WorldWideScience
 
 
1

A comprehensive near- and far-ultraviolet spectroscopic study of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B, using the best signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution near- and far-UV spectrum obtained to date. This is constructed from co-added Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer (STIS) E140H, E230H and FUSE observations, covering the spectral ranges of 1150-3145 Å and 910-1185 Å, respectively. With the aid of recently published atomic data, we have been able to identify previously undetected absorption features down to equivalent widths of only a few mÅ. In total, 976 absorption features have been detected to 3? confidence or greater, with 947 of these lines now possessing an identification, the majority of which are attributed to Fe and Ni transitions. In our survey, we have also potentially identified an additional source of circumstellar material originating from Si III. While we confirm the presence of Ge detected by Vennes et al., we do not detect any other species. Furthermore, we have calculated updated abundances for C, N, O, Si, P, S, Fe and Ni, while also calculating, for the first time, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium abundance for Al, deriving Al III/H=1.60_{-0.08}^{+0.07}× {10}^{-7}. Our analysis constitutes what is the most complete spectroscopic survey of any white dwarf. All observed absorption features in the FUSE spectrum have now been identified, and relatively few remain elusive in the STIS spectrum.

Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Dickinson, N. J.

2013-09-01

2

The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G 191-B2B  

CERN Document Server

H-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observation. We establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G 191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and ...

Rauch, T; Kruk, J W; Werner, K

2013-01-01

3

High-Resolution Spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the Extreme Ultraviolet  

CERN Document Server

We report a high-resolution (R=3000-4000) spectroscopic observation of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet band 220-245 A. A low- density ionised He component is clearly present along the line-of-sight, which if completely interstellar implies a He ionisation fraction considerably higher than is typical of the local interstellar medium. However, some of this material may be associated with circumstellar gas, which has been detected by analysis of the C IV absorption line doublet in an HST STIS spectrum. A stellar atmosphere model assuming a uniform element distribution yields a best fit to the data which includes a significant abundance of photospheric He. The 99-percent confidence contour for the fit parameters excludes solutions in which photospheric He is absent, but this result needs to be tested using models allowing abundance gradients.

Cruddace, R G; Yentis, D J; Brown, C M; Gursky, H; Barstow, M A; Bannister, N P; Fraser, G W; Spragg, J E; Lapington, J S; Tandy, J A; Sanderson, B; Culhane, J L; Barbee, T W; Kordas, J F; Goldstein, W H; Fritz, G G

2001-01-01

4

Deuterium abundance toward G191-B2B Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission  

CERN Multimedia

High-resolution spectra of the hot white dwarf G191-B2B, covering the wavelength region 905-1187A, were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). This data was used in conjunction with existing high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations to evaluate the total HI, DI, OI and NI column densities along the line of sight. Previous determinations of N(DI) based upon GHRS and STIS observations were controversial due to the saturated strength of the DI Lyman-alpha line. In the present analysis the column density of DI has been measured using only the unsaturated Lyman-beta and Lyman-gamma lines observed by FUSE. A careful inspection of possible systematic uncertainties tied to the modeling of the stellar continuum or to the uncertainties in the FUSE instrumental characteristics has been performed. The column densities derived are: log N(DI) = 13.40 +/-0.07, log N(OI) = 14.86 +/-0.07, and log N(NI) = 13.87 +/-0.07 quoted with 2-sigma uncertainties. The measurement of the HI column ...

Lemoine, M; Hébrard, G; Désert, J M; Ferlet, R; Etangs, A L; Howk, J C; André, M; Blair, W P; Friedman, S D; Kruk, J W; Lacour, S; Moos, H W; Sembach, K R; Chayer, P; Jenkins, E B; Köster, D; Linsky, J L; Wood, B E; Oegerle, W R; Sonneborn, G; York, D G

2001-01-01

5

Towards a standardised line list for G191-B2B, and other DA type objects  

CERN Document Server

We present a comprehensive analysis of the far UV spectrum of G191-B2B over the range of 900-1700{\\AA} using co-added data from the FUSE and STIS archives. While previous identifications made by Holberg et al. (2003) are reaffirmed in this work, it is found that many previously unidentified lines can now be attributed to Fe, Ni, and a few lighter metals. Future work includes extending this detailed analysis to a wider range of DA objects, in the expectation that a more complete analysis of their atmospheres can be realised.

Preval, Simon P; Holberg, Jay B; Dickinson, N J

2012-01-01

6

White dwarfs - black holes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A summary of the final state of the star evolution is given predicted by the general relativity theory. The mass limits for white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are determined. (WL)[de] Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber das Endstadium der Sternevolution gegeben, wie sie die allgemeine Relativitaetstheorie voraussagt. Abgeschaetzt werden die Massengrenzen fuer weisse Zwerge und fuer Neutronensterne sowie schliesslich fuer schwarze Loecher. (WL)

1975-01-01

7

White dwarf planets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 ? 5?M?, any planets within about 1 ? 5?AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ??2?AU for a 1??M? progenitor and ??10?AU for a 5?M? progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

Mustill Alexander J.; Villaver Eva; Veras Dimitri; Bonsor Amy; Wyatt Mark C.

2013-01-01

8

Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

White dwarf and pre-white dwarf atmospheres are one of the best examples for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, due to plasma conditions very favorable for this line broadening mechanism. For example in hot hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarf stars Teff = 75 000 K - 180 000 K and log g = 5.5-8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with typical effective temperatures of 10 000 K - 20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/), containing Stark broadening parameters needed for white dwarf spectra analysis and synthesis, as well as to the new search facilities which will provide the collective effort to develop Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC - http://vamdc.org/).

Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

2012-01-01

9

Evolution of White Dwarf Stars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

L. G. Althaus

2001-01-01

10

The evolution of iron white dwarf stars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

J. A. Panei; L. G. Althaus; O. G. Benvenuto

2001-01-01

11

White dwarfs constrain dark forces  

Science.gov (United States)

The white dwarf luminosity function, which provides information about the cooling of such stars, has been measured with high precision in the past few years. Simulations that include well known Standard Model physics give a good fit to the data. This leaves little room for new physics and makes these astrophysical objects a good laboratory for testing models beyond the Standard Model. It has already been suggested that white dwarfs might provide some evidence for the existence of axions. In this work we study the constraints that the white dwarf luminosity function puts on physics beyond the Standard Model involving new light particles (fermions or bosons) that can be pair-produced in a white dwarf and then escape to contribute to its cooling. We show, in particular, that we can severely constrain the parameter space of models with dark forces and light hidden sectors (lighter than a few tens of keV). The bounds we find are often more competitive than those from current lab searches and those expected from most future searches.

Dreiner, Herbert K.; Fortin, Jean-François; Isern, Jordi; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

2013-08-01

12

White Dwarfs constrain Dark Forces  

CERN Document Server

The white dwarf luminosity function, which provides information about their cooling, has been measured with high precision in the past few years. Simulations that include well known Standard Model physics give a good fit to the data. This leaves little room for new physics and makes these astrophysical objects a good laboratory for testing models beyond the Standard Model. It has already been suggested that white dwarfs might provide some evidence for the existence of axions. In this work we study the constraints that the white dwarf luminosity function puts on physics beyond the Standard Model involving new light particles (fermions or bosons) that can be pair-produced in a white dwarf and then escape to contribute to its cooling. We show, in particular, that we can severely constrain the parameter space of models with dark forces and light hidden sectors (lighter than a few tens of keV). The bounds we find are often more competitive than those from current lab searches and those expected from most future se...

Dreiner, Herbert K; Isern, Jordi; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

13

G-dwarfs, white dwarfs and the local dark matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The observed paucity of low metalicity stars (the G-dwarf problem), the observed paucity of low luminosity white dwarfs and the apparent overabundance of matter in the solar neighborhood are discussed in a single context. In particular, bimodal models of star formation with enhanced cooling of low luminosity white dwarfs may be able to simply solve the G-dwarf problem as well as the local dark matter problem without the overproduction of observable white dwarfs. Constraints from galactic chemical evolution are also discussed. 55 refs., 5 figs

1986-01-01

14

White dwarfs in the WTS: Eclipsing binaries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have identified photometric white dwarf candidates in the WFCAM transit survey through a reduced proper motion versus colour approach. Box-fitting with parameters adjusted to detect the unique signature of a white dwarf + planet/brown dwarf transit/eclipse event was performed, as well as looking for variability due to the irradiation of the companions atmosphere by the white dwarf's high UV flux. We have also performed a simple sensitivity analysis in order to assess the ability of the survey to detect companions to white dwarfs via the transit method.

Steele P.R.; Saglia R.P.; Koppenhoefer J.; Burleigh M.R.; Cappetta M.

2013-01-01

15

Double white dwarfs and LISA  

CERN Multimedia

Close pairs of white dwarfs are potential progenitors of Type~Ia supernovae and they are common, with of order 100 -- 300 million in the Galaxy. As such they will be significant, probably dominant, sources of the gravitational waves detectable by LISA. In the context of LISA's goals for fundamental physics, double white dwarfs are a source of noise, but from an astrophysical perspective, they are of considerable interest in their own right. In this paper I discuss our current knowledge of double white dwarfs and their close relatives (and possible descendants) the AM~CVn stars. LISA will add to our knowledge of these systems by providing the following unique constraints: (i) an almost direct measurement of the Galactic merger rate of DWDs from the detection of short period systems and their period evolution, (ii) an accurate and precise normalisation of binary evolution models at the shortest periods, (iii) a determination of the evolutionary pathways to the formation of AM~CVn stars, (iv) measurements of the...

Marsh, T R

2011-01-01

16

Discovery of an Ultracool White Dwarf Companion  

CERN Document Server

The discovery of a low luminosity common proper motion companion to the white dwarf GD392 at a wide separation of 46" is reported. BVRIJHK photometry strongly indicates suppressed flux at all near infrared wavelengths. Thus, GD392B is one of the few white dwarfs to show collision-induced absorption due to the presence of photospheric H2 and the first ultracool white dwarf detected as a companion to another star. Models fail to explain GD392B as a normal mass white dwarf. If correct, the cool companion may be explained as a low mass white dwarf or unresolved double degenerate. The similarities of GD392B to known ultracool degenerates are discussed, including some possible implications for the faint end of the white dwarf luminosity function.

Farihi, J

2004-01-01

17

White Dwarf Rotation Observations and Theory  

CERN Document Server

White dwarfs rotate. The angular momentum in single white dwarfs must originate early in the life of the star, but also must be modified (and perhaps severely modified) during the many stages of evolution between birth as a main--sequence star and final appearance as a white dwarf. Observational constraints on the rotation of single white dwarf stars come from traditional spectroscopy and from asteroseismology, with the latter providing hints of angular velocity with depth. Results of these observational determinations, that white dwarfs rotate with periods ranging from hours to days (or longer), tells us that the processes by which angular momentum is deposited and/or drained from the cores of AGB stars are complex. Still, one can place strong limits on these processes by considering relatively simple limiting cases for angular momentum evolution in prior stages, and on subsequent angular momentum evolution in the white dwarfs. These limiting-case constraints will be reviewed in the context of the available ...

Kawaler, S D

2003-01-01

18

The galactic population of white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

2009-06-01

19

The Search for Brown Dwarfs around White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

The infrared search for substellar companions to nearby white dwarfs has been going for a little more than a decade. The most recent phase has been a wide field proper motion search carried out primarily at Steward Observatory, where we are complete down to J=18. Earlier phases included near field searches at the IRTF and Keck Observatory. In the last year we have discovered ten previously unrecognized faint proper motion companions. Of the recent discoveries, most are white dwarfs and a few M dwarfs. GD165B, discovered in 1988 as part of our program, is still the only known companion to a white dwarf with spectral type later than M. We recently discovered an extremely cool helium atmosphere white dwarf, which may be the first representative of a new class of degenerate stars.

Farihi, J; Zuckerman, B

2002-01-01

20

An overview of white dwarf stars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning) that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, white dwarf stars represent ideal testbeds for our understanding of matter under extreme conditions, and work on their constitutive physics (neutrino production rates, conductive and radiative opacities, interior liquid/solid equations of state, partially ionized and partially degenerate envelope equations of state, diffusion coefficients, line broadening mechanisms) is still being actively pursued. Given a set of constitutive physics, cooling white dwarfs can be used advantageously as cosmochronometers. Moreover, the field has been blessed by the existence of four distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs, each mapping a different evolutionary phase, and this allows the application of the asteroseismological method to probe and test their internal structure and evolutionary state. We set the stage for the reviews that follow on cooling white dwarfs as cosmochronometers and physics laboratories, as well as on the properties of pulsating white dwarfs and the asteroseismological results that can be inferred.

Fontaine G.; Brassard P.; Charpinet S.; Randall S.K.; Van Grootel V.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a new catalog of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent more than a factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalogs based on DR4 data. Our distribution of subtypes varies from previous catalogs due to our more conservative, manual classifications of each star in our catalog, supplementing our automatic fits. In particular, we find a large number of magnetic white dwarf stars whose small Zeeman splittings mimic increased Stark broadening that would otherwise result in an overestimated log g if fit as a non-magnetic white dwarf. We calculate mean DA and DB masses for our clean, non-magnetic sample and find the DB mean mass is statistically larger than that for the DAs.

Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Koester, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Krzesinski, J. [Mt. Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Cracow (Poland); Dufour, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Bergeron, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C. P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Yip, Ching-Wa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Harris, Hugh C. [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Althaus, L.; Corsico, A., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Paseo del Bosque S/N, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

2013-01-15

22

Nucleosynthesis in cold white dwarf explosions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Type I supernovae (SNI) are generally thought to be the main contributors to the galactic nucleosynthesis of iron-peak elements and their yields of intermediate-mass elements may also be important. We concentrate here upon a different class of models, based on the explosion of cold, massive, partially solid white dwarfs. We show that such white dwarfs must be relatively frequent among SNI progenitors and how their hydrodynamics upon ignition is very different from that of hotter, fluid white dwarfs. The implications for nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed and some preliminary results are presented

1986-01-01

23

DE CVn: A bright, eclipsing red dwarf - white dwarf binary  

CERN Document Server

Close white dwarf - red dwarf binaries must have gone through a common-envelope phase during their evolution. DE CVn is a detached white dwarf - red dwarf binary with a relatively short (~8.7 hours) orbital period. Its brightness and the presence of eclipses makes this system ideal for a more detailed study. From a study of photometric and spectroscopic observations of DE CVn we derive the system parameters which we discuss in the frame work of common-envelope evolution. Photometric observations of the eclipses are used to determine an accurate ephemeris. From a model fit to an average low-resolution spectrum of DE CVn we constrain the temperature of the white dwarf and the spectral type of the red dwarf. The eclipse light curve is analysed and combined with the radial velocity curve of the red dwarf determined from time-resolved spectroscopy to derive constraints on the inclination and the masses of the components in the system. The derived ephemeris is HJD_min = 2452784.5533(1) + 0.3641394(2) x E. The red d...

Van den Besselaar, E J M; Morales-Rueda, L; Nelemans, G; Thorstensen, J R; Marsh, T R; Dhillon, V S; Robb, R M; Balam, D; Guenther, E W; Kemp, J; Augusteijn, T; Groot, P J

2007-01-01

24

Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology  

CERN Multimedia

Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

Winget, D E

2008-01-01

25

Merging White Dwarfs and Thermonuclear Supernovae  

CERN Document Server

Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure, and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and our suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning.

van Kerkwijk, Marten H

2012-01-01

26

Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning.

van Kerkwijk MH

2013-06-01

27

Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning. PMID:23630372

van Kerkwijk, M H

2013-04-29

28

White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes  

Science.gov (United States)

The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

Szekeres, P.

1977-01-01

29

Pulsations in white dwarfs: Selected topics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a very brief overview of the observed properties of g-mode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. We then discuss a few selected topics: Excitation mechanisms (kappa- and convection- mechanisms), and briefly the effect of a strong magnetic field (? 1 MG) on g-modes as recently found in a hot DQ (carbon-rich atmosphere) white dwarf. In the discussion of excitation mechanisms, a simple interpretation for the convection mechanism is given.

Saio H.

2013-01-01

30

Six detached white-dwarf close binaries  

CERN Document Server

We determine the orbits of four double degenerate systems (DDs), composed of two white dwarfs, and of two white dwarf -- M dwarf binaries. The four DDs, WD1022+050, WD1428+373, WD1824+040, and WD2032+188, show orbital periods of 1.157155(5) d, 1.15674(2) d, 6.26602(6) d and 5.0846(3) d respectively. These periods combined with estimates for the masses of the brighter component, based on their effective temperatures, allow us to constrain the masses of the unseen companions. We estimate that the upper limit for the contribution of the unseen companions to the total luminosity in the four DDs ranges between 10 and 20 per cent. In the case of the two white dwarf - M dwarf binaries, WD1042-690 and WD2009+622, we calculate the orbital parameters by fitting simultaneously the absorption line from the white dwarf and the emission core from the M-dwarf. Their orbital periods are 0.337083(1) d and 0.741226(2) d respectively. We find signatures of irradiation on the inner face of WD2009+622's companion. We calculate th...

Morales-Rueda, L; Maxted, P F L; Nelemans, G; Karl, C; Napiwotzki, R; Moran, C K J

2005-01-01

31

Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting, Summary of the session, White Dwarf Pulsars and Rotating White Dwarf Theory  

CERN Document Server

This is the summary of the parallel session entitled "White Dwarf Pulsars and Rotating White Dwarf Theory", chaired by Yukikatsu Terada in Thirteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting. The origin of cosmic rays remains a mystery, even over 100 years since their discovery. Neutron stars (NSs) are considered textbook cases of particle acceleration sites in our Galaxy, but many unresolved numerical problems remain. Searches for new acceleration sites are crucial for astrophysics. The magnetized white dwarfs (MWDs) have the same kind of rotating magnetosphere as NSs, and may be the source of up to 10% of galactic cosmic ray electrons. In the parallel session of the "white dwarf pulsars and rotating white dwarf theory", we focus on the current observational results on white dwarf pulsars, related theories of the radiation process both in white dwarfs and neutron stars, and the origin and rule of white dwarf pulsars, as well as surveying on the current theories of the internal structure and the equation of state of white dw...

Terada, Yukikatsu

2013-01-01

32

Possible new class of dense white dwarfs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If the strange quark matter hypothesis is true, then a new class of white dwarfs can exist whose nuclear material in their deep interiors can have a density as high as the neutron drip density, a few hundred times the density in maximum-mass white dwarfs and 4 {times} 10{sup 4} the density in dwarfs of typical mass, M {approximately} 0.6M{sub {circle_dot}}. Their masses fall in the approximate range 10{sup {minus}4} to 1M{sub {circle_dot}}. They are stable against acoustical modes of vibration. A strange quark core stabilizes these stars, which otherwise would have central densities that would place them in the unstable region of the sequence between white dwarfs and neutron stars.

Glendenning, N.K.; Kettner, C.; Weber, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1995-01-10

33

Detonations in white dwarf dynamical interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

In old, dense stellar systems collisions of white dwarfs are a rather frequent phenomenon. Here, we present the results of a comprehensive set of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of close encounters of white dwarfs aimed to explore the outcome of the interaction and the nature of the final remnants for different initial conditions. Depending on the initial conditions and the white dwarf masses, three different outcomes are possible. Specifically, the outcome of the interaction can be either a direct or a lateral collision or the interaction can result in the formation of an eccentric binary system. In those cases in which a collision occurs, the infalling material is compressed and heated such that the physical conditions for a detonation may be reached during the most violent phases of the merger. While we find that detonations occur in a significant number of our simulations, in some of them the temperature increase in the shocked region rapidly lifts degeneracy, leading to the quenching of the burning. We thus characterize under which circumstances a detonation is likely to occur as a result of the impact of the disrupted star on the surface of the more massive white dwarf. Finally, we also study which interactions result in bound systems, and in which ones the more massive white dwarf is also disrupted as a consequence of the dynamical interaction. The sizeable number of simulations performed in this work allows us to find how the outcome of the interaction depends on the distance at closest approach, and on the masses of the colliding white dwarfs, and which is the chemical pattern of the nuclearly processed material. Finally, we also discuss the influence of the masses and core chemical compositions of the interacting white dwarfs and the different kinds of impact in the properties of the remnants.

Aznar-Siguán, G.; García-Berro, E.; Lorén-Aguilar, P.; José, J.; Isern, J.

2013-09-01

34

The White Dwarf Age of NGC 2477  

CERN Document Server

We present deep photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 2477 using HST/WFPC2. By identifying seven cluster white dwarf candidates, we present an analysis of the white dwarf age of this cluster, using both the traditional method of fitting isochrones to the white dwarf cooling sequence, and by employing a new Bayesian statistical technique that has been developed by our group. This new method performs an objective, simultaneous model fit of the cluster and stellar parameters (namely age, metallicity, distance, reddening, as well as individual stellar masses, mass ratios, and cluster membership) to the photometry. Based on this analysis, we measure a white dwarf age of 1.035 +/- 0.054 +/- 0.087 Gyr (uncertainties represent the goodness of model fits and discrepancy among models, respectively), in good agreement with the cluster's main sequence turnoff age. This work is part of our ongoing work to calibrate main sequence turnoff and white dwarf ages using open clusters, and to improve the precision of c...

Jeffery, Elizabeth J; DeGennaro, Steven; van Dyk, David; Stein, Nathan; Jefferys, William H

2011-01-01

35

THE MASSES OF POPULATION II WHITE DWARFS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Globular star clusters are among the first stellar populations to have formed in the Milky Way, and thus only a small sliver of their initial spectrum of stellar types are still burning hydrogen on the main sequence today. Almost all of the stars born with more mass than 0.8 Msun have evolved to form the white dwarf cooling sequence of these systems, and the distribution and properties of these remnants uniquely holds clues related to the nature of the now evolved progenitor stars. With ultra-deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations, rich white dwarf populations of four nearby Milky Way globular clusters have recently been uncovered, and are found to extend impressive 5-8 mag in the faint-blue region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In this paper, we characterize the properties of these population II remnants by presenting the first direct mass measurements of individual white dwarfs near the tip of the cooling sequence in the nearest of the Milky Way globulars, M4. Based on Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS multiobject spectroscopic observations, our results indicate that 0.8 Msun population II main-sequence stars evolving today form 0.53 ± 0.01 Msun white dwarfs. We discuss the implications of this result as it relates to our understanding of stellar structure and evolution of population II stars and for the age of the Galactic halo, as measured with white dwarf cooling theory.

2009-11-01

36

Supernovae from White Dwarfs Near Black Holes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a new thermonuclear explosion model for Type I (or Type II) supernovae whereby relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (or red-giant core) as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear or thermonuclear reactions so that an explosion ensues. We have considered three possible environments: 1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass ({approx} 10 - 20 M{sub sun} ) black hole; 2) white dwarfs encountering a massive ({approx} 1 - 3 x 10{sup 3} M{sub sun} ) black hole in a dense globular cluster; and 3) white dwarfs passing a supermassive ({approx} 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} ) black hole in a dense galactic core. We estimate the rate at which such events could occur to be significantly less than the rate of normal Type Ia supernovae for all three classes. Nevertheless, they should be frequent enough to warrant a search for this new class of supernova. We show results of three-dimensional thermonuclear burn calculations of white dwarfs or red-giant cores ignited near a supermassive black hole. Such an event might have produced the observed 'mixed-morphology' Sgr A East supernova remnant (SNR) in the Galactic core.

Mathews, Grant J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wilson, James R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Dearborn, David S.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2005-07-25

37

Supernovae from White Dwarfs Near Black Holes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We describe a new thermonuclear explosion model for Type I (or Type II) supernovae whereby relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (or red-giant core) as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear or thermonuclear reactions so that an explosion ensues. We have considered three possible environments: 1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass (? 10 - 20 Msun ) black hole; 2) white dwarfs encountering a massive (? 1 - 3 x 103 Msun ) black hole in a dense globular cluster; and 3) white dwarfs passing a supermassive (? 106 - 109 Msun ) black hole in a dense galactic core. We estimate the rate at which such events could occur to be significantly less than the rate of normal Type Ia supernovae for all three classes. Nevertheless, they should be frequent enough to warrant a search for this new class of supernova. We show results of three-dimensional thermonuclear burn calculations of white dwarfs or red-giant cores ignited near a supermassive black hole. Such an event might have produced the observed 'mixed-morphology' Sgr A East supernova remnant (SNR) in the Galactic core

2005-07-25

38

Rare White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres  

CERN Multimedia

White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 msun and 8-10 msun, where msun is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for ~80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs therefore have been traditionally found to belong to one of two categories: those with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere (the DA spectral type) and those with a helium-rich atmosphere (the non-DAs). Here we report the discovery of several white dwarfs with atmospheres primarily composed of carbon, with little or no trace of hydrogen or helium. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric parameters found for these stars do not fit satisfactorily in any of the currently known theories of post-asymptotic giant branch evolution, althou...

Dufour, P; Fontaine, G; Behara, N

2007-01-01

39

Rotation and magnetism in white dwarfs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New rotational ephemerides for four isolated magnetic white dwarfs are derived from more than a decade of polarimetric monitoring. The stars span the period range 99 min-17.9 days and effectively double the number of white dwarfs with measured rotation periods. In addition, five stars whose polarization is constant on time scales up to at least 10 years may have very long rotation periods (P greater than about 100 yr). The lack of very short period white dwarfs attests to the coupling of angular momentum into the giant envelope or interstellar medium during late stages of evolution, but thus far there is no evidence that this process involves magnetic braking. With few exceptions, the disk-averaged fields of magnetic degenerates are dominated by dipolar patterns (as opposed to higher order multipoles or spots), and cover a broad range of obliquity to the rotation axis. 30 refs.

Schmidt, G.D.; Norsworthy, J.E. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))

1991-01-01

40

THE LINK BETWEEN PLANETARY SYSTEMS, DUSTY WHITE DWARFS, AND METAL-POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has long been suspected that metal-polluted white dwarfs (types DAZ, DBZ, and DZ) and white dwarfs with dusty disks possess planetary systems, but a specific physical mechanism by which planetesimals are perturbed close to a white dwarf has not yet been fully posited. In this paper, we demonstrate that mass loss from a central star during post-main-sequence evolution can sweep planetesimals into interior mean motion resonances with a single giant planet. These planetesimals are slowly removed through chaotic excursions of eccentricity that in time create radial orbits capable of tidally disrupting the planetesimal. Numerical N-body simulations of the solar system show that a sufficient number of planetesimals are perturbed to explain white dwarfs with both dust and metal pollution, provided other white dwarfs have more massive relic asteroid belts. Our scenario requires only one Jupiter-sized planet and a sufficient number of asteroids near its 2:1 interior mean motion resonance. Finally, we show that once a planetesimal is perturbed into a tidal crossing orbit, it will become disrupted after the first pass of the white dwarf, where a highly eccentric stream of debris forms the main reservoir for dust-producing collisions. These simulations, in concert with observations of white dwarfs, place interesting limits on the frequency of planetary systems around main-sequence stars, the frequency of planetesimal belts, and the probability that dust may obscure future terrestrial planet finding missions.

Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Walsh, Kevin J. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Stark, Christopher [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

2012-03-10

 
 
 
 
41

Cool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

CERN Document Server

A reduced proper motion diagram utilizing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry and astrometry and USNO-B plate astrometry is used to separate cool white dwarf candidates from metal-weak, high-velocity main sequence Population II stars (subdwarfs) in the SDSS Data Release 2 imaging area. Follow-up spectroscopy using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, the MMT, and the McDonald 2.7m Telescope is used to demonstrate that the white dwarf and subdwarf loci separate cleanly in the reduced proper motion diagram, and that the contamination by subdwarfs is small near the cool white dwarf locus. This enables large statistically complete samples of white dwarfs, particularly the poorly understood cool white dwarfs, to be created from the SDSS imaging survey, with important implications for white dwarf luminosity function studies. SDSS photometry for our sample of cool white dwarfs is compared to current white dwarf models.

Kilic, M; Harris, H C; Liebert, J; Von Hippel, T; Williams, K A; Metcalfe, T S; Winget, D E; Levine, S E; Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Liebert, James; Hippel, Ted von; Williams, Kurtis A.; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Levine, Stephen E.

2005-01-01

42

The angular momentum of isolated white dwarfs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a very brief report on an ongoing program aimed at mapping the internal rotation profiles of stars through asteroseismology. Three years ago, we developed and applied successfully a new technique to the pulsating GW Vir white dwarf PG 1159?035, and were able to infer that it rotates very slowly and rigidly over some 99% of its mass. We applied the same approach to the three other GW Vir pulsators with available rotational splitting data, and found similar results. We discuss the implications of these findings on the question of the angular momentum of white dwarfs resulting from single star evolution.

Fontaine G.; Brassard P.; Charpinet S.

2013-01-01

43

Electron-cyclotron maser emission from white-dwarf pairs and white-dwarf planetary systems  

CERN Multimedia

By analogy to Jovian radio emissions powered by the electromagnetic interaction between Jupiter and its moons, we propose that close magnetic-nonmagnetic white-dwarf pairs and white-dwarf planetary systems are strong radio sources. A simple model is developed to predict the flux densities of radio emission generated by a loss-cone-driven electron-cyclotron maser. The radio emission from these systems has high brightness temperatures, is highly polarized, and varies on a periodic cycle following the orbital rotation. Masers from magnetic-nonmagnetic white-dwarf pairs, with orbital periods <10 min, are expected to be detectable over a wide range of radio frequencies. Terrestrial planets in close orbits about magnetic white dwarfs, with orbital periods $\\la 30$ hr, can also produce detectable radio emission, thus providing a means to identify Earth-sized extrasolar planets.

Willes, A J; Willes, Andrew J.; Wu, Kinwah

2004-01-01

44

Magnetic white dwarfs with debris discs  

CERN Document Server

It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetic fields within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations show that in mergers in which the two white dwarfs have different masses a disc around the central compact object is formed. If the central object is magnetized it can interact with the disc through its magnetosphere. The torque applied by the disc changes the spin of the star, whereas the transferred angular momentum from the star to the disc determines the properties of the disc. In this work we build a model for the disc evolution under the effect of magnetic accretion, and for the angular momentum evolution of the star, which can be compared with the observations. Our model pre...

Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

2013-01-01

45

Oxygen neutronization in accreting white dwarfs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solid carbon-oxygen white dwarf cores have been shown to be likely initial configurations for collapse to neutron star densities. Solidification seems to entail carbon/oxygen separation, with oxygen settling at the star's center and carbon being confined to more external, lower-density layers. Elect...

Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; Labay, Javier; Canal Masgoret, Ramon

46

The white dwarf companions of recycled pulsars  

CERN Document Server

I review what properties of the white-dwarf companions of recycled pulsars can be inferred from optical observations, and discuss how these can help us understand the characteristics and evolution of these binaries. I focus on spectroscopic observations, describing results obtained recently, and looking forward to what may come.

Van Kerkwijk, M H

1996-01-01

47

Complexity and white-dwarf structure  

CERN Document Server

From the low-mass non-relativistic case to the relativistic limit, the density profile of a white dwarf is used to evaluate the complexity measure. Similarly to the recently reported atomic case where, by averaging shell effects, complexity grows with the atomic number, here complexity grows as a function of the star mass reaching a maximum finite value in the Chandrasekhar limit.

Sañudo, J

2008-01-01

48

Cooling Models for Old White Dwarfs addendum  

CERN Multimedia

We present new white dwarf cooling models which incorporate an accurate outer boundary condition based on new opacity and detailed radiative transfer calculations. We find that helium atmosphere dwarfs cool considerably faster than has previously been claimed, while old hydrogen atmosphere dwarfs will deviate significantly from black body appearance. We use our new models to derive age limits for the Galactic disk. We find that the Liebert, Dahn & Monet (1988) luminosity function yields an age of only 6 Gyr if it is complete to stated limits. However, age estimates of individual dwarfs and the luminosity function of Oswalt et al (1995) are both consistent with disk ages as large as dark matter in Galactic halos. We find that previous attempts using inadequate cooling models were too severe and that direct detection limits allow a halo that is 11 Gyr old. If the halo is composed solely of helium atmosphere dwarfs, the lower age limit is only 7.5 Gyr. We also demonstrate the importance of studying the cooli...

Hansen, B M S

1999-01-01

49

Limits on Planets Around White Dwarf Stars  

CERN Document Server

We present limits on planetary companions to pulsating white dwarf stars. A subset of these stars exhibit extreme stability in the period and phase of some of their pulsation modes; a planet can be detected around such a star by searching for periodic variations in the arrival time of these pulsations. We present limits on companions greater than a few Jupiter masses around a sample of 15 white dwarf stars as part of an on-going survey. One star shows a variation in arrival time consistent with a 2 M_J planet in a 4.5 year orbit. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed signal and conclude that a planet is the most plausible explanation based on the data available.

Mullally, F; Degennaro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Thompson, S E; Chandler, Dean

2008-01-01

50

Watch This Space: Observing Merging White Dwarfs  

Science.gov (United States)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will open the low-frequency (0.1-100 mHz) part of the gravitational wave spectrum to direct observation. Of order 3600 galactic close binary white dwarfs will be individually resolvable in its all-sky spectrum, of which a dozen systems are expected to be on the verge of merger, showing the effects of strong tidal heating and/or early onset of tidal mass transfer. Optical study of these systems would provide important insights into tidal dissipation mechanisms, and internal heating in merging white dwarfs that sets ignition conditions for potential type Ia super-novae. Theoretical modeling and instrumentation programs are needed now to enable a campaign for optical identifications to exploit this opportunity.

Webbink, Ronald F.

2010-12-01

51

Simulating Black Hole White Dwarf Encounters  

CERN Document Server

The existence of supermassive black holes lurking in the centers of galaxies and of stellar binary systems containing a black hole with a few solar masses has been established beyond reasonable doubt. The idea that black holes of intermediate masses ($\\sim 1000$ \\msun) may exist in globular star clusters has gained credence over recent years but no conclusive evidence has been established yet. An attractive feature of this hypothesis is the potential to not only disrupt solar-type stars but also compact white dwarf stars. In close encounters the white dwarfs can be sufficiently compressed to thermonuclearly explode. The detection of an underluminous thermonuclear explosion accompanied by a soft, transient X-ray signal would be compelling evidence for the presence of intermediate mass black holes in stellar clusters. In this paper we focus on the numerical techniques used to simulate the entire disruption process from the initial parabolic orbit, over the nuclear energy release during tidal compression, the su...

Rosswog, S; Hix, W R; Dan, M

2008-01-01

52

Circumstellar Disks at White Dwarfs: Observations  

CERN Multimedia

I present a thorough review of existing observational studies of circumstellar disks at white dwarf stars. This is done from a historical perspective beginning just prior to the ground-based discovery of dust at G29-38 nearly 25 years ago, and following the many scientific breakthroughs made with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The chapter is ideal for new or advanced students of this field and includes significant material on the observational properties of metal-polluted white dwarf atmospheres, which are physically connected to their circumstellar environments. Included are all published observations circa mid-2010, with an emphasis on the nascent field of exoterrestrial planetary (bulk) chemistry via disk-polluted atmospheric spectroscopy.

Farihi, J

2011-01-01

53

Diffusion of neon in white dwarf stars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope 22Ne may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for 22Ne in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants D(i) from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that D(i) in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter ?> few), D(i) has a modest dependence on the charge Z(i) of the ion species, D(i)?Z(i)(-2/3). However, D(i) depends more strongly on Z(i) for weak coupling (smaller ?). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant D(Ne) for 22Ne in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in D(Ne) should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling.

Hughto J; Schneider AS; Horowitz CJ; Berry DK

2010-12-01

54

The SDSS White Dwarf - M Star Library  

CERN Multimedia

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), originally targeted at quasi-stellar objects, has provided us with a wealth of astronomical byproducts through the last decade. Since then, the number of white dwarfs (WDs) with physically bound main-sequence star companions (mostly dM stars) has increased radically, allowing for fundamentally new insights into stellar physics. Different methods for the retrieval and follow-up analysis of SDSS WD-dM binaries have been applied in the literature, leading to a rising number of WD-dM catalogs. Here we present a detailed literature search, coupled with our own hunting for SDSS WD-dMs by color selection, the outcome being named the "SDSS White Dwarf - M Star Library". We also explain improvements of our automated spectral analysis method.

Heller, René; Østensen, Roy H

2011-01-01

55

Asteroseismology of DAV White Dwarf Stars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author reviews the seismological structural determinations of ZZ Ceti stars done to date, and supplement these with additional preliminary determinations of his own. He compares the constraints on the hydrogen layer mass to see what trends emerge and also determines if the observed hydrogen layer masses are consistent with proposed theories. He then looks ahead to the prospects of further DAV white dwarf seismology.

Bradley, Paul A.

1997-12-31

56

Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Basic principles of the physics of compact objects - white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are stated. State equations and models of superdnse objects are discussed with provision for effects of the general relativity theory. For compact objects physical properties in the ground state are analyzed. The structure of stars is studied, when analyzing effect of differnt disturbances on these objects: rotations, magnetic fields, thermal fluxes accretion etc

1985-01-01

57

Dark-matter admixed white dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

We study the equilibrium structures of white dwarfs with dark matter cores formed by non-self-annihilating dark matter DM particles with mass ranging from 1 GeV to 100 GeV, which are assumed to form an ideal degenerate Fermi gas inside the stars. For DM particles of mass 10 GeV and 100 GeV, we find that stable stellar models exist only if the mass of the DM core inside the star is less than O(10^-3) Msun and O(10^-6) Msun, respectively. The global properties of these stars, and in particular the corresponding Chandrasekhar mass limits, are essentially the same as those of traditional white dwarf models without DM. Nevertheless, in the 10 GeV case, the gravitational attraction of the DM core is strong enough to squeeze the normal matter in the core region to densities above neutron drip, far above those in traditional white dwarfs. For DM with particle mass 1 GeV, the DM core inside the star can be as massive as around 0.1 Msun and affects the global structure of the star significantly. In this case, the radiu...

Leung, S -C; Lin, L -M; Wong, K -W

2013-01-01

58

Double White Dwarf Mergers with CASTRO  

Science.gov (United States)

Type Ia supernovae are among the brightest explosions in the Universe and are recognized as reliable distance indicators. While the accepted cause of these events is the thermonuclear incineration of white dwarf stars instigated by accretion, the characteristics of the donor stars remain under investigation. Recent observational evidence supports the hypothesis that the progenitors of some events are binary white dwarf systems, and has spurred renewed theoretical interest in a merger scenario. We present preliminary work modeling such a system using the modern, three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics code CASTRO. CASTRO uses an adaptive Eulerian grid to highly resolve features of interest and has been demonstrated to accurately address typical dynamical problems in astrophysics. We present simulations showing that it is an appropriate tool for the case of white dwarfs orbiting each other under Newtonian gravity. We show the capability of the code to conserve energy and angular momentum over multiple orbits, and we discuss the differences between simulations in inertial and co-rotating reference frames. We also present verification tests of the gravity solver and describe the importance of appropriate boundary conditions. With the success of these verification tests, the next step is to apply CASTRO to the inspiral and onset of mass transfer and determine areas of likely nuclear burning. This work was supported in part by the NSF under award AST-1211563.

Katz, Maximilian P.; Zingale, M.; Calder, A.; Swesty, F. D.

2013-01-01

59

White Dwarf Mass Distribution in the SDSS  

CERN Multimedia

We determined masses for the 7167 DA and 507 DB white dwarf stars classified as single and non-magnetic in data release four of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained revised Teff and log g determinations for the most massive stars by fitting the SDSS optical spectra with a synthetic spectra grid derived from model atmospheres extending to log g=10.0. We also calculate radii from evolutionary models and create volume-corrected mass distributions for our DA and DB samples. The mean mass for the DA stars brighter than g=19 and hotter than Teff=12000K is M(DA)= 0.593+/-0.016M(Sun). For the 150 DBs brighter than g=19 and hotter than Teff=16000K, we find M(DB)=0.711+/-0.009 M(Sun). It appears the mean mass for DB white dwarf stars may be significantly larger than that for DAs. We also report the highest mass white dwarf stars ever found, up to 1.33 M(Sun).

Kepler, S O; Nitta, A; Köster, D; Castanheira, B G; Giovannini, O; Costa, A F M; Althaus, L

2006-01-01

60

The Masses of Population II White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Globular star clusters are among the first stellar populations to have formed in the Milky Way, and thus only a small sliver of their initial spectrum of stellar types are still burning hydrogen on the main-sequence today. Almost all of the stars born with more mass than 0.8 M_sun have evolved to form the white dwarf cooling sequence of these systems, and the distribution and properties of these remnants uniquely holds clues related to the nature of the now evolved progenitor stars. With ultra-deep HST imaging observations, rich white dwarf populations of four nearby Milky Way globular clusters have recently been uncovered, and are found to extend an impressive 5 - 8 magnitudes in the faint-blue region of the H-R diagram. In this paper, we characterize the properties of these population II remnants by presenting the first direct mass measurements of individual white dwarfs near the tip of the cooling sequence in the nearest of the Milky Way globulars, M4. Based on Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS multiobject spectro...

Kalirai, Jason S; Richer, Harvey B; Bergeron, P; Catelan, Marcio; Hansen, Brad M S; Rich, R Michael

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

White dwarf-main sequence binaries from SDSS DR8: unveiling the cool white dwarf population  

CERN Document Server

The spectroscopic catalogue of white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the largest and most homogeneous sample of compact binary stars currently known. However, because of selection effects, the current sample is strongly biased against systems containing cool white dwarfs and/or early type companions, which are predicted to dominate the intrinsic population. In this study we present colour selection criteria that combines optical (ugriz DR8 SDSS) plus infrared (yjhk DR9 UKIRT Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS), JHK Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and/or w1w2 Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)) magnitudes to select 3419 photometric candidates of harbouring cool white dwarfs and/or dominant (M dwarf) companions. We demonstrate that 84 per cent of our selected candidates are very likely genuine WDMS binaries, and that the white dwarf effective temperatures and secondary star spectral types of 71 per cent of our selected sources are expected to be below <~1000...

Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Schreiber, M R; Gaensicke, B T; Koester, D

2013-01-01

62

Simulation of the white dwarf-white dwarf galactic background in the LISA data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a proposed mission to detect and study gravitational radiation in the frequency range from 10-4 to 10-1 Hz. In the low part of its frequency band, the LISA data will contain a stochastic signal consisting of an incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own galaxy. In order to estimate the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a population of white-dwarf binaries recently synthesized by one of us. Our approach relies on an analytic expressions of the LISA Time-Delay Interferometric responses to the gravitational radiation emitted by such systems, and it allows us to implement a computationally efficient and accurate simulation of the background in the LISA data. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time with a period of 1 year, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about 2 months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. This modulation means that the galactic white-dwarf background that will be observable by LISA is a cyclostationary random process with a period of 1 year. We summarize the theory of cyclostationary random processes and present the corresponding generalized spectral method needed to characterize such a process in the LISA data. We find that, by measuring the generalized spectral components of the white-dwarf background, LISA will be able to infer properties of the distribution of the white-dwarf binary systems present in our galaxy.

2005-09-21

63

Cool white dwarfs cooling theory and Galactic implications  

CERN Multimedia

We summarize recent improvements in model atmosphere and internal structure of faint white dwarfs. We derive an analytical cooling theory which illustrates the effects of various physical processes on the energy budget and the cooling history of cool white dwarfs. We consider in particular the effect of chemical fractionation at crystallization. This process, although it liberates a small amount of energy, affects significantly the cooling time of white dwarfs at their low-luminosity stages. This modifies the age of the faintest white dwarf ever observed, ESO 439-26, and bears important consequences for the Galactic implications of white dwarf evolution, age of the Galactic disk and expected contribution to the halo mass. We briefly consider the remaining major uncertainties in white dwarf cooling theory.

Chabrier, G

1997-01-01

64

A Search for Asteroids, Moons, and Rings Orbiting White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Do white dwarfs host asteroid systems? Although several lines of argument suggest that white dwarfs may be orbited by large populations of asteroids, transits would provide the most direct evidence. We demonstrate that the Kepler mission has the capability to detect transits of white dwarfs by asteroids. Because white-dwarf asteroid systems, if they exist, are likely to contain many asteroids orbiting in a spatially extended distribution, discoveries of asteroid transits can be made by monitoring only a small number of white dwarfs, compatible with Kepler's primary mission, which is to monitor stars with potentially habitable planets. Possible future missions that survey ten times as many stars with similar sensitivity and minute-cadence monitoring can establish the characteristics of asteroid systems around white dwarfs, such as the distribution of asteroid sizes and semimajor axes. Transits by planets would be more dramatic, but the probability that they will occur is lower. Ensembles of planetary moons and...

Di Stefano, Rosanne; Kawaler, Steven D

2009-01-01

65

The WFCAM transit survey and cool white dwarfs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present results from our search for cool white dwarfs in the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey). Repeat observations starting in 2007 allowed to produce deep stacked images in J and measure proper motions. We combine this with deep optical imaging to select cool white dwarf candidates (Teff < 5000?K). About 27 cool white dwarf candidates with proper motions above 0.10 arcsec/yr were identified in one of the fields representing 1/8th of the survey area. Follow-up spectroscopy with the 10.2?m GTC telescope at La Palma confirmed the white dwarf status for all observed candidates. On-going work is being carried out to increase the sample of cool white dwarfs that will allow a more comprehensive study of the thick disk/halo white dwarf population.

Catalan S.; Napiwotzki R.; Hodgkin S.; Hornillos D. Cristobal; Pinfield D.

2013-01-01

66

Phase correlated spectra of magnetic white dwarfs  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved model atmosphere technique is used for observations of the magnetic white dwarfs G 99-37 and G 99-47. New data were obtained during November 1987 using the ESO 1m-telescope for photometric measurements (73 observations), and the ESO 2.2m-telescope for polarimetry (42 observations). The Bamberg period analysis program calculated periods of 4.117h for G 99-37 and 0.97h for G 99-47. Spectra taken at various phases could be correlated and analyzed.

Bues, I.; Pragal, M.

67

Spectropolarimetric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Following our recent discovery of a new magnetic DQ white dwarf (WD) with CH molecular features, we report the results for the rest of the DQ WDs from our survey. We use high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data to search for magnetic fields in a sample of 11 objects. One object in our sample, WD1235+422, shows the signs of continuum circular polarization that is similar to some peculiar DQs with unidentified molecular absorption bands, but the low S/N and spectral resolution of these data make more observations necessary to reveal the true nature of this object.

Vornanen, Tommi; Berdyugin, Andrei

2013-01-01

68

White-dwarf-white-dwarf galactic background in the LISA data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a proposed space mission, which will use coherent laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation. In the low part of its frequency band, the LISA strain sensitivity will be dominated by the incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own Galaxy. In order to estimate the magnitude of the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a synthesized population that recently appeared in the literature. Our approach relies on entirely analytic expressions of the LISA time-delay interferometric responses to the gravitational radiation emitted by such systems, which allows us to implement a computationally efficient and accurate simulation of the background in the LISA data. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about two months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. This suggests that, during this time period, LISA could search for other gravitational wave signals incoming from directions that are away from the galactic plane. Since the galactic white-dwarf background will be observed by LISA not as a stationary but rather as a cyclostationary random process with a period of 1 yr, we summarize the theory of cyclostationary random processes, present the corresponding generalized spectral method needed to characterize such process, and make a comparison between our analytic results and those obtained by applying our method to the simulated data. We find that, by measuring the generalized spectral components of the white-dwarf background, LISA will be able to infer properties of the distribution of the white-dwarf binary systems present in our Galaxy.

2005-06-15

69

The Accreting, Pulsating White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

At the current time, there are 12 white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables that have shown evidence for pulsations. We are investigating how their pulsation properties could be different than for single, non-accreting white dwarfs due to their presence in these accreting close binaries. Our work includes results from coordinated HST ultraviolet and ground-based optical observations to determine the temperatures of the white dwarfs and their location in an instability strip, as well as a coordinated campaign on SDSS1610-01 and an observing program on GW Lib and V455 And after both systems underwent dwarf nova outbursts in 2007.

Szkody, P.; Mukadam, A. S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Henden, A.; Nitta, A.; Sion, E. M.; Townsley, D.

2009-08-01

70

Multiple periodicities in cataclysmic variable and white dwarf stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first section of this paper the author discusses dwarf novae and their quasi-periodic outbursts. In the second section he goes on to describe rapid oscillations in cataclysmic variable stars. The third section contains a general discussion of variable white dwarf stars and also discusses nine individual stars. The author proposes a more general classification, DV stars which will cover all possible classes of variable white dwarfs. (B.D.)

1975-09-05

71

SED Signatures of Jovian Planets Around White Dwarf Stars  

CERN Multimedia

The problem of detecting Jovian-sized planets orbiting White Dwarf stars is considered. Significant IR excesses result from warm Jupiters orbiting a White Dwarf of $T_{\\rm eff}=10000$ K at a distance of $\\sim 10^3$ White Dwarf radii (corresponding to $\\sim 10^2$ Jupiter radii or a few tenths of an AU) with an orbital period of $\\sim 100$ days. Such a planet will have a 10 micron flux density at its Wien peak that is comparable to the emission of the White Dwarf at that wavelength. Although the White Dwarf is much hotter than the planet, the planet will have peak brightness at the IR, well into the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the White Dwarf, plus Jovians are about 10 times larger than White Dwarfs, so there is a substantial gain in the planet to star brightness contrast as compared to planets around Main Sequence stars. In the solar neighborhood, there are 51 White Dwarf stars within 13 pc of the Sun. At 10 pc, the IR flux density of ``warm'' Jupiters (a few hundred Kelvin) will fall in the range 10--100 micro-Jan...

Ignace, R

2001-01-01

72

Pure hydrogen atmosphere for very cool white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Microlensing events observed in the line of sight toward the LMC indicate that a significant fraction of the mass of the dark halo of the Galaxy is probably composed of white dwarfs. In addition, white dwarf sequences have now be observed in the HR diagrams of several globular clusters. Because of the unavailability of white dwarf atmospheres for Teff < 4000K, cooling time scales for white dwarfs older than ~ 10 Gyr are very uncertain. Moreover, the identification of a MACHO white dwarf population by direct observation depends on a knowledge of the colors and bolometric corrections of very-cool white dwarfs. In this paper we present the first detailed model atmospheres and spectra of very cool hydrogen white dwarfs for Teff < 4000K. We include the latest description of the opacities of hydrogen and significantly, we introduce a non-ideal equation of state in the atmosphere calculation. We find that due to strong absorption from H_2 in the infrared, very old white dwarfs are brightest in the V, R, and I ...

Saumon, D S

1999-01-01

73

Short-range effects in large white dwarfs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent work of Membrado and Pacheco (1988) on the implication of Yukawa-like effects in small white dwarfs is extended to analyze the very massive case. Although the role of these impurities grows substantially as the radius of the star decreases, when reasonable supergravity parameters are used the predicted change in the white dwarf mass-radius relation is unobservably small. 8 references.

Membrado, M.C.; Pacheco, A.F.

1988-08-01

74

X-ray spectroscopy of hot white dwarfs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

X-ray spectra of two hot white dwarfs observed by the Chandra satellite have been analyzed. The first is a white dwarf of spectral class DA with an almost pure hydrogen atmosphere. Contrary to that, the atmosphere of the second object, a PG 1159 star, is basically hydrogen free. The reason for the d...

Adamczak, Jens

75

Unique White Dwarfs Accompanying Recycled Pulsars  

CERN Document Server

I introduce the two classes of pulsar, white-dwarf binaries, and describe for each what we have learned from a specific system, PSR J1012+5307 and PSR B0655+64, respectively, summarising what has been done, presenting new results, and discussing what the future may hold. Briefly, for the companion of PSR J1012+5307 we find a DA spectrum, and infer a mass of about 0.16Msun, the lowest among all spectroscopically identified white dwarfs. Combined with a radial-velocity orbit, a neutron-star mass between 1.5 and 3.2Msun (95% conf.) is derived. The companion of PSR B0655+64 shows strong Swan C2 bands, i.e., it is a DQ star. Unlike anything reported for other DQs, however, it shows variations in strength of the bands by a factor two. Most likely, the variations are periodic, with a period of about 9.7h. This is substantially shorter than the 1-day orbital period, which can likely be understood in terms of its past evolution.

Van Kerkwijk, M H

1996-01-01

76

Open Science Project in White Dwarf Research  

CERN Multimedia

I will propose a new way of advancing white dwarf research. Open science is a method of doing research that lets everyone who has something to say about the subject take part in the problem solving process. Already now, the amount of information we gather from observations, theory and modelling is too vast for any one individual to comprehend and turn into knowledge. And the amount of information just keeps growing in the future. A platform that promotes sharing of thoughts and ideas allows us to pool our collective knowledge of white dwarfs and get a clear picture of our research field. It will also make it possible for researchers in fields closely related to ours (AGB stars, planetary nebulae etc.) to join the scientific discourse. In the first stage this project would allow us to summarize what we know and what we don't, and what we should search for next. Later, it could grow into a large collaboration that would have the impact to, for example, suggest instrument requirements for future telescopes to sa...

Vornanen, Tommi

2012-01-01

77

Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs.

Nomoto, Ken' ichi

1986-01-01

78

Debris Disks Around White Dwarfs: The DAZ Connection  

CERN Multimedia

We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 20 previously known DAZ white dwarfs obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. Two of these white dwarfs (G29-38 and GD362) are known to display significant K-band excesses due to circumstellar debris disks. Here we report the discovery of excess K-band radiation from another DAZ white dwarf, WD0408-041 (GD56). Using spectroscopic observations, we show that the excess radiation cannot be explained by a stellar or substellar companion, and is likely to be caused by a warm debris disk. Our observations strengthen the connection between the debris disk phenomena and the observed metal abundances in cool DAZ white dwarfs. However, we do not find any excess infrared emission from the most metal rich DAZs with $T_{\\rm eff}=$ 16000 -- 20000 K. This suggests that the metal abundances in warmer DAZ white dwarfs may require another explanation.

Kilic, M; Von Hippel, T; Winget, D E; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin

2006-01-01

79

THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases ? ? 0.65 and ? ? 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases ? = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K ± 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s-1. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10-10 Msun yr-1. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase ?

2009-07-10

80

THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 × faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R? (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M?, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M?. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R? (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%-0.05%+0.10% (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at relatively large orbital radii. Similar eclipsing binary systems can have arbitrarily small eclipse depths in red bands and generate plausible small-planet-transit light curves. As such, these systems are a source of false positives for M-dwarf transiting planet searches. We present several ways to rapidly distinguish these binaries from transiting planet systems.

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 Multiplication-Sign faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R{sub Sun} (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M{sub Sun }. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R{sub Sun} (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%{sub -0.05%}{sup +0.10%} (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at relatively large orbital radii. Similar eclipsing binary systems can have arbitrarily small eclipse depths in red bands and generate plausible small-planet-transit light curves. As such, these systems are a source of false positives for M-dwarf transiting planet searches. We present several ways to rapidly distinguish these binaries from transiting planet systems.

Law, Nicholas M. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007 (India); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

2012-10-01

82

Cataclysmic variable evolution - Clues from the underlying white dwarf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an update of determinations of the CV white dwarf effective-temperature, T(eff), together with an initial exploration of the possible implications and constraints on the CV lifetimes and evolution based on the ensemble of white dwarf T(eff) values as a function of orbital period. The CV dwarf luminosities are derived by using the T(eff) data and adopting the masses of individual CV white dwarfs determined by Webbink (1990). The present ensemble of empirically determined white dwarf effective temperatures reveals a distribution centered near 16,000 K, implying a mean lower limit total cooling lifetime of 5 x 10 to the 8th yr for the majority of CV degenerates. The two coolest CV degenerates, VV Puppis and St LMi, were found among the strongly magnetic AM Her CVs. 38 refs.

Sion, E.M. (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1991-07-01

83

On the masses of the white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The question of the masses of the white dwarfs in cataclysmic binaries is examined. It is shown that selection effects can explain an overabundance of massive white dwarfs in novae but not in dwarf novae. It is proposed that the spiralling-in process in the common envelope favours the formation of more massive white dwarfs A number of simplified spiralling-in calculations are performed. The calculations demonstrate that the probability of coalescence of the secondary with the primary core, or secondary dissipation, is higher in the case of a giant envelope than in the case of a super giant envelope. Consequently, binaries with primary core masses greater than approx. 0.7 Msolar masses (and thus massive white dwarf remnants), have a better chance of surviving common envelope evolution and are therefore better candidates for the formation of cataclysmic variables. (author)

1984-06-15

84

HST Spectroscopy of the Hottest White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

Spectral analysis needs the observation of lines of successive ionization stages in order to evaluate the ionization equilibrium (of a particular species) which is a sensitive indicator for the effective temperature. Since stars with effective temperatures as high as 100000 K have their flux maximum in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength range and due to the high degree of ionization, most of the metal lines are found in the ultraviolet (UV) range. Thus, high-S/N and high-resolution UV spectra are a pre-requisite for a precise analysis. Consequently, we employed the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS), the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in order to obtain suitable data. We present state-of-the-art analyses of the hottest (pre-) white dwarfs by means of NLTE model atmospheres which include the metal-line blanketing of all elements from hydrogen to nickel.

Rauch, Thomas

2007-01-01

85

Tidal Novae in Compact Binary White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a Carbon-Oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such "tidal novae" may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 min and 20 min, and precede the final merger by 10^5-10^6 years.

Fuller, Jim

2012-01-01

86

The White Dwarf -- White Dwarf galactic background in the LISA data  

CERN Multimedia

LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a proposed space mission, which will use coherent laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation. In the low-part of its frequency band, the LISA strain sensitivity will be dominated by the incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own galaxy. In order to estimate the magnitude of the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a synthesized population that recently appeared in the literature. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about two months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. Since the galactic white-dwarfs background will be observed by LISA not as a stationary but rather as a cyc...

Edlund, J A; Królak, A; Nelemans, G; Edlund, Jeffrey A.; Tinto, Massimo; Krolak, Andrzej; Nelemans, Gijs

2005-01-01

87

Simulation of the White Dwarf -- White Dwarf galactic background in the LISA data  

CERN Multimedia

LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a proposed space mission, which will use coherent laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation. In the low-part of its frequency band, the LISA strain sensitivity will be dominated by the incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own galaxy. In order to estimate the magnitude of the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a synthesized population that recently appeared in the literature. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about two months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. Since the galactic white-dwarfs background will be observed by LISA not as a stationary but rather as a cyc...

Edlund, J A; Królak, A; Nelemans, G; Edlund, Jeffrey A.; Tinto, Massimo; Kr\\'olak, Andrzej; Nelemans, Gijs

2005-01-01

88

Pulsation in carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs: A new chapter in white dwarf asteroseismology  

CERN Multimedia

We present some of the results of a survey aimed at exploring the asteroseismological potential of the newly-discovered carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs. We show that, in certains regions of parameter space, carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs may drive low-order gravity modes. We demonstrate that our theoretical results are consistent with the recent exciting discovery of luminosity variations in SDSS J1426+5752 and some null results obtained by a team of scientists at McDonald Observatory. We also present follow-up photometric observations carried out by ourselves at the Mount Bigelow 1.6-m telescope using the new Mont4K camera. The results of follow-up spectroscopic observations at the MMT are also briefly reported, including the surprising discovery that SDSS J1426+5752 is not only a pulsating star but that it is also a magnetic white dwarf with a surface field near 1.2 MG. The discovery of $g$-mode pulsations in SDSS J1426+5752 is quite significant in itself as it opens a fourth asteroseismological "window", af...

Fontaine, G; Dufour, P; Green, E M; Liebert, J

2009-01-01

89

The white dwarf companions of 56 Per and HR 3643  

CERN Multimedia

We have obtained low-dispersion IUE spectra of the stars 56 Persei (F4 V) and HR 3643 (F7 II), as part of a survey of late-type stars with a 1565 A flux excess in the TD-1 ultraviolet sky survey. The IUE spectrum of each star reveals the presence of a hot white dwarf companion. We fit the Ly alpha profile and ultraviolet continuum using pure hydrogen models, but the distance of the primary star is also needed to uniquely constrain the white dwarf parameters. We derive Teff = 16,420 +- 420 K, logg = 8.46 +- 0.2 for the white dwarf companion to 56 Per, using the photometric distance of 30.1 +- 2.8 pc. The implied white dwarf mass is 0.90 +- 0.12 Msun, considerably above the median mass (~0.6 Msun) of single white dwarfs. The parameters of the white dwarf in HR 3643 are not well constrained, mainly due to a large uncertainty in the distance. By assuming a reasonable range of gravity for the white dwarf (7.3 < log g < 9.0), we derive -1.4 < Mv < 0.6 for the F7 II star, and 28,970 < Teff < 35, 99...

Landsman, W B; Bergeron, P; Landsman, Wayne; Simon, Theodore; Bergeron, Pierre

1995-01-01

90

Isochrones and Luminosity Functions for Old White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

Using a new grid of models of cooling white dwarfs, we calculate isochrones and luminosity functions in the Johnson-Kron/Cousins and HST filter sets for systems containing old white dwarfs. These new models incorporate a non-grey atmosphere which is necessary to properly describe the effects of molecular opacity at the cool temperatures of old white dwarfs. The various functions calculated and extensively tabulated and plotted are meant to be as utilitarian as possible for observers so all results are listed in quantities that observers will obtain. The tables and plots developed should eventually prove critical in interpreting the results of HST's Advanced Camera observations of the oldest white dwarfs in nearby globular clusters, in understanding the results of searches for old white dwarfs in the Galactic halo, and in determining ages for star clusters of all ages using white dwarfs. As a practical application we demonstrate the use of these results by deriving the white dwarf cooling age of the old Galact...

Richer, H B; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A; Straniero, O; Fahlman, G G; Richer, Harvey B.; Hansen, Brad; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, Alessandro; Straniero, Oscar; Fahlman, Gregory G.

1999-01-01

91

Monte Carlo simulations of the disk white dwarf population  

CERN Multimedia

In order to understand the dynamical and chemical evolution of our Galaxy it is of fundamental importance to study the local neighborhood. White dwarf stars are ideal candidates to probe the history of the solar neighborhood, since these ``fossil'' stars have very long evolutionary time-scales and, at the same time, their evolution is relatively well understood. In fact, the white dwarf luminosity function has been used for this purpose by several authors. However, a long standing problem arises from the relatively poor statistics of the samples, especially at low luminosities. In this paper we assess the statistical reliability of the white dwarf luminosity function by using a Monte Carlo approach.

García-Berro, E; Isern, J; Burkert, A

1998-01-01

92

White Dwarf Model Atmospheres: Synthetic Spectra for Super Soft Sources  

CERN Document Server

The T\\"ubingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) calculates fully metal-line blanketed white dwarf model atmospheres and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at a high level of sophistication. Such SEDs are easily accessible via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TheoSSA. We discuss applications of TMAP models to (pre) white dwarfs during the hottest stages of their stellar evolution, e.g. in the parameter range of novae and super soft sources.

Rauch, Thomas

2011-01-01

93

The discovery of hydrogen in a DB white dwarf  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

H? absorption has been detected in the spectrum of the DB white dwarf LDS 785A (EG 153). The atmospheric helium to hydrogen ratio, by number, lies between 104 and 105. The importance of this value for theories of white dwarf accretion is stressed. The spectrum also shows the forbidden component of He I, lambda 4517 A, and an unidentified possible feature at lambda 6635 A. (author)

1977-01-01

94

Short-range effects in large white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recent work of Membrado and Pacheco (1988) on the implication of Yukawa-like effects in small white dwarfs is extended to analyze the very massive case. Although the role of these impurities grows substantially as the radius of the star decreases, when reasonable supergravity parameters are used the predicted change in the white dwarf mass-radius relation is unobservably small. 8 references

1988-01-01

95

White dwarf models of supernovae and cataclysmic variables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the accreting white dwarf increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass, it will either explode as a Type I supernova or collapse to form a neutron star. In fact, there is a good agreement between the exploding white dwarf model for Type I supernovae and observations. We describe various types of evolution of accreting white dwarfs as a function of binary parameters (i.e,. composition, mass, and age of the white dwarf, its companion star, and mass accretion rate), and discuss the conditions for the precursors of exploding or collapsing white dwarfs, and their relevance to cataclysmic variables. Particular attention is given to helium star cataclysmics which might be the precursors of some Type I supernovae or ultrashort period x-ray binaries. Finally we present new evolutionary calculations using the updated nuclear reaction rates for the formation of O+Ne+Mg white dwarfs, and discuss the composition structure and their relevance to the model for neon novae. 61 refs., 14 figs

1986-01-01

96

White dwarf models of supernovae and cataclysmic variables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If the accreting white dwarf increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass, it will either explode as a Type I supernova or collapse to form a neutron star. In fact, there is a good agreement between the exploding white dwarf model for Type I supernovae and observations. We describe various types of evolution of accreting white dwarfs as a function of binary parameters (i.e,. composition, mass, and age of the white dwarf, its companion star, and mass accretion rate), and discuss the conditions for the precursors of exploding or collapsing white dwarfs, and their relevance to cataclysmic variables. Particular attention is given to helium star cataclysmics which might be the precursors of some Type I supernovae or ultrashort period x-ray binaries. Finally we present new evolutionary calculations using the updated nuclear reaction rates for the formation of O+Ne+Mg white dwarfs, and discuss the composition structure and their relevance to the model for neon novae. 61 refs., 14 figs.

Nomoto, K.; Hashimoto, M.

1986-01-01

97

DA white dwarfs observed in LAMOST pilot survey  

CERN Document Server

A total of $\\sim640,000$ objects from LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs by fitting S\\'ersic profiles to the Balmer H$\\beta$, H$\\gamma$ and H$\\delta$ lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the CaII K line. 2964 candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of CaII K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 (59 of them are already in Villanova and SDSS WD catalog) DA white dwarfs, 20 of which are DA white dwarfs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DA white dwarf/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DA white dwarf number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

Zhang, Yue-Yang; Liu, Chao; Lépine, Sebastien; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang, Fan; Gao, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Luo, A-Li; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Yuan, Hai-Long; Jin, Ge

2013-01-01

98

White dwarf stars and the Hubble Deep Field  

CERN Multimedia

Although it a very narrow angle survey, the depth of the HDF results in its sampling a significant volume of the halo of our galaxy. Thus it is useful for the purposes of detecting (or placing upper limits on the distribution of) intrinsically faint stars, such as white dwarfs. White dwarfs could provide a significant fraction of the total mass of the halo of the Milky Way. Constraints on the population of halo white dwarfs from the HDF can directly address this possible partial explanation of the nature of the dark halo of the Milky Way. In this review, I illustrate how the HDF can be used to constrain the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs. I begin with a brief summary of the observed white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) of the galactic disk, and show how the HDF serves as a probe of the WDLF for the halo. I then review the theoretical background used in interpreting the WDLF in terms of the theory of white dwarf evolution and cooling, and the history of star formation in the galaxy. We are then in ...

Kawaler, S D

1998-01-01

99

The Binary White Dwarf LHS 3236  

CERN Document Server

The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 +/- 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km/s, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0-year period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M_solar; also possible, is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M_solar. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ~3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66--1....

Harris, Hugh; Dupuy, Trent; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry; Hartkopf, William; Ireland, Michael; Leggett, Sandy; Levine, Stephen; Liu, Michael; Luginbuhl, Christian; Monet, Alice; Stone, Ronald; Subasavage, John; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard

2013-01-01

100

Two New Tidally Distorted White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

We identify two new tidally distorted white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 and J211921.96-001825.8 (hereafter J1741 and J2119). Both stars are extremely low mass (ELM, < 0.2 Msun) WDs in short-period, detached binary systems. High-speed photometric observations obtained at the McDonald Observatory reveal ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming in both systems; J1741, with a minimum companion mass of 1.1 Msun, has one of the strongest Doppler beaming signals ever observed in a binary system (0.59 \\pm 0.06% amplitude). We use the observed ellipsoidal variations to constrain the radius of each WD. For J1741, the star's radius must exceed 0.074 Rsun. For J2119, the radius exceeds 0.10 Rsun. These indirect radius measurements are comparable to the radius measurements for the bloated WD companions to A-stars found by the Kepler spacecraft, and they constitute some of the largest radii inferred for any WD. Surprisingly, J1741 also appears to show a 0.23 \\pm 0.06% reflection effect, and we discuss possi...

Hermes, J J; Brown, Warren R; Montgomery, M H; Winget, D E

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Discovery of an ultramassive pulsating white dwarf  

CERN Multimedia

We announce the discovery of the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere (DA) white dwarf (WD) ever discovered, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a 12,030 +/- 210 K WD with a log(g) = 9.08 +/- 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20 +/- 0.03 Msun. Stellar evolution models indicate that the progenitor of such a high-mass WD endured a stable carbon-burning phase, producing an oxygen-neon-core WD. The discovery of pulsations in GD 518 thus offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a WD with a possible oxygen-neon core. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425-595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7%, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, which exhibit non-radial g-mode pulsations driven by a hydrogen partial ionization zone. Successfully unraveling both the total mass and core ...

Hermes, J J; Castanheira, Barbara G; Gianninas, A; Winget, D E; Montgomery, M H; Brown, Warren R; Harrold, Samuel T

2013-01-01

102

Discovery of an Ultramassive Pulsating White Dwarf  

Science.gov (United States)

We announce the discovery of the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf (WD) ever discovered, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a 12, 030 ± 210 K WD with a log g =9.08 ± 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20 ± 0.03 M ?. Stellar evolution models indicate that the progenitor of such a high-mass WD endured a stable carbon-burning phase, producing an oxygen-neon-core WD. The discovery of pulsations in GD 518 thus offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a WD with a possible oxygen-neon core. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425 to 595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7%, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, which exhibit non-radial g-mode pulsations driven by a hydrogen partial ionization zone. Successfully unraveling both the total mass and core composition of GD 518 provides a unique opportunity to investigate intermediate-mass stellar evolution, and can possibly place an upper limit to the mass of a carbon-oxygen-core WD, which in turn constrains Type Ia supernovae progenitor systems.

Hermes, J. J.; Kepler, S. O.; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Gianninas, A.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Brown, Warren R.; Harrold, Samuel T.

2013-07-01

103

A precision study of two eclipsing white dwarf plus M dwarf binaries  

CERN Document Server

We use a combination of X-shooter spectroscopy, ULTRACAM high-speed photometry and SOFI near-infrared photometry to measure the masses and radii of both components of the eclipsing post common envelope binaries SDSS J1212-0123 and GK Vir. For both systems we measure the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf and combine it with light curve model fits to determine the inclinations, masses and radii. For SDSS J1212-0123 we find a white dwarf mass and radius of 0.439 +/- 0.002 Msun and 0.0168 +/- 0.0003 Rsun, and a secondary star mass and radius of 0.273 +/- 0.002 Msun and 0.306 +/- 0.007 Rsun. For GK Vir we find a white dwarf mass and radius of 0.564 +/- 0.014 Msun and 0.0170 +/- 0.0004 Rsun, and a secondary star mass and radius of 0.116 +/- 0.003 Msun and 0.155 +/- 0.003 Rsun. The mass and radius of the white dwarf in GK Vir are consistent with evolutionary models for a 50,000K carbon-oxygen core white dwarf. Although the mass and radius of the white dwarf in SDSS J1212-0123 are consistent with carbon-oxyge...

Parsons, S G; Gänsicke, B T; Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Dhillon, V S; Littlefair, S P; Copperwheat, C M; Hickman, R D G; Burleigh, M R; Kerry, P; Koester, D; Gómez-Morán, A Nebot; Pyrzas, S; Savoury, C D J; Schreiber, M R; Schmidtobreick, L; Schwope, A D; Steele, P R; Tappert, C

2011-01-01

104

RXJ2130.6+4710 - an eclipsing white dwarf-M-dwarf binary star  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the detection of eclipses in the close white-dwarf-M-dwarf binary star RXJ2130.6+4710. We present light curves in the B, V and I bands and fast photometry obtained with the three-channel CCD photometer Ultracam of the eclipse in the u', g' and r' bands. The depth of the eclipse varies from 3.0 mag in the u' band to less than 0.1 mag in the I band. The times of mid-eclipse are given by the ephemeris BJD(mid-eclipse) = 2452785.681876(2) + 0.521035625(3) E, where figures in parentheses denote uncertainties in the final digit. We present medium-resolution spectroscopy from which we have measured the spectroscopic orbits of the M dwarf and white dwarf. We estimate that the spectral type of the M dwarf is M3.5Ve or M4Ve, although the data on which this is based are not ideal for spectral classification. We have compared the spectra of the white dwarf with synthetic spectra from pure hydrogen model atmospheres to estimate that the effective temperature of the white dwarf is Teff= 18000 +/- 1000 K. We have used the width of the primary eclipse and duration of totality measured precisely from the Ultracam u' data combined with the amplitude of the ellipsoidal effect in the I band and the semi-amplitudes of the spectroscopic orbits to derive masses and radii for the M dwarf and white dwarf. The M dwarf has a mass of 0.555 +/- 0.023 Msolar and a radius of 0.534 +/- 0.053 Rsolar, which is a typical radius for stars of this mass. The mass of the white dwarf is 0.554 +/- 0.017 Msolar and its radius is 0.0137 +/- 0.0014 Rsolar, which is the radius expected for a carbon-oxygen white dwarf of this mass and effective temperature. The light curves are affected by frequent flares from the M dwarf and the associated dark spots on its surface can be detected from the distortions to the light curves and radial velocities. RXJ2130.6+4710 is a rare example of a pre-cataclysmic variable star that will start mass transfer at a period above the period gap for cataclysmic variables.

Maxted, P. F. L.; Marsh, T. R.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Barstow, M. A.; Dobbie, P. D.; Schreiber, M. R.; Dhillon, V. S.; Brinkworth, C. S.

2004-12-01

105

A magnetic white dwarf in a detached eclipsing binary  

CERN Document Server

SDSS J030308.35+005444.1 is a close, detached, eclipsing white dwarf plus M dwarf binary which shows a large infrared excess which has been interpreted in terms of a circumbinary dust disk. In this paper we present optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data for this system. At optical wavelengths we observe heated pole caps from the white dwarf caused by accretion of wind material from the main-sequence star on to the white dwarf. At near-infrared wavelengths we see the eclipse of two poles on the surface of the white dwarf by the main-sequence star, indicating that the white dwarf is magnetic. Our spectroscopic observations reveal Zeeman split emission lines in the hydrogen Balmer series, which we use to measure the magnetic field strength as 8MG. This measurement indicates that the cyclotron lines are located in the infrared, naturally explaining the infrared excess without the need for a circumbinary dust disk. We also detect magnetically-confined material located roughly midway between t...

Parsons, S G; Gänsicke, B T; Schreiber, M R; Bours, M C P; Dhillon, V S; Littlefair, S P

2013-01-01

106

Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs  

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Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

Gomes J.I.; Pinfield D.J.

2013-01-01

107

Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs

1986-01-01

108

High resolution optical spectroscopy of Praesepe white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We present the results of a high resolution optical spectroscopic study of nine white dwarf candidate members of Praesepe undertaken with the VLT and UVES. We find, contrary to a number of previous studies, that WD0836+201 (LB390, EG59) and WD0837+199 (LB393, EG61) are magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs respectively. Subsequently, we determine the radial velocities for the eight non-magnetic degenerates and provide compelling evidence that WD0837+185 is a radial velocity variable and possibly a double-degenerate system. We also find that our result for WD0837+218, in conjunction with its projected spatial location and position in initial mass-final mass space, argues it is more likely to be a field star than a cluster member. After eliminating these two white dwarfs, and WD0836+199 which has no clean SDSS photometry, we use the remaining 5 stars to substantiate modern theoretical mass-radius relations for white dwarfs. In light of our new results we re-examine the white dwarf members of Praesepe and use t...

Casewell, S L; Napiwotzki, R; Burleigh, M R; Barstow, M A; Jameson, R F

2009-01-01

109

Energy transport in radially accreting white dwarf stars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the non-thermal energy transport processes which may be present in a white dwarf accretion column are examined and it is determined whether these could in any way contribute to a resolution of the soft X-ray puzzle. The first two Chapters of this Thesis constitute a review of the observations and proposed models for white dwarf accretion columns. In Chapter 3 we show that in Kuijpers and Pringle's original bombardment model of white dwarf accretion columns, in which the energy of the accreting material is deposited uniformly into a static atmosphere which then radiates the energy away as optically thin bremsstrahlung/line radiation, an incorrect Coulomb collisional timescale was used. In Chapter 4 we extend the calculations of Chapter 3 to include the effect of cyclotron radiation. It is concluded that a cyclotron cooled bombardment solution for a white dwarf accretion column may exist. We extend this calculation to derive a simple piecewise uniform temperature structure for such an accretion column, incorporating the effect of thermal conduction. In Chaper 5 we examine two of the non thermal emission mechanisms that might be present in white dwarf accretion columns:- non thermal Lyman-{alpha} emission and non thermal inverse bremsstrahlung emission. It is shown that neither would actually be sufficiently large to be detectable. In Chapter 6 some possible extensions to the work presented are suggested. (author).

Thompson, A.M.

1986-10-01

110

A Multi-Survey Approach to White Dwarf Discovery  

CERN Multimedia

By selecting astrometric and photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the L{\\'e}pine & Shara Proper Motion North Catalog (LSPM-North), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the USNO-B1.0 catalog, we use a succession of methods to isolate white dwarf candidates for follow-up spectroscopy. Our methods include: reduced proper motion diagram cuts, color cuts, and atmospheric model adherence. We present spectroscopy of 26 white dwarfs obtained from the CTIO 4m and APO 3.5m telescopes. Additionally, we confirm 28 white dwarfs with spectra available in the SDSS DR7 database but unpublished elsewhere, presenting a total of 54 WDs. We label one of these as a recovered WD while the remaining 53 are new discoveries. We determine physical parameters and estimate distances based on atmospheric model analyses. Three new white dwarfs are modeled to lie within 25 pc. Two additional white dwarfs are confirmed to be metal-polluted (DAZ). Follow-up time series photometry confirms another object to be ...

Sayres, Conor; Bergeron, P; Dufour, P; Davenport, James R A; AlSayyad, Yusra; Tofflemire, Benjamin M

2012-01-01

111

Quiescent nuclear burning in low-metallicity white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss the impact of residual nuclear burning in the cooling sequences of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs with very low metallicity progenitors ($Z=0.0001$). These cooling sequences are appropriate for the study of very old stellar populations. The results presented here are the product of self-consistent, fully evolutionary calculations. Specifically, we follow the evolution of white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence through all the evolutionary phases, namely the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. This is done for the most relevant range of main sequence masses, covering the most usual interval of white dwarf masses --- from $0.53\\, M_{\\sun}$ to $0.83\\, M_{\\sun}$. Due to the low metallicity of the progenitor stars, white dwarfs are born with thicker hydrogen envelopes, leading to more intense hydrogen burning shells as compared with their solar metallicity counterparts. We study the phase ...

Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Garcia-Berro, Enrique

2013-01-01

112

The White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of NGC6397  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) exposure of the nearby globular cluster NGC6397, focussing attention on the cluster's white dwarf cooling sequence. This sequence is shown to extend over 5 magnitudes in depth, with an apparent cutoff at magnitude F814W=27.6. We demonstrate, using both artificial star tests and the detectability of background galaxies at fainter magnitudes, that the cutoff is real and represents the truncation of the white dwarf luminosity function in this cluster. We perform a detailed comparison between cooling models and the observed distribution of white dwarfs in colour and magnitude, taking into account uncertainties in distance, extinction, white dwarf mass, progenitor lifetimes, binarity and cooling model uncertainties. After marginalising over these variables, we obtain values for the cluster distance modulus and age of \\mu_0 = 12.02 \\pm 0.06 and T_c = 11.47 \\pm 0.47Gyr (95% confidence limits). Our inferred distance and white dwarf initial-final mass relat...

Hansen, B M S; Brewer, J; Dotter, A; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J; King, I; Reitzel, David B; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Stetson, P B; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Anderson, Jay; Brewer, James; Dotter, Aaron; Fahlman, Greg. G.; Hurley, Jarrod; King, Ivan; Reitzel, David; Richer, Harvey B.; Shara, Michael M.; Stetson, Peter B.

2007-01-01

113

A deeply eclipsing detached double helium white dwarf binary  

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Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hour period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100K primary star and a 10,500K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the H{\\alpha} absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M1 = 0.283\\pm0.064Msun and M2 = 0.274\\pm0.034Msun, making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

Parsons, S G; Gänsicke, B T; Drake, A J; Koester, D

2011-01-01

114

Companion of the white dwarf G29-38 as a brown dwarf  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The white dwarf G29-38 is studied in order to determine whether it has a brown dwarf companion. A variety of spectra of the white dwarf shows it to be an essentially normal DA4V, without spectral peculiarities, that might have arisen from accretion or interaction with a close companion. The energy distribution of the infrared object G29-38B is obtained. The luminosity of the latter is roughly 4 x 10 to the -5th solar, its temperature between 1100 and 1500 K, with a strong preference for the lower half of that range. The radius corresponding to those temperatures, 0.18-0.10 solar, is larger than expected, but interpretation as a brown dwarf still appears most plausible. 22 references.

115

Finding Planets Around White Dwarf Remnants of Massive Stars  

CERN Document Server

Planet frequency shows a strong positive correlation with host mass from the hydrogen-burning limit to M = 2Msun. No search has yet been conducted for planets of higher-mass hosts because all existing techniques are insensitive to these planets. We show that infrared observations of the white-dwarf remnants of massive stars 3Msun < M < 7Msun would be sensitive to these planets for reasons that are closely connected to the insensitivity of other methods. We identify 49 reasonably bright, young, massive white dwarfs from the Palomar-Green survey and discuss methods for detecting planets and for distinguishing between planet and disk explanations for any excess flux observed. The young, bright, massive white dwarf sample could be expanded by a factor 4-5 by surveying the remainder of the sky for bright UV-excess objects.

Gould, Andrew

2007-01-01

116

Metal-rich debris discs around white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We have identified two moderately hot (~18000-22000K) white dwarfs, SDSSJ1228+1040 and SDSSJ1043+0855, which exhibit double-peaked emission lines in the CaII 8600A triplet. These line profiles are unambiguous signatures of gaseous discs with outer radii of ~1Rsun orbiting the two white dwarfs. Both stars accrete from the circumstellar material, resulting in large photospheric Mg abundances. The absence of hydrogen emission from the discs, and helium absorption in the white dwarf photospheres demonstrates that the circumstellar material is depleted in volatile elements, and the most likely origin of these gaseous rings are tidally disrupted rocky asteroids. The relatively high mass of SDSSJ1228+1040 implies that planetary systems can not only form around 4-5Msun stars, but may also survive their post main-sequence evolution.

Gänsicke, B T; Southworth, J; Rebassa-Mansergas, A

2007-01-01

117

Metal-Rich Debris Discs Around White Dwarfs  

Science.gov (United States)

We have identified two moderately hot (˜18000--22000 K) white dwarfs, SDSS J1228+1040 and SDSS J1043+0855, which exhibit double-peaked emission lines in the CaII ??8600 triplet. These line profiles are unambiguous signatures of gaseous discs with outer radii of ˜1R? orbiting the two white dwarfs. Both stars accrete from the circumstellar material, resulting in large photospheric Mg abundances. The absence of hydrogen emission from the discs, and helium absorption in the white dwarf photospheres demonstrates that the circumstellar material is depleted in volatile elements, and the most likely origin of these gaseous rings are tidally disrupted rocky asteroids. The relatively high mass of SDSS J1228+1040 implies that planetary systems can not only form around 4-5 M? stars, but may also survive their post main-sequence evolution.

Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Southworth, J.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.

118

Understanding the Cool DA White Dwarf, G29-38  

CERN Document Server

The white dwarfs are promising laboratories for the study of cosmochronology and stellar evolution. Through observations of the pulsating white dwarfs, we can measure their internal structures and compositions, critical to understanding post main sequence evolution, along with their cooling rates, allowing us to calibrate their ages directly. The most important set of white dwarf variables to measure are the oldest of the pulsators, the cool DAVs, which have not previously been explored through asteroseismology due to their complexity and instability. Through a time-series photometry data set spanning ten years, we explore the pulsation spectrum of the cool DAV, G29-38 and find an underlying structure of 19 (not including multiplet components) normal-mode, probably l=1 pulsations amidst an abundance of time variability and linear combination modes. Modelling results are incomplete, but we suggest possible starting directions and discuss probable values for the stellar mass and hydrogen layer size. For the fir...

Kleinman, S J; Winget, D E; Clemens, J C; Bradley, P A; Kanaan, A; Provencal, J L; Claver, C F; Watson, T K; Yanagida, K; Nitta, A; Dixson, J S; Wood, M A; Grauer, A D; Hine, B P; Fontaine, G; Liebert, J; Sullivan, D J; Wickramasinghe, D T; Marar, K; Seetha, S; Ashoka, B N; Meistas, E; Leibowitz, E M; Moskalik, P; Krzesínski, J; Solheim, J E; Bruvold, A; Kurtz, D W; Warner, B; Martínez, P; Vauclair, G; Dolez, N; Chevreton, M; Barstow, M A; Kepler, S O; Giovannini, O; Augusteijn, T; Hansen, C J; Kawaler, S D; Liebert, James; Martinez, Peter

1997-01-01

119

The Frequency of Debris Disks at White Dwarfs  

Science.gov (United States)

We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3-1.2+2.2 % frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7M? stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of white dwarf cooling ages; white dwarfs accrete debris from several generations of disks for ˜10Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that white dwarfs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as Solar System asteroid analogues.

Barber, S. D.; Patterson, A. J.; Kilic, M.; Leggett, S. K.; Dufour, P.; Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L.

2013-01-01

120

Do AM Hercules white dwarfs have toroidal internal fields?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A previous author has determined the orientations of the magnetic poles of eight AM Hercules white dwarfs. These data imply a quasi-static aligning torque, which I compare to previous theories. The fact of alignment, but not the position angles, is consistent with our earlier magnetostatic model. The angles may be explained if the dominant torque is gravitational and the white dwarfs are dynamically prolate. I construct an explicit but simplified internal model of such a star in which its figure is distorted from sphericity by a toroidal internal magnetic field, and discuss some implications. (author).

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Physical properties of IP Pegasi: an eclipsing dwarf nova with an unusually cool white dwarf  

CERN Multimedia

We present high speed photometric observations of the eclipsing dwarf nova IP Peg taken with the triple-beam camera ULTRACAM mounted on the William Herschel Telescope. The primary eclipse in this system was observed twice in 2004, and then a further sixteen times over a three week period in 2005. Our observations were simultaneous in the Sloan u', g' and r' bands. By phase-folding and averaging our data we make the first significant detection of the white dwarf ingress in this system and find the phase width of the white dwarf eclipse to be 0.0935 +/- 0.0003, significantly higher than the previous best value of between 0.0863 and 0.0918. The mass ratio is found to be q = M2 /M1 = 0.48 +/- 0.01, consistent with previous measurements, but we find the inclination to be 83.8 +/- 0.5 deg, significantly higher than previously reported. We find the radius of the white dwarf to be 0.0063 +/- 0.0003 solar radii, implying a white dwarf mass of 1.16 +/- 0.02 solar masses. The donor mass is 0.55 +/- 0.02 solar masses. Th...

Copperwheat, C M; Dhillon, V S; Littlefair, S P; Hickman, R; Gänsicke, B T; Southworth, J

2009-01-01

122

Lithium production in the merging of white dwarf stars  

CERN Multimedia

The origin of R Coronae Borealis stars has been elusive for over 200 years. Currently, two theories for their formation have been presented. These are the Final Flash scenario, in which a dying asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star throws off its atmosphere to reveal the hydrogen poor, heavily processed material underneath, and the double degenerate scenario, in which two white dwarfs merge to produce a new star with renewed vigour. Some theories predict that the temperatures reached during the latter scenario would destroy any lithium originally present in the white dwarfs. The observed lithium content of some R Coronae Borealis stars, therefore, is often interpreted as an indication that the Final Flash scenario best describes their formation. In this paper, it is shown that lithium production can, indeed, occur in the merging of a helium white dwarf with a carbon-oxygen white dwarf if their chemical composition, particularly that of 3He, is fully considered. The production mechanism is described in detail, an...

Longland, Richard; José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G

2012-01-01

123

White dwarfs constraints on dark sector models with light particles  

CERN Multimedia

The white dwarf luminosity function is well understood in terms of standard model physics and leaves little room for exotic cooling mechanisms related to the possible existence of new weakly interacting light particles. This puts significant constraints on the parameter space of models that contain a massive dark photon and light dark sector particles.

Ubaldi, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

124

Rapidly accreting white dwarfs as supernova type Ia progenitors  

CERN Document Server

The nature of the progenitors of type Ia supernovae is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single degenerate and double degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the type Ia supernovae rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs with higher mass transfer rates can also be type Ia supernova progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWD), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the white dwarf, and extends the white dwarf's photosphere. Unlike super-soft sources, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWD in the central core of the SMC, from objects selected to be bright in the ...

Lepo, Kelly

2013-01-01

125

The Frequency of Debris Disks at White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3+2.7-1.2% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7Msol stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of white dwarf cooling ages; white dwarfs accrete debris from several generations of disks for ~10Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that white dwarfs accrete moons and d...

Barber, Sara D; Kilic, Mukremin; Leggett, S K; Dufour, P; Bloom, J S; Starr, D L

2012-01-01

126

On the mass of the white dwarf in UZ Fornacis  

CERN Multimedia

We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of the eclipsing AM Herculis star UZ For obtained when the system was in its low state of accretion. Faint residual Halpha-emission and NaI absorption were used to trace the secondary star and infer its orbital velocity K_2. The measured radial velocity amplitude of NaI K_2 * sin(i) = 285 \\pm 50 kmps suggests a low-mass white dwarf with M_wd = 0.44 visible only for part of the orbital cycle and supposed to originate only on the illuminated hemisphere facing the white dwarf, displays a similar radial velocity amplitude, K'_2 sin(i) = 308 \\pm 27 kmps. The standard K_2-correction applied by us then suggests a white dwarf mass of up to 1 Msun. Compared with earlier results the new ones enlarge the window in which the white dwarf mass may lie and resolves the conflict between mass estimates based on photometry and spectroscopy. They leave some ambiguity in the location of emission and absorption components in these and former observations.

Schwope, A D; Beuermann, K; Schwope, Axel D.; Mengel, Sabine; Beuermann, Klaus

1997-01-01

127

11-12 Gyr old White Dwarfs 30 parsecs Away  

CERN Multimedia

We present a detailed model atmosphere analysis of two of the oldest stars known in the solar neighborhood, the high proper motion white dwarfs SDSS J110217.48+411315.4 (hereafter J1102) and WD 0346+246 (hereafter WD0346). We present trigonometric parallax observations of J1102, which places it at a distance of only 33.7 +- 2.0 pc. Based on the state of the art model atmospheres, optical, near-, mid-infrared photometry, and distances, we constrain the temperatures, atmospheric compositions, masses, and ages for both stars. J1102 is an 11 Gyr old (white dwarf plus main-sequence age), 0.62 Msol white dwarf with a pure H atmosphere and Teff = 3830 K. WD0346 is an 11.5 Gyr old, 0.77 Msol white dwarf with a mixed H/He atmosphere and Teff = 3650 K. Both stars display halo kinematics and their ages agree remarkably well with the ages of the nearest globular clusters, M4 and NGC 6397. J1102 and WD0346 are the closest examples of the oldest halo stars that we know of.

Kilic, Mukremin; Kowalski, P M; Andrews, J

2012-01-01

128

M dwarf companions to white dwarfs I: relating magnetic activity, rotation and age  

CERN Document Server

We make use of the largest and most homogeneous sample of white dwarf/M dwarf (WD/dM) binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7) to investigate relations between magnetic activity, rotation, magnetic braking and age in M stars. These relations are studied separately for close WD/dM binaries that underwent a common envelope phase and thus contain tidally locked and hence rapidly rotating M dwarfs, and for wide WD/dM binaries that never interacted. For the wide WD/dM binary sample we find that the M dwarf activity fractions are significantly higher than those measured in single M stars of spectral type M0 to M5. We attribute this effect as a consequence of M dwarfs in wide SDSS WD/dM binaries being, on average, significantly younger and hence more active than the field M dwarf population. The measured M dwarf activity fractions in wide WD/dM binaries show as well a significant increase from spectral types M3 to M5, where these low-mass stars become fully convective. This provides additional observati...

Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Gaensicke, B T

2012-01-01

129

Studies of magnetic and suspected-magnetic southern white dwarfs  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical spectrophotometry and circular spectropolarimetry are presented for several candidate magnetic white dwarfs that were identified during the Hamburg/ESO survey for bright quasi-stellar objects. Two objects, HE 1211-1707 and HE 1043-0502, are shown to be rare examples of white dwarfs that show neutral helium lines in a high magnetic field, in these cases ~50 and ~800MG, respectively. The former is also found to be rotating with a period of ~2h. HE 1045-0908 is a hydrogen-line star with a polar field strength of ~20MG, spinning with a period in the range ~2-4h. Attempts at modelling the limited amount of phase-resolved data that is available suggest that the field structure on this star departs substantially from a simple centred dipolar geometry. Two cool white dwarfs with unidentified broad absorption spectral features, HE 0236-2656 and HE 0330-0002, are polarimetrically confirmed to be magnetic. Line identifications for these stars are not yet possible, but the atmospheres are probably helium-rich, with spectral features formed by trace compounds of hydrogen, carbon, and perhaps other metals. HE 0003-5701 and HE 0338-3853 were proposed by Reimers et al. alongside two similar objects to be magnetic DB white dwarfs, with Zeeman-split lines of helium in magnetic fields all near 20MG. However, our observations show that the first two, and by extension all four, are non-magnetic white dwarf+cool dwarf pairs. They deserve to be studied in their own right as possible close binaries. Finally, a lack of circular polarization suggests that HE 0000-3430 and HE 0127-3110 are also non-magnetic. HE 0000-3430 appears to be a featureless DC white dwarf over the spectral range observed here, while the sole absorption line near 5890Å in HE 0127-3110 could be either Hei ?5876 or the Nai D doublet, but there are difficulties with either interpretation.

Schmidt, Gary D.; Vennes, Stephane; Wickramasinghe, D. T.; Ferrario, L.

2001-11-01

130

Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Helium Core White Dwarfs, Tidal Heating, and Observational Signatures  

CERN Document Server

Tidal dissipation in compact white dwarf (WD) binary systems significantly influences the physical conditions (such as surface temperature and rotation rate) of the WDs prior to mass transfer or merger. In these systems, the dominant tidal effects involve the excitation of gravity waves and their dissipation in the outer envelope of the star. We calculate the amplitude of tidally excited gravity waves in low-mass (0.3M_\\odot) helium-core (He) WDs as a function of the tidal forcing frequency \\omega. Like carbon-oxygen (CO) WDs studied in our previous paper, we find that the dimensionless tidal torque F(\\omega) (inversely proportional to the effective tidal quality factor) has an erratic dependence on \\omega. On average, F(\\omega) scales approximately as \\omega^6, and is several orders of magnitude smaller for He WDs than for CO WDs. We find that tidal torques can begin to synchronize the WD rotation when the orbital period is less than about a hour, although a nearly constant asynchronization is maintained eve...

Fuller, Jim

2012-01-01

131

WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and planetary orbital evolution during the post-main-sequence lifetime of their stellar hosts.

2010-01-01

132

Granulation properties of giants, dwarfs, and white dwarfs from the CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional model atmospheres for giants, dwarfs, and white dwarfs, computed with the CO5BOLD code and part of the CIFIST grid, have been used for spectroscopic and asteroseismic studies. Unlike existing plane-parallel 1D structures, these simulations predict the spatially and temporally resolved emergent intensity so that granulation can be analysed, which provides insights on how convective energy transfer operates in stars. The wide range of atmospheric parameters of the CIFIST 3D simulations (3600 http://www.aanda.org

Tremblay, P.-E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Steffen, M.; Caffau, E.

2013-09-01

133

A THIRD HOT WHITE DWARF COMPANION DETECTED BY KEPLER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have found a system listed in the Kepler Binary Catalog (Porb = 3.273 days) that we have determined is comprised of a low-mass, thermally bloated, hot white dwarf orbiting an A star of about 2.3 Msun. In this work, we designate the object, KIC 10657664, simply as 'KHWD3' (Kepler Hot White Dwarf 3). We use the transit depth of ?0.66%, the eclipse depth of ?1.9%, and regular smooth periodic variations at the orbital frequency and twice the orbital frequency to analyze the system parameters. The smooth periodic variations are identified with the classical ellipsoidal light variation (ELV) and illumination (ILL) effects, and the newly utilized Doppler boosting (DB) effect. Given the measured values of R/a and inclination angle of the binary, both the ELV and DB effects are mostly sensitive to the mass ratio, q = M2/M1, of the binary. The two effects yield values of q which are somewhat inconsistent-presumably due to unidentified systematic effects-but which nonetheless provide a quite useful set of possibilities for the mass of the white dwarf (either 0.26 ± 0.04 Msun or 0.37 ± 0.08 Msun). All of the other system parameters are determined fairly robustly. In particular, we show that the white dwarf has a radius of 0.15 ± 0.01 Rsun, which is extremely bloated over the radius it would have as a fully degenerate object, and an effective temperature Teff?14,500 K. Binary evolution scenarios and models for this system are discussed. We suggest that the progenitor binary was comprised of a primary of mass ?2.2 Msun (the progenitor of the current hot white dwarf) and a secondary of mass ?1.4 Msun (the progenitor of the current A star in the system). We compare this new system with three other white dwarfs in binaries that likely were formed via stable Roche-lobe overflow (KOI-74, KOI-81, and the inner Regulus binary).

2011-02-20

134

Low heat conduction in white dwarf boundary layers?  

CERN Multimedia

X-ray spectra of dwarf novae in quiescence observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton provide new information on the boundary layers of their accreting white dwarfs. Comparison of observations and models allows us to extract estimates for the thermal conductivity in the accretion layer and reach conclusions on the relevant physical processes. We calculate the structure of the dense thermal boundary layer that forms under gravity and cooling at the white dwarf surface on accretion of gas from a hot tenuous ADAF-type coronal inflow. The distribution of density and temperature obtained allows us to calculate the strength and spectrum of the emitted X-ray radiation. They depend strongly on the values of thermal conductivity and mass accretion rate. We apply our model to the dwarf nova system VW Hyi and compare the spectra predicted for different values of the thermal conductivity with the observed spectrum. We find a significant deviation for all values of thermal conductivity that are a sizable fraction of the Spitzer c...

Liu, F K; Meyer-Hofmeister, E; Burwitz, V

2008-01-01

135

Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Basic principles of the physics of compact physical object - white drafts, neutron stars and black holes, are stated. Modern representations on pulsars and compact X-ray sources are considerd. Investigation results on compact object accretion, gravitational radiation and collapse at usual and supermassive stars are discussed

1985-01-01

136

The low mass white dwarf companion to Beta Crateris  

CERN Multimedia

We present FUSE H Lyman series spectroscopy of the hot white dwarf companion to the 4th magnitude A1III star Beta Crateris, which shows that is has an unusually low mass, 0.43Msun, and has almost certainly evolved through binary interaction. This system could be a long-sought remnant of Algol-type evolution, although radial velocity measurements appear to show that the pair are not close. Instead, micro-variations in Beta Crt's proper motion as measured by Hipparcos suggests that the period could be as high as 10 years. However, a low mass white dwarf in a system with a period >3 years is difficult to explain by conventional models for binary evolution. We speculate on alternative models for the evolution of this system which involve an eccentric binary or multiple components.

Burleigh, M R; Schenker, K J; Sills, A I; Wynn, G A; Dobbie, P D; Good, S A

2001-01-01

137

A Detailed Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of DQ White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We present an analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of cool DQ white dwarfs based on improved model atmosphere calculations. In particular, we revise the atmospheric parameters of the trigonometric parallax sample of Bergeron, Leggett, & Ruiz, and discuss the astrophysical implications on the temperature scale and mean mass, as well as the chemical evolution of these stars. We also analyze 40 new DQ stars discovered in the first data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis confirms that effective temperatures derived from model atmospheres including carbon are significantly lower than the temperatures obtained from pure helium models. Similarly the mean mass of the trigonometric parallax sample, = 0.62 Mo, is significantly lower than that obtained from pure helium models, = 0.73 Mo, and more consistent with the spectroscopic mean mass of DB stars, = 0.59 Mo, the most likely progenitors of DQ white dwarfs. We find that DQ stars form a remarkably well defined sequence in a ...

Dufour, P; Fontaine, G

2005-01-01

138

Spectral modeling of gaseous metal disks around DAZ white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on our attempt for the first non-LTE modeling of gaseous metal disks around single DAZ white dwarfs recently discovered by Gaensicke et al. and thought to originate from a disrupted asteroid. We assume a Keplerian rotating viscous disk ring composed of calcium and hydrogen and compute the detailed vertical structure and emergent spectrum. We find that the observed infrared CaII emission triplet can be modeled with a hydrogen-deficient gas ring located at R = 1.2 Ro-dot, inside of the tidal disruption radius, with Teff ? 6000 K and a low surface mass density of ? 0.3 g/cm2. A disk having this density and reaching from the central white dwarf out to R = 1.2 Ro-dot would have a total mass of 7 | 1021 g, corresponding to an asteroid with ? 160km diameter.

2009-06-01

139

Mock LISA Data Challenge for the galactic white dwarf binaries  

CERN Document Server

We present data analysis methods used in detection and the estimation of parameters of gravitational wave signals from the white dwarf binaries in the Mock LISA Data Challenge. Our main focus is on the analysis of Challenge 3.1, where the gravitational wave signals from more than 50 mln. Galactic binaries were added to the simulated Gaussian instrumental noise. Majority of the signals at low frequencies are not resolved individually. The confusion between the signals is strongly reduced at frequencies above 5 mHz. Our basic data analysis procedure is the maximum likelihood detection method. We filter the data through the template bank at the first step of the search, then we refine parameters using the Nelder-Mead algorithm, we remove the strongest signal found and we repeat the procedure. We detect reliably and estimate parameters accurately of more than ten thousand signals from white dwarf binaries.

B?aut, Arkadiusz; Królak, Andrzej

2009-01-01

140

Hot DQ white dwarfs: a pulsational test of the mixing scenario for their formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Hot DQ white dwarfs constitute a new class of white dwarf stars, uncovered recently within the framework of SDSS project. There exist nine of them, out of a total of several thousands white dwarfs spectroscopically identified. Recently, three hot DQ white dwarfs have been reported to exhibit photometric variability with periods compatible with pulsation g-modes. In this contribution, we presented the results of a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis of the recently discovered carbon-rich hot DQ white dwarf stars. Our study relies on the full evolutionary models of hot DQ white dwarfs recently developed by Althaus et al. (2009), that consistently cover the whole evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Specifically, we performed a stability analysis on white dwarf models from stages before the blue edge of the DBV instability strip (Teff ? 30000 K) until the domain of the hot DQ white dwarfs (18000-24000 K), including the transition DB?hot DQ white dwarf. We explore evolutionary models with M*= 0.585M? and M* = 0.87M?, and two values of thickness of the He-rich envelope (MHe = 2 × 10-7M* and MHe = 10-8M*).

Romero, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

GD 154: White dwarf with multi- and monoperiodic pulsation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present the white dwarf GD 154 as an example where either monoperiodic or multiperiodic pulsation were found at different epochs. The mono-multi-monoperiodic stage seems to alternate. Many questions have been raised. Is this behaviour connected to the evolution of DAV stars? How often does it happen? Is there any regularity in this change of the pulsational behaviour or is it irregular?

Paparó M.; Bognár Zs.

2013-01-01

142

Model atmospheres of DA white dwarfs. I. Calculation method  

Science.gov (United States)

The method used to calculate DA-type white dwarf model atmospheres is described. For solution of the equation of radiative transfer Feautrier's method is used. Temperature corrections are determined by Rybicki's method. Besides, the method of integral equations proposed by Böhm-Vitense is discussed. The method of taking into account convection and the way to determine an appropriate starting convective model are described.

Galdikas, A.

143

A Progress Report on the Carbon Dominated Atmosphere White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

Recently, Dufour et al. (2007) reported the unexpected discovery that a few white dwarfs found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey had an atmosphere dominated by carbon with little or no trace of hydrogen and helium. Here we present a progress report on these new objects based on new high signal-to-noise follow-up spectroscopic observations obtained at the 6.5m MMT telescope on Mount Hopkins, Arizona.

Dufour, P; Swift, B; Fontaine, G; Sukhbold, T

2009-01-01

144

S. Chandrasekhar: White Dwarfs, $H^-$ ion,.., Black holes  

CERN Document Server

This is a concise review, addressed to undergraduate students, of S. Chandrasekhar's oeuvre in astrophysics, ranging from his early studies on white dwarfs using relativistic quantum statistics to topics as diverse as dynamical friction, negative hydrogen ion, fluid dynamical instabilities, black holes and gravitational waves. The exposition is based on simple physical explanations in the context of observational astronomy. Black holes and their role as central engines of active, compact, high energy sources have been discussed.

Gupta, Patrick Das

2011-01-01

145

56Ni Production in Double Degenerate White Dwarf Collisions  

CERN Multimedia

We present a comprehensive study of white dwarf collisions as an avenue for creating type Ia supernovae. Using a smooth particle hydrodynamics code with a 13-isotope, {\\alpha}-chain nuclear network, we examine the resulting 56Ni yield as a function of total mass, mass ratio, and impact parameter. We show that several combinations of white dwarf masses and impact parameters are able to produce sufficient quantities of 56Ni to be observable at cosmological distances. We find the 56Ni production in double-degenerate white dwarf collisions ranges from sub-luminous to the super-luminous, depending on the parameters of the collision. For all mass pairs, collisions with small impact parameters have the highest likelihood of detonating, but 56Ni production is insensitive to this parameter in high-mass combinations, which significantly increases their likelihood of detection. We also find that the 56Ni dependence on total mass and mass ratio is not linear, with larger mass primaries producing disproportionately more 5...

Raskin, Cody; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Fryer, Chris; Diehl, Steven; Timmes, F X

2010-01-01

146

Towards an Understanding of the Atmospheres of Cool White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Cool white dwarfs with Teff < 6000 K are the remnants of the oldest stars that existed in our Galaxy. Their atmospheres, when properly characterized, can provide valuable information on white dwarf evolution and ultimately star formation through the history of the Milky Way. Understanding the atmospheres of these stars requires joined observational effort and reliable atmosphere modeling. We discuss and analyze recent observations of the near-ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (IR) spectrum of several cool white dwarfs including DQ/DQp stars showing carbon in their spectra. We present fits to the entire spectral energy distribution (SED) of selected cool stars, showing that the current pure-hydrogen atmosphere models are quite reliable, especially in the near-UV spectral region. Recently, we also performed an analysis of the coolest known DQ/DQp stars investigating further the origin of the C2 Swan bands-like spectral features that characterize the DQp stars. We show that the carbon abundances derived for ...

Kowalski, Piotr M; Holberg, Jay; Leggett, Sandy

2012-01-01

147

The (Double) White Dwarf Binary SDSS 1257+5428  

CERN Multimedia

SDSS 1257+5428 is a white dwarf in a close orbit with a companion that has been suggested to be a neutron star. If so, it hosts the closest known neutron star, and its existence implies a great abundance of similar systems and a rate of white-dwarf neutron-star mergers similar to that of the type Ia supernova rate. Here, we present high signal-to-noise spectra of SDSS 1257+5428, which confirm an independent finding that the system is in fact composed of two white dwarfs, one relatively cool and with low mass, and the other hotter and more massive. With this, the demographics and merger rate are no longer puzzling (various factors combine to lower the latter by more than two orders of magnitude). We show that the spectra are fit well with a combination of two hydrogen model atmospheres, as long as the lines of the higher-gravity component are broadened significantly relative to what is expected from just pressure broadening. Interpreting this additional broadening as due to rotation, the inferred spin period i...

Kulkarni, S R

2010-01-01

148

Evidence for Terrestrial Planetary System Remnants at White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

The last several years have brought about a dynamic shift in the view of exoplanetary systems in the post-main sequence, perhaps epitomized by the evidence for surviving rocky planetary bodies at white dwarfs. Coinciding with the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope, both space- and ground-based data have supported a picture whereby asteroid analogs persist at a significant fraction of cool white dwarfs, and are prone to tidal disruption when passing close to the compact stellar remnant. The ensuing debris can produce a detectable infrared excess, and the material gradually falls onto the star, polluting the atmosphere with heavy elements that can be used to determine the bulk composition of the destroyed planetary body. Based on the observations to date, the parent bodies inferred at white dwarfs are best described as asteroids, and have a distinctly rocky composition similar to material found in the inner Solar System. Their minimum masses are typical of large asteroids, and can approach or exceed the mass...

Farihi, J

2010-01-01

149

The Spectral Types of White Dwarfs in Messier 4  

CERN Multimedia

We present the spectra of 24 white dwarfs in the direction of the globular cluster Messier 4 obtained with the Keck/LRIS and Gemini/GMOS spectrographs. Determining the spectral types of the stars in this sample, we find 24 type DA and 0 type DB (i.e., atmospheres dominated by hydrogen and helium respectively). Assuming the ratio of DA/DB observed in the field with effective temperature between 15,000 - 25,000 K, i.e., 4.2:1, holds for the cluster environment, the chance of finding no DBs in our sample due simply to statistical fluctuations is only 6 X 10^(-3). The spectral types of the ~100 white dwarfs previously identified in open clusters indicate that DB formation is strongly suppressed in that environment. Furthermore, all the ~10 white dwarfs previously identified in other globular clusters are exclusively type DA. In the context of these two facts, this finding suggests that DB formation is suppressed in the cluster environment in general. Though no satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon exists, ...

Davis, D Saul; Rich, R Michael; Reitzel, David R; Kalirai, Jason S

2009-01-01

150

Describing SGRs/AXPs as fast and magnetized white dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

Over the last decade, observational evidence has mounted that SGRs/AXPs belong to a particular class of pulsars. Furthermore, fast and very magnetic white dwarfs have been observed, and recently two SGRs with low magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G, namely SGR 0418+5729 and Swift J1822.3-1606 were discovered with a period of $P\\sim9.08$ s and $P\\sim8.44$ s, respectively. These new discoveries opens the question of the nature of SGRs/AXPs, emerging alternative scenarios, in particular the white dwarf (WD) pulsar model. These astronomical observations have based an alternative description of the SGRs/AXPs expressed on rotating highly magnetized and very massive WDs. In this new description, several observational properties are easy understood and well explained as a consequence of the large radius of a massive white dwarf that manifests a new scale of mass density, moment of inertia, rotational energy, and magnetic dipole moment in comparison with the case of neutron stars. In this contribution, we will ...

Malheiro, M

2013-01-01

151

On the Maximum Mass of General Relativistic Uniformly Rotating White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct self-consistently the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The mass, the radius, the moment of inertia and quadrupole moment of rotating white dwarfs have been calculated as a function of both the central density and rotation period of the star. The maximum mass of rotating white dwarfs for stable configurations has been obtained.

Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; 10.1142/S0218301311040177

2012-01-01

152

Gaseous Material Orbiting the Polluted, Dusty White Dwarf HE1349-2305  

CERN Multimedia

We present new spectroscopic observations of the polluted, dusty, helium-dominated atmosphere white dwarf star HE1349-2305. Optical spectroscopy reveals weak CaII infrared triplet emission indicating that metallic gas debris orbits and is accreted by the white dwarf. Atmospheric abundances are measured for magnesium and silicon while upper limits for iron and oxygen are derived from the available optical spectroscopy. HE1349-2305 is the first gas disk-hosting white dwarf star identified amongst previously known polluted white dwarfs. Further characterization of the parent body polluting this star will require ultraviolet spectroscopy.

Melis, Carl; Farihi, J; Bochanski, J; Burgasser, Adam J; Parsons, S; Gaensicke, B; Koester, D; Swift, Brandon

2012-01-01

153

Cool White Dwarfs Identified in the Second Data Release of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey  

CERN Multimedia

We have paired the Second Data Release of the Large Area Survey of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey with the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify ten cool white dwarf candidates, from their photometry and astrometry. Of these ten, one was previously known to be a very cool white dwarf. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for seven of the candidates using the GMOS-N spectrograph on Gemini North, and have confirmed all seven as white dwarfs. Our photometry and astrometry indicates that the remaining two objects are also white dwarfs. Model analysis of the photometry and available spectroscopy shows that the seven confirmed new white dwarfs, and the two new likely white dwarfs, have effective temperatures in the range Teff = 5400-6600 K. Our analysis of the previously known white dwarf confirms that it is cool, with Teff = 3800 K. The cooling age for this dwarf is 8.7 Gyr, while that of the nine ~6000 K white dwarfs is 1.8-3.6 Gyr. We are unable to determine the masses of the white ...

Lodieu, N; Bergeron, P; Nitta, A; 10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1506

2009-01-01

154

Three New Eclipsing White-dwarf - M-dwarf Binaries Discovered in a Search for Transiting Planets Around M-dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf / M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8X faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 solar radi...

Law, Nicholas M; Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Bloom, Joshua S; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Cenko, S Bradley; Das, H K; Davis, Jack T C; Dekany, Richard G; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Ramaprakash, A N; Riddle, Reed; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Sivanandam, Suresh; Tendulkar, Shriharsh

2011-01-01

155

The Discovery of the First White Dwarf: Sirius B  

Science.gov (United States)

The major events surrounding the discovery of the white dwarf Sirius B, from its prediction in 1844 by Bessel, to its discovery by Alvan Graham Clark in 1862, to the demonstration of its subluminous nature by Adams in 1915 are relatively well known. However, numerous influential individuals, including C. A. F. Peters, A. Auwers, G. P. Bond., U. J. J. Le Verrier, L. Foucault and W. Struve, all played little known but influential roles in the initial discovery of Sirius B and in the subsequent interpretation of its nature.

Holberg, J. B.

2005-08-01

156

Degenerates with Dusty Disks: White Dwarfs and Cataclysmic Variables in the Infrared  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent infrared observations, particularly from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, of white dwarfs, cataclysmic variables and other interacting compact binaries, have revealed the presence of dust in many systems. I briefly review the discovery and observational properties of dust around white dwarfs and cataclysmic variables.

Hoard, D. W.

2013-02-01

157

Understanding the Cool DA White Dwarf Pulsator, G29–38  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white dwarfs are promising laboratories for the study of cosmochronology and stellar evolution. Through observations of the pulsating white dwarfs, we can measure their internal structures and compositions, critical to understanding post main sequence evolution, along with their cooling rates, a...

Kleinman, S. J.; Solheim, Jan Erik; Nather, R. E.; Bruvold, A.; Winget, D. E.; Clemens, J. C.; Bradley, A.; Kanaan, A.

158

Trigonometric parallaxes of high velocity halo white dwarf candidates  

CERN Multimedia

The status of 38 halo white dwarf candidates identified by Oppenheimer et al. (2001) has been intensively discussed by various authors. In analyses undertaken to date, trigonometric parallaxes are crucial missing data. Distance measurements are mandatory to kinematically segregate halo object from disk objects and hence enable a more reliable estimate of the local density of halo dark matter residing in such objects. We present trigonometric parallax measurements for 15 candidate halo white dwarfs (WDs) selected from the Oppenheimer et al. (2001) list. We observed the stars using the ESO 1.56-m Danish Telescope and ESO 2.2-m telescope from August 2001 to July 2004. Parallaxes with accuracies of 1--2 mas were determined yielding relative errors on distances of $\\sim5$% for 6 objects, $\\sim12$% for 3 objects, and $\\sim20$% for two more objects. Four stars appear to be too distant (probably farther than 100 pc) to have measurable parallaxes in our observations. Distances, absolute magnitudes and revised space ve...

Ducourant, C; Hambly, N C; Oppenheimer, B R; Hawkins, M R S; Rapaport, M; Modolo, J; Lecampion, J F

2007-01-01

159

Luminosity limits on white dwarfs in a Galactic shroud  

CERN Document Server

We place observational constraints on a recently proposed Galactic population, dubbed the shroud (Gyuk & Gates 1999, Gates & Gyuk 2001). The shroud would be a very thick Galactic disk of low luminosity objects, most likely old white dwarfs, proposed to explain the optical depth seen in microlensing surveys towards the Magellanic clouds. The shroud is a simple alternative to the lenses being distributed in a classical, near-spherical dark halo; the advantage of the shroud is that it would compose only a fraction of a dark halo's total mass. In this paper, we argue that stars of the Galactic shroud would be detectable in the recent proper motion survey of Oppenheimer et al. (2001) if their absolute luminosities were brighter than M_R_59F = 19.4 or approximately M_V = 18.6. We adopt a range of simple models of the shroud's kinematics and morphology, and the colours and luminosities of its white dwarfs; via Monte-Carlo simulations, we predict the numbers expected in the Oppenheimer et al. survey, which wo...

Holopainen, J; Holopainen, Janne; Flynn, Chris

2004-01-01

160

Search for Metal Pollution in 81 DA White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

A total of 81 DA white dwarfs have been observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope in a snapshot program. The targets were selected to be in the $T_{\\rm eff}$ range from 17000 - 25000 K, where optical metal lines become weak and difficult to detect. Because of the strong Si, C, and O resonance lines in the UV, this survey has a sensitivity that is comparable to that of the Keck/VLT searches for CaII K in cooler white dwarfs. These objects also have no convection zone and thus very short diffusion timescales, assuring that accretion is currently ongoing. The spectra have high resolution and in most cases fairly good S/N. About 60% of them show photospheric metal pollution, predominantly of Si, but in some cases additional metals are present. We report the results of a preliminary analysis and discuss the sources of the accreted matter and the possible r\\^ole of radiative levitation.

Koester, Detlev; Girven, Jonathan; Farihi, Jay

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Simplified Hydrostatic Carbon Burning in White Dwarf Interiors  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce two simplified nuclear networks that can be used in hydrostatic carbon burning reactions occurring in white dwarf interiors. They model the relevant nuclear reactions in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (COWDs) approaching ignition in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors, including the effects of the main e-captures and \\beta-decays that drive the convective Urca process. They are based on studies of a detailed nuclear network compiled by the authors and are defined by approximate sets of differential equations whose derivations are included in the text. The first network, N1, provides a good first order estimation of the distribution of ashes and it also provides a simple picture of the main reactions occurring during this phase of evolution. The second network, N2, is a more refined version of N1 and can reproduce the evolution of the main physical properties of the full network to the 5% level. We compare the evolution of the mole fraction of the relevant nuclei, the neutron excess, the photon ener...

Förster, Francisco; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

2010-01-01

162

Thermogalvanomagnetic effects in white dwarfs and neutron stars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electron contributions to the thermal and electrical conductivities and the thermoelectric coefficient are determined, and the equations of induction and heat transfer are derived, for the degenerate core of a white dwarf and the degenerate layers of a neutron-star envelope (in which the density rho<4 x 10/sup 11/ g/cm/sup 3/) in the presence of a nonquantizing magnetic field. At temperature T above the crystallization temperature or melting point T/sub M/ of the ions, scattering of electrons by ions is taken into account; for T < T/sub M/, scattering by crystal lattice vibrations (phonons) and impurities. Several thermogalvanomagnetic phenomena that might occur in white dwarfs and neutron stars are discussed: an uplife of the magnetic field to the surface because of outward thermal drift in the star, or a subsidence of the field into the interior, and various nonuniform heating mechsmisms arising from the magnetic field which might, for example, serve to confine thermonuclear burning to local regions of the star.

Urpin, V.A.; Yakovlev, D.G.

1980-07-01

163

Detached white dwarf main-sequence star binaries  

CERN Multimedia

We considered the formation of detached white dwarf main-sequence star (WDMS) binaries through seven evolutionary channels subdivided according to the evolutionary process that gives rise to the formation of the white dwarf or its helium-star progenitor: dynamically stable Roche-lobe overflow (Algol-type evolution), dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow (common-envelope evolution), or stellar winds (single star evolution). We examine the sensitivity of the population to changes in the amount of mass lost from the system during stable Roche-lobe overflow, the common-envelope ejection efficiency, and the initial mass ratio or initial secondary mass distribution. In the case of a flat initial mass ratio distribution, the local space density of WDMS binaries is of the order of 10^{-3}/pc^3. This number decreases to 10^{-4}/pc^3 when the initial mass ratio distribution is approximately proportional to the inverse of the initial mass ratio. More than 75% of the WDMS binary population stems from wide systems in w...

Willems, B

2004-01-01

164

An asteroseismic test of diffusion theory in white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

The helium-atmosphere (DB) white dwarfs are commonly thought to be the descendants of the hotter PG1159 stars, which initially have uniform He/C/O atmospheres. In this evolutionary scenario, diffusion builds a pure He surface layer which gradually thickens as the star cools. In the temperature range of the pulsating DB white dwarfs (T_eff ~ 25,000 K) this transformation is still taking place, allowing asteroseismic tests of the theory. We have obtained dual-site observations of the pulsating DB star CBS114, to complement existing observations of the slightly cooler star GD358. We recover the 7 independent pulsation modes that were previously known, and we discover 4 new ones to provide additional constraints on the models. We perform objective global fitting of our updated double-layered envelope models to both sets of observations, leading to determinations of the envelope masses and pure He surface layers that qualitatively agree with the expectations of diffusion theory. These results provide new asterosei...

Metcalfe, T S; Watson, T K; Kim, S L; Park, B G; Handler, G

2005-01-01

165

SWIFT J1644+57: A WHITE DWARF TIDALLY DISRUPTED BY A 104 M? BLACK HOLE?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose that the remarkable object Swift J1644+57, in which multiple recurring hard X-ray flares were seen over a span of several days, is a system in which a white dwarf was tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole. Disruption of a white dwarf rather than a main-sequence star offers a number of advantages in understanding the multiple, and short, timescales seen in the light curve of this system. In particular, the short internal dynamical timescale of a white dwarf offers a more natural way of understanding the short rise times (?100 s) observed. The relatively long intervals between flares (?5 × 104 s) may also be readily understood as the period between successive pericenter passages of the remnant white dwarf. In addition, the expected jet power is larger when a white dwarf is disrupted. If this model is correct, the black hole responsible must have a mass ?5 M?.

2011-12-20

166

Non-LTE spectral analyses of the lately discovered DB-gap white dwarfs from the SDSS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For a long time, no hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs have been known that have effective temperature between 30 kK and < 45 kK, i. e. exceeding those of DB white dwarfs and having lower ones than DO white dwarfs. Therefore, this temperature range was long known as the DB-gap. Only recently, the SDSS ...

Hügelmeyer, S. D.; Dreizler, S.

167

THE ACCRETING WHITE DWARF IN SS CYGNI REVEALED  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have carried out a combined Hubble Space Telescope (HST/GHRS) and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) analysis of the prototype dwarf nova SS Cygni during quiescence. The FUSE and HST spectra were obtained at comparable times after outburst and have matching flux levels where the two spectra overlap. In our synthetic spectral analysis, we have used SS Cygni's accurate HST fine guidance sensor parallax giving d = 166 pc, a newly determined mass for the accreting white dwarf (WD) of Mwd = 0.81 Msun (lower than the previous widely used 1.2 Msun) and the reddening (EB-V) values 0.04 and 0.07 derived from the 2175 A absorption feature in the IUE LWP spectra. From the best-fit model solutions to the combined HST + FUSE spectral energy distribution, we find that the WD is reaching a temperature Teff? 45,000-55,000 K in quiescence, assuming log(g) = 8.3 with a solar composition accreted atmosphere. The exact temperature of the WD depends on the reddening assumed and the inclusion of a quiescent low mass accretion rate accretion disk. Accretion disk models alone fit badly in the FUSE range while, and if we take the distance to be a free parameter, the only accretion disk model that fits well is for a discordant distance of at least several hundred parsecs and an accretion rate (?10-8 Msun yr-1), which is unacceptably high for a dwarf nova in quiescence. We discuss the implications of the WD's temperature on the time-averaged accretion rate and long-term compressional heating models.

2010-06-20

168

On the Orbits of Companions to White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

The ultimate fates of binary companions to stars (including whether the companion survives and the final orbit of the binary) are of interest in light of an increasing number of recently discovered, low-mass companions to white dwarfs (WDs). In this Letter, we study the evolution of a two-body system wherein the orbit adjusts due to structural changes in the primary, dissipation of orbital energy via tides, and mass loss during the giant phases. For companions ranging from Jupiter's mass to ~0.3 Msun and primaries ranging from 1--3 Msun, we determine the minimum initial semimajor axis required for the companion to avoid engulfment by the primary during post-main-sequence evolution, typically several times the maximum radius on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We present regions in secondary mass and orbital period space where an engulfed companion might be expected to survive the common envelope phase (CEP), and compare with known M dwarf+WD short-period binaries. Finally, we note that engulfed Earth-like planets...

Nordhaus, J

2012-01-01

169

THE FREQUENCY OF DEBRIS DISKS AT WHITE DWARFS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3+2.7 –1.2% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7 M ? stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of WD cooling ages; WDs accrete debris from several generations of disks for ?10 Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200 km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that WDs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as solar system asteroid analogs.

2012-11-20

170

THE FREQUENCY OF DEBRIS DISKS AT WHITE DWARFS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3{sup +2.7} {sub -1.2}% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7 M {sub Sun} stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of WD cooling ages; WDs accrete debris from several generations of disks for {approx}10 Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200 km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that WDs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as solar system asteroid analogs.

Barber, Sara D.; Patterson, Adam J.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Leggett, S. K. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Dufour, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L., E-mail: barber@nhn.ou.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-11-20

171

Astrometric determination of white dwarf radial velocities with Gaia?  

CERN Multimedia

Usually, the determination of radial velocities of stars relies on the shift of spectral lines by the Doppler effect. Russel & Atkinson (1931) and Oort (1932) already noted that due to the large proper motion and parallax of the white dwarf (WD) van Maanen 2, a determination of the perspective acceleration of the proper motion would provide a direct astrometric determination of the radial velocity which is independent of the gravitational redshift. If spectroscopic redshift measurements of Halpha and Hbeta NLTE cores exist, a purely astrometric determination would allow disentangling the gravitational redshift from the Doppler shift. The best instrument for measuring the tiny perspective acceleration is the Gaia satellite of the European Space Agency, aiming at absolute astrometric measurements of one billion stars down to 20th magnitude with unprecedented accuracy. At 15th magnitude, the predicted angular accuracy of Gaia is about 20 micro-arcseconds. In this article, we estimate whether it is possible t...

Jordan, Stefan

2012-01-01

172

Externally-polluted white dwarfs with dust disks  

CERN Document Server

We report Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of eleven externally-polluted white dwarfs. Of the nine stars for which we have IRAC photometry, we find that GD 40, GD 133 and PG 1015+161 each has an infrared excess that can be understood as arising from a flat, opaque, dusty disk. GD 56 also has an infrared excess characteristic of circumstellar dust, but a flat-disk model cannot reproduce the data unless there are grains as warm as 1700 K and perhaps not even then. Our data support the previous suggestion that the metals in the atmosphere of GD 40 are the result of accretion of a tidally-disrupted asteroid with a chondritic composition.

Jura, M; Zuckerman, B

2007-01-01

173

Hot DB White Dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

CERN Multimedia

We present ugriz photometry and optical spectroscopy for 28 DB and DO white dwarfs with temperatures between 28,000K and 45,000K. About 10 of these are particularly well-observed; the remainder are candidates. These are the hottest DB stars yet found, and they populate the "DB gap" between the hotter DO stars and the familiar DB stars cooler than 30,000K. Nevertheless, after carefully matching the survey volumes, we find that the ratio of DA stars to DB/DO stars is a factor of 2.5 larger at 30,000 K than at 20,000 K, suggesting that the "DB gap" is indeed deficient and that some kind of atmospheric transformation takes place in roughly 10% of DA stars as they cool from 30,000 K to 20,000 K.

Eisenstein, D J; Köster, D; Kleinmann, S J; Nitta, A; Smith, P S; Barentine, J C; Brewington, H J; Brinkmann, J; Harvanek, M; Krzesínski, J; Long, D; Schneider, D P; Snedden, S A; Neilsen, E H; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Liebert, James; Koester, Detlev; Nitta, Atsuko; Smith, Paul S.; Brewington, Howard J.; Harvanek, Michael; Krzesinski, Jurek; Long, Dan; Schneider, Donald P.; Snedden, Stephanie A.

2006-01-01

174

LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONSHIP AMONG NEARBY WHITE DWARFS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work is a systematic, deep search for stellar and substellar objects orbiting nearby white dwarfs (WDs). The scienti c interest spans testing speci c predictions of common envelope evolutionary phase models, as well as providing constraints to planetary system evolution in advanced stages of its parent star (Livio & Soker 1984; Willes & Wu 2005). Additionally, we seek to explore the hypothesis about the origin of metal lines in hydrogen WDs, produced by the accretion of tidal disturbed asteroidal or cometary material. This could be linked to the presence of a undetected substellar object that perturbed the orbits of these asteroids or comets (Debes & Sigurdsson 2002). Here, we show preliminary results of this project.

M. Radiszcz; R. A. Mu00E9ndez

2009-01-01

175

Detecting white dwarf binaries in Mock LISA Data Challenge 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present a strategy for detecting gravitational wave signals from the Galactic white dwarf binaries in the Mock LISA Data Challenge 3 (MLDC3) and estimate their parameters. Our method is based on the matched filtering in the form of the F-statistic. We perform the search on three-dimensional space (sky coordinate and frequency of gravitational wave) below 3 mHz and include the fourth parameter (frequency derivative) at high frequencies. A template bank is used to search for the strongest signal in the data, then we remove it and repeat the search until we do not have signals in the data above a preselected threshold. For the template bank, we construct an optimal grid that realizes the best lattice covering with a constraint such that the nodes of the grid coincide with the Fourier frequencies. This enables the use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm to calculate the F-statistic.

2009-10-21

176

Detecting white dwarf binaries in Mock LISA Data Challenge 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a strategy for detecting gravitational wave signals from the Galactic white dwarf binaries in the Mock LISA Data Challenge 3 (MLDC3) and estimate their parameters. Our method is based on the matched filtering in the form of the F-statistic. We perform the search on three-dimensional space (sky coordinate and frequency of gravitational wave) below 3 mHz and include the fourth parameter (frequency derivative) at high frequencies. A template bank is used to search for the strongest signal in the data, then we remove it and repeat the search until we do not have signals in the data above a preselected threshold. For the template bank, we construct an optimal grid that realizes the best lattice covering with a constraint such that the nodes of the grid coincide with the Fourier frequencies. This enables the use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm to calculate the F-statistic.

Blaut, A [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Krolak, A [Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Babak, S, E-mail: ablaut@ift.uni.wroc.p [Albert Einstein Institute, Golm (Germany)

2009-10-21

177

Crystallization of carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarf stars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We determine the phase diagram for dense carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarf (WD) star interiors using molecular dynamics simulations involving liquid and solid phases. Our phase diagram agrees well with predictions from Ogata et al. and from Medin and Cumming and gives lower melting temperatures than Segretain et al. Observations of WD crystallization in the globular cluster NGC 6397 by Winget et al. suggest that the melting temperature of WD cores is close to that for pure carbon. If this is true, our phase diagram implies that the central oxygen abundance in these stars is less than about 60%. This constraint, along with assumptions about convection in stellar evolution models, limits the effective S factor for the 12C(?,?)16O reaction to S(300)?170??keV?b.

Horowitz CJ; Schneider AS; Berry DK

2010-06-01

178

Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, ? ? ?t?5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3?yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ?3.2?Hz and strain amplitudes of ?10?18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

Laguna P.; Haas R.; Shcherbakov R.V.; Bode T.

2012-01-01

179

TOWARD A SPECTROSCOPIC CENSUS OF WHITE DWARFS WITHIN 40 pc OF THE SUN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present the preliminary results of a survey aimed at significantly increasing the range and completeness of the local census of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs. The current census of nearby white dwarfs is reasonably complete only to about 20 pc of the Sun, a volume that includes around 130 white dwarfs, a sample too small for detailed statistical analyses. This census is largely based on follow-up investigations of stars with very large proper motions. We describe here the basis of a method that will lead to a catalog of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun and north of the celestial equator, thus increasing by a factor of eight the extent of the northern sky census. White dwarf candidates are identified from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database, allowing us to investigate stars down to a proper motion limit ? > 40 mas yr–1, while minimizing the kinematic bias for nearby objects. The selection criteria and distance estimates are based on a combination of color-magnitude and reduced proper motion diagrams. Our follow-up spectroscopic observation campaign has so far uncovered 193 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 127 DA (including 9 DA+dM and 4 magnetic), 1 DB, 56 DC, 3 DQ, and 6 DZ stars. We perform a spectroscopic analysis on a subsample of 84 DAs, and provide their atmospheric parameters. In particular, we identify 11 new white dwarfs with spectroscopic distances within 25 pc of the Sun, including five candidates to the D

2013-01-01

180

Remarkable spectral variability on the spin period of the accreting white dwarf in V455 And  

CERN Document Server

We present spin-resolved spectroscopy of the accreting white dwarf binary V455 And. With a suggested spin period of only 67s, it has one of the fastest spinning white dwarfs known. To study the spectral variability on the spin period of the white dwarf, we observed V455 And with 2s integration times, which is significantly shorter than the spin rate of the white dwarf. To achieve this cadence, we used the blue arm of the ISIS spectrograph at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, equipped with an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD). Strong coherent signals were detected in our time series, which lead to a robust determination of the spin period of the white dwarf (Pspin=67.619 +/- 0.002 s). Folding the spectra on the white dwarf spin period uncovered very complex emission line variations in Hgamma, He I 4472 and He II 4686. We attribute the observed spin phase dependence of the emission line shape to the presence of magnetically controlled accretion onto the white dwarf via accretion curtains, consistent with an ...

Bloemen, S; De Smedt, K; Vos, J; Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R; Rodriguez-Gil, P

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

New phase diagrams for dense carbon-oxygen mixtures and white dwarf evolution  

CERN Multimedia

Cool white dwarfs are reliable and independent stellar chronometers. The most common white dwarfs have carbon-oxygen dense cores. Consequently, the cooling ages of very cool white dwarfs sensitively depend on the adopted phase diagram of the carbon-oxygen binary mixture. A new phase diagram of dense carbon-oxygen mixtures appropriate for white dwarf interiors has been recently obtained using direct molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we explore the consequences of this phase diagram in the evolution of cool white dwarfs. To do this we employ a detailed stellar evolutionary code and accurate initial white dwarf configurations, derived from the full evolution of progenitor stars. We use two different phase diagrams, that of Horowitz et al. (2010), which presents an azeotrope, and the phase diagram of Segretain & Chabrier (1993), which is of the spindle form. We computed the evolution of 0.593 and 0.878M_sun white dwarf models during the crystallization phase, and we found that the energy released...

Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi; Córsico, Alejandro H; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller

2011-01-01

182

Constraining the Surface Inhomogeneity and Settling Times of Metals on Accreting White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Due to the short settling times of metals in DA white dwarf atmospheres, any white dwarfs with photospheric metals must be actively accreting. It is therefore natural to expect that the metals may not be deposited uniformly on the surface of the star. We present calculations showing how the temperature variations associated with white dwarf pulsations lead to an observable diagnostic of the surface metal distribution, and we show what constraints current data sets are able to provide. We also investigate the effect that time-variable accretion has on the metal abundances of different species, and we show how this can lead to constraints on the gravitational settling times.

Montgomery, M H; Von Hippel, T

2008-01-01

183

A consistency test of white dwarf and main sequence ages: NGC 6791  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available NGC 6791 is an open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main sequence turn-off age (?8 Gyr) and the age derived from the cut-off of the white dwarf luminosity function (?6 Gyr) were found to be significantly different. Here we demonstrate that the origin of this age discrepancy lies in an incorrect evaluation of the white dwarf cooling ages, and we show that when the relevant physical separation processes are included in the calculation of white dwarf sequences both ages are coincident.

García-Berro E.; Torres S.; Isern J.; Salaris M.; Córsico A.H.; Althaus L.G.

2013-01-01

184

THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for {approx}8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10{sup 2} (10{sup 4}) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bagnulo, S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Kowalski, P. M. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Sterzik, M. F., E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: M.R.Patel@open.ac.uk, E-mail: r.busuttil@open.ac.uk, E-mail: sba@arm.ac.uk, E-mail: kowalski@gfz-potsdam.de, E-mail: denis.shulyak@gmail.com, E-mail: msterzik@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

2012-09-20

185

White dwarfs in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey: The Substellar Companion Fraction  

CERN Multimedia

We present a near-infrared photometric search for unresolved substellar companions and debris disks around white dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey. We cross-correlate the SDSS DR4 and McCook & Sion catalogues of white dwarfs with the UKIDSS DR8 producing 3109 and 163 unique matches respectively. Cooling models are fitted to the optical photometry of a subsample of DA white dwarfs and extended to the near-infrared. A comparison is then made with the observed photometry to identify those stars with a near-infrared excess consistent with the presence of a cool companion or debris disk. Where present, we have estimated the approximate spectral type of any putative companion, or an upper limit on the temperature of a debris disk. In total we identify 14-16 new candidate white dwarf + very low mass stellar systems, 9-11 candidate white dwarf + brown dwarf systems, and 3 candidate white dwarf + debris disks. We place lower limits on the unresolved (0.4+/-0.3%, f(WD+dT)>0.2% and f(WD+...

Steele, P R; Dobbie, P D; Jameson, R F; Barstow, M A; Satterthwaite, R P

2011-01-01

186

High-resolution UVES/VLT spectra of white dwarfs observed for the ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey. III. DA white dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

The ESO Supernova Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) took high-resolution spectra of more than 1000 white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs. About two thirds of the stars observed are hydrogen-dominated DA white dwarfs. Here we present a catalog and detailed spectroscopic analysis of the DA stars in the SPY. Atmospheric parameters effective temperature and surface gravity are determined for normal DAs. Double-degenerate binaries, DAs with magnetic fields or dM companions, are classified and discussed. The spectra are compared with theoretical model atmospheres using a chi^2 fitting technique. Our final sample contains 615 DAs, which show only hydrogen features in their spectra, although some are double-degenerate binaries. 187 are new detections or classifications. We also find 10 magnetic DAs (4 new) and 46 DA+dM pairs (10 new).

Köster, D; Napiwotzki, R; Christlieb, N; Homeier, D; Lisker, T; Reimers, D; Heber, U

2009-01-01

187

Determination of the white-dwarf masses in wide binary radio-pulsar systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper concerns a determination of the mass of the white dwarf in wide binary radio-pulsar systems, including the mass of neutron star PSR 1855 + 09. The binary pulsars considered consist of systems with long orbital periods, low mass functions and circular orbits. The determination of the white-dwarf mass is based on a constraint to the orbital solution, i.e. that the giant progenitor of the present white dwarf secondary should have filled its Roche lobe while spinning up the pulsar companion by mass transfer. Employment of this constraint leads to the mass of the white dwarf in these type of binary pulsars, and to an upper limit of approx. 1.2 M solar mass to PSR 1855 + 09. (U.K.).

Savonije, G.J.

1987-01-29

188

Neutrino emission and oscillations in white dwarf matter accreting onto a primordial black hole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Properties of the neutrinos emitted during an accretion of a white dwarf substance by a primordial black hole are considered. The possibility to detect these neutrinos and their oscillations is discussed[ru] ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ? ?? ?????????

2004-01-01

189

Neutrino Emission and Oscillations in White Dwarf Matter Accreting onto a Primordial Black Hole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Properties of the neutrinos emitted during an accretion of white dwarf matter by a primordial black hole are considered. The possibility of detecting these neutrinos and their oscillations is discussed

2004-01-01

190

AE Aquarii: The first white dwarf in the family of spin-powered pulsars  

CERN Multimedia

Simulation of Doppler H-alpha tomogram of the nova-like star AE Aquarii suggests that the dipole magnetic moment of the white dwarf is close to 1.5E+34 G cm^3. This is consistent with the lower limit to the magnetic field strength of the white dwarf derived from observations of circularly polarized optical emission of the system. The rapid braking of the white dwarf and the nature of pulsing hard X-ray emission recently detected with SUZAKU space telescope under these conditions can be explained in terms of spin-powered pulsar mechanism. A question about the origin of strongly magnetized white dwarf in the system remains, however, open. Possible evolutionary tracks of AE Aquarii are briefly discussed.

Ikhsanov, N R

2008-01-01

191

Echoes of a decaying planetary system: the gaseous and dusty disks surrounding three white dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

We have performed a comprehensive ground-based observational program aimed at characterizing the circumstellar material orbiting three single white dwarf stars previously known to possess gaseous disks. Near-infrared imaging unambiguously detects excess infrared emission towards Ton 345 and allows us to refine models for the circumstellar dust around all three white dwarf stars. We find that each white dwarf hosts gaseous and dusty disks that are roughly spatially coincident, a result that is consistent with a scenario in which dusty and gaseous material has its origin in remnant parent bodies of the white dwarfs' planetary systems. We briefly describe a new model for the gas disk heating mechanism in which the gaseous material behaves like a "Z II" region. In this Z II region, gas primarily composed of metals is photoionized by ultraviolet light and cools through optically thick allowed Ca II-line emission.

Melis, C; Albert, L; Klein, B; Zuckerman, B

2010-01-01

192

White dwarfs with unresolved substellar companions and debris disks in the UKIDSS Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present a near-infrared (NIR) photometric search for substellar companions and debris disks around white dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). We cross-correlate the SDSS DR4 and McCook and Sion catalogues of white dwarfs with the UKIDSS DR3 database producing 408 and 133 matches respectively. Models are then fitted to Sloan photometry to identify those with NIR photometric excesses consistent with an unresolved sub-stellar companion or a debris disk. We present follow up photometry from targets previously identified in UKIDSS DR2 and the first results from DR3. In total we identify 8 potential white dwarf + very low mass binary systems, 2 potential white dwarf + disk systems, and 2 systems which require further investigation to clarify the source of the excess.

193

Pollution of single white dwarfs by accretion of many small asteroids  

CERN Multimedia

Extrapolating from the solar system's asteroid belt, we propose that externally-contaminated white dwarfs without an infrared excess may be experiencing continuous accretion of gas-phase material that ultimately is derived from the tidal destruction of multiple small asteroids. If this scenario is correct, then observations of metal-polluted white dwarfs may lead to determining the bulk elemental compositions of ensembles of extrasolar minor planets.

Jura, M

2008-01-01

194

White dwarf mergers and the origin of R Coronae Borealis stars  

CERN Document Server

We present a nucleosynthesis study of the merger of a 0.4 solar masses helium white dwarf with a 0.8 solar masses carbon-oxygen white dwarf, coupling the thermodynamic history of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles with a post-processing code. The resulting chemical abundance pattern, particularly for oxygen and fluorine, is in qualitative agreement with the observed abundances in R Coronae Borealis stars.

Lorén-Aguilar, P; José, J; García-Berro, E; Althaus, L G; Isern, J

2011-01-01

195

Is Epsilon Aurigae a one more white dwarf in the stage of a supergiant mimicry?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is hypothesized that the primary component of the eclipsing system Epsilon Aurigae is a white dwarf in the stage of very prolonged flare of the symbiotic nova type. The hypothesis is based on the comparison of Epsilon Aurigae and PU Vul properties and on the fact that during the last decade the enhanced brightness of PU Vul is namely due to such a flare on an accreting white dwarf

1990-01-01

196

Double white dwarf mergers and elemental surface abundances in extreme helium and R Coronae Borealis stars  

CERN Multimedia

The surface abundances of extreme helium (EHe) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are discussed in terms of the merger of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with a helium white dwarf. The model is expressed as a linear mixture of the individual layers of both constituent white dwarfs, taking account of the specific evolution of each star. In developing this recipe from previous versions, particular attention has been given to the inter-shell abundances of the asymptotic giant branch star which evolved to become the carbon-oxygen white dwarf. Thus the surface composition of the merged star is estimated as a function of the initial mass and metallicity of its progenitor. The question of whether additional nucleosynthesis occurs during the white dwarf merger has been examined. The high observed abundances of carbon and oxygen must either originate by dredge-up from the core of the carbon-oxygen white dwarf during a cold merger or be generated directly by alpha-burning during a hot merger. The presence of large quantiti...

Jeffery, C Simon; Saio, Hideyuki

2011-01-01

197

An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate. PMID:20164924

Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

2010-02-18

198

Transit surveys for Earths in the habitable zones of white dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

To date the search for habitable Earth-like planets has primarily focused on nuclear burning stars. I propose that this search should be expanded to cool white dwarf stars that have expended their nuclear fuel. I define the continuously habitable zone of white dwarfs, and show that it extends from ~0.005 to 0.02 AU for white dwarfs with masses from 0.4-0.9 solar masses, temperatures less than 10,000 K, and habitable durations of at least 3 Gyr. As they are similar in size to Earth, white dwarfs may be completely eclipsed by terrestrial planets that orbit edge-on, which can easily be detected with ground-based telescopes. If planets can migrate inward or reform near white dwarfs, I show that a global robotic telescope network could carry out a transit survey of nearby white dwarfs placing interesting constraints on the presence of habitable Earths. If planets were detected, I show that the survey would favor detection of planets similar to Earth: similar size, temperature, rotation period, and host star temper...

Agol, Eric

2011-01-01

199

IRTF Observations of White Dwarfs with Possible Near-Infrared Excess  

CERN Multimedia

Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy is obtained for a heterogeneous sample of nearby white dwarfs with possible excess flux as identified primarily in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Among the sample of 43 stars are a number of white dwarfs that are either metal-rich, magnetic, or binary suspects. With a few notable exceptions in four (or possibly five) distinct categories, the newly obtained JHK photometric data fail to corroborate the putative excesses, with K_IRTF - K_2MASS = +0.31 mag. Where available, GALEX photometric data are used to better constrain the overall spectral energy distribution of the white dwarfs, enabling any excess near-infrared flux to stand out more readily against the expected stellar photosphere. With superior data, a near-infrared photometric excess is confirmed at three metal-rich white dwarfs and ruled out at nine others. Several new binaries are confirmed or suggested; five white dwarf - red dwarf pairs and five double degenerates. Four apparently single magnetic white dwar...

Farihi, J

2009-01-01

200

Astero-archaeology: Reading the galactic history recorded in the white dwarf stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Galactic history is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarfs. Although still some years away from reading the details of that history, significant limits can already be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. The following is a complete analysis of the problem, starting with a fresh exploration of the physics of white dwarf stars. An extensive grid of numerical model sequences is presented and these are used to describe in detail the behavior of the white dwarf stars as a function of mass, core composition, surface layer masses and compositions, and uncertainties in the constitutive physics. These model sequences are used to decode the information contained in the white dwarf luminosity function. A theoretical context is established for current and future observations by presenting luminosity functions computed with differing choices for the input white dwarf evolutionary sequences, the assumed age of the local disk, the star formation rate as a function of time, and the possibility of scale height inflation of the disk with time. Finally, white dwarf cosmochronology is discussed within the context of other, conflicting, methods of cosmochronology. How this work can help resolve these conflicts and shed light on fundamental problems in galaxy formation and cosmology.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The not-so-extreme white dwarf of the CV GD 552  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GD 552 is a cataclysmic binary which was previously believed to be composed of an M-star and a white dwarf, the latter having an extreme mass of 1.4 solar masses. In a recent paper we showed that this is not compatible with new observational evidence and presented an alternative model in which the white dwarf has a typical mass and the companion is a brown dwarf, making the system a likely member of the elusive group of CVs which have already evolved through minimum orbital period. Here we present additional spectroscopical evidence supporting this conclusion by means of skew mapping.

2009-06-01

202

Pulsations in Hydrogen Burning Low Mass Helium White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M < 0.20 M_sun undergo several Gyrs of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of two. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as t...

Steinfadt, Justin D R; Arras, Phil

2010-01-01

203

The Viscous Evolution of White Dwarf Merger Remnants  

CERN Document Server

The merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) creates a differentially rotating remnant which is unstable to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. These instabilities can lead to viscous evolution on a time-scale short compared to the thermal evolution of the remnant. We present multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of WD merger remnants under the action of an $\\alpha$-viscosity. We initialize our calculations using the output of eight WD merger simulations from Dan et al. (2011), which span a range of mass ratios and total masses. We generically find that the merger remnants evolve towards spherical states on time-scales of hours, even though a significant fraction of the mass is initially rotationally supported. The viscous evolution unbinds only a very small amount of mass $(< 10^{-5} M_\\odot)$. Viscous heating causes some of the systems we study with He WD secondaries to reach conditions of nearly dynamical burning. It is thus possible that the post-merger viscous phase triggers detonation of...

Schwab, Josiah; Quataert, Eliot; Dan, Marius; Rosswog, Stephan

2012-01-01

204

The cooling time of white dwarf for type Ia supernovae  

CERN Document Server

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a key role in measuring cosmological parameters, in which the Phillips relation is adopted. However, the origin of the relation is still unclear. Several parameters are suggested, e.g. the relative content of carbon to oxygen (C/O) and the central density of white dwarf (WD) at ignition. These parameters are mainly determined by initial WD mass and its cooling time, respectively. Using the progenitor model developed by Meng & Yang (2010a), we present the distributions of the initial WD mass and the cooling time. We do not find any correlation between there parameters. However, we notice that the range of the WD mass decreases, while its average value increases with the cooling time. This results could provide a constraint when simulating the SNe Ia explosion, i.e. the WDs with a high C/O usually have a lower central density at ignition, while those having a highest central density at ignition generally have a lower C/O. The cooling time is mainly determined by the evolutio...

Meng, Xiang-Cun; Li, Zhong-Mu

2010-01-01

205

Dusty Disks around White Dwarfs I: Origin of Debris Disks  

CERN Multimedia

A significant fraction of the mature FGK stars have cool dusty disks at least an orders of magnitudes brighter than the solar system's outer zodiacal light. Since such dusts must be continually replenished, they are generally assumed to be the collisional fragments of residual planetesimals analogous to the Kuiper Belt objects. At least 10% of solar type stars also bear gas giant planets. The fraction of stars with known gas giants or detectable debris disks (or both) appears to increase with the stellar mass. Here, we examine the dynamical evolution of systems of long-period gas giant planets and residual planetesimals as their host stars evolve off the main sequence, lose mass, and form planetary nebula around remnant white dwarf cores. The orbits of distant gas giant planets and super-km-size planetesimals expand adiabatically. During the most intense AGB mass loss phase, sub-meter-size particles migrate toward their host stars due to the strong hydrodynamical drag by the intense stellar wind. Along their ...

Dong, Ruobing; Lin, D N C; Liu, X -W

2010-01-01

206

On the white dwarf cooling sequence with extremely large telescopes  

CERN Multimedia

We present new diagnostics of white dwarf (WD) cooling sequences and luminosity functions (LFs) in the near-infrared (NIR) bands that will exploit the sensitivity and resolution of future extremely large telescopes. The collision-induced absorption (CIA) of molecular hydrogen causes a clearly defined blue turn-off along the WD (WDBTO) cooling sequences and a bright secondary maximum in the WD LFs. These features are independent of age over a broad age range and are minimally affected by metal abundance. This means that the NIR magnitudes of the WDBTO are very promising distance indicators. The interplay between the cooling time of progressively more massive WDs and the onset of CIA causes a red turn-off along the WD (WDRTO) cooling sequences and a well defined faint peak in the WD LFs. These features are very sensitive to the cluster age, and indeed the K-band magnitude of the faint peak increases by 0.2--0.25 mag/Gyr for ages between 10 and 14 Gyr. On the other hand, the faint peak in the optical WD LF incre...

Bono, G; Gilmozzi, R

2012-01-01

207

A Third Hot White Dwarf Companion Detected by Kepler  

CERN Multimedia

We have found a system listed in the Kepler Binary Catalog (3.273 day period; Prsa et al. 2010) that we have determined is comprised of a low-mass, thermally-bloated, hot white dwarf orbiting an A star of about 2.3 solar masses. In this work we designate the object, KIC 10657664, simply as KHWD3. We use the transit depth of ~0.66%, the eclipse depth of ~1.9%, and regular smooth periodic variations at the orbital frequency and twice the orbital frequency to analyze the system parameters. The smooth periodic variations are identified with the classical ellipsoidal light variation and illumination effects, and the newly utilized Doppler boosting effect. Given the measured values of R/a and inclination angle of the binary, both the ELV and DB effects are mostly sensitive to the mass ratio, q = M_2/M_1, of the binary. The two effects yield values of q which are somewhat inconsistent - presumably due to unidentified systematic effects - but which nonetheless provide a quite useful set of possibilities for the mass ...

Carter, Joshua A; Fabrycky, Daniel

2010-01-01

208

Accreting White Dwarfs as Supersoft X-ray Sources  

CERN Document Server

I review various phenomena associated with mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in the view of supersoft X-ray sources. When the mass-accretion rate is low (\\dot M_{acc} < a few \\times 10^{-7} M_\\sun yr^{-1}), hydrogen nuclear burning is unstable and nova outbursts occur. A nova is a transient supersoft X-ray source (SSS) in its later phase which timescale depends strongly on the WD mass. The X-ray turn on/off time is a good indicator of the WD mass. At an intermediate mass-accretion rate an accreting WD becomes a persistent SSS with steady hydrogen burning. For a higher mass-accretion rate, the WD undergoes "accretion wind evolution" in which the WD accretes matter from the equatorial plane and loses mass by optically thick winds from the other directions. Two SSS, namely RX J 0513-69 and V Sge, are corresponding objects to this accretion wind evolution. We can specify mass increasing WDs from light-curve analysis based on the optically thick wind theory using multiwavelength observational data including opt...

Kato, Mariko

2009-01-01

209

Linear tides in inspiraling white dwarf binaries: resonance locks  

CERN Multimedia

We calculate the tidal response of helium and carbon/oxygen (C/O) white dwarf (WD) binaries inspiraling due to gravitational wave emission. We show that resonance locks, previously considered in binaries with an early-type star, occur universally in WD binaries. In a resonance lock, the orbital and spin frequencies evolve in lockstep, so that the tidal forcing frequency is approximately constant and a particular normal mode remains resonant, producing efficient tidal dissipation and nearly synchronous rotation. Resonance locks in WDs can occur not only with global standing modes, but even when damping is so efficient that the resonant tidal response is a traveling wave. We derive simple analytic formulas for the tidal quality factor Q and tidal heating rate during a g-mode resonance lock, and verify our results numerically. We find that Q ~ 3 * 10^6 for orbital periods ~ 1 - 2 hr in C/O WDs, and Q ~ 3 * 10^8 for P_orb ~ 3 - 10 hr in helium WDs. Typically tidal heating occurs sufficiently close to the surface ...

Burkart, Joshua; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N

2012-01-01

210

Mass Constraints from Eclipse Timing in Double White Dwarf Binaries  

CERN Multimedia

I demonstrate that an effect similar to the Roemer delay, familiar from timing radio pulsars, should be detectable in the first eclipsing double white dwarf (WD) binary, NLTT 11748. By measuring the difference of the time between the secondary and primary eclipses from one-half period (4.6 s), one can determine the physical size of the orbit and hence constrain the masses of the individual WDs. A measurement with uncertainty <0.1 s---possible with modern large telescopes---will determine the individual masses to +/-0.02 Msun when combined with good-quality (<1 km/s) radial velocity data, although the eccentricity must also be known to high accuracy (+/- 1e-3). Mass constraints improve as P^{-1/2} (where P is the orbital period), so this works best in wide binaries and should be detectable even for non-degenerate stars, but such constraints require the mass ratio to differ from one and undistorted orbits.

Kaplan, David L

2010-01-01

211

White-Dwarf Kicks and Implications for Barium Stars  

CERN Multimedia

The formation mechanism of the barium stars is thought to be well understood. Barium-rich material, lost in a stellar wind from a thermally-pulsing asymptotic-giant branch star in a binary system, is accreted by its companion main-sequence star. Now, many millions of years later, the primary is an unseen white dwarf and the secondary has itself evolved into a giant which displays absorption lines of barium in its spectrum and is what we call a barium star. A similar wind-accretion mechanism is also thought to form the low-metallicity CH and carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. Qualitatively the picture seems clear but quantitatively it is decidedly murky: several key outstanding problems remain which challenge our basic understanding of binary-star physics. Barium stars with orbital periods less than about 4,000 days should -- according to theory -- be in circular orbits because of tidal dissipation, yet they are often observed to be eccentric. Only one barium-star period longer than 10^4 days has been published...

Izzard, Robert G; Church, Ross P

2010-01-01

212

The Long-Term Evolution of Double White Dwarf Mergers  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we present a model for the long-term evolution of the merger of two unequal mass C/O white dwarfs (WDs). After the dynamical phase of the merger, magnetic stresses rapidly redistribute angular momentum, leading to nearly solid body rotation on a viscous timescale, 1e4-1e8 s, long before significant cooling can occur. Because of heating during the dynamical and viscous phases, the less massive WD is transformed into a hot radially extended envelope supported by thermal pressure and with the majority of the mass having negligible rotational support. This extended envelope then undergoes Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction on a thermal timescale of ~1e4 yr; during this period, the merger remnant radiates near the Eddington limit. Given the double WD merger rate of a few per 1000 yr, a few dozen of these near-Eddington sources should exist in a Milky Way-type galaxy. In our calculations, the contraction of the cooling envelope is relatively rapid, and the base of the envelope is compressed until off-cente...

Shen, Ken J; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

2011-01-01

213

The ELM Survey. II. Twelve Binary White Dwarf Merger Systems  

CERN Document Server

We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ~0.2 Msol) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mas...

Kilic, Mukremin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueros, M A; Heinke, Craig; Kenyon, S J

2010-01-01

214

Probing the core and envelope structure of DBV white dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the global pulsation properties of DBV white dwarf models that include both the double-layered envelope structure expected from time-dependent diffusion calculations, as well as a non-uniform C/O core expected from prior nuclear burning. We compare these models to otherwise identical models containing a pure C core to determine whether the addition of core structure leads to any significant improvement. Our double-layered envelope model fit to GD 358 that includes an adjustable C/O core is significantly better than our pure C core fit (7sigma improvement). We find a comparable improvement from fits to a second DBV star, CBS 114, though the values of the derived parameters may be more difficult to reconcile with stellar evolution theory. We find that our models are systematically cooler by 1,900 K relative to the similar models of Fontaine & Brassard (2002). Although a fit to their model reproduces the mass and envelope structure almost exactly, we are unable to reproduce the absolute qualit...

Metcalfe, T S; Kawaler, S D

2003-01-01

215

A Spitzer Search for Substellar Companions to Low Mass White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

The formation scenarios for single low-mass (M < 0.45 Msol) white dwarfs include enhanced mass loss from a metal-rich progenitor star or a common envelope phase of a solar-like star with a close-in massive planet or a brown dwarf. Both scenarios suggest that low-mass white dwarfs may have planets. Here, we present a Spitzer IRAC search for substellar and planetary mass companions to 14 low-mass white dwarfs. One of our targets, HS 1653+7753, displays near- and mid-infrared flux excess. However, follow-up MMT observations show that this excess is due to a nearby resolved source, which is mostly likely a background object. Another target, PG 2257+162, shows flux excess compatible with a late-type stellar companion. We do not detect substellar companions to any of the remaining targets. In addition, eight of these stars do not show any radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar mass companions including other white dwarfs. We conclude that a significant fraction of the low-mass white dwarfs in our sample ...

Kilic, Mukremin; McLeod, B

2009-01-01

216

A PARAMETER-SPACE STUDY OF CARBON-OXYGEN WHITE DWARF MERGERS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs can lead to either a spectacular transient, stable nuclear burning or a massive, rapidly rotating white dwarf. Simulations of mergers have shown that the outcome strongly depends on whether the white dwarfs are similar or dissimilar in mass. In the similar-mass case, both white dwarfs merge fully and the remnant is hot throughout, while in the dissimilar case, the more massive, denser white dwarf remains cold and essentially intact, with the disrupted lower mass one wrapped around it in a hot envelope and disk. In order to determine what constitutes ''similar in mass'' and more generally how the properties of the merger remnant depend on the input masses, we simulated unsynchronized carbon-oxygen white dwarf mergers for a large range of masses using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. We find that the structure of the merger remnant varies smoothly as a function of the ratio of the central densities of the two white dwarfs. A density ratio of 0.6 approximately separates similar and dissimilar-mass mergers. Confirming previous work, we find that the temperatures of most merger remnants are not high enough to immediately ignite carbon fusion. During subsequent viscous evolution, however, the interior will likely be compressed and heated as the disk accretes and the remnant spins down. We find from simple estimates that this evolution can lead to ignition for many remnants. For similar-mass mergers, this would likely occur under sufficiently degenerate conditions that a thermonuclear runaway would ensue.

2013-04-20

217

Remarkable spectral variability on the spin period of the accreting white dwarf in V455 And  

Science.gov (United States)

We present spin-resolved spectroscopy of the accreting white dwarf binary V455 And. With a suggested spin period of only 67 s, it has one of the fastest spinning white dwarfs known. To study the spectral variability on the spin period of the white dwarf, we observed V455 And with 2 s integration times, which is significantly shorter than the spin rate of the white dwarf. To achieve this cadence, we used the blue arm of the ISIS spectrograph at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, equipped with an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD). Strong coherent signals were detected in our time series, which led to a robust determination of the spin period of the white dwarf (Pspin = 67.619 ± 0.002 s). Folding the spectra on the white dwarf spin period uncovered very complex emission line variations in H?, He I ?4472 and He II ?4686. We attribute the observed spin phase dependence of the emission line shape to the presence of magnetically controlled accretion on to the white dwarf via accretion curtains, consistent with an intermediate polar type system. We are, however, not aware of any specific model that can quantitatively explain the complex velocity variations we detect in our observations. The orbital variations in the spectral lines indicate that the accretion disc of V455 And is rather structureless, contrary to the disc of the prototype of the intermediate polars, DQ Her. This work demonstrates the potential of EMCCDs to observe faint targets at high cadence, as readout noise would make such a study impossible with conventional CCDs.

Bloemen, S.; Steeghs, D.; De Smedt, K.; Vos, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.

2013-03-01

218

The Discovery of Binary White Dwarfs that will Merge within 500 Myr  

CERN Document Server

We present radial velocity observations of four extremely low-mass (0.2 Msol) white dwarfs. All four stars show peak-to-peak radial velocity variations of 540 - 710 km/s with 1.0 - 5.9 hr periods. The optical photometry rules out main-sequence companions. In addition, no milli-second pulsar companions are detected in radio observations. Thus the invisible companions are most likely white dwarfs. Due to the loss of angular momentum through gravitational radiation, three of the systems will merge within 500 Myr. The remaining system will merge within a Hubble time. The mass functions for three of the systems imply companions more massive than 0.44 Msol; thus those are carbon/oxygen core white dwarfs. However, the chance of a supernova Ia event is only 1% to 5%. These systems will most likely form single R Coronae Borealis stars, providing evidence for a white dwarf + white dwarf merger mechanism for these unusual objects. One of the systems, SDSS J105353.89+520031.0 has a 70% chance of having a low-mass white d...

Kilic, Mukremin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Kenyon, S J

2009-01-01

219

The impact of chemical differentiation of white dwarfs on thermonuclear supernovae  

CERN Document Server

Gravitational settling of 22Ne in cooling white dwarfs has been suggested to affect the outcome of thermonuclear supernovae. We investigate how the supernova energetics and nucleosynthesis are affected by this process. This is done using realistic chemical profiles obtained from state-of-the-art white dwarf cooling sequences. The cooling sequences provide a link between the white dwarf chemical structure and the age of the supernova progenitor system. The cooling sequence of a 1 M_sun white dwarf has been computed until freezing using an up-to-date stellar evolutionary code. Thereafter we have computed explosions of both Chandrasekhar mass and sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, assuming spherical symmetry and neglecting convective mixing during the pre-supernova carbon simmering phase in order to maximize the effects of chemical separation. Neither gravitational settling of 22Ne nor chemical differentiation of 12C and 16O have an appreciable impact on the properties of Type Ia supernovae, unless there is a ...

Bravo, Eduardo; García-Berro, Enrique; Domínguez, Inmaculada

2010-01-01

220

Visitors from the Halo: 11 Gyr old White Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood  

CERN Document Server

We report the discovery of three nearby old halo white dwarf candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including two stars in a common proper motion binary system. These candidates are selected from our 2800 square degree proper motion survey on the Bok and U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3m telescopes, and they display proper motions of 0.4-0.5 arcsec/yr. Follow-up MMT spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry demonstrate that all three objects are hydrogen-dominated atmosphere white dwarfs with Teff = 3700 - 4100 K. For average mass white dwarfs, these temperature estimates correspond to cooling ages of 9-10 Gyr, distances of 70-80 pc, and tangential velocities of 140-200 km/s. Based on the UVW space velocities, we conclude that they most likely belong to the halo. Furthermore, the combined main-sequence and white dwarf cooling ages are 10-11 Gyr. Along with SDSS J1102+4113, they are the oldest field white dwarfs currently known. These three stars represent only a small fraction of the h...

Kilic, Mukremin; Williams, Kurtis A; Kowalski, P M; von Hippel, Ted; Harris, Hugh C; Jeffery, Elizabeth J; DeGennaro, Steven; Brown, Warren R; McLeod, B

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

New UltraCool and Halo White Dwarf Candidates in SDSS Stripe 82  

CERN Multimedia

A 2.5 x 100 degree region along the celestial equator (Stripe 82) has been imaged repeatedly from 1998 to 2005 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A new catalogue of ~4 million light-motion curves, together with over 200 derived statistical quantities, for objects in Stripe 82 brighter than r~21.5 has been constructed by combining these data by Bramich et al. (2007). This catalogue is at present the deepest catalogue of its kind. Extracting the ~130000 objects with highest signal-to-noise ratio proper motions, we build a reduced proper motion diagram to illustrate the scientific promise of the catalogue. In this diagram disk and halo subdwarfs are well-separated from the cool white dwarf sequence. Our sample of 1049 cool white dwarf candidates includes at least 8 and possibly 21 new ultracool DA type white dwarfs (T_eff < 4000K) and one new ultracool DB type white dwarf candidate identified from their SDSS optical and UKIDSS infrared photometry. At least 10 new halo white dwarfs are also identified from their...

Vidrih, S; Hewett, P C; Evans, N W; Gilmore, G; Hodgkin, S; Smith, M; Wyrzykowski, L; Belokurov, V; Fellhauer, M; Irwin, M J; McMahon, R G; Zucker, D; Munn, J A; Lin, H; Miknaitis, G; Harris, H C; Lupton, R H; Schneider, D P

2007-01-01

222

WHITE-DWARF-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARIES IDENTIFIED FROM THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a set of white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries identified spectroscopically from the Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) pilot survey. We develop a color selection criteria based on what is so far the largest and most complete Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 WDMS binary catalog and identify 28 WDMS binaries within the LAMOST pilot survey. The primaries in our binary sample are mostly DA white dwarfs except for one DB white dwarf. We derive the stellar atmospheric parameters, masses, and radii for the two components of 10 of our binaries. We also provide cooling ages for the white dwarf primaries as well as the spectral types for the companion stars of these 10 WDMS binaries. These binaries tend to contain hot white dwarfs and early-type companions. Through cross-identification, we note that nine binaries in our sample have been published in the SDSS DR7 WDMS binary catalog. Nineteen spectroscopic WDMS binaries identified by the LAMOST pilot survey are new. Using the 3{sigma} radial velocity variation as a criterion, we find two post-common-envelope binary candidates from our WDMS binary sample.

Ren Juanjuan; Luo Ali; Li Yinbi; Wei Peng; Zhao Jingkun; Zhao Yongheng; Song Yihan; Zhao Gang, E-mail: jjren@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2013-10-01

223

Orbital Parameters and Chemical Composition of Four White Dwarfs in Post-Common Envelope Binaries  

CERN Multimedia

We present FUSE observations of the hot white dwarfs in the post-common envelope binaries Feige 24, EUVE J0720-317, BPM 6502, and EUVE J2013+400. The spectra show numerous photospheric absorption lines which trace the white dwarf orbital motion. We report the detection of C III, O VI, P V, and Si IV in the spectra of Feige 24, EUVE J0720-317 and EUVE J2013+400, and the detection of C III, N II, Si III, Si IV, and Fe III in the spectra of BPM 6502. Abundance measurements support the possibility that white dwarfs in post-common envelope binaries accrete material from the secondary star wind. The FUSE observations of BPM 6502 and EUVE J2013+400 cover a complete binary orbit. We used the FUSE spectra to measure the radial velocities traced by the white dwarf in the four binaries, where the zero-point velocity were fixed using the ISM velocities in the line of sight of the stellar systems. For BPM 6502 we determined a white dwarf velocity semi-amplitude of K_WD = 18.6+/-0.5km/s, and with the velocity semi-amplitud...

Kawka, Adela; Dupuis, Jean; Chayer, Pierre; Lanz, Thierry

2007-01-01

224

A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE STUDY OF THE DEBRIS DISKS AROUND FOUR SDSS WHITE DWARFS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present Spitzer Space Telescope data of four isolated white dwarfs that were previously known to harbor circumstellar gaseous disks. Infrared Array Camera photometry shows a significant infrared excess in all of the systems, SDSS0738+1835, SDSS0845+2257, SDSS1043+0855, and SDSS1617+1620, indicative of a dusty extension to those disks. The 4.5 ?m excesses seen in SDSS0738, SDSS0845, and SDSS1617 are 7.5, 5.7, and 4.5 times the white dwarf contribution, respectively. In contrast, in SDSS1043, the measured flux density at 4.5 ?m is only 1.7 times the white dwarf contribution. We compare the measured IR excesses in the systems to models of geometrically thin, optically thick disks, and find that we are able to match the measured spectral energy distributions to within 3? of the uncertainties, although disks with unfeasibly hot inner dust temperatures generally provide a better fit than those below the dust sublimation temperature. Possible explanations for the dearth of dust around SDSS1043+0855 are briefly discussed. Including our previous study of SDSS1228+1040, all five white dwarfs with gaseous debris disks have significant amounts of dust around them. It is evident that gas and dust can coexist around these relatively warm, relatively young white dwarfs.

2012-05-01

225

A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE STUDY OF THE DEBRIS DISKS AROUND FOUR SDSS WHITE DWARFS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present Spitzer Space Telescope data of four isolated white dwarfs that were previously known to harbor circumstellar gaseous disks. Infrared Array Camera photometry shows a significant infrared excess in all of the systems, SDSS0738+1835, SDSS0845+2257, SDSS1043+0855, and SDSS1617+1620, indicative of a dusty extension to those disks. The 4.5 {mu}m excesses seen in SDSS0738, SDSS0845, and SDSS1617 are 7.5, 5.7, and 4.5 times the white dwarf contribution, respectively. In contrast, in SDSS1043, the measured flux density at 4.5 {mu}m is only 1.7 times the white dwarf contribution. We compare the measured IR excesses in the systems to models of geometrically thin, optically thick disks, and find that we are able to match the measured spectral energy distributions to within 3{sigma} of the uncertainties, although disks with unfeasibly hot inner dust temperatures generally provide a better fit than those below the dust sublimation temperature. Possible explanations for the dearth of dust around SDSS1043+0855 are briefly discussed. Including our previous study of SDSS1228+1040, all five white dwarfs with gaseous debris disks have significant amounts of dust around them. It is evident that gas and dust can coexist around these relatively warm, relatively young white dwarfs.

Brinkworth, C. S.; Girven, J. M.; Hoard, D. W. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Warwick CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Koester, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, University of Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

2012-05-01

226

A Nearby Old Halo White Dwarf Candidate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

CERN Multimedia

We report the discovery of a nearby, old, halo white dwarf candidate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. SDSS J110217.48+411315.4 has a proper motion of 1.75 arcsec/year and redder optical colors than all other known featureless (type DC) white dwarfs. We present SDSS imaging and spectroscopy of this object, along with near-infrared photometry obtained at the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope. Fitting its photometry with up-to-date model atmospheres, we find that its overall spectral energy distribution is fit reasonably well with a pure hydrogen composition and T_eff~3800 K (assuming log g=8). That temperature and gravity would place this white dwarf at 35 pc from the Sun with a tangential velocity of 290 km/s and space velocities consistent with halo membership; furthermore, its combined main sequence and white dwarf cooling age would be ~11 Gyr. However, if this object is a massive white dwarf, it could be a younger object with a thick disk origin. Whatever its origin, the optical colors of this object are...

Hall, Patrick B; Harris, Hugh C; Awal, Akshay; Leggett, S K; Kilic, Mukremin; Anderson, Scott F; Gates, Evalyn

2008-01-01

227

Relativistically-Compressed Exploding White-Dwarf Model for Sgr A East  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, a new mechanism for Type I supernovae has been proposed whereby relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf as it passes near a black hole. It was suggested but not confirmed that this relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear reactions so that a thermonuclear runaway ensues. Here, we present numerical studies of such relativistically induced explosions of white dwarfs and red giant cores of various mass (particularly a typical 0.6 M{sub {circle_dot}} white dwarf) as they pass near a 3.7 x 10{sup 6} black hole like Sgr A* in the Galactic center. We confirm by hydrodynamic thermonuclear burn simulations in three spatial dimensions that white dwarfs and red giant cores do indeed ignite and explode. In fact they seem to explode even farther from the black hole than earlier estimates due to increased internal temperatures from adiabatic heating as the stars are compressed. We find that the compression is sufficiently fast that red giant cores, or young (< 10{sup 8} yr) white dwarfs can even be heated to thermonuclear rather than pychnonuclear ignition. We propose that such an event might explain the observed ''mixed-morphology'' Sgr A East supernova remnant in the Galactic center.

Dearborn, D P; Wilson, J R; Mathews, G J

2004-11-10

228

ANCIENT PLANETARY SYSTEMS ARE ORBITING A LARGE FRACTION OF WHITE DWARF STARS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infrared studies have revealed debris likely related to planet formation in orbit around ?30% of youthful, intermediate mass, main-sequence stars. We present evidence, based on atmospheric pollution by various elements heavier than helium, that a comparable fraction of the white dwarf descendants of such main-sequence stars are orbited by planetary systems. These systems have survived, at least in part, through all stages of stellar evolution that precede the white dwarf. During the time interval (?200 million years) that a typical polluted white dwarf in our sample has been cooling it has accreted from its planetary system the mass of one of the largest asteroids in our solar system (e.g., Vesta or Ceres). Usually, this accreted mass will be only a fraction of the total mass of rocky material that orbits these white dwarfs; for plausible planetary system configurations we estimate that this total mass is likely to be at least equal to that of the Sun's asteroid belt, and perhaps much larger. We report abundances of a suite of eight elements detected in the little studied star G241-6 that we find to be among the most heavily polluted of all moderately bright white dwarfs.

2010-10-10

229

The white dwarf cooling sequence in the old open cluster NGC 188  

CERN Multimedia

We develop the white dwarf luminosity function (LF) of the old open cluster NGC 188 in order to determine a lower limit to the age of the cluster by using the faint end of the cooling sequence. To produce an extensive sequence of the cooling white dwarfs we imaged four contiguous HST-WFPC2 fields in the center of the cluster in the F555W and F814W filters. After imposing selection criteria on the detected objects we found a white dwarf cooling sequence (down to V ~26.5) including 28 candidate white dwarfs in the cluster. The exposures are not deep enough to reach the end of this sequence, but the results of our analysis allow us to establish a lower limit to the age of the cluster independently of the isochrone fit to the cluster turnoff. The most ancient white dwarfs found are ~4 Gyr old, an age that is set solely by the photometric limit of our data. Classical methods provide an estimate of \\~7 Gyr (Sarajedini et al., 1999).

Andreuzzi, G; Limongi, M; Bolte, M; Andreuzzi, Gloria; Richer, Harvey B.; Limongi, Marco; Bolte, Michael

2002-01-01

230

Detection of the white dwarf and the secondary star in the new SU UMa dwarf nova HS 2219+1824  

CERN Document Server

We report the discovery of a new, non-eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf nova, HS 2219+1824. Photometry obtained in quiescence (V ~ 17.5) reveals a double-humped light curve from which we derive an orbital period of ~ 86.2 min. Additional photometry obtained during a superoutburst reaching V ~ 12.0 clearly shows superhumps with a period of ~ 89.05 min. The optical spectrum contains double-peaked Balmer and HeI emission lines from the accretion disc as well as broad absorption troughs of Hbeta, Hgamma, and Hdelta from the white dwarf primary star. Modelling of the optical spectrum implies a white dwarf temperature of 13000 K <~ Twd <~ 17000 K, a distance of 180 pc <~ d <~ 230 pc, and suggests that the spectral type of the donor star is later than M5. Phase-resolved spectroscopy obtained during quiescence reveals a narrow Halpha emission line component which has a radial velocity amplitude and phase consistent with an origin on the secondary star, possibly on the irradiated hemisphere facing the white dwar...

Rodríguez-Gil, P; Hagen, H J; Marsh, T R; Harlaftis, E T; Kitsionas, S; Engels, D

2004-01-01

231

White-Dwarfs in the thin-disk: physical properties and luminosity functions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we present an investigation of a sample of 1072 stars extracted from the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (2005 on-line version), studying their distribution in the Galaxy, their physical properties and their luminosity functions. The distances and physical properties of the white dwarfs are determined through interpolation of their (B-V) or (b-y) colors in model grids. The solar position relative to the Galactic plane, luminosity function, as well as separate functions for each white dwarf spectral type are derived and discussed. We show that the binary fraction does not vary significantly as a function of distance from the Galactic disk out to 100 pc. We propose that the formation rates of DA and non-DAs have changed over time and/or that DAs evolve into non-DA types. The luminosity functions for DAs and DBs have peaks possibly related to a star burst event.

Hektor Monteiro; Wei-Chun Jao; Antonio Kanaan

2007-01-01

232

Nucleosynthesis during the Merger of White Dwarfs and the Origin of R Coronae Borealis Stars  

CERN Multimedia

Many hydrogen deficient stars are characterised by surface abundance patterns that are hard to reconcile with conventional stellar evolution. Instead, it has been suggested that they may represent the result of a merger episode between a helium and a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. In this Letter, we present a nucleosynthesis study of the merger of a 0.4 M_sol helium white dwarf with a 0.8 M_sol carbon-oxygen white dwarf, by coupling the thermodynamic history of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles with a post-processing code. The resulting chemical abundance pattern, particularly for oxygen and fluorine, is in qualitative agreement with the observed abundances in R Coronae Borealis stars.

Longland, R; José, J; García-Berro, E; Althaus, L G; Isern, J

2011-01-01

233

White dwarfs stripped by massive black holes: sources of coincident gravitational and electromagnetic radiation  

CERN Document Server

White dwarfs inspiraling into black holes of mass $\\MBH\\simgt 10^5M_\\odot$ are detectable sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band. In many of these events, the white dwarf begins to lose mass during the main observational phase of the inspiral. The mass loss starts gently and can last for thousands of orbits. The white dwarf matter overflows the Roche lobe through the $L_1$ point at each pericenter passage and the mass loss repeats periodically. The process occurs very close to the black hole and the released gas can accrete, potentially creating a bright source of radiation with luminosity close to the Eddington limit, $L\\sim 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This class of inspirals offers a promising scenario for dual detections of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation.

Zalamea, Ivan; Beloborodov, Andrei M

2010-01-01

234

Strengthening the Case for Asteroidal Accrection: Evidence for Subtle and Diverse Disks at White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC 3-8 micron and AKARI IRC 2-4 micron photometry are reported for ten white dwarfs with photospheric heavy elements; nine relatively cool stars with photospheric calcium, and one hotter star with a peculiar high carbon abundance. A substantial infrared excess is detected at HE 2221-1630, while modest excess emissions are identified at HE 0106-3253 and HE 0307+0746, implying these latter two stars have relatively narrow (Delta r < 0.1 Rsol) rings of circumstellar dust. A likely 7.9 micron excess is found at PG 1225-079 and may represent, together with G166-58, a sub-class of dust ring with a large inner hole. The existence of attenuated disks at white dwarfs substantiates the connection between their photospheric heavy elements and the accretion of disrupted minor planets, indicating many polluted white dwarfs may harbor orbiting dust, even those lacking an obvious infrared excess.

Farihi, J; Lee, J -E; Zuckerman, B

2010-01-01

235

SDSS-UKIDSS white dwarf-main sequence binaries (Liu+, 2012)  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop optical and near-infrared colour-selection criteria based on the model colours of binaries consisting of a white dwarf and a main-sequence star. Using our colour-selection algorithm, we present a catalogue of 523 white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), most of them previously identified. Among them, we identify 86 objects as new WDMS binaries. 95 WDMS candidates are also found from the photometric SDSS DR7, cross-matched with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Sky Survey Data Release 5 (UKIDSS DR5). Based on a {chi}2 minimization technique, we derive independent stellar parameters such as the effective temperatures, surface gravities, masses and distances of the white dwarfs and secondary stars and the metallicities of the secondaries. (2 data files).

Liu, C.; Li, L.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, D.; Liu, J.

2013-05-01

236

A Catalog of Spectroscopically Confirmed White Dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4  

CERN Document Server

We present a catalog of 9316 spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. We have selected the stars through photometric cuts and spectroscopic modeling, backed up by a set of visual inspections. Roughly 6000 of the stars are new discoveries, roughly doubling the number of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs. We analyze the stars by performing temperature and surface gravity fits to grids of pure hydrogen and helium atmospheres. Among the rare outliers are a set of presumed helium-core DA white dwarfs with estimated masses below 0.3 Msun, including two candidates that may be the lowest masses yet found. We also present a list of 928 hot subdwarfs.

Eisenstein, D J; Harris, H C; Kleinmann, S J; Nitta, A; Silvestri, N M; Anderson, S A; Barentine, J C; Brewington, H J; Brinkmann, J; Harvanek, M; Krzesínski, J; Long, D; Schneider, D P; Snedden, S A; Neilsen, E H; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Liebert, James; Harris, Hugh C.; Nitta, Atsuko; Silvestri, Nicole; Anderson, Scott A.; Brewington, Howard J.; Harvanek, Michael; Krzesinski, Jurek; Long, Dan; Schneider, Donald P.; Snedden, Stephanie A.

2006-01-01

237

White-dwarf red-giant mergers, early-type R stars, J stars and lithium  

CERN Multimedia

Early-type R stars and J stars are a special type of carbon star, having enhanced nitrogen ($\\rm [N/Fe]\\approx 0.5$), lithium, a low \\iso{12}{C}/\\iso{13}{C} ratio ($<15$) and no s-element enhancements. The merger of a helium white dwarf with a red giant is regarded to be a possible model for the origin of early-type R stars, but the details of nucleosynthesis are not clear. In this paper we investigate three possible channels for helium white-dwarf + red-giant mergers, and find that, amongst the three, only a high-mass helium white dwarf subducted into a low core-mass red giant can make an early-type R star. Nucleosynthesis of elements carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and lithium correspond well with the observations. Furthermore, we find that the J stars may represent a short and luminous stage in the evolution of an early-R star.

Zhang, Xianfei

2013-01-01

238

Accretion of a Terrestrial-Like Minor Planet by a White Dwarf  

CERN Document Server

We present optical and infrared characterization of the polluted DAZ white dwarf GALEX J193156.8+011745. Imaging and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared indicates that the white dwarf hosts excess infrared emission consistent with the presence of an orbiting dusty debris disk. In addition to the five elements previously identified, our optical echelle spectroscopy reveals chromium and manganese and enables restrictive upper limits on several other elements. Synthesis of all detections and upper limits suggests that the white dwarf has accreted a differentiated parent body. We compare the inferred bulk elemental composition of the accreted parent body to expectations for the bulk composition of an Earth-like planet stripped of its crust and mantle and find relatively good agreement. At least two processes could be important in shaping the final bulk elemental composition of rocky bodies during the late phases of stellar evolution: irradiation and interaction with the dense stellar wind.

Melis, Carl; Dufour, P; Zuckerman, B; Burgasser, Adam J; Bergeron, P; Bochanski, J; Simcoe, R

2011-01-01

239

Gamma-rays from electrons accelerated by rotating magnetized White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters  

CERN Document Server

Recently a substantial part of globular cluster population has been established as GeV gamma-ray sources by the Fermi-LAT telescope. We investigate possible production of the high energy gamma-rays by relativistic electrons injected from the population of fast rotating, magnetized White Dwarfs within the globular cluster. These electrons comptonize the radiation field within the globular cluster. We conclude that gamma-rays produced by electrons accelerated by the whole population of White Dwarfs within a specific cluster are on the level of detectability of the future Cherenkov telescope array provided that a few thousand of magnetized White Dwarfs have been created uniformly during the lifetime of the globular cluster.

Bednarek, W

2012-01-01

240

Population boundaries for Neutron star-White Dwarf binaries in LISA's amplitude-frequency domain  

CERN Document Server

In an earlier investigation, we proposed population boundaries for both inspiralling and mass-transferring double white dwarf (DWD) systems in the distance independent ``absolute'' amplitude-frequency domain of the proposed space-based gravitational-wave (GW) detector, {\\it LISA}. The mass-radius relationship of individual white dwarf stars, in combination with the constraints imposed by Roche geometries, permits us to identify five key population boundaries for DWD systems in various phases of evolution. Here we extend these boundaries to both inspiralling and mass-transferring neutron star-white dwarf (NSWD) binary systems, which occupy distinct sub-domains than DWDs, in the ``absolute'' amplitude-frequency space. Assuming that the currently known ultra-compact x-ray binaries (UCXBs) are NSWD systems in conservative mass transfer (CMT)phase, we assess the limits and applicability of our theoretical population boundaries with respect to observations. The fairly known issue of the apparent clustering of UCXBs...

Kopparapu, Ravi kumar

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Near-infrared spectroscopy of the very low mass companion to the hot DA white dwarf PG1234+482  

CERN Multimedia

We present a near-infrared spectrum of the hot ($T_{\\rm eff}$ $\\approx$ 55,000 K) DA white dwarf PG 1234+482. We confirm that a very low mass companion is responsible for the previously recognised infrared photometric excess. We compare spectra of M and L dwarfs, combined with an appropriate white dwarf model, to the data to constrain the spectral type of the secondary. We find that uncertainties in the 2MASS $HK$ photometry of the white dwarf prevent us from distinguishing whether the secondary is stellar or substellar, and assign a spectral type of L0$\\pm$1 (M9-L1).Therefore, this is the hottest and youngest ($\\approx 10^6$ yr) DA white dwarf with a possible brown dwarf companion.

Steele, P R; Dobbie, P D; Barstow, M A

2007-01-01

242

Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion's orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields.

Nordhaus J; Wellons S; Spiegel DS; Metzger BD; Blackman EG

2011-02-01

243

Observing white dwarfs orbiting massive black holes in the gravitational wave and electro-magnetic window  

CERN Multimedia

We consider a potentially new class of gravitational wave sources consisting of a white dwarf coalescing into a massive black hole in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\msun. These sources are of particular interest because the gravitational wave signal produced during the inspiral phase can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and is promptly followed, in an extended portion of the black hole and white dwarf mass parameter space, by an electro-magnetic signal generated by the tidal disruption of the star, detectable with X-ray, optical and UV telescopes. This class of sources could therefore yield a considerable number of scientific payoffs, that include precise cosmography at low redshift, demographics of black holes in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\Msun, insights into dynamical interactions and populations of white dwarfs in the cores of dwarf galaxies, as well as a new probe into the structure and equation of state of white dwarfs. By modelling the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation pr...

Sesana, A; Eracleous, M; Sigurdsson, S

2008-01-01

244

Detection of the white dwarf and the secondary star in the new SU UMa dwarf nova HS 2219+1824  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the discovery of a new, non-eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf nova, HS 2219+1824. Photometry obtained in quiescence (V?17.5) reveals a double-humped light curve from which we derive an orbital period of ?86.2 min. Additional photometry obtained during a superoutburst reaching V?12.0 clearly shows superhumps with a period of ?89.05 min. The optical spectrum contains double-peaked Balmer and He I emission lines from the accretion disc as well as broad absorption troughs of H?, H?, and H? from the white dwarf primary star. Modelling of the optical spectrum implies a white dwarf temperature of 13 000 K?Teff?17 000 K, a distance of 180 pc? d?230 pc, and suggests that the spectral type of the donor star is later than M 5. Phase-resolved spectroscopy obtained during quiescence reveals a narrow H? emission line component which has a radial velocity amplitude and phase consistent with an origin on the secondary star, possibly on the irradiated hemisphere facing the white dwarf. This constitutes the first detection of line emission from the secondary star in a quiescent SU UMa star. Based in part on observations obtained at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy; on observations made with the IAC80 and OGS telescopes, operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), respectively, in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the IAC; on observations made at the 1.2 m telescope, located at Kryoneri Korinthias, and owned by the National Observatory of Athens, Greece; and on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope, which is operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC.

Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hagen, H.-J.; Marsh, T. R.; Harlaftis, E. T.; Kitsionas, S.; Engels, D.

2005-02-01

245

Theoretical and observational review of results on nova explosions occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nova outburst is the second most violent explosion that occurs in a galaxy. This review presents the recent observational and theoretical studies that have demonstrated that there exist two classes of nova outburst. One type of nova occurs on a CO white dwarf and the other type of nova occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. The second class of outbursts are much more violent and occur much more frequently then the first class of outbursts. Hydrodynamic simulations of both kinds of outbursts are in excellent agreement with the observations. 51 refs

1986-01-01

246

Theoretical and observational review of results on nova explosions occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nova outburst is the second most violent explosion that occurs in a galaxy. This review presents the recent observational and theoretical studies that have demonstrated that there exist two classes of nova outburst. One type of nova occurs on a CO white dwarf and the other type of nova occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. The second class of outbursts are much more violent and occur much more frequently then the first class of outbursts. Hydrodynamic simulations of both kinds of outbursts are in excellent agreement with the observations. 51 refs.

Starrfield, S.

1986-07-07

247

Creating White Dwarf Photospheres in the Laboratory: Strategy for Astrophysics Applications  

CERN Document Server

Astrophysics experiments by Falcon et al. to create white dwarf photospheres in the laboratory are currently underway. The experimental platform measures Balmer line profiles of a radiation-driven, pure hydrogen plasma in emission and in absorption for conditions at T_e ~ 1 eV, n_e ~ 10^17 cm^-3. These will be used to compare and test line broadening theories used in white dwarf atmosphere models. The flexibility of the platform allows us to expand the direction of our experiments using other compositions. We discuss future prospects such as exploring helium plasmas and carbon/oxygen plasmas relevant to the photospheres of DBs and hot DQs, respectively.

Falcon, Ross E; Bailey, J E; Ellis, J L; Carlson, A L; Gomez, T A; Montgomery, M H; Winget, D E; Chen, E Y; Gomez, M R; Nash, T J; Pille, T M

2012-01-01

248

Semiclassical model for the ionic self-diffusion coefficient in white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the extreme conditions of massive white dwarfs, which have ionic densities that exceed 1029 cm-3, the ions can be both very strongly coupled and partially degenerate. We present a simple model for self-diffusion in such white dwarfs that utilizes the known one-component plasma diffusion coefficient and scalings derived from the short-time expansions of the velocity autocorrelation function and the memory function. Since the ions are weakly degenerate, we utilize a simple semiclassical correction to the classical dynamics. We find enhanced diffusion, relative to the purely classical calculation, which is more significant at smaller values of the Coulomb coupling parameter.

2005-01-01

249

WD0837+185:the formation and evolution of an extreme mass ratio white dwarf-brown dwarf binary in Praesepe  

CERN Multimedia

There is a striking and unexplained dearth of brown dwarf companions in close orbits (< 3AU) around stars more massive than the Sun, in stark contrast to the frequency of stellar and planetary companions. Although rare and relatively short-lived, these systems leave detectable evolutionary end points in the form of white dwarf - brown dwarf binaries and these remnants can offer unique insights into the births and deaths of their parent systems. We present the discovery of a close (orbital separation ~ 0.006 AU) substellar companion to a massive white dwarf member of the Praesepe star cluster. Using the cluster age and the mass of the white dwarf we constrain the mass of the white dwarf progenitor star to lie in the range 3.5 - 3.7 Msun (B9). The high mass of the white dwarf means the substellar companion must have been engulfed by the B star's envelope while it was on the late asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Hence, the initial separation of the system was ~2 AU, with common envelope evolution reducing the s...

Casewell, S L; Wynn, G A; Alexander, R D; Napiwotzki, R; Lawrie, K A; Dobbie, P D; Jameson, R F; Hodgkin, S T

2012-01-01

250

Swift J1644+57: A White Dwarf Tidally Disrupted by a 10^4 M_{odot} Black Hole?  

CERN Document Server

We propose that the remarkable object Swift J1644+57, in which multiple recurring hard X-ray flares were seen over a span of several days, is a system in which a white dwarf was tidally disrupted by an intermediate mass black hole. Disruption of a white dwarf rather than a main sequence star offers a number of advantages in understanding the multiple, and short, timescales seen in the light curve of this system. In particular, the short internal dynamical timescale of a white dwarf offers a more natural way of understanding the short rise times (~100s) observed. The relatively long intervals between flares (~5 x 10^4 s) may also be readily understood as the period between successive pericenter passages of the remnant white dwarf. In addition, the expected jet power is larger when a white dwarf is disrupted. If this model is correct, the black hole responsible must have mass < 10^5 M_{odot}.

Krolik, Julian H

2011-01-01

251

SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF UV-BRIGHT WHITE DWARFS FROM THE SANDAGE TWO-COLOR SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC PLANE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present spectroscopic observations confirming the identification of hot white dwarfs among UV-bright sources from the Sandage Two-color Survey of the Galactic Plane and listed in the Lanning (Lan) catalog of such sources. A subsample of 213 UV-bright Lan sources have been identified as candidate white dwarfs based on the detection of a significant proper motion. Spectroscopic observations of 46 candidates with the KPNO 2.1 m telescope confirm 30 sources to be hydrogen white dwarfs with subtypes in the DA1-DA6 range, and with one of the stars (Lan 161) having an unresolved M dwarf as a companion. Five more sources are confirmed to be helium white dwarfs, with subtypes from DB3 to DB6. One source (Lan 364) is identified as a DZ 3 white dwarf, with strong lines of calcium. Three more stars are found to have featureless spectra (to within detection limits) and are thus classified as DC white dwarfs. In addition, three sources are found to be hot subdwarfs: Lan 20 and Lan 480 are classified as sdOB, and Lan 432 is classified sdB. The remaining four objects are found to be field F star interlopers. Physical parameters of the DA and DB white dwarfs are derived from model fits.

2011-01-01

252

Constraints on the pairing properties of main sequence stars from observations of white dwarfs in binary systems  

CERN Document Server

Observations of main sequence stars conducted over the last several decades have clearly shown that something like 50 per cent of stars of spectral types G and F occur in multiple systems. For earlier spectral types, the incidence of multiplicity is even higher. Thus, a volume limited sample of white dwarfs should reflect the percentage of binarity observed in stars of F to late B spectral types, which are their Main Sequence progenitors. However, a study of the local volume limited sample of white dwarfs (20 pc from the Sun) conducted by Holberg has shown that a white dwarf has a probability of only $\\sim 32$ per cent of occurring in a binary system, in stark contrast to the observations of multiplicity of Main Sequence stars. Others studies have also led to the same conclusion. In this paper, we argue that the "hidden" white dwarfs are either in double white dwarf systems or in Sirius-like systems. We also show that the white dwarf progenitors of the SDSS white dwarf - M dwarf wide binaries are distributed ...

Ferrario, Lilia

2012-01-01

253

Habitable planets around white and brown dwarfs: the perils of a cooling primary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10(-6). Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 10(4) K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable.

Barnes R; Heller R

2013-03-01

254

Habitable planets around white and brown dwarfs: the perils of a cooling primary.  

Science.gov (United States)

White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10(-6). Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 10(4) K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable. PMID:23537137

Barnes, Rory; Heller, René

2013-03-01

255

On the Origin of Metals in Some Hot White Dwarf Photospheres  

CERN Document Server

We have searched for evidence for dust and gas disks at a sample of hot DA white dwarfs 20 000K < Teff < 50 000K, without success. Although their atmospheres are polluted with heavy elements, we cannot yet convincingly and conclusively show that any of these objects is accreting metals from surrounding material derived from disrupted minor planets in an old solar system.

Burleigh, M R; Farihi, J; Bannister, N P; Dickinson, N; Steele, P R; Dobbie, P D; Faedi, F; Gänsicke, B T

2011-01-01

256

Bound on the flux of magnetic monopoles from catalysis of nucleon decay in white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Catalysis of nucleon decay in white dwarfs is used to constrain the abundance of magnetic monopoles arising from grand unified theories. Recent discoveries of the dimmest white dwarf ever observed, WD 1136-286 with L=10-4.94Lcircle-dot, place limits on the monopole flux that are two orders of magnitude stronger than previous bounds from white dwarfs. An abundance of monopoles greater than the new bound would heat this star to a luminosity higher than what is observed. The new bound is (F/cm-2 s-1 sr-1) (??/10-28 cm2)-20(?M/10-3c)2, where ?M is the monopole velocity in the Galaxy. The limit is improved by including the monopoles captured by the main-sequence progenitor of the white dwarf: (F/cm-2 s-1 sr-1) (??/10-28 cm2)-21 for 1017 (1016) GeV monopoles. We also note that the dependence on monopole mass of flux bounds due to catalysis in neutron stars with main sequence accretion has previously been calculated incorrectly [previously the bound has been stated as F(??/10-28 cm2)-28 cm-2 s-1 sr-1]. We show that the correct bounds are somewhat weaker for monopole mass other than 1017 GeV. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

1999-01-01

257

Observable Signatures of the Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

Despite its probable occurrence in Nature, the accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of a white dwarf has not yet been directly observed (or, at least, it has not been unambiguously identified as such). In this contribution we summarize the observational signatures of AIC, emphasizing its possible role as both an optical and high-energy transient.

Metzger, B D; Quataert, E; Thompson, T A

2009-01-01

258

C/O white dwarfs of very low mass: 0.33-0.5 Mo  

CERN Document Server

The standard lower limit for the mass of white dwarfs (WDs) with a C/O core is roughly 0.5 Mo. In the present work we investigated the possibility to form C/O WDs with mass as low as 0.33 Mo. Both the pre-WD and the cooling evolution of such nonstandard models will be described.

Moroni, P G Prada

2008-01-01

259

'High entropy' accretion onto the surface of a white dwarf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accretion of hydrogen rich matter onto the surface of a white dwarf, assuming that the accreted matter keeps a small part of its gravitational falling energy, is investigated. The influence of this energy excess on the hydrogen ignition and the thermal instability that follows is described and discussed.

Glasner, A.; Tuchman, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics)

1981-12-01

260

G35-26 - Carbon in a peculiar DA white dwarf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

G35-26 is the first white dwarf to show atomic lines of both hydrogen and carbon. It should, however, be removed from the list of confirmed magnetic white dwarfs, since any surface field is less than 500,000 gauss. In accordance with the new spectral classification system of Sion et al. (1983), it may be classified as DAQ3. The star could be identified with the hot end of the helium-rich white dwarfs which reveal traces of dredged-up carbon in their atmospheres. It is noted that the absence of nitrogen or heavier element traces in the atmosphere is consistent with this hypothesis. G35-26 would be the hottest star so far to exhibit evidence for this kind of dredging, extending well into the DB temperature range. Since the star shows a high tangential velocity (Greenstein, 1978), it probably had a progenitor mass that was lower than average. In view of the evidence that the final mass may scale with the star's initial mass, the lower white-dwarf mass would allow a convective envelope of larger than normal mass fraction at 15,000 K. In this way, the layer digs deeper into the 'tail' of the carbon core abundance gradient.

Liebert, J.

1983-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Discovery of eclipsing white dwarf systems in a search for Earth-size companions  

CERN Multimedia

Although white dwarfs are believed to be the end point of most stellar evolution, unlike main sequence stars, they have not yet been the subject of dedicated time-domain surveys for exoplanets. We discuss how their size and distinctive colour make them excellent targets for wide-field searches for exoplanets. In particular, we note that planets of Earth-size can give rise to multi-magnitude eclipses of massive white dwarfs. Such a large signal is almost unmistakable and would be detectable even with very low-precision photometry. For objects of smaller size, the high accuracy photometry currently being used to detect Super-Earth and smaller planets transiting Sun-sized stars, is capable of revealing minor planets down to R~100km as they transit white dwarfs. Such observations can be used to test current evidence for asteroid-size objects being the cause for dust rings which have recently been observed for a number of white dwarfs. No other current exoplanet search method is capable of detecting such exo-aster...

Drake, A J; Catelan, M; Djorgovski, S G; Graham, M J; Kleinman, S J; Larson, S; Mahabal, A; Williams, R

2010-01-01

262

Energy Dissipation through Quasi-Static Tides in White Dwarf Binaries  

CERN Multimedia

We study tidal interactions in white dwarf binaries in the limiting case of quasi-static tides. The formalism is valid for arbitrary orbital eccentricities and therefore applicable to white dwarf binaries in the Galactic disk as well as globular clusters. In the quasi-static limit, the total perturbation of the gravitational potential shows a phase shift with respect to the position of the companion, the magnitude of which is determined primarily by the efficiency of energy dissipation through convective damping. We determine rates of secular evolution of the orbital elements and white dwarf rotational angular velocity for a 0.3 solar mass helium white dwarf in binaries with orbital frequencies in the LISA gravitational wave frequency band and companion masses ranging from 0.3 to 10^5 solar masses. The resulting tidal evolution time scales for the orbital semi-major axis are longer than a Hubble time, so that convective damping of quasi-static tides need not be considered in the construction of gravitational ...

Willems, B; Kalogera, V

2009-01-01

263

SDSS J163030.58+423305.8: A 40 minute Orbital Period Detached White Dwarf Binary  

CERN Multimedia

We report the discovery of a new detached, double white dwarf system with an orbital period of 39.8 min. We targeted SDSS J163030.58+423305.8 (hereafter J1630) as part of our radial velocity program to search for companions around low-mass white dwarfs using the 6.5m MMT. We detect peak-to-peak radial velocity variations of 576 km/s. The mass function and optical photometry rule out main-sequence companions. In addition, no milli-second pulsar companions are detected in radio observations. Thus the invisible companion is most likely another white dwarf. Unlike the other 39 min binary SDSS J010657.39-100003.3, follow-up high speed photometric observations of J1630 obtained at the McDonald 2.1m telescope do not show significant ellipsoidal variations, indicating a higher primary mass and smaller radius. The absence of eclipses constrain the inclination angle to 0.3 Msun invisible secondary, at a separation of >0.32 Rsun. The two white dwarfs will merge in less than 31 Myr. Depending on the core composition of t...

Kilic, Mukremin; Hermes, J J; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Kenyon, S J; Winget, D E; Winget, K I

2011-01-01

264

Search for carbon stars and DZ white dwarfs in SDSS spectra survey  

CERN Document Server

With more and more sky survey programs developed, overwhelming stellar spectra have been obtained and up to TB or PB level. So it is quite necessary to search for some type of objects or to build some catalogues completely for special stars using automatic methods. We used label propagation algorithm which is widely used in the area of information retrieval to search for carbon stars and cool DZ white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky survey (SDSS) DR8. Performance of algorithm in searching for carbon stars stars was discussed by comparing with most complete catalogue to date and more carbon stars including 268 Carbon stars, 207 carbon star candidates and 11 composition spectrum systems consisting of a white dwarf and a carbon star were identified . In addition the algorithm was used to search for rare DZ white dwarfs and 30 new DZ white dwarfs were found, 13 of which might be around or bellow 6500K and 4 of which might be bellow 6000K.

Si, Jianmin; Zhang, Jiannan; Wei, Peng; Wu, Yihong; Wu, Fuchao

2013-01-01

265

Emission lines from tidally disrupted white dwarfs and other evolved stars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When a black hole tidally disrupts a star, accretion of the debris will produce a luminous flare and reveal the presence of a dormant black hole. The accretion flare can also photoionize a portion of the post-disruption debris. We present models of the emission line spectrum produced in the debris released when a white dwarf or a horizontal branch star is tidally disrupted by an intermediate-mass black hole, and discuss the possibility of using the emission lines to identify such events and constrain the properties of the black hole. We also compare the white dwarf disruption models with observations of white dwarf tidal disruption candidates in globular clusters associated with NGC 4472 and NGC 1399. The bright [O III] lines observed in each system are consistent with these models, but there are some drawbacks to interpreting these sources as tidally disrupted white dwarfs. On the other hand, models of the emission line spectrum produced when a horizontal branch star is disrupted by a ? 100 M? black hole are in good agreement with the source in the NGC 1399 globular cluster. Finally, we describe light curves for the emission lines produced in the debris of a tidally disrupted helium core. The modeled light curves are consistent with the recent observations of Gezari et al. (2012).

Clausen D.; Eracleous M.; Sigurdsson S.; Irwin J.A.

2012-01-01

266

Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars: The physics of compact objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents include: Star deaths and the formation of compact objects; White dwarfs; Rotation and magnetic fields; Cold equation of state above neutron drip; Pulsars; Accretion onto black holes; Supermassive stars and black holes; Appendices; and Indexes. This book discusses one aspect, compact objects, of astronomy and provides information of astrophysics or general relativity.

Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

1983-01-01

267

Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars: The physics of compact objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The contents include: Star deaths and the formation of compact objects; White dwarfs; Rotation and magnetic fields; Cold equation of state above neutron drip; Pulsars; Accretion onto black holes; Supermassive stars and black holes; Appendices; and Indexes. This book discusses one aspect, compact objects, of astronomy and provides information of astrophysics or general relativity

1983-01-01

268

Merging White Dwarf/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

CERN Document Server

The merger of compact binaries, especially black holes and neutron stars, is frequently invoked to explain gamma-ray bursts (GRB's). In this paper, we present three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the relatively neglected mergers of white dwarfs and black holes. During the merger, the white dwarf is tidally disrupted and sheared into an accretion disk. Nuclear reactions are followed and the energy release is negligible. Peak accretion rates are ~0.05 Msun/s (less for lower mass white dwarfs) lasting for approximately a minute. Many of the disk parameters can be explained by a simple analytic model which we derive and compare to our simulations. This model can be used to predict accretion rates for white dwarf and black hole (or neutron star) masses which are not simulated in this paper. Although the mergers studied here create disks with larger radii, and longer accretion times than those from the merger of double neutron stars, a larger fraction of the merging star's mass becomes part of the disk. ...

Fryer, C L; Herant, M; Davies, M B; Davies, Melvyn B.

1999-01-01

269

Neutrino burst of white dwarf being absorbed by a primordial black hole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Primordial black holes (PBHS) of masses M?5x104 g are able to absorb white dwarfs (WD), giving rise to formation of black holes of WD masses. The WD absorption is accomplained by up to 1052 erg neutrino bursts which can be readily detected by modern neutrino detectors. We calculate time characteristics of such a burst in this paper. (authors)

2003-01-01

270

Ancient planetary systems are orbiting a large fraction of white dwarf stars  

CERN Document Server

Infrared studies have revealed debris likely related to planet formation in orbit around ~30% of youthful, intermediate mass, main sequence stars. We present evidence, based on atmospheric pollution by various elements heavier than helium, that a comparable fraction of the white dwarf descendants of such main sequence stars are orbited by planetary systems. These systems have survived, at least in part, through all stages of stellar evolution that precede the white dwarf. During the time interval (~200 million years) that a typical polluted white dwarf in our sample has been cooling it has accreted from its planetary system the mass of one of the largest asteroids in our solar system (e.g., Vesta or Ceres). Usually, this accreted mass will be only a fraction of the total mass of rocky material that orbits these white dwarfs; for plausible planetary system configurations we estimate that this total mass is likely to be at least equal to that of the Sun's asteroid belt, and perhaps much larger. We report abunda...

Zuckerman, B; Klein, B; Koester, D; Jura, M

2010-01-01

271

The Discovery of a Debris Disk Around the DAV White Dwarf PG 1541+651  

CERN Multimedia

To search for circumstellar disks around evolved stars, we targeted roughly 100 DA white dwarfs from the Palomar Green survey with the Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope (PAIRITEL). Here we report the discovery of a debris disk around one of these targets, the pulsating white dwarf PG 1541+651 (KX Draconis, hereafter PG1541). We detect a significant flux excess around PG1541 in the K-band. Follow-up near-infrared spectroscopic observations obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and photometric observations with the warm Spitzer Space Telescope confirm the presence of a warm debris disk within 0.13-0.36 Rsun (11-32x the stellar radius) at an inclination angle of 60deg. At Teff = 11880 K, PG1541 is almost a twin of the DAV white dwarf G29-38, which also hosts a debris disk. All previously known dusty white dwarfs are of the DAZ/DBZ spectral type due to accretion of metals from the disk. High-resolution optical spectroscopy is needed to search for metal absorption lines in PG1541 and to...

Kilic, Mukremin; Barber, Sara; Leggett, S K; Dufour, P

2011-01-01

272

Comparing the White Dwarf Cooling Sequences in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397  

CERN Multimedia

Using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, color-magnitude diagrams are constructed for the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6397. As expected, because of its lower metal abundance, the main sequence of NGC 6397 lies well to the blue of that of 47 Tuc. A comparison of the white dwarf cooling sequences of the two clusters, however, demonstrates that these sequences are indistinguishable over most of their loci - a consequence of the settling out of heavy elements in the dense white dwarf atmosphere and the near equality of their masses. Lower quality data on M4 continues this trend to a third cluster whose metallicity is intermediate between these two. While the path of the white dwarfs in the color-magnitude diagram is nearly identical in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397, the numbers of white dwarfs along the path are not. This results from the relatively rapid relaxation in NGC 6397 compared to 47 Tuc and provides a cautionary note that simply counting objects in star clusters in random locations as a method of testing s...

Richer, Harvey B; Heyl, Jeremy; Hurley, Jarrod; Dotter, Aaron; Kalirai, Jason S; Woodley, Kristin A; Fahlman, Gregory G; Rich, R Michael; Shara, Michael M

2013-01-01

273

An accurate mass and radius measurement for an ultracool white dwarf  

CERN Multimedia

Studies of cool white dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood have placed a limit on the age of the Galactic disk of 8-9 billion years. However, determining their cooling ages requires the knowledge of their effective temperatures, masses, radii, and atmospheric composition. So far, these parameters could only be inferred for a small number of ultracool white dwarfs for which an accurate distance is known, by fitting their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in conjunction with a theoretical mass-radius relation. However, the mass-radius relation remains largely untested, and the derived cooling ages are hence model-dependent. Here we report direct measurements of the mass and radius of an ultracool white dwarf in the double-lined eclipsing binary SDSS J013851.54-001621.6. We find M(WD)=0.529+/-0.010Msol and R(WD)=0.0131+/-0.0003Rsol. Our measurements are consistent with the mass-radius relation and we determine a robust cooling age of 9.5 billion years for the 3570K white dwarf. We find that the mass and radius o...

Parsons, S G; Marsh, T R; Bergeron, P; Copperwheat, C M; Dhillon, V S; Bento, J; Littlefair, S P; Schreiber, M R

2012-01-01

274

A new extremely low-mass white dwarf in the NLTT catalogue  

CERN Document Server

We report on the discovery of the extremely low-mass, hydrogen-rich white dwarf, NLTT 11748. Based on measurements of the effective temperature (8540+/-50 K) and surface gravity (log g = 6.20+/-0.15) obtained by fitting the observed Balmer line profiles with synthetic spectra, we derive a mass of 0.167+/-0.005 M_solar. This object is one of only a handful of white dwarfs with masses below 0.2 M_solar that are believed to be the product of close binary evolution with an episode of Roche lobe overflow onto a degenerate companion (neutron star or white dwarf). Assuming membership in the halo population, as suggested by the kinematics and adopting a cooling age of 4.0 - 6.3 Gyrs for the white dwarf, we infer a progenitor mass of 0.87 - 0.93 M_solar. The likely companion has yet to be identified, but a search for radial velocity variations may help constrain its nature.

Kawka, A

2009-01-01

275

Examples of degenerated matter in astrophysics: white dwarf and neutron stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main features of star evolution are recalled. Then the general structure of white dwarf stars is examined. From the equation of state of an electron gas completely degenerated are deduced: mechanical equilibrium, Viriel theorem, mass-radius relationship and Chandrasekhar limit. These results are applied to neutron stars

1982-01-01

276

Examples of degenerated matter in astrophysics: white dwarf and neutron stars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main features of star evolution are recalled. Then the general structure of white dwarf stars is examined. From the equation of state of an electron gas completely degenerated are deduced: mechanical equilibrium, Viriel theorem, mass-radius relationship and Chandrasekhar limit. These results are applied to neutron stars.

Bottinelli, L. (Observatoire de Meudon (France))

1982-06-01

277

The star formation history of the solar neighbourhood from the white dwarf luminosity function  

Science.gov (United States)

The termination in the white dwarf luminosity function is a standard diagnostic tool for measuring the total age of nearby stellar populations. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for inverting the full white dwarf luminosity function to obtain a maximum likelihood estimate of the time-varying star formation rate of the host stellar population. Tests with synthetic data demonstrate that the algorithm converges over a wide class of underlying star formation rate forms. The algorithm successfully estimates the moving average star formation rate as a function of lookback time in the presence of realistic measurement noise, though suffers from degeneracies around discontinuities in the underlying star formation rate. The inversion results are most sensitive to the choice of white dwarf cooling models, with the models produced by different groups giving quite different results. The results are relatively insensitive to the progenitor metallicity, initial mass function, initial-final mass relation and ratio of H/He atmosphere white dwarfs. Application to two independent determinations of the solar neighbourhood white dwarf luminosity function gives similar results. The star formation rate has a bimodal form, with broad peaks at 2-3 and 7-9 Gyr in the past, separated by a significant lull of magnitude 30-90 per cent depending on the choice of cooling models. The onset of star formation occurs around 8-10 Gyr ago. The total integrated star formation rate is ˜0.014 stars pc-3 in the solar neighbourhood, for stars more massive than 0.6 M?.

Rowell, N.

2013-09-01

278

Relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller theory for white dwarfs in general relativity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent formulation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model within the Feynman-Metropolis-Teller theory for compressed atoms is applied to the study of general relativistic white dwarf equilibrium configurations. The equation of state, which takes into account the ?-equilibrium, the nuclear and the Coulomb interactions between the nuclei and the surrounding electrons, is obtained as a function of the compression by considering each atom constrained in a Wigner-Seitz cell. The contribution of quantum statistics, weak, nuclear, and electromagnetic interactions is obtained by the determination of the chemical potential of the Wigner-Seitz cell. The further contribution of the general relativistic equilibrium of white dwarf matter is expressed by the simple formula ?(g00)?ws=constant, which links the chemical potential of the Wigner-Seitz cell ?ws with the general relativistic gravitational potential g00 at each point of the configuration. The configuration outside each Wigner-Seitz cell is strictly neutral and therefore no global electric field is necessary to warranty the equilibrium of the white dwarf. These equations modify the ones used by Chandrasekhar by taking into due account the Coulomb interaction between the nuclei and the electrons as well as inverse ? decay. They also generalize the work of Salpeter by considering a unified self-consistent approach to the Coulomb interaction in each Wigner-Seitz cell. The consequences on the numerical value of the Chandrasekhar-Landau mass limit as well as on the mass-radius relation of 4He, 12C, 16O and 56Fe white dwarfs are presented. All these effects should be taken into account in processes requiring a precision knowledge of the white dwarf parameters.

2011-10-15

279

High-resolution simulations of the head-on collision of white dwarfs  

Science.gov (United States)

The direct impact of white dwarfs has been suggested as a plausible channel for Type Ia supernovae. In spite of their (a priori) rareness, in highly populated globular clusters and in galactic centres, where the amount of white dwarfs is considerable, the rate of violent collisions between two of them might be non-negligible. Even more, there are indications that binary white dwarf systems orbited by a third stellar-mass body have an important chance to induce a clean head-on collision. Therefore, this scenario represents a source of contamination for the supernova light-curve sample that it is used as standard candles in cosmology, and it deserves further investigation. Some groups have conducted numerical simulations of this scenario, but their results show several differences. In this paper, we address some of the possible sources of these differences, presenting the results of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations jointly with a detailed nuclear post-processing of the nuclear abundances, to check the viability of white dwarf collisions to produce significant amounts of 56Ni. To that purpose, we use a 2D axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamic code to obtain a resolution considerably higher than in previous studies. In this work, we also study how the initial mass and nuclear composition affect the results. The gravitational wave emission is also calculated, as this is a unique signature of this kind of events. All calculated models produce a significant amount of 56Ni, ranging from 0.1 to 1.1 M?, compatible not only with normal-branch Type Ia supernova but also with the subluminous and super-Chandrasekhar subset. Nevertheless, the distribution mass function of white dwarfs favours collisions among 0.6-0.7 M? objects, leading to subluminous events.

García-Senz, D.; Cabezón, R. M.; Arcones, A.; Relaño, A.; Thielemann, F. K.

2013-10-01

280

A Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarf Stars in the First Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

CERN Document Server

We present the full spectroscopic white dwarf and hot subdwarf sample from the SDSS first data release, DR1. We find 2551 white dwarf stars of various types, 240 hot subdwarf stars, and an additional 144 objects we have identified as uncertain white dwarf stars. Of the white dwarf stars, 1888 are non-magnetic DA types and 171, non-magnetic DBs. The remaining (492) objects consist of all different types of white dwarf stars: DO, DQ, DC, DH, DZ, hybrid stars like DAB, etc., and those with non-degenerate companions. We fit the DA and DB spectra with a grid of models to determine the Teff and log(g) for each object. For all objects, we provide coordinates, proper motions, SDSS photometric magnitudes, and enough information to retrieve the spectrum/image from the SDSS public database. This catalog nearly doubles the known sample of spectroscopically-identified white dwarf stars. In the DR1 imaged area of the sky, we increase the known sample of white dwarf stars by a factor of 8.5. We also comment on several parti...

Kleinman, S J; Eisenstein, D J; Liebert, J; Nitta, A; Krzesínski, J; Munn, J A; Dahn, C C; Hawley, S L; Pier, J R; Schmidt, G; Silvestri, N M; Smith, J A; Szkody, P; Strauss, M A; Knapp, G R; Collinge, M J; Mukadam, A S; Köster, D; Uomoto, A; Schlegel, D J; Anderson, S F; Brinkmann, J; Lamb, D Q; Schneider, D P; York, D G; Harris, Hugh C.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Liebert, James; Nitta, Atsuko; Krzesi\\'{n}ski, Jurek; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Dahn, Conard C.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Schmidt, Gary; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Szkody, Paula; Strauss, Michael A.; Collinge, Matthew J.; Uomoto, Alan; Anderson, Scott F.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Spectroscopic confirmation of UV-bright white dwarfs from the Sandage Two-Color Survey of the Galactic Plane  

CERN Multimedia

We present spectroscopic observations confirming the identification of hot white dwarfs among UV-bright sources from the Sandage Two-color Survey of the Galactic plane and listed in the Lanning (Lan) catalog of such sources. A subsample of 213 UV bright Lan sources have been identified as candidate white dwarfs based on the detection of a significant proper motion. Spectroscopic observations of 46 candidates with the KPNO 2.1m telescope confirm 30 sources to be hydrogen white dwarfs with subtypes in the DA1-DA6 range, and with one of the stars (Lan 161) having an unresolved M dwarf as a companion. Five more sources are confirmed to be helium white dwarfs, with subtypes from DB3 to DB6. One source (Lan 364) is identified as a DZ 3 white dwarf, with strong lines of calcium. Three more stars are found to have featureless spectra (to within detection limits), and are thus classified as DC white dwarfs. In addition, three sources are found to be hot subdwarfs: Lan 20 and Lan 480 are classified as sdOB, and Lan 432...

Lepine, Sebastien; Lanning, Howard H

2011-01-01

282

Spectral synthesis of circumstellar disks - application to white dwarf debris disks  

CERN Multimedia

Gas and dust disks are common objects in the universe and can be found around various objects, e.g. young stars, cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, or white dwarfs. The light that we receive from disks provides us with clues about their composition, temperature, and density. In order to better understand the physical and chemical dynamics of these disks, self-consistent radiative transfer simulations are inevitable. Therefore, we have developed a 1+1D radiative transfer code as an extension to the well-established model atmosphere code \\verb!PHOENIX!. We will show the potential of the application of our code to model the spectra of white dwarf debris disks.

Huegelmeyer, S D; Homeier, D; Hauschildt, P

2009-01-01

283

New Faint Optical Spectrophotometric Standards. Hot White Dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

CERN Document Server

The spectral energy distributions for pure-hydrogen (DA) hot white dwarfs can be accurately predicted by model atmospheres. This makes it possible to define spectrophotometric calibrators by scaling the theoretical spectral shapes with broad-band photometric observations -- a strategy successfully exploited for the spectrographs onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using three primary DA standards. Absolute fluxes for non-DA secondary standards, introduced to increase the density of calibrators in the sky, need to be referred to the primary standards, but a far better solution would be to employ a network of DA stars scattered throughout the sky. We search for blue objects in the sixth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and fit DA model fluxes to identify suitable candidates. Reddening needs to be considered in the analysis of the hottest and therefore more distant stars. We propose a list of nine pure-hydrogen white dwarfs with absolute fluxes with estimated uncertainties below 3%, inclu...

Prieto, C Allende; Smith, J A

2009-01-01

284

Many-body treatment of white dwarf and neutron stars on the brane  

CERN Multimedia

Brane-World models suggest modification of Newton's law of gravity on the 3-brane at submillimeter scales. The brane-world induced corrections are in higher powers of inverse distance and appear as additional terms with the Newtonian potential. The average inter-particle distance in white dwarf and neutron stars are $10^{-10} cm\\$ and $10^{-13} cm$ respectively, and therefore, the effect of submillimeter corrections needs to be investigated. We show, by carrying out simple manybody calculations, that the mass and mass-radius relationship of the white dwarf and neutron stars are not effected by submillimeter corrections. However, our analysis shows that the correction terms in the effective theory give rise to force akin to surface tension in normal liquids.

Azam, M; Azam, Mofazzal

2005-01-01

285

The accreting white dwarfs in VY Scl nova-like variables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Accurate distances for nova-like variables offer the possibility of extracting information on nova-like accretion rates during high states of optical brightness and on their underlying accretion-heated white dwarfs during intermediate and low brightness states. The modeling technique which is employed is discussed and a representative example, the novalike variable KR Aur, is presented. Although KR Aur was in a fainter high state when its far ultraviolet spectrum was obtained, roughly one-half of its FUV radiation is due to the light of an accretion disk and the other half is contributed by a hot white dwarf with Teff = 29, 000±2, 000K. However, this best-fit solution corresponds to a distance of 180 pc which was an early distance estimate due to Patterson (1984).

2009-06-01

286

The accreting white dwarfs in VY Scl nova-like variables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate distances for nova-like variables offer the possibility of extracting information on nova-like accretion rates during high states of optical brightness and on their underlying accretion-heated white dwarfs during intermediate and low brightness states. The modeling technique which is employed is discussed and a representative example, the novalike variable KR Aur, is presented. Although KR Aur was in a fainter high state when its far ultraviolet spectrum was obtained, roughly one-half of its FUV radiation is due to the light of an accretion disk and the other half is contributed by a hot white dwarf with T{sub eff} = 29, 000+-2, 000K. However, this best-fit solution corresponds to a distance of 180 pc which was an early distance estimate due to Patterson (1984).

Sion, Edward M; Mizusawa, Trisha; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis, E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.ed, E-mail: trisha.mizusawa@villanova.ed, E-mail: ronald-louis.ballouz@villanova.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

2009-06-01

287

The high-field magnetic white dwarf LP 790-29 not a fast rotator  

CERN Multimedia

We have investigated the nature of the magnetic white dwarf LP 790-29 = LHS 2293 by polarimetric monitoring, searching for short-term variability. No periodicity was found and we can exclude rotation periods between 4 sec and 1.5 hour with a high confidence. Maximum amplitudes of sinusoidal variations are Delta R < 0.009 mag and Delta V_R < 0.7% for a mean value of the R-band circular polarization of V_R = +9.1+/-0.3%. Combined with earlier results by other authors, our observation suggests that LP 790-29 is, in fact, an extremely slowly rotating single white dwarf and not an unrecognized fast rotator and/or disguised cataclysmic variable.

Beuermann, K

2001-01-01

288

Accretion induced collapse of white dwarfs in binary systems and their observational properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron stars can form through core collapse (CC) following a supernova explosion of a massive star, or from a white dwarf that first forms in a binary system and then collapses into a neutron star via accretion induced collapse (AIC). So far, there have been no unambiguous identifications of AIC neutron stars in our Galaxy, although it has been suspected that they may exist among the population of binary millisecond pulsars (BMSPs). We summarise results of new calculations on the expected birth rates of binary systems with AIC neutron stars and discuss the predicted orbital period of systems with He, CO and O-Ne-Mg white dwarfs and main sequence companions. We argue that AIC systems may make an important contribution to the observed population of BMSPs.

2009-06-01

289

On the distance scale of planetary nebulae and white dwarf birth rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Arguments are presented which favor an increase of the distance scale of planetary nebulae by 30% compared to the Seaton-Webster scale. The consequences for evolutionary tracks, PN and white dwarf relations, and birth rates are discussed. It is concluded that opposite to Smith jr. (1976) underestimated, and that the proposed change in distance scale of PN brings white dwarf and PN birth rates into almost complete agreement. (orig.)[de] Es werden Argumente angegeben, die fuer eine Vergroesserung der Entfernungsskala planetarsicher Nebel um 30% im Vergleich zur Seaton-Webster-Skala sprechen. Die Konsequenzen werden im Hinblick auf Entwicklungslinien, auf die Relationen von planetarischen Nebeln und weissen Zwergen und im Hinblick auf Bildungsraten diskutiert. Daraus wird geschlossen, dass im Gegensatz zu Smith jun. (1976), die Bildungsrate von weissen Zwergen nicht drastisch unterschaetzt wird, und dass die vorgeschlagene Aenderung der PN-Entfernungsskala zu einer fast vollstaendigen Uebereinstimmung der Bildungsraten von weissen Zwergen und planetarischen Nebeln fuehrt. (orig.)

1977-01-01

290

The long term period stability of the hot DBV white dwarf EC20058-5234  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since its discovery over a decade ago, the helium atmosphere pulsator EC 20058-5234 (QU Tel) has been studied both spectroscopically, and also extensively using the techniques of time-series photometry. Model atmosphere fits to quality spectra obtained with one of the Magellan telescopes have confirmed its status as the hottest know DBV, so it currently defines the blue edge of the DBV instability strip. Extensive time-series photometry (primarily from Mt John in NZ but also including a Whole Earth Telescope run) clearly demonstrates that this white dwarf is a very stable low amplitude pulsator. This is consistent with its position at or near the blue edge of the DBV instability strip. However, of perhaps greater significance is the possibility of employing this period stability to look for a period change that can be sourced to the predicted neutrino-dominated cooling of the hot white dwarfs. This paper provides an update on this work.

Sullivan, Denis J, E-mail: denis.sullivan@vuw.ac.n [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand)

2009-06-01

291

Thermodynamic functions, freezing transition, and phase diagram of dense carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarfs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equations of state for dense carbon-oxygen (C-O) binary-ionic mixtures (BIM's) appropriate to the interiors of white dwarfs are investigated through Monte Carlo simulations, by solution of relevant integral equations andvariational calculations in the density-functional formalism. It is thereby shown that the internal energies of the C-O BIM solids and fluids both obey precisely the linear mixing formulas. We then present an accurate calculation of the phase diagram associated with freezing transitions in such BIM materials, resulting in a novel prediction of an azeotropic diagram. Discontinuities of the mass density across the azeotropic phase boundaries areevaluated numerically for application to a study of white-dwarf evolution.

Iyetomi, H.; Ogata, S.; Ichimaru, S.

1989-07-01

292

Thermodynamic functions, freezing transition, and phase diagram of dense carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Equations of state for dense carbon-oxygen (C-O) binary-ionic mixtures (BIM's) appropriate to the interiors of white dwarfs are investigated through Monte Carlo simulations, by solution of relevant integral equations and variational calculations in the density-functional formalism. It is thereby shown that the internal energies of the C-O BIM solids and fluids both obey precisely the linear mixing formulas. We then present an accurate calculation of the phase diagram associated with freezing transitions in such BIM materials, resulting in a novel prediction of an azeotropic diagram. Discontinuities of the mass density across the azeotropic phase boundaries are evaluated numerically for application to a study of white-dwarf evolution

1989-07-01

293

The potential of 3D radiation-hydrodynamics models for white dwarf asteroseismology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available White dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres (DA) are the most abundant of all degenerate objects. In recent years work has been dedicated to increase the accuracy of their model atmospheres. Most notably, convective motions are now treated with 3D radiation-hydrodynamics instead of the standard mixing-length theory. We present and describe selected 3D model atmospheres close and within the instability strip of the pulsating ZZ Ceti white dwarfs. Our 3D simulations depend only weakly on numerical parameters and compared to 1D models, they provide more realistic determinations of the depth of the convective zone. The 3D structures can then be adopted as input for asteroseismology.

Tremblay P.-E.; Ludwig H.-G.

2013-01-01

294

Similarities of SGRs with low magnetic field and white dwarf pulsars  

CERN Document Server

Some of the most interesting types of astrophysical objects that have been intensively studied in the recent years are the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) seen usually as neutron stars pulsars with super strong magnetic fields. However, in the last two years two SGRs with low magnetic fields have been detected. Moreover, fast and very magnetic white dwarf pulsars have also been observed in the last years. Based on these new pulsar discoveries, white dwarf pulsars have been proposed as an alternative explanation to the observational features of SGRs and AXPs. Here we present several properties of these SGRs/AXPs as WD pulsar, in particular the surface magnetic field and the magnetic dipole momentum.

Coelho, J G; 10.1142/S2010194512008276

2012-01-01

295

The luminosity function for white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the techniques and early results of our program to measure the luminosity function for white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Our survey covers over three quarters of the sky to a mean depth of I ? 19.2, and finds ? 9, 500 Galactic disk white dwarf candidates on applying a conservative lower tangential velocity cut of 30 kms-1. Novel techniques introduced in this survey include allowing the lower proper motion limit to vary according to apparent magnitude, fully exploiting the accuracy of proper motion measurements to increase the sample size. Our luminosity function shows good agreement with that measured in similar works. We find a pronounced drop in the local number density of WDs at a Mbol ? 15.75, and an inflexion in the luminosity function at Mbol ? 12.

2009-06-01

296

Probing the extraordinary ends of ordinary stars white dwarf seismology with the Whole Earth Telescope  

CERN Multimedia

During the final evolution of most stars, they shed their outer skin and expose their core of the hot ashes of nuclear burning. As these hot and very dense cores cool into white dwarf stars, they go through episodes of multiperiodic, nonradial g-mode pulsation. The tools of stellar seismology allow us to use the pulsation spectra as powerful probes into the deep interiors of these stars. Progress in white dwarf seismology has required significant international cooperation, since another consequence of the complex pulsations of these stars is decoding the true pulsation frequencies requires a coordinated global effort involving high-speed photometric observations. Through one such effort, the Whole Earth Telescope project, we have located subsurface composition changes, detected differential rotation and magnetic fields, and measured fundamental quantities such as stellar mass, luminosity, and distance to extraordinary accuracy.

Kawaler, S D

1995-01-01

297

Stable magnetic equilibria and their evolution in the upper main sequence, white dwarfs, and neutron stars  

CERN Document Server

[abbreviated] Long-lived, large-scale magnetic field configurations exist in upper main sequence, white dwarf, and neutron stars. Externally, these fields are roughly dipolar, while their internal structure and evolution are uncertain, but highly relevant for several problems in stellar and high-energy astrophysics. We discuss the main properties expected for the stable magnetic configurations in these stars from physical arguments, and how these properties may determine the modes of decay of these configurations. Stable magneto-hydrostatic equilibria appear to exist in stars whenever the matter in their interior is stably stratified (not barotropic). These equilibria are not force-free and not required to satisfy the Grad-Shafranov equation, but they do involve both toroidal and poloidal field components. We argue that the main mode of decay for these configurations are processes that lift the constraints set by stable stratification, such as heat diffusion in main-sequence envelopes and white dwarfs, and be...

Reisenegger, Andreas

2008-01-01

298

Formation of millisecond pulsars with CO white dwarf companions - II. Accretion, spin-up, true ages and comparison to MSPs with He white dwarf companions  

CERN Multimedia

Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are mainly characterised by their spin periods, B-fields and masses - quantities which are largely affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. In this paper, we investigate the formation mechanism of MSPs by considering the pulsar recycling process in both intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (IMXBs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The IMXBs mainly lead to the formation of binary MSPs with a massive carbon-oxygen (CO) or an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf (ONeMg WD) companion, whereas the LMXBs form recycled pulsars with a helium white dwarf (He WD) companion. We discuss the accretion physics leading to the spin-up line in the PPdot-diagram and demonstrate that such a line cannot be uniquely defined. We derive a simple expression for the amount of accreted mass needed for any given pulsar to achieve its equilibrium spin and apply this to explain the observed differences of the spin distributions of recycled pulsars with different types of companion...

Tauris, Thomas M; Kramer, Michael

2012-01-01

299

Hydrogen burning on a white dwarf accreting hydrogen in a binary system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We follow the accretion of hydrogen-rich matter onto the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system. Two phases of accretion are assumed. First - slow accretion from the interstellar clouds, second - fast accretion from the companion. Hydrogen is ignited at the interface between the fast and slowly accreted layers. After a short runaway burning continues in the form of quasistationary deflagration front propagating inwards. The features of this front are discussed. A possibility of mass loss is indicated.

Glasner, S.A.; Rakavy, G.; Tuchman, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics)

1981-12-01

300

Measuring Gravitational Redshifts of White Dwarfs in Wide Binaries: Which Method is the Best?  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a preliminary sample of gravitational redshift measurements for hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs that have widely separated main sequence companions. In such wide pairs orbital velocities are negligible and the differences between the apparent radial velocities of components are essentially the gravitational redshifts of the white dwarfs. Published gravitational redshifts for many systems have been inconsistent over the years, probably because several methods have been used, yet a single method has not yet been demonstrated to be the most accurate. Here we report our efforts to determine the optimal method for measuring apparent radial velocities and gravitational redshifts of DA white dwarfs. Several different techniques for measuring the H? 6562 absorption line core were used to measure apparent radial velocities in both the white dwarfs and their main sequence companions. A template-matching algorithm was also used for the latter components where more lines are available. Comparisons of our gravitational redshifts obtained using each of the fitting routines and our recommendation for the best method will be presented. Funding from the National Science Foundation from grant AST-0807919 to Florida Institute of Technology, NSF grant AST-1008845 to the University of Arizona and NASA Astrophysics Data Program grant NNX1OAD76 to the University of Arizona are gratefully acknowledged. We also thank the allocation committees and support personnel of the Apache Point 3.5m, Cerro Tololo 4m, Kitt Peak 4m, MMT 6.5m and SOAR 4.2m telescopes for the observing time that supported this project.

Mizusawa, Trisha; Oswalt, T. D.; Holberg, J. B.; Zhao, J.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Neutrino burst of white dwarf being absorbed by a primordial black hole  

CERN Multimedia

Primordial black holes (PBHS) of masses M>=5x10 sup 4 g are able to absorb white dwarfs (WD), giving rise to formation of black holes of WD masses. The WD absorption is accomplained by up to 10 sup 5 sup 2 erg neutrino bursts which can be readily detected by modern neutrino detectors. We calculate time characteristics of such a burst in this paper. (authors)

Tikhomirov, V V

2003-01-01

302

Accretion from debris disks onto white dwarfs. Fingering (thermohaline) instability and derived accretion rates  

Science.gov (United States)

Context. Recent observations of a large number of DA and DB white dwarfs show evidence of debris disks, which are the remnants of old planetary systems. The infrared excess detected with Spitzer and the lines of heavy elements observed in their atmospheres with high-resolution spectroscopy converge on the idea that planetary material accretes onto these stars. Accretion rates have been derived by several authors with the assumption of a steady state between accretion and gravitational settling. The results are unrealistically different for DA and DB white dwarfs. Aims: When heavy matter is accreted onto stars, it induces an inverse ?-gradient that leads to fingering (thermohaline) convection. The aim of this letter is to study the impact of this specific process on the derived accretion rates in white dwarfs and on the difference between DA and DB. Methods: We solve the diffusion equation for the accreted heavy elements with a time-dependent method. The models we use have been obtained both with the IRAP code, which computes static models, and the La Plata code, which computes evolutionary sequences. Computations with pure gravitational settling are compared with computations that include fingering convection. Results: The most important result is that fingering convection has very important effects on DAs but is inefficient in DBs. When only gravitational settling is taken into account, the time-dependent computations lead to a steady state, as postulated by previous authors. When fingering convection is added, this steady state occurs much later. Conclusions: The surprising difference found in the past for the accretion rates derived for DA and DB white dwarfs disappears. The derived accretion rates for DAs are increased when fingering convection is taken into account, whereas those for DBs are not modified. More precise and developed results will be given in a forthcoming paper

Deal, M.; Deheuvels, S.; Vauclair, G.; Vauclair, S.; Wachlin, F. C.

2013-09-01

303

Deriving fundamental parameters of millisecond pulsars via AIC in white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We present a study of the observational properties of Millisecond Pulsars (MSPs) by way of their magnetic fields, spin periods and masses. These measurements are derived through the scenario of Accretion Induced Collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs) in stellar binary systems, in order to provide a greater understanding of the characteristics of MSP populations. In addition, we demonstrate a strong evolutionary connection between neutron stars and WDs with binary companions from a stellar binary evolution perspective via the AIC process.

Taani, A; Zhao, Y H; Moraghan, A

2012-01-01

304

FORETELLINGS OF RAGNAROeK: WORLD-ENGULFING ASYMPTOTIC GIANTS AND THE INHERITANCE OF WHITE DWARFS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The search for planets around white dwarf stars, and evidence for dynamical instability around them in the form of atmospheric pollution and circumstellar disks, raises questions about the nature of planetary systems that can survive the vicissitudes of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). We study the competing effects, on planets at several AU from the star, of strong tidal forces arising from the star's large convective envelope, and of the planets' orbital expansion due to stellar mass loss. We study, for the first time, the evolution of planets while following each thermal pulse on the AGB. For Jovian planets, tidal forces are strong, and can pull into the envelope planets initially at {approx}3 AU for a 1 M{sub Sun} star and {approx}5 AU for a 5 M{sub Sun} star. Lower-mass planets feel weaker tidal forces, and terrestrial planets initially within 1.5-3 AU enter the stellar envelope. Thus, low-mass planets that begin inside the maximum stellar radius can survive, as their orbits expand due to mass loss. The inclusion of a moderate planetary eccentricity slightly strengthens the tidal forces experienced by Jovian planets. Eccentric terrestrial planets are more at risk, since their eccentricity does not decay and their small pericenter takes them inside the stellar envelope. We also find the closest radii at which planets will be found around white dwarfs, assuming that any planet entering the stellar envelope is destroyed. Planets are in that case unlikely to be found inside {approx}1.5 AU of a white dwarf with a 1 M{sub Sun} progenitor and {approx}10 AU of a white dwarf with a 5 M{sub Sun} progenitor.

Mustill, Alexander J.; Villaver, Eva, E-mail: alex.mustill@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2012-12-20

305

A POSSIBLE EVOLUTIONARY SCENARIO OF HIGHLY MAGNETIZED SUPER-CHANDRASEKHAR WHITE DWARFS: PROGENITORS OF PECULIAR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several recently discovered peculiar Type Ia supernovae seem to demand an altogether new formation theory that might help explain the puzzling dissimilarities between them and the standard Type Ia supernovae. The most striking aspect of the observational analysis is the necessity of invoking super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs having masses ?2.1-2.8 M?, M? being the mass of Sun, as their most probable progenitors. Strongly magnetized white dwarfs having super-Chandrasekhar masses have already been established as potential candidates for the progenitors of peculiar Type Ia supernovae. Owing to the Landau quantization of the underlying electron degenerate gas, theoretical results yielded the observationally inferred mass range. Here, we sketch a possible evolutionary scenario by which super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs could be formed by accretion on to a commonly observed magnetized white dwarf, invoking the phenomenon of flux freezing. This opens multiple possible evolution scenarios ending in supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs having masses within the range stated above. We point out that our proposal has observational support, such as the recent discovery of a large number of magnetized white dwarfs by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

2013-04-10

306

A study of high proper-motion white dwarfs I. Spectropolarimetry of a cool hydrogen-rich sample  

CERN Multimedia

We conducted a spectropolarimetic survey of 58 high proper-motion white dwarfs which achieved uncertainties of >2 kG in the Halpha line and >5 kG in the upper Balmer line series. The survey aimed at detecting low magnetic fields (< 100 kG) and helped identify the new magnetic white dwarfs NLTT 2219, with a longitudinal field B_l = -97 kG, and NLTT 10480 (B_l=-212 kG). Also, we report the possible identification of a very low-field white dwarf with B_l = -4.6 kG. The observations show that ~5% of white dwarfs harbour low fields (~10 to ~10^2 kG) and that increased survey sensitivity may help uncover several new magnetic white dwarfs with fields below ~1 kG. A series of observations of the high field white dwarf NLTT 12758 revealed changes in polarity occurring within an hour possibly associated to an inclined, fast rotating dipole. Also, the relative strength of the pi and sigma components in NLTT 12758 possibly revealed the effect of a field concentration ("spot"), or, most likely, the presence of a non-ma...

Kawka, Adela

2012-01-01

307

Violent mergers of nearly equal-mass white dwarf as progenitors of subluminous Type Ia supernovae  

CERN Document Server

The origin of subluminous Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has long eluded any explanation, as all Chandrasekhar-mass models have severe problems reproducing them. Recently, it has been proposed that violent mergers of two white dwarfs of 0.9 M_sun could lead to subluminous SNe Ia events that resemble 1991bg-like SNe~Ia. Here we investigate whether this scenario still works for mergers of two white dwarfs with a mass ratio smaller than one. We aim to determine the range of mass ratios for which a detonation still forms during the merger, as only those events will lead to a SN Ia. This range is an important ingredient for population synthesis and one decisive point to judge the viability of the scenario. In addition, we perform a resolution study of one of the models. Finally we discuss the connection between violent white dwarf mergers with a primary mass of 0.9 M_sun and 1991bg-like SNe Ia. The latest version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget3 is used to evolve binary systems with different mass ...

Pakmor, R; Roepke, F K; Hillebrandt, W

2011-01-01

308

High resolution simulations of the head-on collision of white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

The direct impact of white dwarfs has been suggested as a plausible channel for type Ia supernovae. In spite of their (a priori) rareness, in highly populated globular clusters and in galactic centers, where the amount of white dwarfs is considerable, the rate of violent collisions between two of them might be non-negligible. Even more, there are indications that binary white dwarf systems orbited by a third stellar-mass body have an important chance to induce a clean head-on collision. Therefore, this scenario represents a source of contamination for the supernova light-curves sample that it is used as standard candles in cosmology, and it deserves further investigation. Some groups have conducted numerical simulations of this scenario, but their results show several differences. In this paper we address some of the possible sources of these differences, presenting the results of high resolution hydrodynamical simulations jointly with a detailed nuclear post-processing of the nuclear abundances, to check the...

García-Senz, D; Arcones, A; Relaño, A; Thielemann, F K

2013-01-01

309

Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?  

CERN Multimedia

A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WD) in a binary. The observed ratio of 16O/18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of ~500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He white dwarf. We present the results of five 3-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double white dwarf system where the total mass is 0.9 Mdot and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with $q\\lesssim0.7$ a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming 18O. However, more 16O is being dredged-up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of 18O that is produced. Therefore, on a dynamical time scale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, a 16O/18O ratio of ~2000 in the "best" case is found. If the conditions fou...

Staff, Jan E; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L; Motl, Patrick M; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Tohline, Joel E

2012-01-01

310

Double white dwarfs as progenitors of R coronae borealis stars and type I supernovae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Close double white dwarfs should arise from the second phase of mass exchagne in close binaries which first encountered mass exchange while the more massive star was crossing the Hertzprung gap. Tidal mass transfer in these double degenerate systems is explored. The sequence of double white dwarf divides naturally into three segments. (1) Low-mass helium/helium pairs are unstable to dynamical time-scale mass transfer and probably coalesce to form helium-burning sdO stars. (2) In helium/carbon-oxygen pairs, mass transfer occurs on the time scale for gravitational radiation losses (approx.10-4 M/sub sun/ yr-1); the accreted helium is quickly ignited, and the accretor expands to dimensions characteristic of R CrB stars, engulfing its companion star. (3) Carbon-oxygen/carbon-oxygen pairs are again unstable to dynamical time-scale mass transfer and, since their total masses exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, are destined to become supernovae. Inactive lifetimes in these latter systems between creation and interaction can exceed 1010 years. Birthrates of R CrB stars and Type I supernovae by evolution of double white dwarfs are in reasonable agreement with observational estimates

1984-02-01

311

Can R CrB stars form from the merger of two helium white dwarfs?  

CERN Document Server

Due to orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation, some close-binary helium white dwarfs are expected to merge within a Hubble time. The immediate merger products are believed to be helium-rich sdO stars, essentially helium main-sequence stars. We present new evolution calculations for these post-merger stars beyond the core helium-burning phase. The most massive He-sdO's develop a strong helium-burning shell and evolve to become helium-rich giants. We include nucleosynthesis calculations following the merger of $0.4 \\rm M_{\\odot}$ helium white-dwarf pairs with metallicities $Z = 0.0001, 0.004, 0.008$ and 0.02. The surface chemistries of the resulting giants are in partial agreement with the observed abundances of R Coronae Borealis and extreme helium stars. Such stars might represent a third, albeit rare, evolution channel for the latter, in addition to the CO+He white dwarf merger and the very-late thermal pulse channels proposed previously. We confirm a recent suggestion that lithium seen in R\\,CrB star...

Zhang, Xianfei

2012-01-01

312

Sub-Chandrasekhar White Dwarf Mergers as the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae  

CERN Document Server

Type Ia supernovae are generally thought to be due to the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with masses near the Chandrasekhar mass. This scenario, however, has two long-standing problems. First, the explosions do not naturally produce the correct mix of elements, but have to be finely tuned to proceed from sub-sonic deflagration to super-sonic detonation. Second, population models and observations give formation rates of near-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs that are far too small. Here, we suggest that type Ia supernovae instead result from mergers of roughly equal-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar mass remnants. Numerical studies of such mergers have shown that the remnants consist of rapidly rotating cores that contain most of the mass and are hottest in the center, surrounded by dense, small disks. We argue that the disks accrete quickly, and that the resulting compressional heating likely ignites the carbon. This ignition occurs at densities f...

van Kerkwijk, Marten H; Justham, Stephen

2010-01-01

313

White dwarf envelopes: further results of a non-local model of convection  

CERN Multimedia

We present results of a fully non-local model of convection for white dwarf envelopes. We show that this model is able to reproduce the results of numerical simulations for convective efficiencies ranging from very inefficient to moderately efficient; this agreement is made more impressive given that no closure parameters have been adjusted in going from the previously reported case of A-stars to the present case of white dwarfs; for comparison, in order to match the peak convective flux found in numerical simulations for both the white dwarf envelopes discussed in this paper and the A-star envelopes discussed in our previous work requires changing the mixing length parameter of commonly used local models by a factor of 4. We also examine in detail the overshooting at the base of the convection zone, both in terms of the convective flux and in terms of the velocity field: we find that the flux overshoots by approximately 1.25 H_P and the velocity by approximately 2.5 H_P. Due to the large amount of overshooti...

Montgomery, M H

2004-01-01

314

The gravitational wave signal from diverse populations of double white dwarf binaries in the Galaxy  

CERN Multimedia

Using a detailed Galactic model in which we consider distinct contributions from the bulge, thin disc, thick disc, and halo, and a population synthesis approach, we determined the birth rates, numbers, and period distributions of double white dwarfs (DWDs) within each component. In the Galaxy as a whole, our model predicts the current birth rate of DWDs to be 3.21x10^{-2} yr^{-1}, the local density to be 2.2x10^{-4} pc^{-3} and the total number to be 2.76x10^{8}. Assuming SNIa are formed from the merger of two CO white dwarfs, the SNIa rate should be 0.0013 yr^{-1}. The frequency spectra of DWD strain amplitude and number distribution are presented as a function of galactic component, DWD type, formation channel, and metallicity. We confirm that CO+He and He+He white dwarf (WD) pairs should dominate the GW signal at very high frequencies (log f Hz^{-1} > -2.3), while CO+CO and ONeMg WD pairs have a dominant contribution at log f Hz^{-1} -4.5. DWDs with the shortest orbital periods will come from the CE+CE ch...

Yu, Shenghua

2010-01-01

315

The Extent and Cause of the Pre-White Dwarf Instability Strip  

CERN Document Server

One of the least understood aspects of white dwarf evolution is the process by which they are formed. We are aided, however, by the fact that many H- and He-deficient pre-white dwarfs (PWDs) are multiperiodic g-mode pulsators. Pulsations in PWDs provide a unique opportunity to probe their interiors, which are otherwise inaccesible to direct observation. Until now, however, the nature of the pulsation mechanism, the precise boundaries of the instability strip, and the mass distribution of the PWDs were complete mysteries. These problems must be addressed before we can apply knowledge of pulsating PWDs to improve understanding of white dwarf formation. This paper lays the groundwork for future theoretical investigations of these stars. In recent years, Whole Earth Telescope observations led to determination of mass and luminosity for the majority of the (non-central star) PWD pulsators. With these observations, we identify the common properties and trends PWDs exhibit as a class. We find that pulsators of low m...

O'Brien, M S

1999-01-01

316

The Solar Neighborhood. XIX. Discovery and Characterization of 33 New Nearby White Dwarf Systems  

CERN Multimedia

We present spectra for 33 previously unclassified white dwarf systems brighter than V = 17 primarily in the southern hemisphere. Of these new systems, 26 are DA, 4 are DC, 2 are DZ, and 1 is DQ. We suspect three of these systems are unresolved double degenerates. We obtained VRI photometry for these 33 objects as well as for 23 known white dwarf systems without trigonometric parallaxes, also primarily in the southern hemisphere. For the 56 objects, we converted the photometry values to fluxes and fit them to a spectral energy distribution using the spectroscopy to determine which model to use (i.e. pure hydrogen, pure helium, or metal-rich helium), resulting in estimates of effective temperature and distance. Eight of the new and 12 known systems are estimated to be within the NStars and Catalogue of Nearby Stars (CNS) horizons of 25 pc, constituting a potential 18% increase in the nearby white dwarf sample. Trigonometric parallax determinations are underway via CTIOPI for these 20 systems. One of the DCs is ...

Subasavage, John P; Bergeron, P; Dufour, P; Hambly, Nigel C; Beaulieu, Thomas D

2007-01-01

317

Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor. PMID:22170680

Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

2011-12-14

318

Tidal Excitation of Oscillation Modes in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: I. Linear Theory  

CERN Multimedia

We study the tidal excitation of gravity modes (g-modes) in compact white dwarf binary systems with periods ranging from minutes to hours. As the orbit of the system decays via gravitational radiation, the orbital frequency increases and sweeps through a series of resonances with the g-modes of the white dwarf. At each resonance, the tidal force excites the g-mode to a relatively large amplitude, transferring the orbital energy to the stellar oscillation. We calculate the eigenfrequencies of g-modes and their coupling coefficients with the tidal field for realistic non-rotating white dwarf models. Using these mode properties, we numerically compute the excited mode amplitude in the linear approximation as the orbit passes though the resonance, including the backreaction of the mode on the orbit. We also derive analytical estimates for the mode amplitude and the duration of the resonance, which accurately reproduce our numerical results for most binary parameters. We find that the g-modes can be excited to a d...

Fuller, James

2010-01-01

319

On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar int...

Benvenuto, O G

2011-01-01

320

Accretion from debris disks onto white dwarfs : Fingering (thermohaline) instability and derived accretion rates  

CERN Multimedia

Recent observations of a large number of DA and DB white dwarfs show evidence of debris disks, which are the remnants of old planetary systems. The infrared excess detected with \\emph{Spitzer} and the lines of heavy elements observed in their atmospheres with high-resolution spectroscopy converge on the idea that planetary material accretes onto these stars. Accretion rates have been derived by several authors with the assumption of a steady state between accretion and gravitational settling. The results are unrealistically different for DA and DB white dwarfs. When heavy matter is accreted onto stars, it induces an inverse $\\mu$-gradient that leads to fingering (thermohaline) convection. The aim of this letter is to study the impact of this specific process on the derived accretion rates in white dwarfs and on the difference between DA and DB. We solve the diffusion equation for the accreted heavy elements with a time-dependent method. The models we use have been obtained both with the IRAP code, which compu...

Deal, M; Vauclair, G; Vauclair, S; Wachlin, F C

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor.

Nugent PE; Sullivan M; Cenko SB; Thomas RC; Kasen D; Howell DA; Bersier D; Bloom JS; Kulkarni SR; Kandrashoff MT; Filippenko AV; Silverman JM; Marcy GW; Howard AW; Isaacson HT; Maguire K; Suzuki N; Tarlton JE; Pan YC; Bildsten L; Fulton BJ; Parrent JT; Sand D; Podsiadlowski P; Bianco FB; Dilday B; Graham ML; Lyman J; James P; Kasliwal MM; Law NM; Quimby RM; Hook IM; Walker ES; Mazzali P; Pian E; Ofek EO; Gal-Yam A; Poznanski D

2011-12-01

322

Spectroscopic analysis of DA white dwarfs with 3D model atmospheres  

CERN Multimedia

We present the first grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for pure-hydrogen (DA) white dwarfs based on 3D model atmospheres. We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations instead of the mixing-length theory for the treatment of convection. The simulations cover the effective temperature range of 6000 spectra. It is demonstrated that our spectra can be smoothly connected to their 1D counterparts at higher and lower Teff where the 3D effects are small. Analytical functions are provided in order to convert spectroscopically determined 1D effective temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. We apply our improved models to well studied spectroscopic data sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the White Dwarf Catalog. We confirm that the so-called high-log g problem is not present when employing spectra and that the issue was caused by inaccuracies in the 1D mixing-length approach. The white dwarfs with a radiative and a convective atmosphere have derived mean masses that...

Tremblay, P -E; Steffen, M; Freytag, B

2013-01-01

323

Supernova 2011fe from an Exploding Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarf Star  

CERN Document Server

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used empirically as standardized candles to reveal the accelerating universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of the progenitor system and how the star explodes, remained a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary could be anything from a main sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. The uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent SN Ia has been discovered close enough to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of SN 2011fe (PTF11kly) in M101 at a distance of 6.4 Mpc, the closest SN Ia in the past 25 years. We find that the exploding star was likely a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was most likely a main sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that varies on a time scale of hours and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate mass ele...

Nugent, Peter E; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

2011-01-01

324

Merging of Components in Close Binaries: Type Ia Supernovae, Massive White Dwarfs, and Ap stars  

CERN Document Server

The "Scenario Machine" (a computer code designed for studies of the evolution of close binaries) was used to carry out a population synthesis for a wide range of merging astrophysical objects: main-sequence stars with main-sequence stars; white dwarfs with white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; neutron stars with neutron stars and black holes; and black holes with black holes.We calculate the rates of such events, and plot the mass distributions for merging white dwarfs and main-sequence stars. It is shown that Type Ia supernovae can be used as standard candles only after approximately one billion years of evolution of galaxies. In the course of this evolution, the average energy of Type Ia supernovae should decrease by roughly 10%; the maximum and minimum energies of Type Ia supernovae may differ by no less than by a factor of 1.5. This circumstance should be taken into account in estimations of parameters of acceleration of the Universe. According to theoretical estimates, the most massive - as a rul...

Bogomazov, A I

2009-01-01

325

A Spitzer Space Telescope Study of the Debris Disks around four SDSS White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

We present Spitzer Space Telescope data of four isolated white dwarfs that were previously known to harbor circumstellar gaseous disks. IRAC photometry shows a significant infrared excess in all of the systems, SDSS0738+1835, SDSS0845+2257, SDSS1043+0855 and SDSS1617+1620, indicative of a dusty extension to those disks. The 4.5-micron excesses seen in SDSS0738, SDSS0845, and SDSS1617 are 7.5, 5.7 and 4.5 times the white dwarf contribution, respectively. In contrast, in SDSS1043, the measured flux density at 4.5 microns is only 1.7 times the white dwarf contribution. We compare the measured IR excesses in the systems to models of geometrically thin, optically thick disks, and find that we are able to match the measured SEDs to within 3 sigma of the uncertainties, although disks with unfeasibly hot inner dust temperatures generally provide a better fit than those below the dust sublimation temperature. Possible explanations for the dearth of dust around SDSS1043+0855 are briefly discussed. Including our previou...

Brinkworth, Carolyn; Girven, Jon; Hoard, Don; Marsh, Tom; Parsons, Stephen; Koester, Detlev

2012-01-01

326

A compact planetary nebula around the hot white dwarf EGB 6/PG 0950 + 139  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remarkable central star (0950 + 139), a very hot DA/DAO white dwarf, of the planetary nebula EGB 6 is described. Follow-up observations relevant to the analyses of both the nebula and the stellar photosphere are presented. Three kinds of scenarios are discussed to account for the existence of this peculiar nebula, but none appears very promising. The first consideration is that the nebula was ejected from the white dwarf as a discret event. This hypothesis is heavily constrained by the nebular size, density, and expansion rate; by the low luminosity and radius of the star; and by the absence of evidence for variation in density-sensitive forbidden lines from 1978 to 1987. No plausible mechanism can cause the observed amount of mass to be lost directly from a white dwarf in a steady or sporadic wind, at outflow velocities orders of magnitude below the escape velocity. Final consideration is given to the possibility that the gas is lost from a close companion star, but there is no evidence that this is a close binary system. 45 refs.

1989-01-01

327

The spectrum of the recycled PSR J0437-4715 and its white dwarf companion  

CERN Document Server

We present extensive spectral and photometric observations of the recycled pulsar/white-dwarf binary containing PSR J0437-4715, which we analyzed together with archival X-ray and gamma-ray data, to obtain the complete mid-infrared to gamma-ray spectrum. We first fit each part of the spectrum separately, and then the whole multi-wavelength spectrum. We find that the optical-infrared part of the spectrum is well fit by a cool white dwarf atmosphere model with pure hydrogen composition. The model atmosphere (Teff = 3950pm150K, log g=6.98pm0.15, R_WD=(1.9pm0.2)e9 cm) fits our spectral data remarkably well for the known mass and distance (M=0.25pm0.02Msun, d=156.3pm1.3pc), yielding the white dwarf age (tau=6.0pm0.5Gyr). In the UV, we find a spectral shape consistent with thermal emission from the bulk of the neutron star surface, with surface temperature between 1.25e5 and 3.5e5K. The temperature of the thermal spectrum suggests that some heating mechanism operates throughout the life of the neutron star. The temp...

Durant, M; Pavlov, G G; Kowalski, P M; Posselt, B; van Kerkwijk, M H; Kaplan, D L

2011-01-01

328

A compact planetary nebula around the hot white dwarf EGB 6/PG 0950 + 139  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The remarkable central star (0950 + 139), a very hot DA/DAO white dwarf, of the planetary nebula EGB 6 is described. Follow-up observations relevant to the analyses of both the nebula and the stellar photosphere are presented. Three kinds of scenarios are discussed to account for the existence of this peculiar nebula, but none appears very promising. The first consideration is that the nebula was ejected from the white dwarf as a discret event. This hypothesis is heavily constrained by the nebular size, density, and expansion rate; by the low luminosity and radius of the star; and by the absence of evidence for variation in density-sensitive forbidden lines from 1978 to 1987. No plausible mechanism can cause the observed amount of mass to be lost directly from a white dwarf in a steady or sporadic wind, at outflow velocities orders of magnitude below the escape velocity. Final consideration is given to the possibility that the gas is lost from a close companion star, but there is no evidence that this is a close binary system. 45 refs.

Liebert, J.; Green, R.; Bond, H.E.; Holberg, J.B.; Wesemael, F. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA (USA) Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA) Montreal Universite, Montreal (Canada))

1989-11-01

329

Merger of binary white dwarf-neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We perform fully general relativistic simulations to address the inspiral and merger of binary white dwarf-neutron stars. The initial binary is in a circular orbit at the Roche critical separation. The goal is to determine the ultimate fate of such systems. We focus on binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass (Mmax) a cold, degenerate equation of state can support against gravitational collapse. The time and length scales span many orders of magnitude, making fully general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations computationally prohibitive. For this reason, we model the white dwarf as a ''pseudo--white dwarf'' as in our binary white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) head-on collisions study [V. Paschalidis, Z. Etienne, Y. T. Liu, and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. D 83, 064002 (2011)]. Our general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a pseudo-WDNS (pWDNS) system with a 0.98M· white dwarf and a 1.4M· neutron star show that the merger remnant is a spinning Thorne-Zytkow-like object (TZlO) surrounded by a massive disk. The final total rest mass exceeds Mmax, but the remnant does not collapse promptly. To assess whether the object will ultimately collapse after cooling, we introduce radiative thermal cooling. We first apply our cooling algorithm to TZlOs formed in pWDNS head-on collisions, and show that these objects collapse and form black holes on the cooling time scale, as expected. However, when we cool the spinning TZlO formed in the merger of a circular-orbit pWDNS binary, the remnant does not collapse, demonstrating that differential rotational support is sufficient to prevent collapse. Given that the final total mass exceeds Mmax for our cold equation of state, magnetic fields and/or viscosity may redistribute angular momentum, ultimately leading to delayed collapse to a black hole. We infer that the merger of realistic massive WDNS binaries likely will lead to the formation of spinning TZlOs that undergo delayed collapse.

2011-11-15

330

Merger of binary white dwarf-neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

We perform fully general relativistic simulations to address the inspiral and merger of binary white dwarf-neutron stars. The initial binary is in a circular orbit at the Roche critical separation. The goal is to determine the ultimate fate of such systems. We focus on binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass (Mmax?) a cold, degenerate equation of state can support against gravitational collapse. The time and length scales span many orders of magnitude, making fully general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations computationally prohibitive. For this reason, we model the white dwarf as a “pseudo—white dwarf” as in our binary white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) head-on collisions study [V. Paschalidis, Z. Etienne, Y. T. Liu, and S. L. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 064002 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevD.83.064002]. Our general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a pseudo-WDNS (pWDNS) system with a 0.98M? white dwarf and a 1.4M? neutron star show that the merger remnant is a spinning Thorne-Zytkow-like object (TZlO) surrounded by a massive disk. The final total rest mass exceeds Mmax?, but the remnant does not collapse promptly. To assess whether the object will ultimately collapse after cooling, we introduce radiative thermal cooling. We first apply our cooling algorithm to TZlOs formed in pWDNS head-on collisions, and show that these objects collapse and form black holes on the cooling time scale, as expected. However, when we cool the spinning TZlO formed in the merger of a circular-orbit pWDNS binary, the remnant does not collapse, demonstrating that differential rotational support is sufficient to prevent collapse. Given that the final total mass exceeds Mmax? for our cold equation of state, magnetic fields and/or viscosity may redistribute angular momentum, ultimately leading to delayed collapse to a black hole. We infer that the merger of realistic massive WDNS binaries likely will lead to the formation of spinning TZlOs that undergo delayed collapse.

Paschalidis, Vasileios; Liu, Yuk Tung; Etienne, Zachariah; Shapiro, Stuart L.

2011-11-01

331

Tidal disruption and ignition of white dwarfs by moderately massive black holes  

CERN Document Server

We present a numerical investigation of the tidal disruption of white dwarfs by moderately massive black holes, with particular reference to the centers of dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Special attention is given to the fate of white dwarfs of all masses that approach the black hole close enough to be disrupted and severely compressed to such extent that explosive nuclear burning can be triggered. Consistent modeling of the gas dynamics together with the nuclear reactions allows for a realistic determination of the explosive energy release. In the most favorable cases, the nuclear energy release may be comparable to that of typical type Ia supernovae. Although the explosion will increase the mass fraction escaping on hyperbolic orbits, a good fraction of the debris remains to be swallowed by the hole, causing a bright soft X-ray flare lasting for about a year. Such transient signatures, if detected, would be a compelling testimony for the presence of a moderately mass black hole (below $10^5 M_\\odot$)...

Rosswog, S; Hix, R

2008-01-01

332

Habitable Planets Around White and Brown Dwarfs: The Perils of a Cooling Primary  

CERN Multimedia

White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time, and hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water, and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10^-6. Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons as their surface temperatures are over 10^4 K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not const...

Barnes, Rory

2012-01-01

333

The accreting white dwarfs in BW Scl, BC UMa and SW UMa  

CERN Multimedia

We have observed the short-period dwarf novae BW Scl, BC UMa and SW UMa using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. In all three systems, the white dwarf is the dominant source of far-ultraviolet flux, even though in BC UMa and SW UMa an additional continuum component contributes ~10% and ~20% of the 1400A flux, respectively. Fitting the data with detailed white dwarf model spectra, we determine the effective temperatures to be 14800+-900K (BW Scl), 15200+-1000K (BC UMa), and 13900+-900K (SW UMa). The additional continuum component in BC UMa and SW UMa is equally well described by either a blackbody or a power law, which could be associated with emission from the hot spot or from an optically thin accretion disk (or an optically thin layer on top of a colder optically thick disk), respectively. Modelling the narrow metal lines detected in the STIS spectra results in sub-solar abundances of carbon, oxygen and silicon for all three systems, and also suggests substantial supra-solar ab...

Gänsicke, B T; Howell, S B; Sion, E M

2005-01-01

334

TIDAL DISRUPTION AND IGNITION OF WHITE DWARFS BY MODERATELY MASSIVE BLACK HOLES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present a numerical investigation of the tidal disruption of white dwarfs by moderately massive black holes, with particular reference to the centers of dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Special attention is given to the fate of white dwarfs of all masses that approach the black hole close enough to be disrupted and severely compressed to such an extent that explosive nuclear burning can be triggered. Consistent modeling of the gas dynamics together with the nuclear reactions allows for a realistic determination of the explosive energy release. In the most favorable cases, the nuclear energy release may be comparable to that of typical Type Ia supernovae. Although the explosion will increase the mass fraction escaping on hyperbolic orbits, a good fraction of the debris remains to be swallowed by the hole, causing a bright soft X-ray flare lasting for about a year. Such transient signatures, if detected, would be a compelling testimony for the presence of a moderately massive black hole (below 105 M sun).

2009-04-10

335

A white dwarf merger as progenitor of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61?  

CERN Multimedia

It has been recently proposed that massive fast-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs could describe the observational properties of some of Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars (AXPs). Moreover, it has also been shown that high-field magnetic (HFMWDs) can be the outcome of white dwarf binary mergers. The products of these mergers consist of a hot central white dwarf surrounded by a rapidly rotating disk. Here we show that the merger of a double degenerate system can explain the characteristics of the peculiar AXP 4U 0142+61. This scenario accounts for the observed infrared excess. We also show that the observed properties of 4U 0142+6 are consistent with an approximately $1.2 M_{\\sun}$ white dwarf, remnant of the coalescence of an original system made of two white dwarfs of masses $0.6\\, M_{\\sun}$ and $1.0\\, M_{\\sun}$. Finally, we infer a post-merging age $\\tau_{\\rm WD}\\approx 64$ kyr, and a magnetic field $B\\approx 2\\times 10^8$ G. Evidence for such a magnetic field may come from th...

Rueda, J A; Izzo, L; Ruffini, R; Aguilar, P Loren; Kulebi, B; Siguan, G Aznar; Berro, E Garcia

2013-01-01

336

Magnetic White Dwarfs in the SDSS and Estimating the Mean Mass of Normal DA and DB WDs  

Science.gov (United States)

When classifying by eye more than 22 000 spectra selected as possible white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we detected Zeeman splittings in more than 800 stars, increasing by a factor of five the number of known magnetic white dwarfs. Our field estimations range from 90 MG to less than 1 MG, complementing the detections by Külebi et al. [1]. These magnetic white dwarf stars cover the whole range of temperature and spectral classes observed. As the Zeeman splittings broadens the lines, we cannot use the line profiles to estimate surface gravity directly. We therefore excluded the magnetic white dwarfs from our average mass estimate of normal DAs and DBs. Analysis of the remaining 1505 bright and hot DA white dwarfs, i.e., those with S/N>=20 and Teff = 12000 K, results in a mean mass DA = 0.604+/-0.003 Msolar, while that of our 82 bright DBs with Teff = 16000 K is DB = 0.646+/-0.006 Msolar.

Kepler, S. O.; Kleinman, S. J.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Peçanha, Viviane; Diaz, Marcos; Koester, Detlev; Castanheira, B. G.; Nitta, Atsuko

2010-11-01

337

KOI 1224: A FOURTH BLOATED HOT WHITE DWARF COMPANION FOUND WITH KEPLER  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an analysis and interpretation of the Kepler binary system KOI 1224. This is the fourth binary found with Kepler that consists of a thermally bloated, hot white dwarf in a close orbit with a more or less normal star of spectral class A or F. As we show, KOI 1224 contains a white dwarf with T{sub eff} = 14, 700 {+-} 1000 K, mass = 0.22 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun }, and radius = 0.103 {+-} 0.002 R{sub Sun }, and an F-star companion of mass 1.59 {+-} 0.06 M{sub Sun} that is somewhat beyond its terminal-age main sequence. The orbital period is quite short at 2.69802 days. The ingredients that are used in the analysis are the Kepler binary light curve, including the detection of the Doppler boosting effect; the NUV and FUV fluxes from the GALEX images of this object; an estimate of the spectral type of the F-star companion; and evolutionary models of the companion designed to match its effective temperature and mean density. The light curve is modeled with a new code named Icarus which we describe in detail. Its features include the full treatment of orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy, Doppler boosting, irradiation effects, and transits/eclipses, which are particularly suited to irradiated eclipsing binaries. We interpret the KOI 1224 system in terms of its likely evolutionary history. We infer that this type of system, containing a bloated hot white dwarf, is the direct descendant of an Algol-type binary. In spite of this basic understanding of the origin of KOI 1224, we discuss a number of problems associated with producing a system with an orbital period this short.

Breton, R. P.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Rappaport, S. A. [M.I.T. Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Carter, J. A., E-mail: breton@astro.utoronto.ca [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-04-01

338

KOI 1224: A FOURTH BLOATED HOT WHITE DWARF COMPANION FOUND WITH KEPLER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present an analysis and interpretation of the Kepler binary system KOI 1224. This is the fourth binary found with Kepler that consists of a thermally bloated, hot white dwarf in a close orbit with a more or less normal star of spectral class A or F. As we show, KOI 1224 contains a white dwarf with Teff = 14, 700 ± 1000 K, mass = 0.22 ± 0.02 M?, and radius = 0.103 ± 0.002 R?, and an F-star companion of mass 1.59 ± 0.06 M? that is somewhat beyond its terminal-age main sequence. The orbital period is quite short at 2.69802 days. The ingredients that are used in the analysis are the Kepler binary light curve, including the detection of the Doppler boosting effect; the NUV and FUV fluxes from the GALEX images of this object; an estimate of the spectral type of the F-star companion; and evolutionary models of the companion designed to match its effective temperature and mean density. The light curve is modeled with a new code named Icarus which we describe in detail. Its features include the full treatment of orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy, Doppler boosting, irradiation effects, and transits/eclipses, which are particularly suited to irradiated eclipsing binaries. We interpret the KOI 1224 system in terms of its likely evolutionary history. We infer that this type of system, containing a bloated hot white dwarf, is the direct descendant of an Algol-type binary. In spite of this basic understanding of the origin of KOI 1224, we discuss a number of problems associated with producing a system with an orbital period this short.

2012-04-01

339

KOI 1224: A Fourth Bloated Hot White Dwarf Companion Found with Kepler  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an analysis and interpretation of the Kepler binary system KOI 1224. This is the fourth binary found with Kepler that consists of a thermally bloated, hot white dwarf in a close orbit with a more or less normal star of spectral class A or F. As we show, KOI 1224 contains a white dwarf with T eff = 14, 700 ± 1000 K, mass = 0.22 ± 0.02 M ?, and radius = 0.103 ± 0.002 R ?, and an F-star companion of mass 1.59 ± 0.06 M ? that is somewhat beyond its terminal-age main sequence. The orbital period is quite short at 2.69802 days. The ingredients that are used in the analysis are the Kepler binary light curve, including the detection of the Doppler boosting effect; the NUV and FUV fluxes from the GALEX images of this object; an estimate of the spectral type of the F-star companion; and evolutionary models of the companion designed to match its effective temperature and mean density. The light curve is modeled with a new code named Icarus which we describe in detail. Its features include the full treatment of orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy, Doppler boosting, irradiation effects, and transits/eclipses, which are particularly suited to irradiated eclipsing binaries. We interpret the KOI 1224 system in terms of its likely evolutionary history. We infer that this type of system, containing a bloated hot white dwarf, is the direct descendant of an Algol-type binary. In spite of this basic understanding of the origin of KOI 1224, we discuss a number of problems associated with producing a system with an orbital period this short.

Breton, R. P.; Rappaport, S. A.; van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Carter, J. A.

2012-04-01

340

The White Dwarf Companion of a 2 M_sun Neutron Star  

CERN Multimedia

We report the optical discovery of the companion to the 2 M_sun millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230. The optical colors show that the 0.5 M_sun companion is a 2.2 Gyr old He-CO white dwarf. We infer that $\\dot{M}$ during the accretion phase is <10^{-2}\\dot{M}_{edd}. We show that the pulsar was born with a spin close to its current value, well below the rebirth line. The spin-down parameters, the mass of the pulsar, and the age of the system challenge the simple recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars.

Bhalerao, Varun B

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The Predicted Signature of Neutrino Emission in Observations of Pulsating Pre-White Dwarf Stars  

CERN Document Server

Pre-white dwarf (PWD) star evolution can be driven by energy losses from neutrino interactions in the core. Unlike solar neutrinos, these are not the by-product of nuclear fusion, but instead result from electron scattering processes in the hot, dense regions of the PWD core. We show that the observed rate of period change in cool PWD pulsators will constrain neutrino emission in their cores, and we identify appropriate targets for future observation. Such a measurement will tell us whether the theories of lepton interactions correctly describe the production rates and therefore neutrino cooling of PWD evolution. This would represent the first test of standard lepton theory in dense plasma.

O'Brien, M S; Kawaler, Steven D.

2000-01-01

342

Neutron star formation in theoretical supernovae. Low mass stars and white dwarfs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presupernova evolution of stars that form semi-degenerate or strongly degenerate O + Ne + Mg cores is discussed. For the 10 to 13 Msub solar stars, behavior of off-center neon flashes is crucial. The 8 to 10 m/sub solar stars do not ignite neon and eventually collapse due to electron captures. Properties of supernova explosions and neutron stars expected from these low mass progenitors are compared with the Crab nebula. The conditions for which neutron stars form from accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in clsoe binary systems is also examined.

Nomoto, K.

1986-01-01

343

The Spin-Up Rate of the White Dwarf of GK Per  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors use hard X-ray light curves measured by the Chandra HETG and RXTE PCA during the late rise and plateau phases of the 2002 March-April outburst of the intermediate polar GK Per to determine that its X-ray pulse period P = 351.332 {+-} 0.002 s. Combined with previous x-ray and optical measurements of the spin period of the white dwarf, they find that its spin-up rate P = 0.00027 {+-} 0.00005 s yr{sup -1}.

Mauche, C W

2003-01-24

344

Analysis of the hydrogen-rich magnetic white dwarfs in the SDSS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have calculated optical spectra of hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs with magnetic field strengths between 1 MG and 1000 MG for temperatures between 7000 K and 50000 K. Through a least-squares minimization scheme with an evolutionary algorithm, we have analyzed the spectra of 114 magnetic DAs from the SDSS (95 previously published plus 14 newly discovered within SDSS, and five discovered by SEGUE). Since we were limited to a single spectrum for each object we used only centered magnetic dipoles or dipoles which were shifted along the magnetic dipole axis. We also statistically investigated the distribution of magnetic-field strengths and geometries of our sample.

2009-06-01

345

Final stages of evolution of cold, mass-accreting white dwarfs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of solid C + O white dwarf models upon mass accretion is calculated up to the point of either explosive thermonuclear ignition or gravitational collapse. It is shown that both explosions and quiet collapses to a neutron star are possible for each of two different phase diagrams for high-density C + O mixtures. The ranges of initial masses and temperatures and of accretion rates leading to the different outcomes are determined. Problems concerning the chemical composition of the accreted matter and the effects of tidal dissipation are discussed. 68 references

1988-01-01

346

Double Detonation of Sub-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs and Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae  

CERN Document Server

Type Ia supernovae are thought to result from thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars. This model generally explains the observed properties with certain exceptions, like sub-luminous supernovae. Here we discuss the possibility of sub-Chandrasekhar WDs detonating due to the build up of a layer of helium on the C-O WD by accreting from a helium rich companion star to explain observed deviations such as subluminous type Ia. We also detail some of the energetics involved that will make such scenarios plausible.

Sivaram, C

2010-01-01

347

The Radial Velocity and Mass of the White Dwarf of EX Hydrae Measured with Chandra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present the first detection of orbital motion in the cataclysmic variable EX Hydrae based on X-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The large collecting area of the telescope and the high resolution of the HETG spectrometers allow for an unprecedented velocity accuracy of {approx}km s{sup -1} in the X-ray wavelength regime. We find an emission line velocity amplitude of 58.2{+-}3.7 km s{sup -1} and infer a white dwarf mass of 0.49{+-}0.13 M{sub {circle_dot}}, in good agreement with previous studies using optical, ultraviolet, and far ultraviolet data.

Mauche, C W; Hoogerwerf, R; Brickhouse, N S

2004-03-01

348

New mass limit for white dwarfs: super-Chandrasekhar type Ia supernova as a new standard candle  

CERN Document Server

Type Ia supernovae, sparked off by exploding white dwarfs of mass close to Chandrasekhar limit, play the key role to understand the expansion rate of universe. However, recent observations of several peculiar type Ia supernovae argue for its progenitor mass to be significantly super-Chandrasekhar. We show that strongly magnetized white dwarfs not only can violate the Chandrasekhar mass limit significantly, but exhibit a different mass limit. We establish from foundational level that the generic mass limit of white dwarfs is 2.58 solar mass. This explains the origin of over-luminous peculiar type Ia supernovae. Our finding further argues for a possible second standard candle, which has many far reaching implications, including a possible reconsideration of the expansion history of the universe.

Das, Upasana

2013-01-01

349

Post Common Envelope Binaries from SDSS. I: 101 white dwarf main sequence binaries with multiple SDSS spectroscopy  

CERN Multimedia

We present a detailed analysis of 101 white dwarf-main sequence binaries (WDMS) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for which multiple SDSS spectra are available. We detect significant radial velocity variations in 18 WDMS, identifying them as post common envelope binaries (PCEBs) or strong PCEB candidates. Strict upper limits to the orbital periods are calculated, ranging from 0.43 to 7880 d. Given the sparse temporal sampling and relatively low spectral resolution of the SDSS spectra, our results imply a PCEB fraction of >=15% among the WDMS in the SDSS data base. Using a spectral decomposition/fitting technique we determined the white dwarf effective temperatures and surface gravities, masses, and secondary star spectral types for all WDMS in our sample. Two independent distance estimates are obtained from the flux scaling factors between the WDMS spectra, and the white dwarf models and main sequence star templates, respectively. Approximately one third of the systems in our sample show a significant ...

Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Schreiber, M R; Köster, D

2007-01-01

350

The discovery of a massive white dwarf in the peculiar binary system HD 49798/RX J0648.0-4418  

CERN Document Server

An XMM-Mewton observation performed in May 2008 has confirmed that the 13 seconds pulsations in the X-ray binary HD 49798/RX J0648.0-4418 are due to a rapidly rotating white dwarf. From the pulse time delays induced by the 1.55 days orbital motion, and the system's inclination, constrained by the duration of the X-ray eclipse discovered in this observation, we could derive a mass of 1.28+/-0.05 M_sun for the white dwarf. The future evolution of this post common envelope binary system will likely involve a new phase of mass accretion through Roche-lobe overflow that could drive the already massive white dwarf above the Chandrasekhar limit and produce a Type Ia supernova.

Mereghetti, S; Esposito, P; La Palombara, N; Israel, G L; Stella, L

2009-01-01

351

Maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems and maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AM CVn-type stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries are extremely interesting semi-detached close binary systems in which the Roche lobe filling component is a white dwarf transferring mass to another white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole. Earlier theoretical considerations show that there is ...

Arbutina Bojan

352

The Solar Neighborhood. XXI. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9m Program: 20 New Members of the 25 Parsec White Dwarf Sample  

CERN Multimedia

We present accurate trigonometric parallaxes for 20 new members of the 25 pc white dwarf sample as part of the DENSE project (Discovery and Evalution of Nearby Stellar Embers, http://www.DenseProject.com). Previously, there were a total of 112 white dwarf systems with trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc and of these, 99 have trigonometric parallaxes known to better than 10%. Thus, the 20 new members presented in this work represent a 20% increase in the number of white dwarfs accurately known to be within 25 pc. In addition, we present updated parallaxes for seven known white dwarfs within 10 pc that have been observed as part of the ASPENS initiative (Astrometric Search for Planets Encircling Nearby Stars) to monitor nearby southern red and white dwarfs for astrometric perturbations from unseen companions. Including a few white dwarf companions and white dwarfs beyond 25 pc, we present a total of 33 trigonometric parallaxes. We perform atmospheric modeling for white dwarfs to determine physica...

Subasavage, John P; Henry, Todd J; Bergeron, P; Dufour, P; Ianna, Philip A; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A

2009-01-01

353

Spin-up of the white dwarf in the intermediate polar AO Psc/H2252-035  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Walraven photometric observations made in 1983 and 1984 of the intermediate polar AO Psc/H2252-035 are used to derive new times of maximum light for its orbital and pulsational light curves. Combining these times with previously published values the periods of both pulsations are found to show a secular decrease. The spin-up rate (dP/dt) of the white dwarf equals (dP/dt)= -6.6+-1.0x10-11. This result is in good agreement with the value predicted by previous authors for an accreting magnetized white dwarf, spinning near its equilibrium period. (author)

1985-07-01

354

The TRENDS High-contrast Imaging Survey. III. A Faint White Dwarf Companion Orbiting HD 114174  

Science.gov (United States)

The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the "trend." HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692 ± 9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75 ± 0.12 mag (contrast of 5 × 10-5) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 yr demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, MJ = 13.97 ± 0.11, and colors, J - K = 0.12 ± 0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an ?T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of 0.260 ± 0.010 M ?. We conclude that HD 114174 B must be a white dwarf. Assuming a hydrogen-rich composition, atmospheric and evolutionary model fits yield an effective temperature T eff = 8200 ± 4000 K, surface gravity log g = 8.90 ± 0.02, and cooling age of tc ? 3.4 Gyr, which is consistent with the 4.7^{+2.3}_{-2.6} Gyr host star isochronal age estimate. HD 114174 B is a benchmark object located only 26.14 ± 0.37 pc from the Sun. It may be studied at a level of detail comparable to Sirius and Procyon, and used to understand the link between the mass of white dwarf remnants with that of their progenitors.

Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin; Wright, Jason T.

2013-09-01

355

The merger of binary white dwarf--neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity  

CERN Multimedia

We present fully general relativistic (GR) simulations of binary white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) inspiral and merger. The initial binary is in a circular orbit at the Roche critical separation. The goal is to determine the ultimate fate of such systems. We focus on binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass (Mmax) a cold, degenerate EOS can support against gravitational collapse. The time and length scales span many orders of magnitude, making fully general relativistic hydrodynamic (GRHD) simulations computationally prohibitive. For this reason, we model the WD as a "pseudo-white dwarf" (pWD) as in our binary WDNS head-on collisions study [PRD83:064002,2011]. Our GRHD simulations of a pWDNS system with a 0.98-solar-mass WD and a 1.4-solar-mass NS show that the merger remnant is a spinning Thorne-Zytkow-like Object (TZlO) surrounded by a massive disk. The final total rest mass exceeds Mmax, but the remnant does not collapse promptly. To assess whether the object will ultimately collapse after cooling,...

Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah; Shapiro, Stuart L

2011-01-01

356

The merger of binary white dwarf--neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the pseudo-white dwarf (pWD) approximation we perform hydrodynamic simulations of binary white dwarf--neutron star (WDNS) late inspiral and merger in full GR. The initial binary is in circular orbit at the Roche limit. The goal is to determine the ultimate fate of such systems. We focus on binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass (Mmax) a cold, degenerate equation of state can support against gravitational collapse. Our simulations of a pWDNS system with a 0.98M WD and a 1.4M NS show that the merger remnant is a spinning Thorne-Zytkow-like Object (TZlO) surrounded by a massive disk. The final total rest mass exceeds Mmax, but the remnant does not collapse promptly. To assess whether the object will ultimately collapse after cooling, we introduce radiative thermal cooling. When we cool the spinning TZlO, the remnant does not collapse, demonstrating that differential rotational support is sufficient to prevent collapse. Given that the final total mass exceeds Mmax, magnetic fields and/or viscosity may redistribute angular momentum and ultimately lead to delayed collapse to a BH. We infer that the merger of realistic massive WDNS binaries likely will lead to the formation of spinning TZlOs that undergo delayed collapse.

Paschalidis, Vasileios; Liu, Yuk Tung; Etienne, Zachariah; Shapiro, Stuart

2012-03-01

357

The polluted atmosphere of the white dwarf NLTT 25792 and the diversity of circumstellar environments  

CERN Document Server

We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted, hydrogen-rich white dwarf NLTT 25792. The spectra show strong lines of calcium (Ca H&K, near-infrared calcium triplet, and Ca I 4226 and numerous lines of iron along with magnesium and aluminum lines from which we draw the abundance pattern. Moreover, the photospheric Ca H&K lines are possibly blended with a circumstellar component shifted by -20 km/s relative to the photosphere. A comparison with a sample of four white dwarfs with similar parameters show considerable variations in their abundance patterns, particularly in the calcium to magnesium abundance ratio that varies by a factor of five within this sample. The observed variations, even after accounting for diffusion effects, imply similar variations in the putative accretion source. Also, we find that silicon and sodium are significantly underabundant in the atmosphere of NLTT 25792, a fact that may offer some clues on the nature of the accretion source.

Vennes, S

2013-01-01

358

Rocky Extrasolar Planetary Compositions Derived from Externally-Polluted White Dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We report Keck High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer data and model atmosphere analysis of two helium-dominated white dwarfs, PG1225-079 and HS2253+8023, whose heavy pollutions most likely derive from the accretion of terrestrial-type planet(esimal)s. For each system, the minimum accreted mass is ~10^22 g, that of a large asteroid. In PG1225-079, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni have abundance ratios similar to bulk Earth values, while we measure four refractory elements, Ca, Sc, Ti and V, all at a factor of ~2-3 higher abundance than in the bulk Earth. For HS2253+8023 the swallowed material was compositionally similar to bulk Earth in being more than 85% by mass in the major element species, O, Mg, Si, and Fe, and with abundances in the distinctive proportions of mineral oxides - compelling evidence for an origin in a rocky parent body. Including previous studies we now know of four heavily polluted white dwarfs where the measured oxygen and hydrogen are consistent with the view that the parents bodies formed with littl...

Klein, B; Koester, D; Zuckerman, B

2011-01-01

359

Photospheric phosphorus in the FUSE spectra of GD71 and two similar DA white dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

We report the detection, from FUSE data, of phosphorus in the atmospheres of GD71 and two similar DA white dwarfs. This is the first detection of a trace metal in the photosphere of the spectrophotometric standard star GD71. Collectively, these objects represent the coolest DA white dwarfs in which photospheric phosphorus has been observed. We use a grid of homogeneous non-LTE synthetic spectra to measure abundances of[P/H]=-8.57 +0.09 -0.13, -8.70 +0.23 -0.37 and -8.36 +0.14 -0.19 in GD71, RE J1918+595 and RE J0605-482 respectively. At the observed level we find phosphorus has no significant impact on the overall energy distribution of GD71. We explore possible mechanisms responsible for the presence of this element in these stars, concluding that the most likely is an interplay between radiative levitation and gravitational settling but possibly modified by weak mass loss.

Dobbie, P; Hubeny, I; Holberg, J; Burleigh, M; Forbes, A; Dobbie, Paul; Barstow, Martin; Hubeny, Ivan; Holberg, Jay; Burleigh, Matt; Forbes, Anne

2005-01-01

360

Discovery of Spectroscopic Variations in the DAB White Dwarf GD 323  

CERN Multimedia

We report the discovery of spectroscopic variations in GD 323, the prototypical DAB white dwarf. Simultaneous optical spectroscopic observations over five consecutive nights of GD 323 and of PG 1234+482, a non-variable comparison DA white dwarf of similar brightness, are used to reveal quasi-periodic variations in both the hydrogen and helium absorption lines over a timescale of hours. The amplitude of the variation of the equivalent width of Hbeta is ~30 %. Moreover, the strength of the hydrogen lines is shown to vary in opposite phase from that of He I 4471. These results suggest that the model currently thought to be the most viable to account for the simultaneous presence of hydrogen and helium lines in GD 323, namely a static stratified atmosphere, may need to be reexamined. Instead, a model with an inhomogeneous surface composition, resulting perhaps from the dilution of a thin hydrogen atmosphere with the underlying helium convection zone, may be a better representation of GD 323. The observed variatio...

Pereira, C; Wesemael, F

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Simulations of the Boundary Layer Between a White Dwarf and its Accretion Disk  

CERN Multimedia

Using a three-dimensional time-dependent axisymmetric numerical code we recently developed, we solve the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations (including an alpha-viscosity prescription) to determine the structure of the boundary layer between the white dwarf and the accretion disk in non-magnetic cataclysmic varia ble systems. In this preliminary work, our numerical approach does not include radiation. In the energy equation, we either take the dissipation function (Phi) into account or we assumed that the energy is instantly radiated away (Phi). For a slowly rotating non magnetized accreting white dwarf, the accretion disk e xtends all the way to the stellar surface. There, the matter impacts and spread s towards the poles as new matter continuously piles up behind it. We carried o ut numerical simulations for different values of the alpha viscosity parameter (alpha), corresponding to different mass accretion rates. In the high viscosity cases (alpha=0.1), the spreading boundary layer sets off a gravity...

Balsara, Dinshaw S; Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M

2007-01-01

362

KOI 1224, a Fourth Bloated Hot White Dwarf Companion Found With Kepler  

CERN Document Server

We present an analysis and interpretation of the Kepler binary system KOI 1224. This is the fourth binary found with Kepler that consists of a thermally bloated, hot white dwarf in a close orbit with a more or less normal star of spectral class A or F. As we show, KOI 1224 contains a white dwarf with Teff = 14400 +/- 1100 K, mass = 0.20 +/- 0.02 Msun, and radius = 0.103 +/- 0.004 Rsun, and an F-star companion of mass = 1.59 +/- 0.07 Msun that is somewhat beyond its terminal-age main sequence. The orbital period is quite short at 2.69802 days. The ingredients that are used in the analysis are the Kepler binary light curve, including the detection of the Doppler boosting effect; the NUV and FUV fluxes from the Galex images of this object; an estimate of the spectral type of the F-star companion; and evolutionary models of the companion designed to match its effective temperature and mean density. The light curve is modelled with a new code named Icarus which we describe in detail. Its features include the full ...

Breton, Rene P; van Kerkwijk, Marten H; Carter, Josh A

2011-01-01

363

Normal Type Ia supernovae from violent mergers of white dwarf binaries  

CERN Multimedia

One of the most important questions regarding the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is whether mergers of two white dwarfs can lead to explosions that reproduce observations of normal events. Here we present a fully three-dimensional simulation of a violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with masses of $0.9 \\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $1.1 \\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ combining very high resolution and exact initial conditions. A well-tested combination of codes is used to study the system. We start with the dynamical inspiral phase and follow the subsequent thermonuclear explosion under the plausible assumption that a detonation forms in the process of merging. We then perform detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and radiative transfer simulations to predict synthetic observables from the homologously expanding supernova ejecta. We find that synthetic color lightcurves of our merger, which produces about $0.62 \\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ of $^{56}\\mathrm{Ni}$, show good agreement with those observed for norm...

Pakmor, R; Taubenberger, S; Sim, S A; Roepke, F K; Hillebrandt, W

2012-01-01

364

Double-detonation supernovae of sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

In the "double-detonation sub-Chandrasekhar" model for type Ia supernovae, a carbon-oxygen (C + O) white dwarf accumulates sufficient amounts of helium such that a detonation ignites in that layer before the Chandrasekhar mass is reached. This detonation is thought to trigger a secondary detonation in the C + O core. By means of one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the robustness of this explosion mechanism for generic 1-M_sun models and analyze its observable predictions. Also a resolution dependence in numerical simulations is analyzed. The propagation of thermonuclear detonation fronts, both in helium and in the carbon-oxygen mixture, is computed by means of both a level-set function and a simplified description for nuclear reactions. The decision whether a secondary detonation is triggered in the white dwarf's core or not is made based on criteria given in the literature. In a parameter study involving different initial flame geometries for He-shell masses of 0.2 and 0.1 M_sun...

Fink, M; Roepke, F K

2007-01-01

365

A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supernovae are thought to arise from two different physical processes. The cores of massive, short-lived stars undergo gravitational core collapse and typically eject a few solar masses during their explosion. These are thought to appear as type Ib/c and type II supernovae, and are associated with young stellar populations. In contrast, the thermonuclear detonation of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, whose mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, is thought to produce type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are observed in both young and old stellar environments. Here we report a faint type Ib supernova, SN 2005E, in the halo of the nearby isolated galaxy, NGC 1032. The 'old' environment near the supernova location, and the very low derived ejected mass ( approximately 0.3 solar masses), argue strongly against a core-collapse origin. Spectroscopic observations and analysis reveal high ejecta velocities, dominated by helium-burning products, probably excluding this as a subluminous or a regular type Ia supernova. We conclude that it arises from a low-mass, old progenitor, likely to have been a helium-accreting white dwarf in a binary. The ejecta contain more calcium than observed in other types of supernovae and probably large amounts of radioactive (44)Ti.

Perets HB; Gal-Yam A; Mazzali PA; Arnett D; Kagan D; Filippenko AV; Li W; Arcavi I; Cenko SB; Fox DB; Leonard DC; Moon DS; Sand DJ; Soderberg AM; Anderson JP; James PA; Foley RJ; Ganeshalingam M; Ofek EO; Bildsten L; Nelemans G; Shen KJ; Weinberg NN; Metzger BD; Piro AL; Quataert E; Kiewe M; Poznanski D

2010-05-01

366

A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supernovae are thought to arise from two different physical processes. The cores of massive, short-lived stars undergo gravitational core collapse and typically eject a few solar masses during their explosion. These are thought to appear as type Ib/c and type II supernovae, and are associated with young stellar populations. In contrast, the thermonuclear detonation of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, whose mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, is thought to produce type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are observed in both young and old stellar environments. Here we report a faint type Ib supernova, SN 2005E, in the halo of the nearby isolated galaxy, NGC 1032. The 'old' environment near the supernova location, and the very low derived ejected mass ( approximately 0.3 solar masses), argue strongly against a core-collapse origin. Spectroscopic observations and analysis reveal high ejecta velocities, dominated by helium-burning products, probably excluding this as a subluminous or a regular type Ia supernova. We conclude that it arises from a low-mass, old progenitor, likely to have been a helium-accreting white dwarf in a binary. The ejecta contain more calcium than observed in other types of supernovae and probably large amounts of radioactive (44)Ti. PMID:20485429

Perets, H B; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P A; Arnett, D; Kagan, D; Filippenko, A V; Li, W; Arcavi, I; Cenko, S B; Fox, D B; Leonard, D C; Moon, D-S; Sand, D J; Soderberg, A M; Anderson, J P; James, P A; Foley, R J; Ganeshalingam, M; Ofek, E O; Bildsten, L; Nelemans, G; Shen, K J; Weinberg, N N; Metzger, B D; Piro, A L; Quataert, E; Kiewe, M; Poznanski, D

2010-05-20

367

A Survey for Cool White Dwarfs and the age of the Galactic Disc  

CERN Document Server

We describe a new multi-colour proper motion survey for cool white dwarfs (CWDs). The observational database consists of ~300 digitally scanned Schmidt plates in ESO/SERC field 287. The entire survey procedure, from the raw Schmidt plate data to final white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) is described, with special emphasis on completeness concerns. We obtain a sample of 58 WDs, for which we have follow up CCD photometry and spectroscopy of a representative sub--sample. Effective temperatures and luminosities of our sample objects are determined by comparing photometry with the model atmosphere predictions of Bergeron, Saumon and Wesemael. Space densities are calculated using an adaptation of Schmidts (1/Vmax) method, from which a WDLF is constructed. Comparison of our observational LF with the models of both Wood and Garcia-Berro et al. indicate an age for the local Galactic Disc of 10{-1}_{+3}Gyr. Importantly, we find no evidence of incompleteness in our survey sample. Proper motion number counts imply the...

Knox, R A; Hambly, N C

1999-01-01

368

Ab initio Stellar Astrophysics: Reliable Modeling of Cool White Dwarf Atmospheres  

CERN Document Server

Over the last decade {\\it ab initio} modeling of material properties has become widespread in diverse fields of research. It has proved to be a powerful tool for predicting various properties of matter under extreme conditions. We apply modern computational chemistry and materials science methods, including density functional theory (DFT), to solve lingering problems in the modeling of the dense atmospheres of cool white dwarfs ($T_{\\rm eff}\\rm <7000 \\, K$). Our work on the revision and improvements of the absorption mechanisms in the hydrogen and helium dominated atmospheres resulted in a new set of atmosphere models. By inclusion of the Ly-$\\rm \\alpha$ red wing opacity we successfully fitted the entire spectral energy distributions of known cool DA stars. In the subsequent work we fitted the majority of the coolest stars with hydrogen-rich models. This finding challenges our understanding of the spectral evolution of cool white dwarfs. We discuss a few examples, including the cool companion to the pulsar...

Kowalski, Piotr M

2010-01-01

369

The stellar content of the Hamburg/ESO survey. I. Automated selection of DA white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We describe automatic procedures for the selection of DA white dwarfs in the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES). For this purpose, and the selection of other stellar objects (e.g., metal-poor stars and carbon stars), a flexible, robust algorithm for detection of stellar absorption and emission lines in the digital spectra of the HES was developed. Broad band (U-B, B-V) and narrow band (Str\\"omgren c_1) colours can be derived directly from HES spectra, with precisions of sigma(U-B)=0.092mag; sigma(B-V)=0.095mag; sigma(c_1)=0.15mag. We describe simulation techniques that allow to convert model or slit spectra to HES spectra. These simulated objective-prism spectra are used to determine quantitative selection criteria, and for the study of selection functions. We present an atlas of simulated HES spectra of DA and DB white dwarfs. Our current selection algorithm is tuned to yield maximum efficiency of the candidate sample (minimum contamination with non-DAs). DA candidates are selected in the B-V versus U-...

Christlieb, N; Reimers, D; Homeier, D; Köster, D; Heber, U

2000-01-01

370

The Ratio of Helium- to Hydrogen-Atmosphere White Dwarfs: Direct Evidence for Convective Mixing  

CERN Multimedia

We determine the ratio of helium- to hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf stars as a function of effective temperature from a model atmosphere analysis of the infrared photometric data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey combined with available visual magnitudes. Our study surpasses any previous analysis of this kind both in terms of the accuracy of the Teff determinations as well as the size of the sample. We observe that the ratio of helium- to hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs increases gradually from a constant value of ~0.25 between Teff = 15,000 K and 10,000 K to a value twice as large in the range 10,000 > Teff > 8000 K, suggesting that convective mixing, which occurs when the bottom of the hydrogen convection zone reaches the underlying convective helium envelope, is responsible for this gradual transition. The comparison of our results with an approximate model used to describe the outcome of this convective mixing process implies hydrogen mass layers in the range log M_H/M_tot = -10 to -8 for about 15% of ...

Tremblay, P -E

2007-01-01

371

A NICMOS Direct Imaging Search for Giant Planets around the Single White Dwarfs in the Hyades  

CERN Multimedia

We report preliminary results from our search for massive giant planets (6-12 Jupiter masses) around the known seven single white dwarfs in the Hyades cluster at sub-arcsec separations. At an age of 625 Myr, the white dwarfs had progenitor masses of about 3 solar masses, and massive gaseous giant planets should have formed in the massive circumstellar disks around these ex-Herbig A0 stars, probably at orbital separations similar or slightly larger than that of Jupiter. Such planets would have survived the post-Main-Sequence mass loss of the parent star and would have migrated outward adiabatically to a distance of about 25 AU. At the distance of the Hyades (45 pc) this corresponds to an angular separation of 0.5 arcsec. J and H magnitudes of these giants are in the range of 20.5-23.3 mag, which can be resolved with NICMOS. The achieved sensitivities and contrast ratios agree well with simulations. Preliminary evaluation of the NICMOS data set did not reveal any evidence for neither planetary mass companions w...

Friedrich, S; Brandner, W; Correia, S; McCaughrean, M

2005-01-01

372

The impact of unresolved binaries on searches for white dwarfs in open clusters  

CERN Multimedia

Many open clusters have a deficit of observed white dwarfs (WDs) compared with predictions of the number of stars to have evolved into WDs. We evaluate the number of WDs produced in open clusters and the number of those WDS detectable using photometric selection techniques. This calculation includes the effects of varying the initial-mass function (IMF), the maximum progenitor masses of WDs, and the binary fraction. Differences between the calculated number of observable WDs and the actual number of WDs observed in a specific cluster then indicate the true deficit of WDs that must be explained through effects such as dynamical evolution of the cluster or close binary evolution. Observations of WDs in three open clusters, the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe, are compared to the calculated observable populations in those clusters. The results suggest that a large portion of the white dwarf deficit may be explained by the presence of WDs in unresolved binary systems. However, the calculated WD populations still o...

Williams, K A

2004-01-01

373

The internal structure of neutron stars and white dwarfs, and the Jacobi virial equation. II  

CERN Document Server

In a previous paper we have shown that the function \\Gamma(M, EOS)=\\alpha\\beta_{GR}/\\Lambda^{0.9}(R) is constant (~ 0.4) for pre main-sequence stars (PMS), white dwarfs (WD) and for some neutron star (NS) models, \\alpha_{GR} and \\beta_{GR} being the form-factors of the gravitational potential energy and of the moment of inertia. In order to investigate the structural evolution of another kind of celestial bodies, we use the MESA code to extend these calculations to gaseous planets. We show that the mentioned function is conserved for all models during the whole planetary evolution and is independent of the planet mass. We also analyse the causes for which the mentioned function is not conserved during some stellar evolutionary phases. With respect to the pre main-sequence up to the white dwarf cooling sequences, we have found a connection between the large variations of \\Gamma(M, EOS) during the intermediary evolutionary phases and the specific nuclear power. A threshold for the specific nuclear power was fou...

Claret, Antonio

2013-01-01

374

The pulsation modes of the pre-white dwarf PG 1159-035  

CERN Multimedia

PG 1159-035, a pre-white dwarf with T_eff=140,000 K, is the prototype of both two classes: the PG1159 spectroscopic class and the DOV pulsating class. Previous studies of PG 1159-035 photometric data obtained with the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) showed a rich frequency spectrum allowing the identification of 122 pulsation modes. In this work, we used all available WET photometric data from 1983, 1985, 1989, 1993 and 2002 to identify the pulsation periods and identified 76 additional pulsation modes, increasing to 198 the number of known pulsation modes in PG 1159-035, the largest number of modes detected in any star besides the Sun. From the period spacing we estimated a mass M = 0.59 +/- 0.02 solar masses for PG 1159-035, with the uncertainty dominated by the models, not the observation. Deviations in the regular period spacing suggest that some of the pulsation modes are trapped, even though the star is a pre-white dwarf and the gravitational settling is ongoing. The position of the transition zone that cau...

Costa, J E S; Winget, D E; O'Brien, M S; Kawaler, S D; Costa, A F M; Giovannini, O; Kanaan, A; Mukadam, A S; Mullally, F; Nitta, A; Provençal, J L; Shipman, H; Wood, M A; Ahrens, T J; Grauer, A; Kilic, M; Bradley, P A; Sekiguchi, K; Crowe, R; Jiang, X J; Sullivan, D; Sullivan, T; Rosen, R; Clemens, J C; Janulis, R; O'Donoghue, D; Ogloza, W; Baran, A; Silvotti, R; Marinoni, S; Vauclair, G; Dolez, N; Chevreton, M; Dreizler, S; Schuh, S; Deetjen, J; Nagel, T; Solheim, J -E; Perez, J M Gonzalez; Ulla, A; Barstow, Martin; Burleigh, M; Good, S; Metcalfe, T S; Kim, S -L; Lee, H; Sergeev, A; Akan, M C; Çakirli, Ö; Paparo, M; Viraghalmy, G; Ashoka, B N; Handler, G; Hürkal, Özlem; Johannessen, F; Kleinman, S J; Kalytis, R; Krzesínski, J; Klumpe, E; Larrison, J; Lawrence, T; Mestas, E; Martínez, P; Nather, R E; Fu, J -N; Pakstien, E; Rosen, R; Romero-Colmenero, E; Riddle, R; Seetha, S; Silvestri, N M; Vuckovic, M; Warner, B; Zola, S; Althaus, L G; Córsico, A H; Montgomery, M H

2007-01-01

375

The pulsating pre-white dwarf star PG 0122+200  

CERN Multimedia

We present an analysis of single-site time-series photometry of the pulsating pre-white dwarf PG 0122+200. We show the pulsations are consistent with a pattern of modes equally spaced in period; both the observed period range and spacing confirm that PG 0122 is a g-mode pulsator. PG 0122 shows a pattern similar to that seen in multi-site observations of PG 2131+066 and PG 1159-035. The measured period spacing, combined with the spectroscopic temperature, constrain the stellar mass much more precisely than the published measurement of its surface gravity. Based on stellar models, the mass of PG 0122 falls in the range 0.66-0.72 Msun. Fine structure in the power spectrum indicates that PG 0122 rotates once every 1.6 days. Future multi--site observation (e.g., using the Whole Earth Telescope) should increase the precision of these results and reveal detailed information on the internal structure of this variable pre-white dwarf star.

O'Brien, M S; Kawaler, S D; Dehner, B T; O'Brien, M Sean; Clemens, J Christopher; Kawaler, Steven D; Dehner, Benjamin T

1996-01-01

376

On the Change of the Inner Boundary of an Optically Thick Accretion Disk around White Dwarfs Using the Dwarf Nova SS Cyg as an Example  

CERN Multimedia

We present the results of our studies of the aperiodic optical flux variability for SS Cyg, an accreting binary systemwith a white dwarf. The main set of observational data presented here was obtained with the ANDOR/iXon DU-888 photometer mounted on the RTT-150 telescope, which allowed a record(for CCD photometers) time resolution up to 8 ms to be achieved. The power spectra of the source's flux variability have revealed that the aperiodic variability contains information about the inner boundary of the optically thick flow in the binary system. We show that the inner boundary of the optically thick accretion disk comes close to the white dwarf surface at the maximum of the source's bolometric light curve, i.e., at the peak of the instantaneous accretion rate onto the white dwarf, while the optically thick accretion disk is truncated at distances 8.5e9 cm ~10 R_{WD} in the low state. We suggest that the location of the inner boundary of the accretion disk in the binary can be traced by studying the parameters...

Revnivtsev, M G; Tkachenko, A Yu; Khamitov, I M; Ak, T; Merloni, A; Pavlinsky, M N; Sunyaev, R A

2012-01-01

377

Detection limits for close eclipsing and transiting sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in the WASP survey  

CERN Multimedia

We have performed extensive simulations to explore the possibility of detecting eclipses and transits of close, sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in WASP light-curves. Our simulations cover companions $\\sim0.3\\Re<{\\rm R}_{pl}<12\\Re$ and orbital periods $2{\\rm h}white dwarf. For fainter white dwarfs WASP is sensitive to increasingly larger radius bodies. However, in the presence of correlated noise structure in the light-curves the sensitivity drops, although Earth-sized companions remain detectable in principle even in low S/N data. Mars-sized, and even Mercury-sized bodies yield reasonable detection rates in high-quality light-curves with little residual noise. We searched for eclipses and transit signals in long-term light-curves of a sample of 194 white dwarfs resulting fr...

Faedi, F; Burleigh, M R; Goad, M R; Hebb, L

2010-01-01

378

Two-Dimensional Simulations of the Thermonuclear Runaway in an Accreted Atmosphere of a C+O White Dwarf  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of two-dimensional calculations of turbulent nuclear burning of hydrogen-rich material accreted onto a white dwarf of 1 solar mass. The main aim of the present paper is to investigate the question as to whether and how the general properties of the burning are affected by numerical resolution effects. In particular, we want to see whether or not convective overshooting into the surface layers of the C+O white dwarf can lead to self-enrichment of the initially solar composition of the hydrogen-rich envelope with carbon and oxygen from the underlying white dwarf core. Our explicit hydrodynamic code is based on the PPM-method and computes the onset of the thermonuclear runaway on a Cartesian grid. In contrast to previous works we do not observe fast mixing of carbon and oxygen from the white dwarf's surface into the envelope by violent overshooting of large eddies. The main features of the flow fields in our simulations are the appearance of small persistent coherent structures of very hig...

Kercek, A; Truran, J W

1998-01-01

379

An Improved Spectroscopic Analysis of DA White Dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4  

CERN Multimedia

We present an improved spectroscopic and photometric analysis of hydrogen-line DA white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 based on model atmospheres that include improved Stark broadening profiles with non-ideal gas effects. We also perform a careful visual inspection of all spectroscopic fits with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N > 12) and present improved atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g) for each white dwarf. Through a comparison of spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, we report the discovery of 35 DA+DB/DC double degenerate candidates and 2 helium-rich DA stars. We also determine that a cutoff at S/N = 15 optimizes the size and quality of the sample for computing the mean mass of DA white dwarfs, for which we report a value of 0.613 Msun. In the following step, we compare our results to previous analyses of the SDSS DR4 and find a good agreement if we account for the shift produced by the improved Stark profiles. Finally, the properties of DA white dwarfs in the SDSS are...

Tremblay, P -E; Gianninas, A

2011-01-01

380

An aluminum/calcium-rich, iron-poor, white dwarf star: evidence for an extrasolar planetary lithosphere?  

CERN Document Server

The presence of elements heavier than helium in white dwarf atmospheres is often a signpost for the existence of rocky objects that currently or previously orbited these stars. We have measured the abundances of various elements in the hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs G149-28 and NLTT 43806. In comparison with other white dwarfs with atmospheres polluted by heavy elements, NLTT 43806 is substantially enriched in aluminum but relatively poor in iron. We compare the relative abundances of Al and eight other heavy elements seen in NLTT 43806 with the elemental composition of bulk Earth, with simulated extrasolar rocky planets, with solar system meteorites, with the atmospheric compositions of other polluted white dwarfs, and with the outer layers of the Moon and Earth. Best agreement is found with a model that involves accretion of a mixture of terrestrial crust and upper mantle material onto NLTT 43806. The implication is that NLTT 43806 is orbited by a differentiated rocky planet, perhaps quite similar to Eart...

Zuckerman, B; Dufour, P; Melis, Carl; Klein, B; Jura, M

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The relativistic pulsar-white dwarf binary PSR J1738+0333 I. Mass determination and evolutionary history  

CERN Document Server

PSR J1738+0333 is one of the four millisecond pulsars known to be orbited by a white dwarf companion bright enough for optical spectroscopy. Of these, it has the shortest orbital period, making it especially interesting for a range of astrophysical and gravity related questions. We present a spectroscopic and photometric study of the white dwarf companion and infer its radial velocity curve, effective temperature, surface gravity and luminosity. We find that the white dwarf has properties consistent with those of low-mass white dwarfs with thick hydrogen envelopes, and use the corresponding mass-radius relation to infer its mass; M_WD = 0.181 +/- +0.007/-0.005 solar masses. Combined with the mass ratio q=8.1 +/- 0.2 inferred from the radial velocities and the precise pulsar timing ephemeris, the neutron star mass is constrained to M_PSR = 1.47 +/- +0.07/-0.06 solar masses. Contrary to expectations, the latter is only slightly above the Chandrasekhar limit. We find that, even if the birth mass of the neutron s...

Antoniadis, J; Koester, D; Freire, P C C; Wex, N; Tauris, T M; Kramer, M; Bassa, C G

2012-01-01

382

THE WIRED SURVEY. II. INFRARED EXCESSES IN THE SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With the launch of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From ?18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 'naked' WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large (?6'') WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

2011-12-01

383

New evolutionary sequences for extremely low-mass white dwarfs. Homogeneous mass and age determinations and asteroseismic prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Context. The number of detected extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf stars has increased drastically in recent years, thanks to the results of many surveys. In addition, some of these stars have been found to exhibit pulsations, making them potential targets for asteroseismology. Aims: We provide a fine and homogeneous grid of evolutionary sequences for helium (He) core white dwarfs for the whole range of their expected masses (0.15 ? M?/M? ? 0.45), including the mass range for ELM white dwarfs (M?/M? ? 0.20). The grid is appropriate for mass and age determination of these stars, as well as for studying their adiatabic pulsational properties. Methods: White dwarf sequences have been computed by performing full evolutionary calculations that consider the main energy sources and processes of chemical abundance changes during white dwarf evolution. Realistic initial models for the evolving white dwarfs have been obtained by computing the nonconservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M? ZAMS star and a 1.4 M? neutron star for various initial orbital periods. To derive cooling ages and masses for He-core white dwarfs, we perform a least square fitting of the M(Teff,g) and Age(Teff,g) relations provided by our sequences by using a scheme that takes into account the time spent by models in different regions of the Teff - g plane. This is particularly useful when multiple solutions for cooling age and mass determinations are possible in the case of CNO-flashing sequences. We also explore in a preliminary way the adiabatic pulsational properties of models near the critical mass for the development of CNO flashes (~0.2 M?). This is motivated by the discovery of pulsating white dwarfs with stellar masses near this threshold value. Results: We obtain reliable and homogeneous mass and cooling age determinations for 58 very low-mass white dwarfs, including three pulsating stars. Also, we find substantial differences in the period spacing distributions of g-modes for models with stellar masses near ~ 0.2 M?, which could be used as a seismic tool to distinguish stars that have undergone CNO flashes in their early cooling phase from those that have not. Finally, for an easy application of our results, we provide a reduced grid of values useful to obtain the masses and ages of He-core white dwarfs. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe tracks and the data presented in the middle and lower panels of Figs. 5, 6 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A19

Althaus, Leandro G.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.

2013-09-01

384

The Role of White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variable Spin-down  

CERN Document Server

We study the effect of a white dwarf on the spin-down of a cataclysmic variable system using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical model. The model includes the stellar corona, the stellar wind, and the WD mass and magnetic field. The existence of the WD modifies the system spin-down by physically blocking the stellar wind, restructuring the wind, channeling the wind towards the WD surface, and by modifying the shape and size of the Alfv\\'en surface. The combination of these processes differs among a set of simple test cases, and the resulting angular momentum loss rates vary by factors of 2-3, and by factors of two relative to a test model with a single M dwarf. While the model employs some simplifications, the results suggest angular momentum loss schemes currently employed in cataclysmic variable studies do not require drastic revision. Insights are also gained on wind accretion. We find that efficient accretion switches on quite rapidly with decreasing orbital separation. Accretion rates depen...

Cohen, O; Kashyap, V L

2012-01-01

385

The origin of circumstellar features in the spectra of hot DA white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We have analysed a sample of 23 hot DAs to better understand the source of the circumstellar features reported in previous work. Unambiguous detections of circumstellar material are again made at eight stars. The velocities of the circumstellar material at three of the white dwarfs are coincident with the radial velocities of ISM along the sight line to the stars, suggesting that the objects may be ionising the ISM in their locality. In three further cases, the circumstellar velocities are close to the ISM velocities, indicating that these objects are either ionising the ISM, or evaporated planetesimals/material in a circumstellar disc. The circumstellar velocity at WD 1614-084 lies far from the ISM velocities, indicating either the ionisation of an undetected ISM component or circumstellar material. The material seen at WD 0232+035 can be attributed to the photoionisation of material lost from its M dwarf companion. The measured column densities of the circumstellar material lie within the ionised ISM column...

Dickinson, N J; Welsh, B Y; Burleigh, M; Farihi, J; Redfield, S; Unglaub, K

2012-01-01

386

Searching for White and Brown Dwarfs in the frame of the MUSYC/CYDER survey  

CERN Multimedia

MUSYC (MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale and Chile), and its predecessor, the CYDER (Cal'an Yale Deep Extragalactic Research) survey are both deep multiwavelength surveys mainly aiming at extragalactic issues; however they were both designed with a strong Galactic component in mind. Therefore they consist not only of multipassband imaging (UBVRIzJK) and wide field multi object spectroscopy - it is also foreseen to create a multi-epoch dataset, thus allowing proper motions to be derived using data of 1 and 4-5 years baseline. This enables us to identify fast moving objects, and derive tangential velocities of nearby and intrinsically faint objects, such as White Dwarfs (especially cool WDs) and Brown Dwarfs (BDs). For the former, we will be able to study the faint end of the halo-field luminosity function and determine the fraction of baryonic dark matter consisting of WDs. We will be able to put constraints on the volume density of BDs, and determine whether this density actually meets expectations. Here we give...

Altmann, M; Ruiz, M T; Van Altena, W; Gawiser, E; Maza, J; Van Dokkum, P G

2004-01-01

387

Discovery of more than two thousand white dwarfs in the globular cluster Omega Centauri  

CERN Multimedia

We present deep multiband (F435W, F625W, and F658N) photometric data of the Globular Cluster Omega Cen collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. We identified in the (F435W-F625W, F435W) plane more than two thousand White Dwarf (WD) candidates using three out of nine available pointings. Such a large sample appears in agreement with predictions based on the ratio between WD and Horizontal Branch (HB) evolutionary lifetimes. We also detected ~ 1600 WDs in the (F658N-F625W, F625W) plane, supporting the evidence that a large fraction of current cluster WDs are $H_\\alpha$ bright.

Monelli, M; Castellani, V; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Moroni, P G P; Bono, G; Buonanno, R; Calamida, A; Freyhammer, L M; Pulone, L; Stetson, P B

2005-01-01

388

An analysis of metallic high ion absorption line profiles at DA white dwarfs with circumstellar material  

CERN Document Server

Some hot DA stars exhibit circumstellar absorption in the metal resonance lines in their spectra. In many cases, these circumstellar features are unresolved from those originating in the photosphere. To better understand the effect this circumstellar blending has on photospheric abundance estimates, we present here an analysis of the unresolved metal high ion absorption features of six hot white dwarfs. In all cases, given the strong circumstellar C IV detections, the photospheric C IV abundances are reduced; conversely the weak circumstellar Si IV leads to modest photospheric abundance revisions. A possible new technique for modelling these line profiles is discussed, that can better reproduce the observations and provide a greater insight into the conditions of the circumstellar medium.

Dickinson, Nathan J; Welsh, Barry Y

2012-01-01

389

GJ 841B-THE SECOND DQ WHITE DWARF WITH POLARIZED CH MOLECULAR BANDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a discovery of the circularly polarized CH A 2?-X 2? and B 2?--X 2? molecular bands in the spectrum of the DQ white dwarf (WD) GJ 841B. This is only the second such object since the discovery of G99-37 in the 1970s. GJ 841B is also the first WD to unambiguously show polarization in the C2 Swan bands. By modeling the intensity and circular polarization in the CH bands, we determine the longitudinal magnetic field strength of 1.3 ± 0.5 MG and the temperature of 6100 ± 200 K in the absorbing region. We also present new observations of G99-37 and obtain estimates of the magnetic field strength 7.3 ± 0.3 MG and temperature 6200 ± 200 K, in good agreement with previous results.

2010-09-01

390

A Bayesian Approach to Deriving Ages of Individual Field White Dwarfs  

CERN Document Server

We apply a self-consistent and robust Bayesian statistical approach to determining the ages, distances, and ZAMS masses of 28 field DA white dwarfs with ages of approximately 4 to 8 Gyrs. Our technique requires only quality optical and near-IR photometry to derive ages with < 15% uncertainties, generally with little sensitivity to our choice of modern initial-final mass relation. We find that age, distance, and ZAMS mass are correlated in a manner that is too complex to be captured by traditional error propagation techniques. We further find that the posterior distributions of age are often asymmetric, indicating that the standard approach to deriving WD ages can yield misleading results.

O'Malley, Erin M; van Dyk, David

2013-01-01

391

A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO DERIVING AGES OF INDIVIDUAL FIELD WHITE DWARFS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We apply a self-consistent and robust Bayesian statistical approach to determine the ages, distances, and zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) masses of 28 field DA white dwarfs (WDs) with ages of approximately 4-8 Gyr. Our technique requires only quality optical and near-infrared photometry to derive ages with <15% uncertainties, generally with little sensitivity to our choice of modern initial-final mass relation. We find that age, distance, and ZAMS mass are correlated in a manner that is too complex to be captured by traditional error propagation techniques. We further find that the posterior distributions of age are often asymmetric, indicating that the standard approach to deriving WD ages can yield misleading results.

O' Malley, Erin M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Von Hippel, Ted [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Van Dyk, David A., E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu, E-mail: dvandyke@imperial.ac.uk [Statistics Section, Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-09-20

392

Analysis of IUE spectra of helium-rich white dwarf stars  

CERN Multimedia

We studied the class of DB white dwarf stars, using re-calibrated UV spectra for thirty four DBs obtained with the IUE satellite. By comparing the observed energy distributions with model atmospheres, we simultaneously determine spectroscopic distances (d), effective temperature (Teff), and surface gravities (log g). Using parallax measurements and previous determinations of Teff and log g from optical spectra, we can study whether the atmospheres of eleven DB stars are consistent with pure He or have a small amount of H contamination. We also report on our observations of seventeen stars with Teff close to the DB instability strip through time series photometry and found them to be non variable within our detection limits.

Castanheira, B G; Handler, G; Köster, D

2006-01-01

393

Effects of magnetic fields on the propagation of nuclear flames in magnetic white dwarfs  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate effects of the magnetic field on the propagation of laminar flames of nuclear reactions taking place in white dwarfs (WDs) with the mass close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We calculate the velocities of laminar flames parallel and perpendicular to uniform magnetic fields as eigenvalues of steady solutions for magnetic hydrodynamical equations. As a result, we find that even when the magnetic pressure does not dominate the entire pressure it is possible for the magnetic field to suppress the flame propagation through the thermal conduction. Above the critical magnetic field, the flame velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as $v \\sim B^{-1}$. In media with densities of $10^{7}, 10^{8}, \\,\\mathrm{and}\\,10^{9} \\unit{g\\,cm^{-3}}$, the critical magnetic fields are orders of $\\sim 10^{10}, 10^{11}, \\,\\mathrm{and}\\,10^{12} \\unit{G}$, respectively.

Kutsuna, Masamichi

2012-01-01

394

Accreting White Dwarfs among the Planetary Nebulae Most Luminous in [O III]5007 Emission  

CERN Multimedia

I propose that some of the most luminous planetary nebulae (PNs) are actually proto-PNs, where a companion white dwarf (WD) accretes mass at a relatively high rate from the post-asymptotic giant branch star that blew the nebula. The WD sustains a continuous nuclear burning and ionizes the nebula. The WD is luminous enough to make the dense nebula luminous in the [O III]5007 line, In young stellar populations these WD accreting systems account for a small fraction of [O III]-luminous PNs, but in old stellar populations these binaries might account for most, or even all, of the [OIII]-luminous PNs. This might explain the puzzling constant cutoff (maximum) [O III]5007 luminosity of the planetary nebula luminosity function across different galaxy types.

Soker, N

2006-01-01

395

The end of the white dwarf cooling sequence in M 67  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, we present for the first time a proper-motion-selected white dwarf (WD) sample of the old Galactic open cluster M 67, down to the bottom of the WD cooling sequence (CS). The color-magnitude diagram is based on data collected with the LBC-Blue camera at the prime focus of LBT. As first epoch data, we used CFHT-archive images collected 10 years before LBC data. We measured proper motions of all the identified sources. Proper motions are then used to separate foreground and background objects from the cluster stars, including WDs. Finally, the field-object cleaned WD CS in the V vs. B-I color-magnitude diagram is compared with the models. We confirm that the age derived from the location of the bottom of the WD CS is consistent with the turn off age.

Bellini, A; Piotto, G; Salaris, M; Anderson, J; Brocato, E; Ragazzoni, R; Ortolani, S; Bonanos, A Z; Platais, I; Gilliland, R; Raimondo, G; Bragaglia, A; Tosi, M; Gallozzi, S; Testa, V; Kochanek, C S; Giallongo, E; Baruffolo, A; Farinato, J; Diolaiti, E; Speziali, R; Carraro, G; Yadav, R K S

2010-01-01

396

Radial accretion of H-rich material onto a He white dwarf  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are attempting to model the nova outburst by spherically accreting H-rich material onto a 1 M/sub sun/ He white dwarf at a rate of 10-8 M/sub sun/ yr-1. The star accretes for 5848 years, when the nuclear reactions run away near the base of the accreted envelope. The nuclear-energy generation rate rises to 4.6 (8) L/sub sun/, and the envelope expands in response to it. However, nova-like mass ejection does not occur because the envelope is of insufficient mass, the base of the envelope is only mildly electron degenerate, and there is no enrichment of CNO abundance

1980-08-01

397

THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 ?m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 ?m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10–4 and 2 M?, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

2011-12-10

398

A Search for Rapidly Accreting White Dwarfs in the Small Magellanic Cloud  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the SNe Ia rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate Type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs (WDs) with higher mass transfer rates can also be SN Ia progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the WD, and extends the WD's photosphere. Unlike SSS, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far-ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWDs in the central core of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), from objects selected to be bright in the far-UV and with blue far UV - V colors. While we find some unusual objects, and recover known planetary nebula and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we detect no candidate RAWD. The upper limits from this non-detection depend on our expectations of what an RAWD should look like, as well assumptions about the internal extinction of the SMC. Assuming they resemble LMC N66 or fainter versions of WR stars we set an upper limit of 10-14 RAWDs in the SMC. However, our survey is unlikely to detect objects like V Sge, and hence we cannot set meaningful upper limits if RAWDs generally resemble V Sge.

Lepo, Kelly; van Kerkwijk, Marten

2013-07-01

399

A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the SNe Ia rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate Type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs (WDs) with higher mass transfer rates can also be SN Ia progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the WD, and extends the WD's photosphere. Unlike SSS, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far-ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWDs in the central core of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), from objects selected to be bright in the far-UV and with blue far UV – V colors. While we find some unusual objects, and recover known planetary nebula and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we detect no candidate RAWD. The upper limits from this non-detection depend on our expectations of what an RAWD should look like, as well assumptions about the internal extinction of the SMC. Assuming they resemble LMC N66 or fainter versions of WR stars we set an upper limit of 10-14 RAWDs in the SMC. However, our survey is unlikely to detect objects like V Sge, and hence we cannot set meaningful upper limits if RAWDs generally resemble V Sge.

2013-07-01

400

THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 {mu}m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 {mu}m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10{sup -4} and 2 M{sub Sun }, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Rd., Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Adam Stanford, S. [IGPP, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Whitney, B. A. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Honor, J.; Babler, B. [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D.; Bond, Howard E.; Matsuura, M. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); De Marco, O. [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lawson, W. A. [School of PEMS, University of New South Wales, ADFA, P.O. Box 7916, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Sibthorpe, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olofsson, G. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Polehampton, E. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: gclayton@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu, E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.org, E-mail: jhonor@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: brian@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, ROE, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

2011-12-10

 
 
 
 
401

A determination of the space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the Galactic plane, based on the UVEX survey  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a determination of the average space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs within a radius of 1 kpc around the Sun, based on an observational sample of 360 candidate white dwarfs with g survey of the northern Galactic plane, in combination with a theoretical white dwarf population that has been constructed to simulate the observations, including the effects of reddening and observational selection effects. The main uncertainty in the derivation of the white dwarf space density and current birth rate lies in the absolute photometric calibration and the photometric scatter of the observational data, which influences the classification method on colours, the completeness and the pollution. Corrections for these effects are applied. We derive an average space density of DA white dwarfs with Teff > 10 000 K (MV < 12.2) of (3.8 ± 1.1) × 10-4 pc-3, and an average DA white dwarf birth rate over the last 7×107 yr of (5.4 ± 1.5) × 10-13 pc-3 yr-1. Additionally, we show that many estimates of the white dwarf space density from different studies are consistent with each other, and with our determination here.

Verbeek, Kars; Groot, Paul J.; Nelemans, Gijs; Scaringi, Simone; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Drew, Janet E.; Steeghs, Danny; Casares, Jorge; Corral-Santana, Jesus M.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; González-Solares, Eduardo; Greimel, Robert; Heber, Ulrich; Irwin, Mike J.; Knigge, Christian; Wright, Nicholas J.; Zijlstra, Albert A.

2013-10-01

402

THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. III. A FAINT WHITE DWARF COMPANION ORBITING HD 114174  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the ''trend''. HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692 {+-} 9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75 {+-} 0.12 mag (contrast of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 yr demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, M{sub J} = 13.97 {+-} 0.11, and colors, J - K = 0.12 {+-} 0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an Almost-Equal-To T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of 0.260 {+-} 0.010 M{sub Sun }. We conclude that HD 114174 B must be a white dwarf. Assuming a hydrogen-rich composition, atmospheric and evolutionary model fits yield an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 8200 {+-} 4000 K, surface gravity log g = 8.90 {+-} 0.02, and cooling age of t{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 3.4 Gyr, which is consistent with the 4.7{sup +2.3}{sub -2.6} Gyr host star isochronal age estimate. HD 114174 B is a benchmark object located only 26.14 {+-} 0.37 pc from the Sun. It may be studied at a level of detail comparable to Sirius and Procyon, and used to understand the link between the mass of white dwarf remnants with that of their progenitors.

Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Wright, Jason T., E