthening of periods of oscillating emission; the rate of period elongation is determined by the rate magnetic field decay.

  14. Fourteen new eclipsing white dwarf plus main-sequence binaries from the SDSS and Catalina surveys

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Parsons; C. Agurto-Gangas; Gaensicke, B.T.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; M. R. Schreiber; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V.S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Drake, A.J.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Hardy, L.K.; Buisset, C.; Prasit, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the search for new eclipsing white dwarf plus main-sequence (WDMS) binaries in the light curves of the Catalina surveys. We use a colour selected list of almost 2000 candidate WDMS systems from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, specifically designed to identify WDMS systems with cool white dwarfs and/or early M type main-sequence stars. We identify a total of 17 eclipsing systems, 14 of which are new discoveries. We also find 3 candidate eclipsing systems, 2 main-se...

  15. Faint Blue Objects in the Hubble Deep Field South Revealed: White Dwarfs, Subdwarfs, and Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Mukremin; Mendez, R. A.; Von Hippel, Ted; Winget, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the nature of the faint blue objects in the Hubble Deep Field South. We have derived proper motions for the point sources in the Hubble Deep Field South using a 3 year baseline. Combining our proper motion measurements with spectral energy distribution fitting enabled us to identify 4 quasars and 42 stars, including 3 white dwarf candidates. Two of these white dwarf candidates, HDFS 1444 and 895, are found to display significant proper motion, 21.1 $\\pm$ 7.9 mas/y...

  16. The gamma-ray source Geminga - A white dwarf, rotating around a black hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    1985-05-01

    A 'kinematic' model of Geminga is proposed which explains the observed period and the rate of its increase. The model is based on the hypothesis that the observed period is connected with the orbital period of a close binary system consisting of (1) a white dwarf filling the Roche lobe with a mass of 0.6 solar mass and (2) a black hole with a mass of 4.4 solar masses. Two processes are noted to be governing in this close binary system: (1) intense mass transfer from the white dwarf to the black hole and (2) loss by the system of rotational motion due to the emission of gravitational radiation.

  17. Hydrogen Column Density Measurements toward White Dwarfs for D/H Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennes, S.; Chayer, P.; Dupuis, J.; Moos, H. W.; Lanz, T.

    2006-06-01

    Hot white dwarfs provide sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation against which the photoionization continua of interstellar H I, He I, and He II are measured. The column density measurements depend on a detailed knowledge of the intrinsic EUV luminosity of the sources. We discuss recent progress in the study of low- and high-metallicity white dwarfs enabling a study of interstellar hydrogen and helium continuum absorptions toward many lines of sight. We compare the EUV-based measurements to recent hydrogen column density measurements based on Ly? line profiles and discuss the implications for D/H and O/H ratios in the local interstellar medium.

  18. On the Dissociation Equilibrium of H2 in Very Cool, Helium-Rich White Dwarf Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Piotr M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation equilibrium of $\\rm H_2$ in very cool, helium-rich white dwarf atmospheres. We present the solution of the non-ideal chemical equilibrium for the dissociation of molecular hydrogen in a medium of dense helium. We find that at the photosphere of cool white dwarfs of $T_{\\rm eff}\\rm=4000 K$, the non-ideality results in an increase of the mole fraction of molecular hydrogen by up to a factor of $\\sim 10$, compared to the equilibrium value for the...

  19. HST+COS spectra of the double white dwarf CSS 41177 place the secondary inside the pulsational instability strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Parsons, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope + Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST+COS) data of the eclipsing double white dwarf binary CSS 41177. Due to the temperature difference between the two white dwarfs, the HST+COS far-ultraviolet data are dominated by the hot, primary white dwarf and allow us to precisely measure its temperature (T1). Using eclipse observations, we also tightly constrain the temperature of the cooler secondary white dwarf (T2). Our results, where T1 = 22 439 ± 59 K and T2 = 10 876 ± 32 K, with the uncertainties being purely statistical, place the secondary inside and close to the blue edge of the empirical instability strip for low-temperature hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs. Dedicated high-speed photometry is encouraged to probe for the presence of pulsations, which will constrain the border of the instability strip as well as probe a new region of low gravity within the strip.

  20. HST+COS spectra of the double white dwarf CSS 41177 place the secondary inside the pulsational instability strip

    CERN Document Server

    Bours, Madelon; Gaensicke, Boris; Parsons, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope + Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST+COS) data of the eclipsing double white dwarf binary CSS 41177. Due to the temperature difference between the two white dwarfs, the HST+COS far-ultraviolet data are dominated by the hot, primary white dwarf and allow us to precisely measure its temperature (T1). Using eclipse observations, we also tightly constrain the temperature of the cooler secondary white dwarf (T2). Our results, where T1 = 22439 +/- 59 K and T2 = 10876 +/- 32 K, with the uncertainties being purely statistical, place the secondary inside and close to the blue edge of the empirical instability strip for low temperature hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs. Dedicated high-speed photometry is encouraged to probe for the presence of pulsations, which will constrain the border of the instability strip as well as probe a new region of low gravity within the strip.

  1. Swift J1644+57: A White Dwarf Tidally Disrupted by a 10^4 M_{odot} Black Hole?

    CERN Document Server

    Krolik, Julian H

    2011-01-01

    We propose that the remarkable object Swift J1644+57, in which multiple recurring hard X-ray flares were seen over a span of several days, is a system in which a white dwarf was tidally disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole. Disruption of a white dwarf rather than a main sequence star offers a number of advantages in understanding the multiple, and short, timescales seen in the light curve of this system. In particular, the short internal dynamical timescale of a white dwarf offers a more natural way of understanding the short rise times (~100s) observed. The relatively long intervals between flares (~5 x 10^4 s) may also be readily understood as the period between successive pericenter passages of the remnant white dwarf. In addition, the expected jet power is larger when a white dwarf is disrupted. If this model is correct, the black hole responsible must have mass < 10^5 M_{odot}.

  2. DA white dwarfs from the LSS-GAC survey DR1: the preliminary luminosity and mass functions and formation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Liu, X.-W.; Cojocaru, R.; Yuan, H.-B.; Torres, S.; García-Berro, E.; Xiang, M.-X.; Huang, Y.; Koester, D.; Hou, Y.; Li, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Modern large-scale surveys have allowed the identification of large numbers of white dwarfs. However, these surveys are subject to complicated target selection algorithms, which make it almost impossible to quantify to what extent the observational biases affect the observed populations. The LAMOST (Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic anticentre (LSS-GAC) follows a well-defined set of criteria for selecting targets for observations. This advantage over previous surveys has been fully exploited here to identify a small yet well-characterized magnitude-limited sample of hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs. We derive preliminary LSS-GAC DA white dwarf luminosity and mass functions. The space density and average formation rate of DA white dwarfs we derive are 0.83 ± 0.16 × 10-3 pc-3 and 5.42 ± 0.08 × 10-13 pc-3 yr-1, respectively. Additionally, using an existing Monte Carlo population synthesis code we simulate the population of single DA white dwarfs in the Galactic anticentre, under various assumptions. The synthetic populations are passed through the LSS-GAC selection criteria, taking into account all possible observational biases. This allows us to perform a meaningful comparison of the observed and simulated distributions. We find that the LSS-GAC set of criteria is highly efficient in selecting white dwarfs for spectroscopic observations (80-85 per cent) and that, overall, our simulations reproduce well the observed luminosity function. However, they fail at reproducing an excess of massive white dwarfs present in the observed mass function. A plausible explanation for this is that a sizable fraction of massive white dwarfs in the Galaxy are the product of white dwarf-white dwarf mergers.

  3. The historical record for Sirius - Evidence for a white-dwarf thermonuclear runaway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Kondo, Yoji; Sion, Edward M.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence was recently presented that in medieval times Sirius was a bright red star, rather than the present bluish-white star. Here, the results of attempts to detect possible planetary nebula ejecta toward Sirius using data obtained by the IUE are presented. Based on these results and in the light of recent advances in understanding white-dwarf evolution, it is proposed that Sirius B underwent a recent thermonuclear runaway event triggered by a diffusion-induced CN reaction.

  4. WD0837+185:the formation and evolution of an extreme mass ratio white dwarf-brown dwarf binary in Praesepe

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Wynn, G A; Alexander, R D; Napiwotzki, R; Lawrie, K A; Dobbie, P D; Jameson, R F; Hodgkin, S T

    2012-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained dearth of brown dwarf companions in close orbits (< 3AU) around stars more massive than the Sun, in stark contrast to the frequency of stellar and planetary companions. Although rare and relatively short-lived, these systems leave detectable evolutionary end points in the form of white dwarf - brown dwarf binaries and these remnants can offer unique insights into the births and deaths of their parent systems. We present the discovery of a close (orbital separation ~ 0.006 AU) substellar companion to a massive white dwarf member of the Praesepe star cluster. Using the cluster age and the mass of the white dwarf we constrain the mass of the white dwarf progenitor star to lie in the range 3.5 - 3.7 Msun (B9). The high mass of the white dwarf means the substellar companion must have been engulfed by the B star's envelope while it was on the late asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Hence, the initial separation of the system was ~2 AU, with common envelope evolution reducing the s...

  5. Magnetic White Dwarfs from the SDSS II. The Second and Third Data Releases

    CERN Document Server

    Vanlandingham, K M; Eisenstein, D J; Harris, H C; Anderson, S F; Hall, P B; Liebert, J; Schneider, D P; Silvestri, N M; Stinson, G S; Wolfe, M A; Vanlandingham, Karen M.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Harris, Hugh C.; Anderson, Scott F.; Hall, Pat B.; Liebert, James; Schneider, Donald P.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Wolfe, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-two magnetic white dwarfs have been identified in spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) obtained between mid-2002 and the end of 2004, including Data Releases 2 and 3. Though not as numerous nor as diverse as the discoveries from the first Data Release, the collection exhibits polar field strengths ranging from 1.5MG to ~1000MG, and includes two new unusual atomic DQA examples, a molecular DQ, and five stars that show hydrogen in fields above 500MG. The highest-field example, SDSSJ2346+3853, may be the most strongly magnetic white dwarf yet discovered. Analysis of the photometric data indicates that the magnetic sample spans the same temperature range as for nonmagnetic white dwarfs from the SDSS, and support is found for previous claims that magnetic white dwarfs tend to have larger masses than their nonmagnetic counterparts. A glaring exception to this trend is the apparently low-gravity object SDSSJ0933+1022, which may have a history involving a close binary companion.

  6. The Puzzling White Dwarf Cooling Sequence in NGC6791: A Simple Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bedin, L. R.; Salaris, M.; Piotto, G; Cassisi, S.; Milone, A. P.; Anderson, J.; King, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the puzzling bright peak in the luminosity function of the white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence of NGC6791 can be naturally accounted for if ~34% of the observed WDs are WD+WD binary systems.

  7. The Symbiotic Channel to Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs and Type 1a Supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert J.; Di Stefano, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the efficacy of generation of Type 1a supernovae and of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs from binaries that evolve through a symbiotic-star phase. The symbiotic binaries, comprised of a red giant and a white dwarf, undergo stable mass transfer via either winds or Roche-lobe overflow and nuclear burning of accreted matter on the surface of the white dwarf. Populations of binaries are generated according to a standard prescription, and their orbits are evolved. Orbital evolutions assume a modified Reimer's wind law and a variety of parametrizations of the process of angular-momentum loss and of nuclear burning on the white dwarfs. In general, we find that the rate of production of AICs in these systems is not very sensitive to the input parameters, with a significant number generated per million solar masses in binaries, regardless of input parameters. On the other hand, we find the efficacy of Type 1a supernova generation to be a strong function of the assumed parameter values. Also, we find that the number of double-degenerate systems produced via the symbiotic channel is a fairly insensitive function of input parameters. Implications of these findings for the populations of supersoft sources, ultraluminous X-ray sources, and neutron stars in globular clusters are discussed.

  8. Comparing the White Dwarf Cooling Sequences in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Harvey B.; Goldsbury, Ryan; Heyl, Jeremy; Hurley, Jarrod; Dotter, Aaron; Kalirai, Jason S.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.

    2013-12-01

    Using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, color-magnitude diagrams are constructed for the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6397. As expected, because of its lower metal abundance, the main sequence of NGC 6397 lies well to the blue of that of 47 Tuc. A comparison of the white dwarf cooling sequences of the two clusters, however, demonstrates that these sequences are indistinguishable over most of their loci—a consequence of the settling out of heavy elements in the dense white dwarf atmosphere and the near equality of their masses. Lower quality data on M4 continues this trend to a third cluster whose metallicity is intermediate between these two. While the path of the white dwarfs in the color-magnitude diagram is nearly identical in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397, the numbers of white dwarfs along the path are not. This results from the relatively rapid relaxation in NGC 6397 compared to 47 Tuc and provides a cautionary note that simply counting objects in star clusters in random locations as a method of testing stellar evolutionary theory is likely dangerous unless dynamical considerations are included.

  9. Comparing the White Dwarf Cooling Sequences in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, Harvey B; Heyl, Jeremy; Hurley, Jarrod; Dotter, Aaron; Kalirai, Jason S; Woodley, Kristin A; Fahlman, Gregory G; Rich, R Michael; Shara, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, color-magnitude diagrams are constructed for the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6397. As expected, because of its lower metal abundance, the main sequence of NGC 6397 lies well to the blue of that of 47 Tuc. A comparison of the white dwarf cooling sequences of the two clusters, however, demonstrates that these sequences are indistinguishable over most of their loci - a consequence of the settling out of heavy elements in the dense white dwarf atmosphere and the near equality of their masses. Lower quality data on M4 continues this trend to a third cluster whose metallicity is intermediate between these two. While the path of the white dwarfs in the color-magnitude diagram is nearly identical in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397, the numbers of white dwarfs along the path are not. This results from the relatively rapid relaxation in NGC 6397 compared to 47 Tuc and provides a cautionary note that simply counting objects in star clusters in random locations as a method of testing s...

  10. Consequence of total lepton number violation in strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belyaev, V. B.; Ricci, P.; Simkovic, F.; Adam, Ji?í; Tater, Miloš; Truhlík, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 937, MAY (2015), s. 17-43. ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP203/11/0701; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : double charge exchange * degenerate Fermi gas * Stellar magnetic fields * white dwarfs Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2013

  11. The white dwarf revealed in the intermediate polar V709 Cassiopeiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Mouchet, M.; de Martino, D.; Matt, G.; Motch, C.

    2001-08-01

    Results are presented from the first detailed spectroscopic observations of the recently identified intermediate polar RX J0028.8+5917/V709 Cas. The study of the emission line radial velocities allows us to remove the uncertainties on the different aliases of the orbital period and a best value is found at (0.2225 +/- 0.0002) day. It is also found that the system shows significant EW ~ (2-4) Å, broad absorptions affecting the Balmer lines from Hdelta to Hbeta . These broad absorptions are interpreted as the contribution of an underlying white dwarf atmosphere. The characteristics of the absorptions are found to be consistent with a DA log g = 8 white dwarf at a temperature of ~ 23 000 K, contributing ~ 17% (at 4500 Å) to the overall flux. This is the first direct detection of a white dwarf in an intermediate polar system. The absence of significant Zeeman splitting indicates a magnetic field lower than 10 MG, confirming that, at least in some cases, intermediate polars have weaker fields than polars. Different possibilities are discussed to explain the substantial contribution of the white dwarf to the overall flux. Based on data collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory OHP (France).

  12. Evolution of white dwarf stars with high-metallicity progenitors: the role of 22Ne diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Isern, Jordi; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, Rene D

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the strong discrepancy between the main sequence turn-off age and the white dwarf cooling age in the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791, we compute a grid of white dwarf evolutionary sequences that incorporates for the first time the energy released by the processes of 22Ne sedimentation and of carbon/oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. The grid covers the mass range from 0.52 to 1.0 Msun, and it is appropriate for the study of white dwarfs in metal-rich clusters. The evolutionary calculations are based on a detailed and self-consistent treatment of the energy released from these two processes, as well as on the employment of realistic carbon/oxygen profiles, of relevance for an accurate evaluation of the energy released by carbon/oxygen phase separation. We find that 22Ne sedimentation strongly delays the cooling rate of white dwarfs stemming from progenitors with high metallicities at moderate luminosities, whilst carbon/oxygen phase separation adds considerable delays at low luminositi...

  13. An accurate mass and radius measurement for an ultracool white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Marsh, T R; Bergeron, P; Copperwheat, C M; Dhillon, V S; Bento, J; Littlefair, S P; Schreiber, M R

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cool white dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood have placed a limit on the age of the Galactic disk of 8-9 billion years. However, determining their cooling ages requires the knowledge of their effective temperatures, masses, radii, and atmospheric composition. So far, these parameters could only be inferred for a small number of ultracool white dwarfs for which an accurate distance is known, by fitting their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in conjunction with a theoretical mass-radius relation. However, the mass-radius relation remains largely untested, and the derived cooling ages are hence model-dependent. Here we report direct measurements of the mass and radius of an ultracool white dwarf in the double-lined eclipsing binary SDSS J013851.54-001621.6. We find M(WD)=0.529+/-0.010Msol and R(WD)=0.0131+/-0.0003Rsol. Our measurements are consistent with the mass-radius relation and we determine a robust cooling age of 9.5 billion years for the 3570K white dwarf. We find that the mass and radius o...

  14. Cooling of white dwarfs - A method of determining their mean mass and constraints on neutrino properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinnikov, S. I.; Dunina-Barkovskaya, N. V.

    1993-04-01

    Calculations of the evolution of white dwarfs with 0.5-0.8 solar mass are carried out. An upper limit for a neutrino magnetic moment of less than 10 exp -11 mu(B) is confirmed. In the 'standard' theory of cooling (with a zeroth neutrino magnetic moment), the best agreement with observations is achieved when M = 0.7 solar mass.

  15. Intermediate polars in the Swift/BAT survey: Spectra and white dwarf masses

    CERN Document Server

    Brunschweiger, Jorg; Ajello, Marco; Osborne, Julian

    2009-01-01

    White dwarf masses in cataclysmic variables are difficult to determine accurately, but are fundamental for understanding binary system parameters, as well as binary evolution. We investigate the X-ray spectral properties of a sample of Intermediate Polars detected above 15 keV to derive the masses of their accreting white dwarfs. We use data from the Swift/BAT instrument which during the first 2.5 yrs of operation has detected 22 known intermediate polars. The X-ray spectra of these sources are used to estimate the mass of the white dwarfs. We are able to produce a mass estimate for 22 out of 29 of the confirmed intermediate polars. Comparison with previous mass measurements shows good agreement. For GK Per, we were able to detect spectral changes due to the changes in the accretion rate. The Swift/BAT detector with its combination of sensitivity and all-sky coverage provides an ideal tool to determine accurate white dwarf masses in intermediate polars.

  16. The frequency and infrared brightness of circumstellar discs at white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchetto, M; Gaensicke, B T; Bergfors, C

    2014-01-01

    White dwarfs whose atmospheres are polluted by terrestrial-like planetary debris have become a powerful and unique tool to study evolved planetary systems. This paper presents results for an unbiased Spitzer IRAC search for circumstellar dust orbiting a homogeneous and well-defined sample of 134 single white dwarfs. The stars were selected without regard to atmospheric metal content but were chosen to have 1) hydrogen rich atmospheres, 2) 17 000 K < T_eff < 25 000 K and correspondingly young post main-sequence ages of 15-270Myr, and 3) sufficient far-ultraviolet brightness for a corresponding Hubble Space Telescope COS Snapshot. Five white dwarfs were found to host an infrared bright dust disc, three previously known, and two reported here for the first time, yielding a nominal 3.7% of white dwarfs in this post-main sequence age range with detectable circumstellar dust. Remarkably, complementary HST observations indicate that a fraction of 27% show metals in their photosphere that can only be explained ...

  17. Consequence of total lepton number violation in strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. B.; Ricci, P.; Šimkovic, F.; Adam, J.; Tater, M.; Truhlík, E.

    2015-05-01

    The influence of a neutrinoless electron to positron conversion on a cooling of strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs is studied. It is shown that they can be good candidates for soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars.

  18. The polluted atmospheres of cool white dwarfs and the magnetic field connection.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 439, ?. 1 (2014), L90-L94. ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP209/12/0217; GA ?R GA13-14581S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : white dwarfs * stars: abundances * stars: atmospheres Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.226, year: 2013

  19. A new magnetic white dwarf discovered during the Large Bright Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously unknown magnetic white dwarf has been discovered as part of the Large, Bright Quasar Survey (Foltz et al., 1988). The absorption features are identified with transitions of hydrogen and are analyzed in the context of high-field Zeeman models to derive a polar dipole field strength of 24 x 10 to the 6th G at the stellar surface. 11 refs

  20. A new magnetic white dwarf discovered during the Large Bright Quasar Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, C.B.; Latter, W.B.; Hewett, P.C.; Weymann, R.J.; Morris, S.L. (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA); Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA); Cambridge Univ. (England); Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    A previously unknown magnetic white dwarf has been discovered as part of the Large, Bright Quasar Survey (Foltz et al., 1988). The absorption features are identified with transitions of hydrogen and are analyzed in the context of high-field Zeeman models to derive a polar dipole field strength of 24 x 10 to the 6th G at the stellar surface. 11 refs.

  1. High-field magnetic white dwarfs as the progeny of early-type stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, P. D.; Külebi, B.; Casewell, S. L.; Burleigh, M. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Baxter, R.; Lawrie, K. A.; Jordan, S.; Koester, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the newly resolved components of two hot, double-degenerate systems, SDSS J074853.07+302543.5 + J074852.95+302543.4 and SDSS J150813.24+394504.9 + J150813.31+394505.6 (CBS 229). We confirm that each system has widely separated components (a > 100 au) consisting of a H-rich, non-magnetic white dwarf and a H-rich, high-field magnetic white dwarf (HFMWD). The masses of the non-magnetic degenerates are found to be larger than typical of field white dwarfs. We use these components to estimate the total ages of the binaries and demonstrate that both magnetic white dwarfs are the progeny of stars with Minit > 2 M?. We briefly discuss the traits of all known hot, wide, magnetic + non-magnetic double degenerates in the context of HFMWD formation theories. These are broadly consistent (chance probability, P ? 0.065) with HFMWDs forming primarily from early-type stars and, in the most succinct interpretation, link their magnetism to the fields of their progenitors. Our results do not, however, rule out that HFMWDs can form through close binary interactions and studies of more young, wide double degenerates are required to reach firm conclusions on these formation pathways.

  2. Constraining white dwarf viscosity through tidal heating in detached binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dall'Osso, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Although the internal structure of white dwarfs is considered to be generally well understood, the source and entity of viscosity is still very uncertain. We propose here to study white dwarf viscous properties using short period (< 1 hr), detached white dwarf binaries, such as the newly discovered ~12.8 min system. These binaries are wide enough that mass transfer has not yet started but close enough that the least massive component is subject to a measurable tidal deformation. The associated tidal torque transfers orbital energy, which is partially converted into heat by the action of viscosity within the deformed star. As a consequence, its outer non-degenerate layers expand, and the star puffs up. We self-consistently calculate the fractional change in radius, and the degree of asynchronism (ratio of stellar to orbital spin) as a function of the viscous time. Specializing our calculations to J0651, we find that the discrepancy between the measured radius of the secondary star and He white dwarf model p...

  3. Peculiar type I supernovae - explosive helium burning in a low-mass accreting white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiar type I supernovae (SN Ip's) may result from explosive helium burning in low-mass He or He-C-O white dwarfs. Incomplete He burning would concurrently explain the relatively low expansion velocities and luminosities observed in SN Ip's. The disparities between SN Ip and SN I spectra may be attributable to the distinctive reaction kinetics of explosive He burning. 22 references

  4. The seismic properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H; Althaus, L G; Hermes, J J

    2012-01-01

    We present here a detailed pulsational study applied to low-mass He-core white dwarfs, based on full evolutionary models representative of these objects. The background stellar models on which our pulsational analysis was carried out were derived by taking into account the complete evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, with special emphasis on the diffusion processes acting during the white dwarf cooling phase. We computed nonradial $g$-modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational properties of these objects with stellar parameters such as the stellar mass and the effective temperature, and also with element diffusion processes. We also performed a g- and p-mode pulsational stability analysis on our models and found well-defined blue edges of the instability domain, where these stars should start to exhibit pulsations. We found substantial differences in the seismic properties of white dwarfs with $M_* \\gtrsim 0.20 M_{\\odot}$ and the extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarfs ($M_* \\lesssim 0.20 M_{\\o...

  5. Merging White Dwarf/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Fryer, C L; Herant, M; Davies, M B; Davies, Melvyn B.

    1999-01-01

    The merger of compact binaries, especially black holes and neutron stars, is frequently invoked to explain gamma-ray bursts (GRB's). In this paper, we present three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the relatively neglected mergers of white dwarfs and black holes. During the merger, the white dwarf is tidally disrupted and sheared into an accretion disk. Nuclear reactions are followed and the energy release is negligible. Peak accretion rates are ~0.05 Msun/s (less for lower mass white dwarfs) lasting for approximately a minute. Many of the disk parameters can be explained by a simple analytic model which we derive and compare to our simulations. This model can be used to predict accretion rates for white dwarf and black hole (or neutron star) masses which are not simulated in this paper. Although the mergers studied here create disks with larger radii, and longer accretion times than those from the merger of double neutron stars, a larger fraction of the merging star's mass becomes part of the disk. ...

  6. Examples of degenerated matter in astrophysics: white dwarf and neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main features of star evolution are recalled. Then the general structure of white dwarf stars is examined. From the equation of state of an electron gas completely degenerated are deduced: mechanical equilibrium, Viriel theorem, mass-radius relationship and Chandrasekhar limit. These results are applied to neutron stars

  7. Neutrino burst of white dwarf being absorbed by a primordial black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primordial black holes (PBHS) of masses M?5x104 g are able to absorb white dwarfs (WD), giving rise to formation of black holes of WD masses. The WD absorption is accomplained by up to 1052 erg neutrino bursts which can be readily detected by modern neutrino detectors. We calculate time characteristics of such a burst in this paper. (authors)

  8. White Dwarfs near Black Holes: A New Paradigm for Type I Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. R.; Mathews, G. J.

    2004-07-01

    We present calculations indicating the possibility of a new class of Type I supernovae. In this new paradigm, relativistic terms enhance the self-gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear reactions so that a thermonuclear runaway ensues. We consider three possible environments: (1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass (~10-20 Msolar) black hole, (2) white dwarfs encountering a massive [~(1-3)×103 Msolar] black hole in a dense globular cluster, and (3) white dwarfs passing a supermassive (~106-109 Msolar) black hole in a dense galactic core. We estimate the rate at which such events could occur out to a redshift z~1. Event rates are estimated to be significantly less than the rate of normal Type Ia supernovae for all three classes. Nevertheless, such events may be frequent enough to warrant a search for this new class of supernova. We propose several observable signatures that might be used to identify this type of event and speculate that such an event might have produced the observed ``mixed-morphology'' Sgr A East supernova remnant in the Galactic core.

  9. Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars: The physics of compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents include: Star deaths and the formation of compact objects; White dwarfs; Rotation and magnetic fields; Cold equation of state above neutron drip; Pulsars; Accretion onto black holes; Supermassive stars and black holes; Appendices; and Indexes. This book discusses one aspect, compact objects, of astronomy and provides information of astrophysics or general relativity

  10. Emission lines from tidally disrupted white dwarfs and other evolved stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurdsson S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When a black hole tidally disrupts a star, accretion of the debris will produce a luminous flare and reveal the presence of a dormant black hole. The accretion flare can also photoionize a portion of the post-disruption debris. We present models of the emission line spectrum produced in the debris released when a white dwarf or a horizontal branch star is tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole, and discuss the possibility of using the emission lines to identify such events and constrain the properties of the black hole. We also compare the white dwarf disruption models with observations of white dwarf tidal disruption candidates in globular clusters associated with NGC 4472 and NGC 1399. The bright [O III] lines observed in each system are consistent with these models, but there are some drawbacks to interpreting these sources as tidally disrupted white dwarfs. On the other hand, models of the emission line spectrum produced when a horizontal branch star is disrupted by a ? 100 M? black hole are in good agreement with the source in the NGC 1399 globular cluster. Finally, we describe light curves for the emission lines produced in the debris of a tidally disrupted helium core. The modeled light curves are consistent with the recent observations of Gezari et al. (2012.

  11. The Core Composition of a White Dwarf in a Close Double Degenerate System

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S

    2011-01-01

    We report the identification of the double degenerate system NLTT 16249 that comprises a normal, hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarf and a peculiar, carbon-polluted white dwarf (DQ) showing photospheric traces of nitrogen. We disentangled the observed spectra and constrained the properties of both stellar components. In the evolutionary scenario commonly applied to the sequence of DQ white dwarfs, both carbon and nitrogen would be dredged up from the core. The C/N abundance ratio (~ 50) in the atmosphere of this unique DQ white dwarf suggests the presence of unprocessed material (14N) in the core or in the envelope. Helium burning in the DQ progenitor may have terminated early on the red-giant branch after a mass-ejection event leaving unprocessed material in the core although current mass estimates do not favor the presence of a low-mass helium core. Alternatively, some nitrogen in the envelope may have survived an abridged helium-core burning phase prior to climbing the asymptotic giant-branch. Based on availabl...

  12. Algorithmic solution for white dwarf radiative shock waves correct to order v/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present detailed numerical algorithm for solution of magnetic white dwarf radiating shocks structures dominated by Bremsstrahlung cooling. The improvement this calculation provides is the cyclotron cooling; which must be included in order to have self-consistent accurate shocks structures calculations. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab

  13. The White Dwarfs within 25 Parsecs of the Sun: Kinematics and Spectroscopic Subtypes

    CERN Document Server

    Sion, E M; Oswalt, T D; McCook, G P; Wasatonic, R; Myszka, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs within 25pc of the sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo white dwarfs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 white dwarfs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 parsecs. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belong to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is 1.8, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. We compare this ratio with the results of other studies. We find that at least 11% of the white dwarfs within 25 parsecs of the sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that likely originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this inter...

  14. SDSS J163030.58+423305.8: A 40 minute Orbital Period Detached White Dwarf Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Hermes, J J; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Kenyon, S J; Winget, D E; Winget, K I

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new detached, double white dwarf system with an orbital period of 39.8 min. We targeted SDSS J163030.58+423305.8 (hereafter J1630) as part of our radial velocity program to search for companions around low-mass white dwarfs using the 6.5m MMT. We detect peak-to-peak radial velocity variations of 576 km/s. The mass function and optical photometry rule out main-sequence companions. In addition, no milli-second pulsar companions are detected in radio observations. Thus the invisible companion is most likely another white dwarf. Unlike the other 39 min binary SDSS J010657.39-100003.3, follow-up high speed photometric observations of J1630 obtained at the McDonald 2.1m telescope do not show significant ellipsoidal variations, indicating a higher primary mass and smaller radius. The absence of eclipses constrain the inclination angle to 0.3 Msun invisible secondary, at a separation of >0.32 Rsun. The two white dwarfs will merge in less than 31 Myr. Depending on the core composition of t...

  15. Supernova Type Ia progenitors from merging double white dwarfs. Using a new population synthesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The study of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) has lead to greatly improved insights into many fields in astrophysics, e.g. cosmology, and also into the metal enrichment of the universe. Although a theoretical explanation of the origin of these events is still lacking, there is a general consensus that SNIa are caused by the thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with masses near the Chandrasekhar mass. Aims: We investigate the potential contribution to the supernova Type Ia rate from the population of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. We aim to develop a model that fits the observed SNIa progenitors as well as the observed close double white dwarf population. We differentiate between two scenarios for the common envelope (CE) evolution; the ?-formalism based on the energy equation and the ?-formalism that is based on the angular momentum equation. In one model we apply the ?-formalism throughout. In the second model the ?-formalism is applied, unless the binary contains a compact object or the CE is triggered by a tidal instability for which the ?-formalism is used. Methods: The binary population synthesis code SeBa was used to evolve binary systems from the zero-age main sequence to the formation of double white dwarfs and subsequent mergers. SeBa has been thoroughly updated since the last publication of the content of the code. Results: The limited sample of observed double white dwarfs is better represented by the simulated population using the ?-formalism for the first CE phase than the ?-formalism. For both CE formalisms, we find that although the morphology of the simulated delay time distribution matches that of the observations within the errors, the normalisation and time-integrated rate per stellar mass are a factor ~7-12 lower than observed. Furthermore, the characteristics of the simulated populations of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs are discussed and put in the context of alternative SNIa models for merging double white dwarfs. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting magnetic white dwarfs II. The asset of numerical modelling for interpreting observations

    CERN Document Server

    Busschaert, C; Michaut, C; Bonnet-Bidaud, J -M; Mouchet, M

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the accretion column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optic...

  17. On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O.G.; Vito, M.A. De, E-mail: obenvenu@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: adevito@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, IALP, CCT-CONICET-UNLP (Argentina)

    2011-02-01

    It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar interior, this procedure should be suitable for exploring the departure of the cooling process from that predicted by the standard treatment. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation has noticeable, but not dramatic effects on the cooling process only for the most massive white dwarfs compatible with a helium dominated interior ( ? 0.50M{sub s}un) and very low luminosities (say, Log(L/L{sub s}un) < ?4.0). These facts lead us to conclude that it seems extremely difficult to find observable signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, it has been suggested that the population of helium white dwarfs detected in the globular cluster NGC 6397 is a good candidate for detecting signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that these stars have masses too low and are too bright to have an already condensed interior.

  18. On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar interior, this procedure should be suitable for exploring the departure of the cooling process from that predicted by the standard treatment. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation has noticeable, but not dramatic effects on the cooling process only for the most massive white dwarfs compatible with a helium dominated interior ( ? 0.50Modot) and very low luminosities (say, Log(L/Lodot) < -4.0). These facts lead us to conclude that it seems extremely difficult to find observable signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, it has been suggested that the population of helium white dwarfs detected in the globular cluster NGC 6397 is a good candidate for detecting signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that these stars have masses too low and are too bright to have an already condensed interior.

  19. On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar interior, this procedure should be suitable for exploring the departure of the cooling process from that predicted by the standard treatment. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation has noticeable, but not dramatic effects on the cooling process only for the most massive white dwarfs compatible with a helium dominated interior ( ? 0.50Msun) and very low luminosities (say, Log(L/Lsun) < ?4.0). These facts lead us to conclude that it seems extremely difficult to find observable signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, it has been suggested that the population of helium white dwarfs detected in the globular cluster NGC 6397 is a good candidate for detecting signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that these stars have masses too low and are too bright to have an already condensed interior

  20. Spin-up of the white dwarf in the intermediate polar BG Canis Minoris/3A 0729 + 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusteijn, T.; Schwarz, H. E.; van Paradijs, J.

    1991-07-01

    Using 29 times of maximum light of the pulsational light curve of the intermediate polar BG Canis Minoris, it is found that the white dwarf rotation period decreases on a timescale of (0.566 + or - 0.033) million yr. A new orbital period that it is equal to the 1-cycle alias of the previously accepted period determined from the timing of two orbital X-ray minima. Using estimates of both the magnetic dipole moment of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate, and the disk accretion model of Lamb and Patterson (1983), a white dwarf mass of about 1.0 solar masses is obtained.

  1. Non-LTE spectral analyses of the lately discovered DB-gap white dwarfs from the SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time, no hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs have been known that have effective temperature between 30 kK and eff < 45 kK (Eisenstein et al. 2006). It has been shown for DO white dwarfs that the relaxation of LTE is necessary to account for non local effects in the atmosphere caused by the intense radiation field. Therefore, we calculated a non-LTE model grid and re-analysed the aforementioned set of SDSS spectra. Our results confirm the existence of DB-gap white dwarfs.

  2. White-dwarf+main-sequence binaries identified from the tenth data release of Solan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lifang; Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Quanwang; Kong, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    We have presented 309 new white-dwarf (WD) + main-sequence (MS) star binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Tenth Data Release (DR10). The majority of them consist of a white dwarf and a low-mass secondary (typically M dwarf) companion. The SDSS spectra of the newly found WDMS binaries with a DA/DB white dwarf and an M/late-K dwarf companion are analyzed based on a spectral decomposition/fitting method. White dwarf effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses together with the secondary star spectral types are obtained, and the stellar parameters of DA WDs with $T_{\\rm eff}\\la 14,000$ K are revised to the results in the case of 3D model atmosphere. Two independent distance estimates are derived from the flux-scaling factors between the WDMS SDSS spectra and the white dwarf and M-dwarf model spectra. It is found that about more than 20 per cent of the newly found WDMS binaries show a significant discrepancy between the two distance estimates. This might be caused by the effects of...

  3. WD0837+185: THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF AN EXTREME MASS-RATIO WHITE-DWARF-BROWN-DWARF BINARY IN PRAESEPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casewell, S. L.; Burleigh, M. R.; Wynn, G. A.; Alexander, R. D.; Lawrie, K. A.; Jameson, R. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Napiwotzki, R. [Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dobbie, P. D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Hodgkin, S. T., E-mail: slc25@le.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-10

    There is a striking and unexplained dearth of brown dwarf companions in close orbits (<3 AU) around stars more massive than the Sun, in stark contrast to the frequency of stellar and planetary companions. Although rare and relatively short-lived, these systems leave detectable evolutionary end points in the form of white-dwarf-brown-dwarf binaries and these remnants can offer unique insights into the births and deaths of their parent systems. We present the discovery of a close (orbital separation {approx}0.006 AU) substellar companion to a massive white dwarf member of the Praesepe star cluster. Using the cluster age and the mass of the white dwarf, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf progenitor star to lie in the range 3.5-3.7 M{sub Sun} (B9). The high mass of the white dwarf means the substellar companion must have been engulfed by the B star's envelope while it was on the late asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Hence, the initial separation of the system was {approx}2 AU, with common envelope evolution reducing the separation to its current value. The initial and final orbital separations allow us to constrain the combination of the common envelope efficiency ({alpha}) and binding energy parameters ({lambda}) for the AGB star to {alpha}{lambda} {approx} 3. We examine the various formation scenarios and conclude that the substellar object was most likely captured by the white dwarf progenitor early in the life of the cluster, rather than forming in situ.

  4. Stochastic accretion of planetesimals onto white dwarfs: constraints on the mass distribution of accreted material from atmospheric pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, M. C.; Farihi, J.; Pringle, J. E.; Bonsor, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how the stochastic accretion of planetesimals onto white dwarfs would be manifested in observations of their atmospheric pollution. Archival observations of pollution levels for unbiased samples of DA and non-DA white dwarfs are used to derive the distribution of accretion rates, confirming that rates become systematically lower as sinking time is decreased, with no discernable dependence on cooling age. The accretion rates expected from planetesimals tha...

  5. Stable dwarf mutants of a high quality tall rice variety White Ponni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White Ponni has been a commercially superior rice variety for over a decade in South India. Even though it is a poor yielder with a yield potential of 3.0 Tons/ha. it is valued for its high quality rice with slender grain. Due to this, White Ponni fetches a very high price for the farmer. It is a medium duration rice variety with a growing period of about 150 days and is highly fertilizer non-responsive. Any seasonal heavy wind, rainfall and/or high fertilizer leads to lodging and results in a heavy loss to the farmer. Any improvement in this variety is a boon to the farmer. Hence an attempt has been made to reduce plant height using mutation techniques. The dried seeds of White Ponni rice were exposed to gamma rays irradiation with 100, 200 and 400 Gy doses. The M1 and M2 generations were raised. In M2 generation, the numbers of dwarf mutant plants were identified in different doses. These plants were harvested individually and the seeds were divided into five different groups. From July to September 1999, these seeds were raised for M3 generation, in monthly intervals of five months. A total of 16 families were raised in randomized block design with three replications. The various biometrical observations were recorded, including height. The data was subjected for identification of stable dwarf mutants through stability analysis of Ebernhart and Russel [1966]. The different dwarf mutants showed the mean performance from 11utants showed the mean performance from 112 to 132 cm. Two mutants from 100 Gy flowered 15 days earlier than the control. It also maintained the dwarf stature. Other traits like tiller number, panicle length and yield per plant were also more or less similar to that of White Ponni. The seasonal difference in plant height expression was noticed. Instability, genotypes with lowest standard deviation coupled with unit regression are considered as the most stable ones. Accordingly, the mutants viz., 10kR-1 and 10kR -4, 20 kR-2 and 20 kR-14 and 40 kR-1 and 40 kR-4, had unit regression along with non-significant deviation. The dwarfness of these mutants was stable over season and these mutants had a mean height reduction of 17.2% over the check, White Ponni. The individual stable mutants were raised family-wise for identification of dwarfing gene and further exploitation is in progress

  6. Collapse of accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs induced by carbon deflagration at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical condition is obtained for which carbon deflagration induces collapse of an accreting C + O white dwarf, not explosion. If the carbon deflagration is initiated at central density as high as 1010 g cm-3 and if the propagation of the deflagration wave is slower than ? 0.15 ?/sub s/ (?/sub s/ is the sound speed), electron capture behind the burning front induces collapse to form a neutron star. This is the case for both conductive and convective deflagrations. Such a high central density can be reached if the white dwarf is sufficiently massive and cold at the onset of accretion and if the accretion rate is in the appropriate range. Models for Type Ia and Ib supernovae are also discussed. 66 refs., 8 figs

  7. Twins: The Two Shortest Period Non-Interacting Double Degenerate White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullally, F; Thompson, Susan E; Lupton, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We report on the detection of the two shortest period non-interacting white dwarf binary systems. These systems, SDSS J143633.29+501026.8 and SDSS J105353.89+520031.0, were identified by searching for radial velocity variations in the individual exposures that make up the published spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We followed up these systems with time series spectroscopy to measure the period and mass ratios of these systems. Although we only place a lower bound on the companion masses, we argue that they must also be white dwarf stars. With periods of approximately 1 hour, we estimate that the systems will merge in less than 100 Myr, but the merger product will likely not be massive enough to result in a Type 1a supernova.

  8. Twins: The Two Shortest Period Non-Interacting Double Degenerate White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, F.; Badenes, Carles; Thompson, Susan E.; Lupton, Robert

    2009-12-01

    We report on the detection of the two shortest period non-interacting white dwarf binary systems. These systems, SDSS J143633.29+501026.8 and SDSS J105353.89+520031.0, were identified by searching for radial velocity variations in the individual exposures that make up the published spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We followed up these systems with time series spectroscopy to measure the period and mass ratios of these systems. Although we only place a lower bound on the companion masses, we argue that they must also be white dwarf stars. With periods of approximately 1 hr, we estimate that the systems will merge in less than 100 Myr, but the merger product will likely not be massive enough to result in a Type 1a supernova.

  9. TWINS: THE TWO SHORTEST PERIOD NON-INTERACTING DOUBLE DEGENERATE WHITE DWARF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the detection of the two shortest period non-interacting white dwarf binary systems. These systems, SDSS J143633.29+501026.8 and SDSS J105353.89+520031.0, were identified by searching for radial velocity variations in the individual exposures that make up the published spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We followed up these systems with time series spectroscopy to measure the period and mass ratios of these systems. Although we only place a lower bound on the companion masses, we argue that they must also be white dwarf stars. With periods of approximately 1 hr, we estimate that the systems will merge in less than 100 Myr, but the merger product will likely not be massive enough to result in a Type 1a supernova.

  10. Infrared absorption of dense helium and its importance in the atmospheres of cool white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Piotr M

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Hydrogen deficient white dwarfs are characterized by very dense, fluid-like atmospheres of complex physics and chemistry that are still poorly understood. The incomplete description of these atmospheres by the models results in serious problems with the description of spectra of these stars and subsequent difficulties in derivation of their surface parameters. Here, we address the problem of infrared (IR) opacities in the atmospheres of cool white dwarfs by direct $ab$ $initio$ simulations of IR absorption of dense helium. Methods: We applied state-of-the-art density functional theory-based quantum molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time evolution of the induced dipole moment. The IR absorption coefficients were obtained by the Fourier transform of the dipole moment time autocorrelation function. Results: We found that a dipole moment is induced due to three- and more-body simultaneous collisions between helium atoms in highly compressed helium. This results in a significant IR absorption that...

  11. A 150MG magnetic white dwarf in the cataclysmic variable RX J1554.2+2721

    CERN Document Server

    Gänsicke, B T; Beuermann, K; De Martino, D; Szkody, P; Marsh, T; Thorstensen, J

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of Zeeman-split Lalpha absorption pi and sigma+ lines in the far-ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectrum of the magnetic cataclysmic variable RX J1554.2+2721. Fitting the STIS data with magnetic white dwarf model spectra, we derive a field strength of B~144MG and an effective temperature of 17000Kwhite dwarf with a field exceeding 100MG. Similar to the other high-field polar AR UMa, RX J1554.2+2721 is often found in a state of feeble mass transfer, which suggests that a considerable number of high-field polars may still remain undiscovered.

  12. The high-field magnetic white dwarf LP 790-29 not a fast rotator

    CERN Document Server

    Beuermann, K

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of the magnetic white dwarf LP 790-29 = LHS 2293 by polarimetric monitoring, searching for short-term variability. No periodicity was found and we can exclude rotation periods between 4 sec and 1.5 hour with a high confidence. Maximum amplitudes of sinusoidal variations are Delta R < 0.009 mag and Delta V_R < 0.7% for a mean value of the R-band circular polarization of V_R = +9.1+/-0.3%. Combined with earlier results by other authors, our observation suggests that LP 790-29 is, in fact, an extremely slowly rotating single white dwarf and not an unrecognized fast rotator and/or disguised cataclysmic variable.

  13. Parameter-free Stark Broadening of Hydrogen Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, P -E; Dupuis, J

    2009-01-01

    We present new calculations for the Stark broadening of the hydrogen line profiles in the dense atmospheres of white dwarf stars. Our improved model is based on the unified theory of Stark broadening from Vidal, Cooper & Smith, but it also includes non-ideal gas effects from the Hummer & Mihalas occupation probability formalism directly inside the line profile calculations. This approach improves upon previous calculations that relied on the use of an ad-hoc free parameter to describe the dissolution of the line wing opacity in the presence of high electric microfields in the plasma. We present here the first grid of model spectra for hot Teff >~ 12,000 K DA white dwarfs that has no free parameters. The atmospheric parameters obtained from optical and UV spectroscopic observations using these improved models are shown to differ substantially from those published in previous studies.

  14. Parameter-free stark broadening of hydrogen lines in DA white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P-E; Bergeron, P [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Dupuis, J, E-mail: tremblay@astro.umontreal.c, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.c, E-mail: jean.dupuis@space.gc.c [Canadian Space Agency, 6767 Route de l' Aeroport, Longueuil, Quebec J3Y 8Y9 (Canada)

    2009-06-01

    We present new calculations for the Stark broadening of the hydrogen line profiles in the dense atmospheres of white dwarf stars. Our improved model is based on the unified theory of Stark broadening from Vidal, Cooper and Smith (1970), but it also includes non-ideal gas effects from the Hummer and Mihalas (1988) occupation probability formalism directly inside the line profile calculations. This approach improves upon previous calculations that relied on the use of an ad-hoc free parameter to describe the dissolution of the line wing opacity in the presence of high electric microfields in the plasma. We present here the first grid of model spectra for hot (T{sub eff} >= 12, 000 K) DA white dwarfs that has no free parameters. The atmospheric parameters obtained from optical and UV spectroscopic observations using these improved models are shown to differ substantially from those published in previous studies.

  15. Stable magnetic equilibria and their evolution in the upper main sequence, white dwarfs, and neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reisenegger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    [abbreviated] Long-lived, large-scale magnetic field configurations exist in upper main sequence, white dwarf, and neutron stars. Externally, these fields are roughly dipolar, while their internal structure and evolution are uncertain, but highly relevant for several problems in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. We discuss the main properties expected for the stable magnetic configurations in these stars from physical arguments, and how these properties may determine the modes of decay of these configurations. Stable magneto-hydrostatic equilibria appear to exist in stars whenever the matter in their interior is stably stratified (not barotropic). These equilibria are not force-free and not required to satisfy the Grad-Shafranov equation, but they do involve both toroidal and poloidal field components. We argue that the main mode of decay for these configurations are processes that lift the constraints set by stable stratification, such as heat diffusion in main-sequence envelopes and white dwarfs, and be...

  16. Simulating the photometric study of pulsating white dwarf stars in the physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Chote, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a realistic simulation of astronomical observing using a relatively low-cost commercial CCD camera and a microcontroller-based circuit that drives LEDs inside a light-tight box with time-varying intensities. As part of a laboratory experiment, students can acquire sequences of images using the camera, and then perform data analysis using a language such as MATLAB or Python to: (a) extract the intensity of the imaged LEDs, (b) perform basic calibrations on the time-series data, and (c) convert their data into the frequency domain where they can then identify the frequency structure. The primary focus is on studying light curves produced by the pulsating white dwarf stars. The exercise provides an introduction to CCD observing, a framework for teaching concepts in numerical data analysis and Fourier techniques, and connections with the physics of white dwarf stars.

  17. Merger of white dwarf-neutron star binaries: Prelude to hydrodynamic simulations in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Baumgarte, Thomas W; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    White dwarf-neutron star binaries generate detectable gravitational radiation. We construct Newtonian equilibrium models of corotational white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) binaries in circular orbit and find that these models terminate at the Roche limit. At this point the binary will undergo either stable mass transfer (SMT) and evolve on a secular time scale, or unstable mass transfer (UMT), which results in the tidal disruption of the WD. The path a given binary will follow depends primarily on its mass ratio. We analyze the fate of known WDNS binaries and use population synthesis results to estimate the number of LISA-resolved galactic binaries that will undergo either SMT or UMT. We model the quasistationary SMT epoch by solving a set of simple ordinary differential equations and compute the corresponding gravitational waveforms. Finally, we discuss in general terms the possible fate of binaries that undergo UMT and construct approximate Newtonian equilibrium configurations of merged WDNS remnants. We use t...

  18. Compact Objects in Astrophysics White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Camenzind, Max

    2007-01-01

    Compact objects are an important class of astronomical objects in current research. Supermassive black holes play an important role in the understanding of the formation of galaxies in the early Universe. Old white dwarfs are nowadays used to calibrate the age of the Universe. Mergers of neutron stars and black holes are the sources of intense gravitational waves which will be measured in the next ten years by gravitational wave detectors. Camenzind's Compact Objects in Astrophysics gives a comprehensive introduction and up-to-date overview about the physical processes behind these objects, covering the field from the beginning to most recent results, including all relevant observations. After a presentation of the taxonomy of compact objects, the basic principles of general relativity are given. The author then discusses in detail the physics and observations of white dwarfs and neutron stars (including the most recent equations of state for neutron star matter), the gravitational field of rapidly rotating c...

  19. The initial stellar masses for the formation of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynet, G.

    1991-08-01

    As is well known a star may end its nuclear lifetime as a white dwarf, neutron star, black hole or many, in certain circumstances, leave no remnant at all. The main question to be addressed in this review is the following: what are the progenitors of these different final stages? After a brief review of the major physical principles governing stellar evolution, the author presents the different evolutionary scenarios resulting from numerical calculations. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of mass loss on theoretical determinations of the mass limits MWD and MBH which are respectively the maximum initial mass leading to the formation of a white dwarf and the minimum initial mass for the formation of a black hole. The author terminates this review by the presentation of some relevant observational results. The bulk of this paper is devoted to the discussion of the evolution of single Population I stars.

  20. Relativistic tidal interaction of a white dwarf with a massive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V. P.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Novikov, I. D.; Pethick, C. J.

    1994-09-01

    We compute encounters of a realistic white dwarf model with a massive black hole in the regime where relativistic effects are important, using a three-dimensional, finite-difference, Eulerian, piecewise parabolic method (PPM) hydrodynamical code. Both disruptive and nondisruptive encounters are considered. We identify and discuss relativistic effects important for the problem: relativistic shift of the pericenter distance, time delay, relativistic precession, and the tensorial structure of the tidal forces. In the nondisruptive case, stripping of matter takes place. In the surface layers of the surviving core, complicated hydrodynamical phenomena are revealed. In both disruptive and nondispruptive encounters, material flows out in the form of two thin, S-shaped, supersonic jets. Our results provide realistic initial conditions for the subsequent investigation of the dynamics of the debris in the field of the black hole. We evaluate the critical conditions for complete disruption of the white dwarf, and compare our results with the corresponding results for nonrelativistic encounters.

  1. Relativistic tidal interaction of a white dwarf with a massive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V. P.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Novikov, I. D.; Pethick, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    We compute encounters of a realistic white dwarf model with a massive black hole in the regime where relativistic effects are important, using a three-dimensional, finite-difference, Eulerian, piecewise parabolic method (PPM) hydrodynamical code. Both disruptive and nondisruptive encounters are considered. We identify and discuss relativistic effects important for the problem: relativistic shift of the pericenter distance, time delay, relativistic precession, and the tensorial structure of the tidal forces. In the nondisruptive case, stripping of matter takes place. In the surface layers of the surviving core, complicated hydrodynamical phenomena are revealed. In both disruptive and nondispruptive encounters, material flows out in the form of two thin, S-shaped, supersonic jets. Our results provide realistic initial conditions for the subsequent investigation of the dynamics of the debris in the field of the black hole. We evaluate the critical conditions for complete disruption of the white dwarf, and compare our results with the corresponding results for nonrelativistic encounters.

  2. New evolutionary sequences for extremely low mass white dwarfs: Homogeneous mass and age determinations, and asteroseismic prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Córsico, Alejandro H

    2013-01-01

    We provide a fine and homogeneous grid of evolutionary sequences for He-core white dwarfs with masses 0.15-0.45 Msun, including the mass range for ELM white dwarfs (<0.20Msun). The grid is appropriate for mass and age determination, and to study their pulsational properties. White dwarf sequences have been computed by performing full evolutionary calculations that consider the main energy sources and processes of chemical abundance changes during white dwarf evolution. Initial models for the evolving white dwarfs have been obtained by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of a Msun ZAMS star and a 1.4 Msun neutron star for various initial orbital periods. To derive cooling ages and masses for He-core white dwarf we perform a least square fitting of the M(Teff, g) and Age(Teff, g) relations provided by our sequences by using a scheme that takes into account the time spent by models in different regions of the Teff-g plane. This is useful when multiple solutions for cooling a...

  3. Rapid spindown of fast-rotating white dwarfs in close binary systems as a result of magnetic field amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhsanov, Nazar R.

    1999-07-01

    The rapid braking on the white dwarf in the close binary AE Aqr\\ can be explained in terms of the pulsar mechanism provided the magnetic moment of the star mu >~ 1.4 x 10(34) G cm(3) . Under this condition the magnetic field is strong enough to prevent accretion with the rate white dwarf surface, so the traditional accretion-driven spin up mechanism cannot be applied to this system without additional assumptions. A scenario in which the initial magnetic moment of the white dwarf was essentially weaker than its present value is explored. A weakly magnetized ( ~ 10(4) G) white dwarf was slowly spinning up by accretion of matter from its normal companion until its period P >~ P_cr =~ 20 s. When the period had decreased beyond P_cr the white dwarf lost its angular momentum via the gravitational waves that caused strong differential rotation. The magnetic field inside the star was winding up on a time scale of a month up to ~ 10(8-10^9) G. This field manifests itself at the surface due to buoyant instability producing a surface field of 10(7-10^8) G. As a result the white dwarf changed its initial accretor state to the presently observed ejector state, i.e. it is spinning down predominantly due to the magneto-dipole waves generation and particle acceleration.

  4. Ab initio Stellar Astrophysics: Reliable Modeling of Cool White Dwarf Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Piotr M.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade {\\it ab initio} modeling of material properties has become widespread in diverse fields of research. It has proved to be a powerful tool for predicting various properties of matter under extreme conditions. We apply modern computational chemistry and materials science methods, including density functional theory (DFT), to solve lingering problems in the modeling of the dense atmospheres of cool white dwarfs ($T_{\\rm eff}\\rm

  5. An Experimental Platform for Creating White Dwarf Photospheres in the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Ross E. Falcon; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Ellis, J. L.; Carlson, A. L.; Gomez, T. A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Chen, E.Y.; Gomez, M R; Nash, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental platform for measuring hydrogen Balmer emission and absorption line profiles for plasmas with white dwarf (WD) photospheric conditions (T_e ~ 1 eV, n_e ~ 10^17 cm^-3). These profiles will be used to benchmark WD atmosphere models, which, used with the spectroscopic method, are responsible for determining fundamental parameters (e.g., effective temperature, mass) for tens of thousands of WDs. Our experiment, performed at the Z Pulsed Power Facility ...

  6. The End of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence in M4: an efficient approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Anderson, J; King, I R; Cassisi, S

    2009-01-01

    We use 14 orbits of ACS observations to reach the end of the white-dwarf cooling sequence in the globular cluster M4. Our photometry and completeness tests show that the end is located at magnitude m_F606W = 28.5+/-0.1, which implies an age of 11.6+/-0.6 Gyr (internal errors only). This is consistent with the age from fits to the main sequence turn-off (12.0+/-1.4 Gyr).

  7. The historical record for Sirius: evidence for a white-dwarf thermonuclear runaway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the results of attempts to detect possible planetary nebula ejecta toward Sirius, using data obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. Based upon these results and in the light of recent advances in understanding white-dwarf evolution, it is proposed that Sirius B underwent a recent thermonuclear runaway event, triggered by a diffusion-induced CN reaction, to explain the historical behaviour of this star. (author)

  8. Next generation population synthesis of accreting white dwarfs: I. Hybrid calculations using BSE + MESA

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hai-liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2014-01-01

    Accreting, nuclear-burning white dwarfs have been deemed to be candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae, and to account for supersoft X-ray sources, novae, etc. depending on their accretion rates. We have carried out a binary population synthesis study of their populations using two algorithms. In the first, we use the binary population synthesis code \\textsf{BSE} as a baseline for the "rapid" approach commonly used in such studies. In the second, we employ a "hybrid" app...

  9. On the formation of eccentric millisecond pulsars with helium white-dwarf companions

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) orbiting helium white dwarfs (WDs) in eccentric orbits challenge the established binary evolution paradigm that predicts efficient orbital circularization during the mass transfer episode that spins up the pulsar. Freire and Tauris (2014) recently proposed that these binary MSPs may instead form from the rotationally delayed accretion-induced collapse of a massive WD. This scenario predicts that eccentric systems preferably host low-mass pulsars an...

  10. Three-body crystallization diagrams and the cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Segretain, Laurent

    1995-01-01

    The 3-body crystallization diagrams of C/O/Ne ionic mixtures characteristic of white dwarf interiors are examined within the framework of the density-functional theory of freezing. The crystallization process is described more accurately than in former calculations where the three-component system was treated as an effective two-component mixture (Segretain et al. 1994). The distillation process due to neon-crystallization is found to occur only for the late stages of crysta...

  11. Diffusion and the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes in helium white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; Serenelli, Aldo; Benvenuto, Omar Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of element diffusion on the structure and evolution of low-mass helium white dwarfs (WD). Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes induced by diffusion processes during cooling phases. Initial models from 0.406 to 0.161 solar masses are constructed by applying mass loss rates at different stages of the RGB evolution of a solar model. The multicomponent flow equations describing gravitational settling, and chemical and therma...

  12. A puzzling periodicity in the pulsating DA white dwarf G 117-B15A

    OpenAIRE

    Kotak, Rubina; Kerkwijk, M.H. van; Clemens, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We present time-resolved optical spectrophotometry of the pulsatinghydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf G 117-B15A. We find threeperiodicities in the pulsation spectrum (215 s, 272 s, and 304 s) all ofwhich have been found in earlier studies. By comparing the fractionalwavelength dependence of the pulsation amplitudes (chromatic amplitudes)with models, we confirm a previous report that the strongest mode, at215 s, has ?=1. The chromatic amplitude for the 272 s mode is verypuzzling, showing ...

  13. VLT/X-shooter observations and the chemical composition of cool white dwarfs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 538, February (2012), A13/1-A13/11. ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ?R IAA301630901; GA ?R GAP209/10/0967; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : white dwarfs * atmospheres * abundance Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2012

  14. Zeeman tomography of magnetic white dwarfs: General method and application to EF Eridani

    OpenAIRE

    Euchner, F.; Beuermann, K.; Reinsch, K.; Jordan, S.; Hessman, F. V.; Gaensicke, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new method to derive the magnetic field distribution on the surfaces of rotating magnetic white dwarfs from phase-resolved flux and circular polarization spectra. An optimization code based on an evolutionary strategy is used to fit synthetic Zeeman spectra for a variety of model geometries described in the framework of a truncated multipole expansion. We demonstrate that the code allows the reconstruction of relatively complex fields using noise-added sy...

  15. Irradiated atmospheres of accreting magnetic white dwarfs with an application to the polar AM Herculis

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, M.; Beuermann, K.; Gaensicke, B. T.

    2005-01-01

    We present a pilot study of atmospheres of accreting magnetic white dwarfs irradiated by intense fluxes at ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. The model uses a standard LTE stellar atmosphere code which is expanded by introducing an angle-dependent external radiation source. The present results are obtained for an external source with the spectral shape of a 10000K blackbody and a freely adjustable spectral flux. The model provides an explanation for the observed largely fi...

  16. A 150MG magnetic white dwarf in the cataclysmic variable RX J1554.2+2721

    OpenAIRE

    Gaensicke, B. T.; Jordan, S.; Beuermann, K.; Martino, D.; Szkody, P.; Marsh, T.; Thorstensen, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of Zeeman-split Lalpha absorption pi and sigma+ lines in the far-ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectrum of the magnetic cataclysmic variable RX J1554.2+2721. Fitting the STIS data with magnetic white dwarf model spectra, we derive a field strength of B~144MG and an effective temperature of 17000K

  17. The mass distribution of white dwarfs and central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on mass distributions for white dwarfs and planetary nebulae are presented and compared with current theoretical predictions. Whereas single star evolution leads to final masses predominantly in a narrow interval around 0.6 solar masses which can be explained by current mass loss schemes degenerate stars in binaries present a larger range of masses. The average mass of the primaries in cataclysmic binaries seems to be more around 0.7 than 1 solar masses. (Auth.)

  18. Spectroscopic Analysis of DA White Dwarfs: Stark Broadening of Hydrogen Lines Including Non-Ideal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, P. -e; Bergeron, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present improved calculations for the Stark broadening of hydrogen lines in dense plasmas typical of white dwarf atmospheres. Our new model is based on the unified theory of Stark broadening from Vidal, Cooper, & Smith. For the first time, we account for the non-ideal effects in a consistent way directly inside the line profile calculations. The Hummer & Mihalas theory is used to describe the non-ideal effects due to perturbations on the absorber from protons and electron...

  19. Parameter-free Stark Broadening of Hydrogen Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, P. -e; Bergeron, P.; Dupuis, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present new calculations for the Stark broadening of the hydrogen line profiles in the dense atmospheres of white dwarf stars. Our improved model is based on the unified theory of Stark broadening from Vidal, Cooper & Smith, but it also includes non-ideal gas effects from the Hummer & Mihalas occupation probability formalism directly inside the line profile calculations. This approach improves upon previous calculations that relied on the use of an ad-hoc free parameter t...

  20. Stable magnetic equilibria and their evolution in the upper main sequence, white dwarfs, and neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Reisenegger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    [abbreviated] Long-lived, large-scale magnetic field configurations exist in upper main sequence, white dwarf, and neutron stars. Externally, these fields have a strong dipolar component, while their internal structure and evolution are uncertain, but highly relevant for several problems in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. We discuss the main properties expected for the stable magnetic configurations in these stars from physical arguments, and how these properties may d...

  1. FORETELLINGS OF RAGNAROeK: WORLD-ENGULFING ASYMPTOTIC GIANTS AND THE INHERITANCE OF WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Villaver, Eva, E-mail: alex.mustill@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-20

    The search for planets around white dwarf stars, and evidence for dynamical instability around them in the form of atmospheric pollution and circumstellar disks, raises questions about the nature of planetary systems that can survive the vicissitudes of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). We study the competing effects, on planets at several AU from the star, of strong tidal forces arising from the star's large convective envelope, and of the planets' orbital expansion due to stellar mass loss. We study, for the first time, the evolution of planets while following each thermal pulse on the AGB. For Jovian planets, tidal forces are strong, and can pull into the envelope planets initially at {approx}3 AU for a 1 M{sub Sun} star and {approx}5 AU for a 5 M{sub Sun} star. Lower-mass planets feel weaker tidal forces, and terrestrial planets initially within 1.5-3 AU enter the stellar envelope. Thus, low-mass planets that begin inside the maximum stellar radius can survive, as their orbits expand due to mass loss. The inclusion of a moderate planetary eccentricity slightly strengthens the tidal forces experienced by Jovian planets. Eccentric terrestrial planets are more at risk, since their eccentricity does not decay and their small pericenter takes them inside the stellar envelope. We also find the closest radii at which planets will be found around white dwarfs, assuming that any planet entering the stellar envelope is destroyed. Planets are in that case unlikely to be found inside {approx}1.5 AU of a white dwarf with a 1 M{sub Sun} progenitor and {approx}10 AU of a white dwarf with a 5 M{sub Sun} progenitor.

  2. White dwarf models for type I supernovae, and quiet supernovae, and presupernova evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supernova mechanisms in accreting white dwarfs (WDs) are presented, i.e., the carbon deflagration as a plausible mechanism for producing Type I supernovae and electron captures to form quiet supernovae leaving neutron stars. These outcomes depend on accretion rate of helium, initial mass and composition of the WD. The various types of hydrogen shell-burning in the presupernova stage are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. Double Detonation of Sub-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs and Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, C.; Arun, Kenath

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to result from thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars. This model generally explains the observed properties with certain exceptions, like sub-luminous supernovae. Here we discuss the possibility of sub-Chandrasekhar WDs detonating due to the build up of a layer of helium on the C-O WD by accreting from a helium rich companion star to explain observed deviations such as subluminous type Ia. We also detail some of the energe...

  4. Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Tidal Synchronization and Dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Jim; Lai, Dong

    2011-01-01

    In compact white dwarf (WD) binary systems (with periods ranging from minutes to hours), dynamical tides involving the excitation and dissipation of gravity waves play a dominant role in determining the physical conditions of the WDs prior to mass transfer or binary merger. We calculate the amplitude of the tidally excited gravity waves as a function of the tidal forcing frequency \\omega=2(\\Omega-\\Omega_s) (where \\Omega is the orbital frequency and \\Omega_s is the spin frequ...

  5. Blue Stragglers, Young White Dwarfs and UV-excess stars in the core of 47 Tuc

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Francesco R.; D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Mignani, Roberto P.; Paltrinieri, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    We used a set of archived HST/WFPC2 images to probe the stellar population in the core of the nearby Galactic Globular Cluster (GGC) 47 Tuc. From the ultraviolet (UV) Color Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) obtained for ~4,000 stars detected within the Planetary Camera (PC) field of view we have pinpointed a number of interesting objects: (i) 43 blue stragglers stars (BSSs) including 20 new candidates; (ii) 12 bright (young) cooling white dwarfs (WDs) at the extreme blue region ...

  6. Discovery of a Bright, Extremely Low Mass White Dwarf in a Close Double Degenerate System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vennes, Stephane; Thorstensen, J.R.; Kawka, Adela; Németh, Péter; Skinner, J.N.; Pigulski, A.; St?slicki, M.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Srodka, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 737, ?. 1 (2011), L16/1-L16/6. ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ?R IAA301630901; GA ?R GAP209/10/0967; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : close binaries stars * individual star GALEX J171708.5+675712 * white dwarfs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2011

  7. Neutrino burst of white dwarf being absorbed by a primordial black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, V V

    2003-01-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHS) of masses M>=5x10 sup 4 g are able to absorb white dwarfs (WD), giving rise to formation of black holes of WD masses. The WD absorption is accomplained by up to 10 sup 5 sup 2 erg neutrino bursts which can be readily detected by modern neutrino detectors. We calculate time characteristics of such a burst in this paper. (authors)

  8. GRB060218 as a Tidal Disruption of a White Dwarf by an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Pe'er, Asaf; Christopher S. Reynolds; Haas, Roland; Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    A highly unusual pair of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB060218 and an associated supernova SN2006aj has puzzled theorists for years. A supernova shock breakout and a jet from a newborn stellar mass compact object were put forward to explain its multiwavelength signature. We propose that the source is naturally explained by another channel, a tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH). The tidal disruption is accompanied by a tidal pinching, ...

  9. Gravitational signals due to tidal interactions between white dwarfs and black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Casalvieri, C.; Ferrari, V.; Stavridis, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we compute the gravitational signal emitted when a white dwarf moves around a black hole on a closed or open orbit using the affine model approach. We compare the orbital and the tidal contributions to the signal, assuming that the star moves in a safe region where, although very close to the black hole, the strength of the tidal interaction is insufficient to provoque the stellar disruption. We show that for all considered orbits the tidal signal presents shar...

  10. Tidal Disruptions of White Dwarfs from Ultra-Close Encounters with Intermediate Mass Spinning Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Roland; Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical relativity results of tidal disruptions of white dwarfs from ultra-close encounters with a spinning, intermediate mass black hole. These encounters require a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. We show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. However, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, $\\dot{M}$ ~ t^{-5/3}, estimated...

  11. Inverting the White Dwarf Luminosity Function: the Star Formation History of the Solar Neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Rowell, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    I present an algorithm for inverting the luminosity function for white dwarfs to obtain a maximum likelihood estimate of the star formation rate of the host stellar population. The algorithm is of the general class of Expectation Maximization, and involves iteratively improving an initial guess of the star formation rate. Tests show that the inversion results are quite sensitive to the assumed metallicity and initial mass function, but relatively insensitive to the initial-f...

  12. Formation of millisecond pulsars with CO white dwarf companions - II. Accretion, spin-up, true ages and comparison to MSPs with He white dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M; Kramer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are mainly characterised by their spin periods, B-fields and masses - quantities which are largely affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. In this paper, we investigate the formation mechanism of MSPs by considering the pulsar recycling process in both intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (IMXBs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The IMXBs mainly lead to the formation of binary MSPs with a massive carbon-oxygen (CO) or an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf (ONeMg WD) companion, whereas the LMXBs form recycled pulsars with a helium white dwarf (He WD) companion. We discuss the accretion physics leading to the spin-up line in the PPdot-diagram and demonstrate that such a line cannot be uniquely defined. We derive a simple expression for the amount of accreted mass needed for any given pulsar to achieve its equilibrium spin and apply this to explain the observed differences of the spin distributions of recycled pulsars with different types of companion...

  13. Supernova 2011fe from an Exploding Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarf Star

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, Peter E; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used empirically as standardized candles to reveal the accelerating universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of the progenitor system and how the star explodes, remained a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary could be anything from a main sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. The uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent SN Ia has been discovered close enough to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of SN 2011fe (PTF11kly) in M101 at a distance of 6.4 Mpc, the closest SN Ia in the past 25 years. We find that the exploding star was likely a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was most likely a main sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that varies on a time scale of hours and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate mass ele...

  14. Magnetized Moving Mesh Merger of a Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarf Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Chenchong; van Kerkwijk, Marten H; Chang, Philip

    2015-01-01

    White dwarf binary mergers are possible progenitors to a number of unusual stars and transient phenomena, including type Ia supernovae. To date, simulations of mergers have not included magnetic fields, even though they are believed to play a significant role in the evolution of the merger remnant. We simulated a 0.625 - 0.65 $M_{\\odot}$ carbon-oxygen white dwarf binary merger in the magnetohydrodynamic moving mesh code Arepo. Each white dwarf was given an initial dipole field with a surface value of $\\sim10^3$ G. As in simulations of merging double neutron star binaries, we find exponential field growth within Kelvin-Helmholtz instability-generated vortices during the coalescence of the two stars. The final field has complex geometry, and a strength $>10^{10}$ G at the center of the merger remnant. Its energy is $\\sim2\\times10^{47}$ ergs, $\\sim0.2$% of the remnant's total energy. The strong field likely influences further evolution of the merger remnant by providing a mechanism for angular momentum transfer ...

  15. On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuto, O G

    2011-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar int...

  16. Likely detection of water-rich asteroid debris in a metal-polluted white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Raddi, R; Koester, D; Farihi, J; Hermes, J J; Scaringi, S; Breedt, E; Girven, J

    2015-01-01

    The cool white dwarf SDSS J124231.07+522626.6 exhibits photospheric absorption lines of 8 distinct heavy elements in medium resolution optical spectra, notably including oxygen. The Teff = 13000 K atmosphere is helium-dominated, but the convection zone contains significant amounts of hydrogen and oxygen. The four most common rock-forming elements (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) account for almost all the accreted mass, totalling at least 1.2e+24 g, similar to the mass of Ceres. The time-averaged accretion rate is 2e+10 g/s, one of the highest rates inferred among all known metal-polluted white dwarfs. We note a large oxygen excess, with respect to the most common metal oxides, suggesting that the white dwarf accreted planetary debris with a water content of ~38 per cent by mass. This star, together with GD 61, GD 16, and GD 362, form a small group of outliers from the known population of evolved planetary systems accreting predominantly dry, rocky debris. This result strengthens the hypothesis that, integrated over the c...

  17. An ultra-cool white dwarf serendipitously found with COMBO-17

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, C

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-cool white dwarf in the COMBO-17 survey. So far, only seven objects have been discovered in this rare category of white dwarfs, which are characterized by strong flux depression in the far-red and near-infrared part of the spectrum, presumably due to collisionally induced absorption (CIA). The new object COMBO-17 J114356.08-0144032 has very similar colours to LHS 3250, which was the first of its kind to be recognized. However, at R=21.5 it is the faintest and possibly most distant such object discovered to date. It is the only such object in COMBO-17 at R<23; due to the small sky coverage of 0.78 square degree this chance discovery can not provide any constraints on the abundance of faint ultra-cool white dwarfs. We speculate on the basis of the proper motion that this new object is probably a member of the Galactic (thin) disk.

  18. The effects of metallicity on the Galactic disk population of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that stellar metallicity plays a significant role in the determination of the ages of the different Galactic stellar populations, when main sequence evolutionary tracks are employed. Here we analyze the role that metallicity plays on the white dwarf luminosity function of the Galactic disk, which is often used to determine its age. We employ a Monte Carlo population synthesis code that accounts for the properties of the population of Galactic disk white dwarfs. Our code incorporates the most up-to-date evolutionary cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres for both carbon-oxygen and oxygen-neon cores. We use two different models to assess the evolution of the metallicity, one in which the adopted metallicity is constant with time, but with a moderate dispersion, and a second one in which the metallicity increases with time. We found that our theoretical results are in a very satisfactory agreement with the observational luminosit...

  19. Metal Accretion onto White Dwarfs. I. The Approximate Approach Based on Estimates of Diffusion Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dufour, P.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2015-06-01

    The accretion-diffusion picture is the model par excellence for describing the presence of planetary debris polluting the atmospheres of relatively cool white dwarfs. Some important insights into the process may be derived using an approximate approach which combines static stellar models with estimates of diffusion timescales at the base of the outer convection zone or, in its absence, at the photosphere. Until recently, and to our knowledge, values of diffusion timescales in white dwarfs have all been obtained on the basis of the same physics as that developed initially by Paquette et al., including their diffusion coefficients and thermal diffusion coefficients. In view of the recent exciting discoveries of a plethora of metals (including some never seen before) polluting the atmospheres of an increasing number of cool white dwarfs, we felt that a new look at the estimates of settling timescales would be worthwhile. We thus provide improved estimates of diffusion timescales for all 27 elements from Li to Cu in the periodic table in a wide range of the surface gravity-effective temperature domain and for both DA and non-DA stars.

  20. Wind-driven evolution of white dwarf binaries to type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the single-degenerate scenario for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a white dwarf rapidly accretes hydrogen- or helium-rich material from its companion star and appears as a supersoft X-ray source. This picture has been challenged by the properties of the supersoft X-ray sources with very low mass companions and the observations of several nearby SNe Ia. It has been pointed out that the X-ray radiation or the wind from the accreting white dwarf can excite winds or strip mass from the companion star, thus significantly influencing the mass transfer processes. In this paper, we perform detailed calculations of the wind-driven evolution of white dwarf binaries. We present the parameter space for the possible SN Ia progenitors and for the surviving companions after the SNe. The results show that the ex-companion stars of SNe Ia have characteristics more compatible with the observations, compared with those in the traditional single-degenerate scenario.

  1. Panchromatic Calibration of Astronomical Observations with State-of-the-Art White Dwarf Model Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of white dwarfs provide a powerful tool for cross-calibration and sensitivity control of instruments from the far infrared to the X-ray energy range. Such SEDs can be calculated from fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model-atmospheres that are e.g. computed by the Tuebingen NLTE model-atmosphere package (TMAP) that has arrived at a high level of sophistication. TMAP was successfully employed for the reliable spectral analysis of many hot, compact post-AGB stars. High-quality stellar spectra obtained over a wide energy range establish a data base with a large number of spectral lines of many successive ions of different species. Their analysis allows to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, and element abundances of individual (pre-)white dwarfs with very small error ranges. We present applications of TMAP SEDs for spectral analyses of hot, compact stars in the parameter range from (pre-) white dwarfs to neutron stars and demonstrate the improvement...

  2. Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-12-15

    Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor. PMID:22170680

  3. The white dwarf revealed in the intermediate polar V709 Cassiopeiae

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J M; De Martino, D; Matt, G; Motch, C

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from the first detailed spectroscopic observations of the recently identified intermediate polar RXJ0028.8+5917/V709 Cas. The study of the emission line radial velocities allows us to remove the uncertainties on the different aliases of the orbital period and a best value is found at (0.2225 +/- 0.0002) day. It is also found that the system shows significant EW~ (2-4)A, broad absorptions affecting the Balmer lines from Hdelta to Hbeta. These broad absorptions are interpreted as the contribution of an underlying white dwarf atmosphere. The characteristics of the absorptions are found to be consistent with a DA log(g) = 8 white dwarf at a temperature of ~ 23 000 K, contributing ~ 17 % (at 4500 A) to the overall flux. This is the first direct detection of a white dwarf in an intermediate polar system. The absence of significant Zeeman splitting indicates a magnetic field lower than 10 MG, confirming that, at least in some cases, intermediate polars have weaker fields than polars. Different ...

  4. Multi-Dimensional Simulations of the Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs to Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dessart, L; Langer, N; Livne, E; Ott, C; Yoon, S C; Burrows, Adam; Dessart, Luc; Langer, Norbert; Livne, Eli; Ott, Christian; Yoon, Sung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    We present 2.5D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs, starting from 2D rotational equilibrium configurations. Electron capture leads to the collapse to nuclear densities of these cores within a few tens of milliseconds. The shock generated at bounce moves slowly, but steadily, outwards. Within 50-100ms, the stalled shock breaks out of the white dwarf along the poles. The blast is followed by a neutrino-driven wind that develops within the white dwarf, in a cone of ~40deg opening angle about the poles, with a Mdot of 5-8 x 10^{-3} Msun/s. The ejecta have an entropy on the order of 20-50 k_B/baryon, and an electron fraction distribution that is bimodal. By the end of the simulations, at >600ms after bounce, the explosion energy has reached 3-4 x 10^49 erg and the outflowing mass has reached a few times 0.001Msun. We estimate the asymptotic explosion energies to be lower than 10^50 ergs, significantly lower than those inferred in the core collapse of massive...

  5. A ZZ Ceti white dwarf in SDSS J133941.11+484727.5

    CERN Document Server

    Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R; De Martino, D; Nestoras, J; Szkody, P; Aungwerojwit, A; Barros, S C C; Dillon, M; Araújo-Betancor, S; Arevalo, M J; Casares, J; Groot, P J; Kolb, U; Lazaro, C; Hakala, P; Martínez-Pais, I G; Nelemans, G; Roelofs, G; Schreiber, M R; Van den Besselaar, E J M; Zurita, C

    2006-01-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy and photometry of the cataclysmic variable (CV) SDSSJ133941.11+484727.5 (SDSS1339) which has been discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The orbital period determined from radial velocity studies is 82.524(24)min, close to the observed period minimum. The optical spectrum of SDSS1339 is dominated to 90% by emission from the white dwarf. The spectrum can be successfully reproduced by a three-component model (white dwarf, disc, secondary) with Twd=12500K for a fixed log g=8.0, d=170pc, and a spectral type of the secondary later than M8. The mass transfer rate corresponding to the optical luminosity of the accretion disc is very low,~1.7x10^-13Msun/yr. Optical photometry reveals a coherent variability at 641s with an amplitude of 0.025mag, which we interpret as non-radial pulsations of the white dwarf. In addition, a long-period photometric variation with a period of either 320min or 344min and an amplitude of 0.025mag is detected, which bears no apparent...

  6. Supernova Type Ia progenitors from merging double white dwarfs: Using a new population synthesis model

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, Silvia; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2012-01-01

    The study of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) has lead to greatly improved insights into many fields in astrophysics, however a theoretical explanation of the origin of these events is still lacking. We investigate the potential contribution to the SNIa rate from the population of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. We aim to develope a model that fits the observed SNIa progenitors as well as the observed close double white dwarf population. We differentiate between two scenarios for the common envelope (CE) evolution; the alpha-formalism based on the energy equation and the gamma-formalism that is based on the angular momentum equation. In one model we apply the alpha-formalism always. In the second model the gamma-formalism is applied, unless the binary contains a compact object or the CE is triggered by a tidal instability for which the alpha-formalism is used. The binary population synthesis code SeBa was used to evolve binary systems from the zero-age main sequence to the formation of double white dwarfs...

  7. The Initiation and Propagation of Helium Detonations in White Dwarf Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ken J.; Moore, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear ".Ia" supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the previously neglected effects of C/O pollution and a full nuclear reaction network, and we consider hotspots with spatially constant pressure in addition to constant density hotspots. We find that the inclusion of these effects significantly decreases the minimum hotspot size for helium-rich detonation ignition, making detonations far more plausible during turbulent shell convection or during double white dwarf mergers. The increase in burning rate also decreases the minimum shell mass in which a helium detonation can successfully propagate and alters the composition of the shell's burning products. The ashes of these low-mass shells consist primarily of silicon, calcium, and unburned helium and metals and may explain the high-velocity spectral features observed in most Type Ia supernovae.

  8. Revisiting the axion bounds from the Galactic white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to check for the possible existence of DFSZ-axions, a proposed but not yet detected type of weakly interacting particles. With the aim of deriving new constraints on the axion mass, we compute in this paper new theoretical WDLFs on the basis of WD evolving models that incorporate for the feedback of axions on the thermal structure of the white dwarf. We find that the impact of the axion emission into the neutrino emission can not be neglected at high luminosities ($M_{\\rm Bol}\\lesssim 8$) and that the axion emission needs to be incorporated self-consistently into the evolution of the white dwarfs when dealing with axion masses larger than $m_a\\cos^2\\beta\\gtrsim 5$ meV (i.e. axion-electron coupling constant $g_{ae}\\gtrsim 1.4\\times 10^{-13}$). We went beyond previous works by including 5 different derivations of the WDLF in our analysis. Then we have performed $\\chi^2$-tests to have a quantitative measure of t...

  9. The Spectral Energy Distributions of White Dwarfs in 47 Tucanae: The Distance to the Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Woodley, Kristin A; Kalirai, Jason; Richer, Harvey; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Anderson, Jay; Bergeron, Pier; Dotter, Aaron; Esteves, Lisa; Fahlman, Greg; Hansen, Brad; Heyl, Jeremy; Hurley, Jarrod; Rich, R Michael; Shara, Michael; Stetson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a new distance determination to the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae by fitting the spectral energy distributions of its white dwarfs to pure hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf models. Our photometric dataset is obtained from a 121 orbit Hubble Space Telescope program using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS/IR channels, capturing F390W, F606W, F110W, and F160W images. These images cover more than 60 square arcmins and extend over a radial range of 5-13.7 arcmin (6.5-17.9 pc) within the globular cluster. Using a likelihood analysis, we obtain a best fitting unreddened distance modulus of (m - M)o=13.36+/-0.02+/-0.06 corresponding to a distance of 4.70+/-0.04+/-0.13 kpc, where the first error is random and the second is systematic. We also search the white dwarf photometry for infrared excess in the F160W filter, indicative of debris disks or low mass companions, and find no convincing cases within our sample.

  10. Discovery of Two New Thermally Bloated Low-Mass White Dwarfs Among the Kepler Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, S.; Nelson, L.; Levine, A.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Gandolfi, D.; Nowak, G.; Palle, E.; Prsa, A.

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of two new low-mass, thermally bloated, hot white dwarfs among the Kepler sample of eclipsing binaries. These are KIC 9164561 and KIC 10727668 with orbital periods of 1.2670 and 2.3058 days, respectively. The current primary in both systems is an A star of about 2 {{M}? }. This brings the number of similar binaries among the Kepler sample to six, and the two new systems have the shortest orbital periods among them. The white dwarf (WD) in KIC 9164561 has the largest thermal bloating, compared to its cold degenerate radius, of about a factor of 14. We utilize radial velocity measurements of the A star in KIC 9164561 to determine the WD mass rather accurately: 0.197+/- 0.005 {{M}? }. The mass of the WD in KIC 10727668 is based on the Doppler boosting signal in the Kepler photometry and is less accurately determined to be 0.266+/- 0.035 {{M}? }. Based on the inferred radii and effective temperatures of these two white dwarfs, we are able to make an independent theoretical estimate of their masses to within ?0.01 {{M}? } based on evolutionary models of their cooling history after they lose their hydrogen-rich envelopes. We also present evidence that there is a third body in the KIC 9164561 system with an orbital period of 8–14 yr.

  11. Refining our knowledge of the white dwarf mass-radius relation

    CERN Document Server

    Barstow, M A; Burleigh, M R; Casewell, S L; Farihi, J; Holberg, J B; Hubeny, I

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a white dwarf in a resolved binary system, such as Sirius, provides an opportunity to combine dynamical information about the masses, from astrometry and spectroscopy, with a gravitational red-shift measurement and spectrophotometry of the white dwarf atmosphere to provide a test of theoretical mass-radius relations of unprecedented accuracy. We demonstrated this with the first Balmer line spectrum of Sirius B to be obtained free of contamination from the primary, with STIS on HST. However, we also found an unexplained discrepancy between the spectroscopic and gravitational red-shift mass determinations. With the recovery of STIS, we have been able to revisit our observations of Sirius B with an improved observation strategy designed to reduce systematic errors on the gravitational red-shift measurement. We provide a preliminary report on the refined precision of the Sirius B mass-radius measurements and the extension of this technique to a larger sample of white dwarfs in resolved binaries. T...

  12. Does an Average White Dwarf Have Enough Mass to Prevent an Accretion Disk Tilt?

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2010-01-01

    In a recent publication, we introduce the lift force as a common source to accretion disk tilt that is likely relevant to accretion disk systems. Lift is generated by slightly different supersonic gas stream speeds flowing over and under the disk at the bright spot. In this conference proceeding, we focus on whether the average white dwarf has enough mass to prevent a disk tilt in non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) with accretion disks. Assuming a white dwarf mass of 0.6M$_{\\odot}$ and a disk mass of 10$^{-11}$M$_{\\odot}$, we vary the secondary mass to establish theoretical minimum mass transfer rates needed to induce and maintain a disk tilt of four degrees around the line of nodes. For mass ratios in the range \\( (0.13 \\le q=M_{2}M^{-1} \\le 0.45) \\), we confirm that the secondary mass does not contribute significantly to disk tilt. We also confirm that the average white dwarf does not have enough mass to prevent a disk tilt. We find that disk tilt may be likely in low mass transfer rate systems such a...

  13. Collisions of white dwarfs as a new progenitor channel for type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Rosswog, S; Guillochon, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic numerical study of an alternative progenitor scenario to produce type Ia supernova explosions, which is not restricted to the ignition of a CO white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar mass. In this scenario, a shock-triggered thermonuclear explosion ensues from the collision of two white dwarfs. Consistent modeling of the gas dynamics together with nuclear reactions using both a smoothed particle and a grid-based hydrodynamics code are performed to study the viability of this alternative progenitor channel. We find that shock-triggered ignition and the synthesis of Ni are in fact a natural outcome for moderately massive white dwarf pairs colliding close to head-on. We use a multi-dimensional radiative transfer code to calculate the emergent broadband light curves and spectral time-series of these events. The synthetic spectra and lightcurves compare well with those of normal type Ia supernovae over a similar B-band decline rate and are broadly consistent with the Phillips rela...

  14. The Laminar Flame Speedup by Neon-22 Enrichment in White Dwarf Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chamulak, D A; Timmes, F X; Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, Francis X.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-oxygen white dwarfs contain neon-22 formed from alpha-captures onto nitrogen during core He burning in the progenitor star. In a white dwarf (type Ia) supernova, the neon-22 abundance determines, in part, the neutron-to-proton ratio and hence the abundance of radioactive nickel-56 that powers the lightcurve. The neon-22 abundance also changes the burning rate and hence the laminar flame speed. We tabulate the flame speedup for different initial carbon and neon-22 abundances and for a range of densities. This increase in the laminar flame speed--about 30% for a neon-22 mass fraction of 6%--affects the deflagration just after ignition near the center of the white dwarf, where the laminar speed of the flame dominates over the buoyant rise, and in regions of lower density ~ 10^7 g/cm3 where a transition to distributed burning is conjectured to occur. The increase in flame speed will decrease the density of any transition to distributed burning.

  15. Next generation population synthesis of accreting white dwarfs: I. Hybrid calculations using BSE + MESA

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Yungelson, L R; Gilfanov, M; Han, Zhanwen

    2014-01-01

    Accreting, nuclear-burning white dwarfs have been deemed to be candidate progenitors of SNe Ia, and to account for supersoft X-ray sources, novae, etc. We have carried out a binary population synthesis (BPS) study of hydrogen-accreting WDs. First, we use the BPS code \\textsf{BSE} as a baseline for the commonly used "rapid" approach. Second, we apply a "hybrid" approach: we use \\textsf{BSE} to generate a population of WDs with non-degenerate companions on the verge of mass transfer. We then follow their evolution using the detailed stellar evolutionary code \\textsf{MESA}. We investigate the evolution of the number of rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), stably nuclear-burning white dwarfs (SNBWDs), and the SNe Ia rate produced by "single-degenerate" systems (SD). The two algorithms differ significantly in the predicted numbers of SNBWDs at early and late times, and also in the delay time distribution (DTD) of SD SNe Ia. The differences in the treatment of mass transfer may partially account for differences ...

  16. A Possible Solution to the Lyman/Balmer Line Problem in Hot DA White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preval, Simon P.; Barstow, Martin A.; Badnell, Nigel R.; Holberg, Jay B.; Hubeny, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    Arguably, the best method for determining the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) of a DA white dwarf is by fitting the Hydrogen Lyman and Balmer absorption features. However, as has been shown for white dwarfs with Teff>50,000K, the calculated value from the Lyman and Balmer lines are discrepant, which worsens with increasing temperature. Many different solutions have been suggested, ranging from the input physics used to calculate the models, to interstellar reddening. We will focus on the former, and consider three variables. The first is the atomic data used, namely the number of transitions included in line blanketing treatments and the photoionization cross sections. The second is the stark broadening treatment used to synthesise the Lyman and Balmer line profiles, namely the calculations performed by Lemke (1997) and Tremblay & Bergeron (2009). Finally, the third is the atmospheric content. The model grids are calculated with a pure H composition, and a metal polluted composition using the abundances of Preval et al. (2013). We present the preliminary results of our analysis, whereby we have determined the Teff for a small selection of white dwarfs. We plan to extend our analysis by allowing metallicity to vary in future model grids.

  17. The hot white-dwarf companions of HR 1608, HR 8210, and HD 15638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Wayne; Simon, Theodore; Bergeron, P.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained low-dispersion IUE spectra of the late-type stars HD 15638 (F3 V), HR 1608 (=63 Eridani, KO IV), and HR 8210 (A8m). Each of these stars had been detected as a strong EUV source with the Wide Field Camera aboard the ROSAT satellite. The short-wavelength IUE spectrum of each star reveals the presence of a hot white-dwarf companion. We have fit the Lyman-alpha profile and UV continuum of each white dwarf using pure hydrogen models. The excellent fit of the data to the models provides confirmation of the Finley and Koester absolute calibration of the SWP camera of IUE. The UV data alone are insufficient to constrain the model gravity, but an additional constraint is provided by the photometric distance to the late-type primary. The most interesting of the three white dwarfs is the companion to HR 8210 for which our results imply a mass of 1.15 +0.05/-0.15 solar mass. This result is in good agreement with the lower limit on the mass derived from the spectroscopic orbit (greater than 1.1 solar mass), provided that the inclination is close to 90 deg.

  18. Limits on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from the luminosity function of hot white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Context. Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs, where neutrino processes are dominant. Aims: We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the value of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (??). Methods: We used a state-of-the-art stellar evolution code to compute a grid of white dwarf cooling sequences under the assumptions of different values of ??. Then we constructed theoretical WDLFs for different values of ?? and performed a ?2-test to derive constraints on the value of ??. Results: We find that the WDLFs derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey do not yield consistent results. The discrepancy between the two WDLFs suggests that the uncertainties are significantly underestimated. Consequently, we constructed a unified WDLF by averaging the SDSS and SSS and estimated the uncertainties by taking into account the differences between the WDLF at each magnitude bin. Then we compared all WDLFs with theoretical WDLFs. Comparison between theoretical WDLFs and both the SDSS and the averaged WDLF indicates that ?? should be ?? 5 × 10-12e?/(2mec) at more than a 95% confidence level, even when conservative estimates of the uncertainties are adopted. This is close to the best available constraints on ?? from the physics of globular clusters. Conclusions: Our study shows that modern WDLFs, which extend to the high-luminosity regime, are an excellent tool for constraining the emission of particles in the core of hot white dwarfs. However, discrepancies between different WDLFs suggest there might be some relevant unaccounted systematic errors. A larger set of completely independent WDLFs, as well as more detailed studies of the theoretical WDLFs and their own uncertainties, is desirable to explore the systematic uncertainties behind this constraint. Once this is done, we believe the Galactic disk WDLF will offer constraints on the magnetic dipole moment of the neutrino similar to the best available constraints obtainable from globular clusters.

  19. Merger of binary white dwarf-neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform fully general relativistic simulations to address the inspiral and merger of binary white dwarf-neutron stars. The initial binary is in a circular orbit at the Roche critical separation. The goal is to determine the ultimate fate of such systems. We focus on binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass (Mmax) a cold, degenerate equation of state can support against gravitational collapse. The time and length scales span many orders of magnitude, making fully general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations computationally prohibitive. For this reason, we model the white dwarf as a ''pseudo--white dwarf'' as in our binary white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) head-on collisions study [V. Paschalidis, Z. Etienne, Y. T. Liu, and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. D 83, 064002 (2011)]. Our general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a pseudo-WDNS (pWDNS) system with a 0.98M· white dwarf and a 1.4M· neutron star show that the merger remnant is a spinning Thorne-Zytkow-like object (TZlO) surrounded by a massive disk. The final total rest mass exceeds Mmax, but the remnant does not collapse promptly. To assess whether the object will ultimately collapse after cooling, we introduce radiative thermal cooling. We first apply our cooling algorithm to TZlOs formed in pWDNS head-on collisions, and show that these objects collapse and form black holes on the cooling time scale, as expected. However, when we cool the spinning TZlO fowever, when we cool the spinning TZlO formed in the merger of a circular-orbit pWDNS binary, the remnant does not collapse, demonstrating that differential rotational support is sufficient to prevent collapse. Given that the final total mass exceeds Mmax for our cold equation of state, magnetic fields and/or viscosity may redistribute angular momentum, ultimately leading to delayed collapse to a black hole. We infer that the merger of realistic massive WDNS binaries likely will lead to the formation of spinning TZlOs that undergo delayed collapse.

  20. Johannes and the seven dwarfs: Kepler detection of low-level day-timescale periodic photometric variations in white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Maoz, Dan; McQuillan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    We make use of the high photometric precision of Kepler to search for periodic variations among 14 normal (DA- and DB-type, likely non-magnetic) hot white dwarfs (WDs) observed by the mission. In seven of the WDs, we detect periodic, ~2 hr to 10 d, variations, with semi-amplitudes of 40 to 2000 ppm, lower than ever seen in WDs. We consider various explanations for the observed variations: WD rotation combined with magnetic cool spots; rotation combined with magnetic dichroism; rotation combined with hot spots from an interstellar-medium accretion flow, channeled onto weak magnetic poles; transits by size ~50-200 km objects; relativistic beaming due to reflex motion caused by a cool companion WD; or reflection/re-radiation of the primary WD light by a brown-dwarf companion, or by a giant planet of about Jupiter radius, undergoing illumination phases as it orbits the WD. Each of these mechanisms could be behind some of the variable WDs, but could not be responsible for all seven variable cases. Alternatively, t...