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1

Analysis of subsidence data for the West Hackberry site, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The elevation change data measured at the West Hackberry SPR site over the last 14+ years has been studied and a model utilized to project elevation changes into the future. The subsidence rate has decreased with time due to instituting maintenance of higher operating pressures for caverns (since about 1990) and the normal decrease in creep closure rate of caverns with time. However, the subsidence at the site is projected to continue. As a result, low lying regions exist and the extents of these regions are projected to increase with time. These low lying regions are susceptible to inundation with water from Black Lake and/or hurricane storm surges. This work may assist DOE in planning the construction and location of mitigative measures for flood control.

Bauer, S.J. [ed.

1997-08-01

2

Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2009-05-01

3

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, West Hackberry salt dome, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a revision and update of the original geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Many of the topics addressed in the earlier report were predictive in nature and it is now possible to reexamine them some 12 years later, using the data from 17 new caverns and more than ten years of SPR storage experience. Revised maps of the salt configuration show on overhand and faults on the north side of the dome, defining more clearly the edge relationships with respect to the SPR caverns. Caprock faults may locally influence the pattern of subsidence, which is occurring primarily as a result of cavern creep closure. The greater subsidence rate occurring at West Hackberry will likely require mitigative action within a few years. Seismicity of low intensity recurs infrequently at West Hackberry, but a small earthquake in 1983 caused dish rattling in the immediate vicinity.

Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, S.; Xiao, Qiang, J.; Byrne, K.O. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

1991-12-01

4

Analysis of West Hackberry interim withdrawal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of the West Hackberry interim withdrawal system has been conducted to determine if the interim raw water system and the ESR portion of the site were capable of meeting the 200 MBPD peak and 125 MBPD sustained interim withdrawal criteria. Results indicate that this withdrawal criteria can be met subject to correction of some discrepancies in the valve schedule.

Goin, K.L.; Linn, J.K.; Lyle, W.D. Jr.

1980-01-01

5

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01

6

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

7

Field test of drag reducing agents in a three-inch pipeline at the West Hackberry, Louisiana SPR site. [A guar and 6 polyacrylamide drag reducing agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A flow test of seven drag reducing agents (DRAs) was carried out at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. A 3-inch pipeline was operated with DRA addition, at controlled concentrations, to flowing brine while the fluid flow rate and the pressure drop were continuously monitored. The fluid flow rates were controlled so that the wall shear stress in the 3-inch pipeline approximated the wall shear stress in the 36-inch brine disposal pipeline at the West Hackberry SPR site. Two classes of materials were tested: a guar and six polyacrylamide DRAs. These materials were tested at concentrations up to 19 parts per million (ppM). The polyacrylamide DRAs all have a higher level of activity than the guar, but demonstrate a susceptibility to pipe roughness that the guar did not. The six polyacrylamide DRAs showed maximum friction factor reductions at 19 ppM between 27% and 44%. The maximum friction factor reduction for the guar DRA was 9%. The performances of all DRAs were functions of concentration and were fit by a power law model. The performance of the polyacrylamides was proportional to approximately the 0.9 power of concentration while that of the guar was proportional to the 1.5 power. At the test flow condition, the improvement observed in these drag reduction experiments should be equivalent to flow improvement in the 36-inch pipeline. 4 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Hinkebein, T.E.

1985-11-01

8

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

9

Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

Bruce Cerveny; Tor Kragas; Travis Gillham

1997-07-10

10

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

Gillham, T.H.

1997-09-10

11

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

N/A

2004-08-31

12

West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

1982-01-01

13

Leak tests of wells for new solution mined caverns at the West Hackberry DOE-SPR storage sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented for leak tests of 15 wells. Leak rates of the wells meet the DOE leak rate criterion of no more than 100 barels per year per cavern, or approach this criterion near enough to be acceptable.

Goin, K.L.

1981-10-01

14

Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

1984-01-01

15

Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

1984-01-01

16

Depositional patterns and structural styles - Hackberry Salt Dome, Cameron Parish, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The west and east Hackberry fields of north-central Cameron Parish, Louisiana, are associated with a large southeast-plunging salt ridge. Episodes of salt movement influenced the depositional patterns and reservoir trap styles of the Oligocene and Miocene age section. The Oligocene lower Hackberry channels were influenced by the salt, resulting in the {open_quotes}Manchester-Holmwood{close_quotes} channel system skirting the east and south flanks of the salt and the {open_quotes}Choupique{close_quotes} channel system skirting the west flank of the salt. The depositional patterns and structural bed dips of the younger Oligocene Camerina (A) to Marginulina section demonstrate a major period of salt movement and erosion. The resulting truncation of the Camerina (A) sands, sealed by overlying shales, provides the dominant trap style for the majority of the fields` reservoirs. This same general period of salt movement influenced the orientation of the Oligocene Camerina (A) - Miogypsinoides expansion fault systems of the prolific Miogypsinoides embayment. The Sweet Lake salt dome, downthrown to this expansion system, probably represents a southeast extension of this ancestral salt ridge.

Spencer, J.A.; Sharpe, C.L.; Gillham, T.H. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

17

Depositional patterns and structural styles-Hackberry Salt Dome, Cameron Parish, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West and East Hackberry fields of north-central Cameron Parish, Louisiana, are associated with a large southeast-plunging salt ridge. Episodes of salt movement influenced the depositional patterns and reservoir trap styles of the Oligocene- and Miocene-age sedimentary section. The Oligocene lower Hackberry channels were influenced by the salt structure, resulting in the Manchester-Holmwood channel system flanking the east and south sides of the salt dome and the Choupique channel system flanking the west side of the salt dome. The depositional patterns and structural bed dips of the younger Oligocene Camerina A to marginulina section demonstrate a major period of salt movement and erosion. The resulting truncation of the Camerian A sandstones, sealed by overlying shales, provides the dominant trap style for the majority of the reservoirs. This same general period of salt movement influenced the orientation of the Oligocene Marginulina to Miogypsinoides expansion fault system to the east. The Sweet Lake salt dome, down through to this expansion system, probably represents a southeast extension of this ancestral salt ridge.

Spencer, J.A.; Sharpe, C.L.; Gillham, T.H.; Wright, D.N. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

18

National priorities list sites: West Virginia, 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

1992-01-01

19

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

None Available

2000-06-01

20

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

NONE

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

1998-01-01

22

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

1999-01-01

23

78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation  

Science.gov (United States)

...Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation AGENCY: Environmental...Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS...River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Pursuant to Section 102(c)...

2013-06-24

24

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2005-09-30

25

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

2005-01-01

26

A Site on Stepping Stones Island Along the West Coast of the Antarctic Peninsula  

Science.gov (United States)

A site on Stepping Stones Island along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula where plants were collected for field and environmental chamber experiments examining the influence of temperature on the growth of flowering plants.

Thomas A. Day (Arizona State University;Department of Plant Biology and The Photosynthesis ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

27

An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of {sup 235}U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated {sup 235}U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

1991-03-01

28

An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3H and 99Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

1991-01-01

29

Site investigation report for IRP site numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, West Virginia Air National Guard, 130th Airlift Group, Yeager Field, Charleston, West Virginia. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Site Investigation Report for IRP Sites Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 West Virginia Air National Guard, 130th Airlift Group, Yeager Field, Charleston, West Virginia. No further action was recommended for all 5 sites, and was agreed to by the WVDEP.

NONE

1996-04-01

30

Structural analysis of the West Hackbery No. 6 SPR storage cavern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four separate structural analyses of the West Hackberry No. 6 SPR storage cavern are presented. One analysis covers the creep response of the cavern beginning shortly before the time when an accidental fire occurred and proceeding through the cavern recertification pressure test. The second analysis models the surface uplife that is expected during the same pressure test. The third and fourth numerical studies investigate the structural response of West Hackberry No. 6 to slabbing and a rapid pressure drop. All analyses indicate that this cavern should be structurally stable for the conditions assumed.

Benzley, S.E.

1980-08-01

31

Accelerated kiln schedules for drying of hackberry, red oak, and sweetgum lumber.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acceleration of dry kiln schedules was investigated as a means of increasing the drying rates of hackberry, red oak, and sweetgum lumber. Results indicated that accelerated schedules can significantly increase the lumber drying rates. No increase in drying degrade was observed among any of the species.

Shmulsky R; Castillo H

2001-12-01

32

Study of the occupation site for the ancient iron smelters at Samaru-west, Nigeria, using neutron activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed to investigate the relationship between three ancient occupation sites - Samaru-west, Pantaki and Tsauni in Kaduna State, Nigeria, based on the analysis of cultural deposits at the sites. Samaru-west was found to be related with Pantaki site but not so with the Tsauni site. Elemental profiles for the pottery excavated from each site have been established. (orig.).

Oladipo, M.O.A.; Adeleye, S.A. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Centre for Energy Research and Training); Rehman, F. (Victoria Univ., Manchester (OWENS) (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry)

1992-05-01

33

Stratigraphic pinchout traps: Large Hackberry Lower reservoir in Port Acres field, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Port Acres gas field is located on the upper Texas Gulf Coast on the east side of the Houston Salt basin. The principal producing zone in the field is the Hackberry Lower reservoir, with a cumulative production of 308 Bcf; the Hackberry Lower ranks 35th in productivity among gas reservoirs in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain Province. Although the Hackberry Lower reservoir is a candidate for coproduction, secondary recovery has been hindered by difficulties with brine disposal. The reservoir has been abandoned since 1978 except for one shut-in well. Port Acres field lies within a submarine fan complex at the western edge of the Hackberry embayment, which contains strata equivalent to the Oligocene middle Frio Formation. From core data, log patterns, and sand-body geometry, the Lower Hackberry reservoir is interpreted to be a dip-oriented submarine canyon and fan system containing incised channel-fill sandstones and upward-fining sandstones interpreted as intermediate suprafan deposits. Growth fault systems and salt-related structures are abundant in the Port Acres field area. The field discovery well was drilled into a fault-bounded structural trap identified on seismic sections, but the true stratigraphic nature of the trap was identified much later. Stratigraphic pinchouts, common in submarine-fan reservoirs, compartmentalize reservoir-quality sandstones and can be identified through depositional and structural analysis. In modern exploration practice, integrated studies of reservoir stratigraphy using depositional systems analysis, paleontologic data, 3-D seismic data, and interpretations of the time of emplacement and the geometry of salt structures may be used to identify subtle Gulf Coast stratigraphic traps.

Jackson, M. (Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

34

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2006-09-21

35

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2007-09-27

36

Evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluatio...

T. M. Poston K. L. Price D. R. Newcomer

1991-01-01

37

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment

2007-01-01

38

Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

2002-05-14

39

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2008-12-17

40

Geophysical survey for cone penetrometer site, CPT-4, 200 West area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a geophysical survey performed at the Hanford Reservation. The objective of the survey was to locate subsurface obstructions that may affect cone penetrometer work at site CPT-4, adjacent to and west of borehole 299-W18-252, Figure 1. Based upon the results of the survey, possible ''drill sites'' within the zone, with the least likelihood of encountering identified obstructions, were identified

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford`s plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford`s 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-05-06

42

North Sabine Lake field: complex deposition and reservoir morphology of lower Hackberry (Oligocene), southwest Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas and condensate production at the North Sabine Lake field is from sands of the Hackberry wedge of the Oligocene Frio Formation. These lower Hackberry sands were deposited in a preexisting submarine canyon. Multiple sand bodies are present, and five patterns of sand deposition are recognized from SP logs: (1) incised channel fill, (2) braided fan channel, (3) intermediate suprafan, (4) proximal suprafan, and (5) overbank. Although three faults surround the field, the primary trapping mechanism is stratigraphic. The development and production history of the field indicate that many small sand lenses have coalesced to form a single large reservoir; however, differences in permeability have caused variations in water influx and in the levels of gas-water contacts. Sand lenses that are not connected to the larger reservoir are of limited size and have produced small amounts of hydrocarbon. Development of the field has been complicated by casing damage probably caused by reservoir compaction. 11 figures, 2 tables.

Eubanks, L.G.

1987-10-01

43

Site Ranking and Potential Assessment for Concentrating Solar Power in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access to electricity is poor in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) presents better opportunities for increasing access to electricity and for diversifying sources of energy in the ECOWAS region; however, to date, except for Burkina Faso, no site evaluation pertaining to the region has ever been performed for CSP. This study provides potential assessment and site ranking for large-scale CSP projects in the ECOWAS region. It computes the nominal potential power and gives the corresponding energy yield with many scenarios. By considering only 1% of the suitable land area with daily DNI greater or equal to 5 kWh/m2, a land slope less or equal to 5% and distance to transmission line not more than 100 km, the study showed, for example, that West Africa has a potential nominal capacity of 21.3 GW for parabolic trough technology.

Emmanuel Wendsongre Ramdé; Yao Azoumah; Abeeku Brew-Hammond; Anselme Rungundu; Gildas Tapsoba

2013-01-01

44

Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

Last, G.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rohay, V.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-05-06

45

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

NONE

1997-06-01

46

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report

1997-01-01

47

Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

2006-01-01

48

Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

2006-09-15

49

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

2013-09-19

50

Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

1992-03-01

51

Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources

1995-01-01

52

Construction of temporary mobile office complex in the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This environmental assessment provides the necessary information so that a decision can be made concerning the proposed action on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact should be issued or an environmental impact statement should be prepared. The proposed action is the construction and operation of a temporary mobile office and changeroom complex in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Therefore, this environmental assessment evaluates the proposed action and alternatives, including a no action alternative, in keeping with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1500

1992-01-01

53

Real time black carbon measurements in West and Central Africa urban sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Real time measurements of Black Carbon (BC) in PM2.5 aerosols were performed during AMMA and POLCA programs, between 2005 and 2010 in Cotonou (Benin), Dakar (Senegal), Bamako (Mali), and Yaounde (Cameroon). Indeed, BC was chosen as a metric because of its interest as an urban pollutant. The instrumented sites are representative of the traffic source. At Dakar, BC concentrations are high from November to April (13,000 ± 3500 ng m-3) and lower from May to September (8000 ± 3200 ng m-3). In dry season (November-April), high BC concentrations occurred as a result of northeasterly long-range transport of polluted air masses over West Africa, in addition to local emissions. However, during wet season (May-September) reduced traffic levels, school vacations and wet deposition processes contribute to lower BC concentration levels. Measured diurnal BC peak concentrations, at all sites, mainly occur during morning and evening rush-hour periods, indicating the paramount role of traffic. Highest values are observed between 5-9 a.m. and from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. depending on the site, while lowest are occurred at night time and middle afternoon when activities of the population are reduced. BC source apportionment from absorption measurements also confirmed the relative importance of traffic (88%) versus biomass burning (12%). Also, BC measurements were functions of days of the week, with highest values occurring on Fridays and lowest ones on Sundays. Spatial variations associated to BC levels are very different from one site to another, revealing different types of sources with strong variations at the regional scale. It appears that mean BC concentrations in Dakar are lower by a factor of two, compared to those observed in Bamako, but remain higher than in some other West African sites (e.g. Cotonou, Yaounde). Overall, BC concentrations in our different sites are comparable to reported European and Asian megacity levels. Finally, using measured BC/PM2.5 ratios, we have estimated PM2.5 mass concentrations in Dakar from June 2008 to June 2009 to be 44.4 ± 14.3 ?g m-3, well above the WHO (2005) threshold of 10 ?g m-3. This paper clearly highlights high pollution levels in West African large cities, with potential important impacts on the health of the regional population.

Doumbia, El Hadji Thierno; Liousse, Catherine; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Ndiaye, Seydi Ababacar; Diop, Babacar; Ouafo, Marie; Assamoi, Eric Michel; Gardrat, Eric; Castera, Pierre; Rosset, Robert; Akpo, Aristide; Sigha, Luc

2012-07-01

54

Initial site characterization approach and preliminary results, 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride Expedited Response Action, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Expedited Response Action (ERA) is being proposed to remediate the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington. The ERA is based on the preliminary conceptual model that carbon tetrachloride vapors remaining in the unsaturated zone continue to provide a source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to the groundwater. The goal of the initial phase of site characterization was to refine this conceptual model, and to collect data in support of the selection and design of an initial remedial action, while meeting the accelerated schedule of the ERA. Using this approach, site characterization activities were designed to make optimum use of field screening-level data and existing boreholes. Field tasks included analysis of soil gas samples collected from the bottoms of boreholes or detected at the wellhead; a soil gas survey; a pilot test of a vapor extraction system; and groundwater sampling and analysis. Results of this initial phase of site characterization suggest that carbon tetrachloride vapors are still contained within the unsaturated zone in concentrations sufficient to support an effective early removal action.

1991-01-01

55

Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

1990-03-01

56

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

Science.gov (United States)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

Shama, Ayman A.

2011-03-01

57

Radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park site, West Chicago, Illinois  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park, West Chicago, Illinois, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the fall of 1981 and the spring of 1982. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of water and airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results show that the materials containing /sup 232/Th and daughters are present in surface and subsurface locations, comprising a total volume of about 15,000 cubic yards, with concentrations as high as 11,000 pCi/g. These contaminants are a source of radon and daughter radionuclides which may produce slightly elevated airborne radioactivity levels off-site. There is no evidence that materials are moving off-site through ground water, although small subsurface deposits exceeding 5 pCi/g exist north of the fenced site in a landfill area, and to the southeast of the site near the tennis courts. These off-site deposits do not present a significant radiological hazard to the public at this time.

Booth, L.F.; McDowell, G.S.; Peck, S.I.; Karchner, L.E.; Groff, D.W.; Bronson, F.L.

1982-11-01

58

Radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park site, West Chicago, Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park, West Chicago, Illinois, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the fall of 1981 and the spring of 1982. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of water and airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results show that the materials containing 232Th and daughters are present in surface and subsurface locations, comprising a total volume of about 15,000 cubic yards, with concentrations as high as 11,000 pCi/g. These contaminants are a source of radon and daughter radionuclides which may produce slightly elevated airborne radioactivity levels off-site. There is no evidence that materials are moving off-site through ground water, although small subsurface deposits exceeding 5 pCi/g exist north of the fenced site in a landfill area, and to the southeast of the site near the tennis courts. These off-site deposits do not present a significant radiological hazard to the public at this time

1982-01-01

59

Minesoil properties of 15 abandoned mine land sites in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristics of minesoils on abandoned mine land (AML) often dictate which plant species will invade and establish from nearby undisturbed areas. This study measured physical and chemical minesoil properties on 15 AML sites in northern West Virginia and matched these properties to vegetation cover. Fifteen sites ranging in age from 13 to 35 yr old were selected from three surface-mined coal beds (Pittsburgh, Freeport, and Kittanning). On each site, three 1 m-deep pits were dug and minesoil samples were extracted from two horizons, and vegetation was sampled in three 100-m{sup 2} plots near the pits. Mine-soils on Freeport sites had more rock fragments and sand than either Pittsburgh or Kittanning sites. No particle-size changes with depth or age were evident between horizons in any minesoil. Acidity increased and pH decreased with minesoil age on Pittsburgh and Kittanning minesoils due to the oxidation of pyritic materials near the soil surface. A cluster analysis distinguished three minesoil types on these sites. Minesoil type A had low acidity and high CEC. Minesoil type B had high acidity and moderate CEC. Minesoil type C had high rock fragment content, low to moderate acidity, and low CEC. Minesoil type A was completely covered by herbaceous plants and trees, while minesoil types B and C were generally covered by trees. Based on our minesoil analyses and other studies, barren AML sites may not require complete redisturbance for revegetation but may be revegetated by adjacent plant species if surface amendments are applied. 40 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Johnson, C.D.; Skousen, J.G. [Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, Bartow, FL (United States)

1995-07-01

60

WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities.

NONE

2003-09-12

 
 
 
 
61

Geophysical interpretations west of and within the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report focuses on interpretation of gravity and new magnetic data west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and within the northwestern part of NTS. The interpretations integrate the gravity and magnetic data with other geophysical, geological, and rock property data to put constraints on tectonic and magmatic features not exposed at the surface. West of NTS, where drill hole information is absent, these geophysical data provide the best available information on the subsurface. Interpreted subsurface features include calderas, intrusions, basalt flows and volcanoes, Tertiary basins, structurally high pre-Tertiary rocks, and fault zones. New features revealed by this study include (1) a north-south buried tectonic fault east of Oasis Mountain, which the authors call the Hogback fault; (2) an east striking fault or accommodation zone along the south side of Oasis Valley basin, which they call the Hot Springs fault; (3) a NNE striking structural zone coinciding with the western margins of the caldera complexes; (4) regional magnetic highs that probably represent a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks; and (5) two probable buried calderas that may be related to the tuffs of Tolicha Peak and of Sleeping Butte, respectively.

1997-01-01

62

Geophysical interpretations west of and within the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report focuses on interpretation of gravity and new magnetic data west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and within the northwestern part of NTS. The interpretations integrate the gravity and magnetic data with other geophysical, geological, and rock property data to put constraints on tectonic and magmatic features not exposed at the surface. West of NTS, where drill hole information is absent, these geophysical data provide the best available information on the subsurface. Interpreted subsurface features include calderas, intrusions, basalt flows and volcanoes, Tertiary basins, structurally high pre-Tertiary rocks, and fault zones. New features revealed by this study include (1) a north-south buried tectonic fault east of Oasis Mountain, which the authors call the Hogback fault; (2) an east striking fault or accommodation zone along the south side of Oasis Valley basin, which they call the Hot Springs fault; (3) a NNE striking structural zone coinciding with the western margins of the caldera complexes; (4) regional magnetic highs that probably represent a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks; and (5) two probable buried calderas that may be related to the tuffs of Tolicha Peak and of Sleeping Butte, respectively.

Grauch, V.J.; Sawyer, D.A.; Fridrich, C.J.; Hudson, M.R.

1997-12-31

63

Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.40N, Long. 2.30E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible.

2002-01-01

64

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2009-09-24

65

West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

1990-01-01

66

Red fox ( Vulpes vulpes L.) favour seed dispersal, germination and seedling survival of Mediterranean Hackberry ( Celtis australis L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of the Mediterranean Hackberry Celtis australis are often encountered in fox faeces. In order to evaluate the effect of gut transit on the size of seeds selected, the rates and speed of germination and on the survival of the seedlings, Mediterranean Hackberry seeds from fox faeces were germinated in a greenhouse. The results were compared with those of seeds taken from ripe, uneaten fruits. Fox-dispersed seeds were smaller and lighter than the control ones and had higher (74% vs. 57%) and more rapid germination (74.5 days vs. 99.2 days). Seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds showed significantly greater survival by the end of the study period (74.1% vs. 43.6%) than the control ones. Survival in seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds was related to germination date, late seedlings showing poorer survival. This relationship was not observed away in the control seedlings. Seed mass did not affect seedling survival. Seedling arising from fox-dispersed seeds grew faster than control ones. These results suggest that fox can play a relevant role as seed disperser of Mediterranean Hackberry.

Juan, Traba; Sagrario, Arrieta; Jesús, Herranz; Cristina, Clamagirand M.

2006-07-01

67

Numerical analysis of carbon tetrachloride movement in the saturated and unsaturated zones in the 200 West Area, Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride was used in processing operations at Z Plant, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Large quantities of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to the 200 West Area soils via crib and trench disposal facilities during this period.The main purpose of this report is to describe the numerical modeling that was used to estimate the effects of carbon tetrachloride volatilization in the vadose zone and carbon tetrachloride absorption by water in both the vadose zone and aquifer on the flow or movement of the immiscible liquid carbon tetrachloride in both the vadose zone and aquifer near 216-Z-9 Trench site. Another purpose is to show the differences in results from two different models (and computer codes).

1996-01-01

68

STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROL ON CCL4 AND CHCL3 CONCENTRATIONS IN THE 200 WEST AREA, HANFORD SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in eastern Washington. Remediation requires a high-resolution understanding of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these lithofacies have on CCl4 migration through the unconfi ned aquifer. To increase the level of detail of our current understanding, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater fl ow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were standardized and used to create a cross section displaying the depth and continuity of lithofacies. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and that other fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. The infl uence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

Winsor, K.; Last, G.V.

2008-01-01

69

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2003 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. During 2003, cleanup of radioactive waste from the former nuclear fuels reprocessing plant that shut down operations in the 1970s was continued at the WVDP. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Work activities at the WVDP during 2003 included: (1) maintaining canisters of vitrified high-level waste in a shielded facility; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste offsite for disposal; (3) shipping packaged spent nuclear fuel assemblies to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; (4) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely size-reduced and packaged for disposal; (5) decontaminating the fuel storage pool and the cask unloading pool; (6) decontaminating the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (7) cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (8) planning for decontamination and dismantlement of the vitrification facility; (9) continuing preparation of the Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Impact Statement; and (10) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises.

2004-01-01

70

Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program final report: Site characterization of the Pacific Study Area, West Coast, Northern Site (W-N)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the outcome of a Pacific Ocean research program begun in November 1978 by Sandia National Laboratories for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. The six-year oceanographic program was in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation of possible sea disposal of defueled, decommissioned, nuclear-powered submarines. Evaluation guidelines were written to define a site suitable for such sea disposal. This final report, which combines results from two previous progress reports and data from recently completed studies, characterizes a suitable site, the West Coast, Northern Site (W-N). Although W-N is neither the only possible nor the best Pacific site, it is one suitable location under the site evaluation guidelines. 95 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

1989-01-01

71

Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

1994-02-01

72

Changing trends in incidence of cancer sites in West Bengal--a hospital based study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A trend of change has been observed in the incidence pattern of cancer. The incidence of cancer has been slowly declining in the developed countries, but increasing in the less developed and developing countries. Smoking prevalence in the developing countries is now much higher compared to the developed countries, contributing to almost half of all the cancers among males in developing countries. Lung cancers are increasing rapidly in Kolkata and West Bengal, whereas head and neck cancer has shown a declining trend. Proportion of gastro-intestinal cancers is increasing in West Bengal. Lifestyle change, inactivity, intake of calorie-dense food, obesity may have a reflection over some of these cancers. Breast cancers are now the commonest cancer of females of West Bengal in contrast to rest of India except Mumbai. Incidence of cancer of cervix has grossly declined in the city of Kolkata, but not in rural Bengal. PMID:23785916

Maiti, Pradip Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Subir

2012-11-01

73

Study of the ancient iron-smelting sites at Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west, Nigeria, using neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis was used to obtain concentrations of some elements in samples of potsherds and furnaces obtained from Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west ancient iron-smelting sites. Using WARD method, cluster analysis of the elements was carried out to establish the relationship between the archaeological samples in term of similarity in elemental concentrations. It was found that there is some level of similarity among the potsherd samples from the three sites. Also, most of furnace samples display some similarity. It was established that there was cultural linkage between the iron-smelters at the different sites. The similarity between the samples lead to a conclusion that pot makers and furnace makers could have existed, who obtained clays from common sources, made and sold the products to users in different communities.

2010-01-01

74

Laboratory and field shear wave measurement at a reclaimed site in West Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land reclamation using hydraulic sand fills is a method adopted widely in West Taiwan. In this paper, the influence of fines content, void ratio, and effective confining pressure on the measurement of shear wave velocity of reclaimed soil obtained from the reclaimed soil in the Yun-Lin area of West Taiwan is discussed. A critical s-wave void ratio (e{sub f.c.}) is defined. As shown in the results, for critical s-wave void ratio (e{sub f.c.}) with 10% of fines content, there exists a maximum shear wave velocity. As the fines content exceeds 10%, the shear wave velocity decreases. Based on the laboratory and in-situ test, a modification factor (M) is defined. From the results, the modifications factor (M) increases as the soil depth increases. The results presented can be a reference for soil property evaluation in land reclamation and coastal area.

Chien, L.K.; Oh, Y.N.

2000-03-01

75

Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

N/A

2004-08-31

76

1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980's, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site

1994-01-01

77

1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-08-01

78

Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

2009-08-27

79

Uranium transport and retardation at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, South West Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made of the uranium and thorium concentrations and of the isotopic activity ratios in uranium-bearing vein material, groundwaters, organic-rich soils and silts at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site. The data are used to develop a general geochemical description of the site which includes identification of the source of mobile uranium, an estimate of its rate of release and a discussion of the mechanisms of transport and retardation. (orig.)

1991-01-01

80

Snail intermediate host/Schistosoma haematobium relationships from three transmission sites in Benin (West Africa).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships between three strains of Schistosoma haematobium (Doh, Sô-Tchanhoué and Toho-Todougba; from Benin, West Africa) and their snail hosts were assessed by measurement of several life-history traits, including the infection rate; pre-patent period; cercarial production of each parasite strain; and growth, fecundity and survival of the host snails. Adaptations to its local snail host was found for the Toho-Todougba strain and included a short pre-patent period, a long patent period and production of more cercariae in its local snail host. In contrast, the life-history traits of the Doh and Sô-Tchanhoué strains indicated non-local adaptations, as some sympatric host-parasite combinations were not compatible, the highest infection rates occurred in the allopatric snail Bulinus wrighti, and the duration of cercarial production was short because of the high level of mortality of the snails. Furthermore, snail reproduction ceased following infection by each of the three parasite strains, and the life-history traits were not influenced by the miracidial dose.

Ibikounlé M; Mouahid G; Mintsa Nguema R; Sakiti N; Massougbodji A; Moné H

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables.

1984-01-01

82

Geological and hydrological investigations at Sidi Kreir Site, west of Alexandria, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sidi-Kreir site lies along the Mediterranean Sea coast at km 30 to km 33 westwards from the center of the city of Alexandria. The studied site covers approximately 10 km2 from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Mallehet (Lake) Maryut southward. This study includes the results of geological investigation of the site both structurally and stratigraphically, and the groundwater conditions, in relation to the erection of a nuclear power station in the site. The surface geology has been mapped using aerial photographs on scale of 1:20,000. Twenty-five drillholes were core-drilled in order to outline the subsurface geology and to observe the groundwater fluctuations. Selected core samples and soil samples were tested geologically in thin sections, physically and mechanically. Water samples were also collected and tested for total dissolved solids and specific weight. Groundwater level fluctuations were observed for a period of one year in 75 wells and drillholes. Furthermore three pumping tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the freshwater aquifer. These properties were also calculated using the core samples data

1978-01-01

83

Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus sp. strain NBRIEAG-8 from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arsenic contaminated rhizospheric soils of West Bengal, India were sampled for arsenic resistant bacteria that could transform different arsenic forms. Staphylococcus sp. NBRIEAG-8 was identified by16S rDNA ribotyping, which was capable of growing at 30,000 mg l(-1) arsenate [As(V)] and 1,500 mg l(-1) arsenite [As(III)]. This bacterial strain was also characterized for arsenical resistance (ars) genes which may be associated with the high-level resistance in the ecosystems of As-contaminated areas. A comparative proteome analysis was conducted with this strain treated with 1,000 mg l(-1) As(V) to identify changes in their protein expression profiles. A 2D gel analysis showed a significant difference in the proteome of arsenic treated and untreated bacterial culture. The change in pH of cultivating growth medium, bacterial growth pattern (kinetics), and uptake of arsenic were also evaluated. After 72 h of incubation, the strain was capable of removing arsenic from the culture medium amended with arsenate and arsenite [12% from As(V) and 9% from As(III)]. The rate of biovolatilization of As(V) was 23% while As(III) was 26%, which was determined indirectly by estimating the sum of arsenic content in bacterial biomass and medium. This study demonstrates that the isolated strain, Staphylococcus sp., is capable for uptake and volatilization of arsenic by expressing ars genes and 8 new upregulated proteins which may have played an important role in reducing arsenic toxicity in bacterial cells and can be used in arsenic bioremediation.

Srivastava S; Verma PC; Singh A; Mishra M; Singh N; Sharma N; Singh N

2012-09-01

84

Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus sp. strain NBRIEAG-8 from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arsenic contaminated rhizospheric soils of West Bengal, India were sampled for arsenic resistant bacteria that could transform different arsenic forms. Staphylococcus sp. NBRIEAG-8 was identified by16S rDNA ribotyping, which was capable of growing at 30,000 mg l{sup -1} arsenate [As(V)] and 1,500 mg l{sup -1} arsenite [As(III)]. This bacterial strain was also characterized for arsenical resistance (ars) genes which may be associated with the high-level resistance in the ecosystems of As-contaminated areas. A comparative proteome analysis was conducted with this strain treated with 1,000 mg l{sup -1} As(V) to identify changes in their protein expression profiles. A 2D gel analysis showed a significant difference in the proteome of arsenic treated and untreated bacterial culture. The change in pH of cultivating growth medium, bacterial growth pattern (kinetics), and uptake of arsenic were also evaluated. After 72 h of incubation, the strain was capable of removing arsenic from the culture medium amended with arsenate and arsenite [12% from As(V) and 9% from As(III)]. The rate of biovolatilization of As(V) was 23% while As(III) was 26%, which was determined indirectly by estimating the sum of arsenic content in bacterial biomass and medium. This study demonstrates that the isolated strain, Staphylococcus sp., is capable for uptake and volatilization of arsenic by expressing ars genes and 8 new upregulated proteins which may have played an important role in reducing arsenic toxicity in bacterial cells and can be used in arsenic bioremediation. (orig.)

Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Namrata; Singh, Nandita [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Eco-auditing Lab.; Verma, Praveen C.; Singh, Ankit; Mishra, Manisha [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering; Sharma, Neeta [Lucknow Univ., UP (India). Plant Pathology Lab.

2012-09-15

85

Statement of Basis/Proposal Plan for West of Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Georgia Fields Site (631-19G) Operable Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP) is to describe the preferred remedial alternative(s) for the West of Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Georgia Fields Site (631-19G) Operable Unit (GFS) and to provide for public involvement in the decision-making process.

2002-01-01

86

Revised Geostatistical Analysis of the Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Unconfined Aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report provides an updated estimate of the inventory of carbon tetrachloride (CTET) in the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 operable units. CH2M HI...

C. J. Murray Y. J. Bot

2008-01-01

87

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-08-01

88

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-10-01

89

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01

90

Mercury (Hg)-Resistant Bacteria in Hg-Polluted Gold Mine Sites of Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, ten mercury-resistant heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from mercurycontaminated gold mine sites in Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia. The bacteria (designated strains SKCSH1- SKCSH10) were capable of growing well at ~200 ppm of HgCl except for strain SKCSH8, which was able to grow at 550 ppm HgCl . The bacteria were mesophylic and grew optimally at 1% NaCl at neutral pH with the optimal growth temperature of 25-37 ºC. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolates were closely related to the family Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae and they were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and Aeromonas sp. Eight bacterial strains were shown to belong to the Pseudomonas branch, one strain to the Stenotrophomonas branch and one strain to the Aeromonas branch of the ã-Proteobacteria. Phylogeny based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that four of the isolates (SKCSH1, SKCSH4, SKCSH7, SKCSH9) could be classified as representatives of four novel species in the genus Pseudomonas that were allocated to P. moraviensis (96.96% similarity) and P. plecogossicida (94.53, 96.61, and 96.73% similarity). Four other isolates could be allocated to P. plecogossicida (97.57 and 98.66% similarity) and P. hibiscicola (99.97% similarity), one isolate to Stenotrophomonas africana (99.69% similarity), and one other isolate to Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae (99.43% similarity). The findings of this study provide the first information of the phylogenetically-diverse Hg-resistant bacteria in the Hg-polluted sites of Indonesia that may be highly useful for developing in situ bioremediation or detoxification of Hg-contaminated sites in Indonesia.

SITI KHODIJAH CHAERUN; SAKINAH HASNI; EDY SANWANI; MAELITA RAMDANI MOEIS

2012-01-01

91

Assessment of radiological situation in the Murzhik inhabited point area on the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research program on the radiological situation assessment around of the Murzhik inhabited point due to information about high mortality in this region, situated in the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site, was realized. In the framework of this study the radiological inspection was carried out. Radiation contamination of examined area around the Murzhik village is very heterogeneous. The region most part including the section on the test site area are characterizing by radiation contamination and external gamma-dose close to background one. However some areas (radioactive cloud traces, explosion craters, underground test boreholes) are demonstrating high contamination levels and radiation dose rate (up to 1 mSv?h-1). This conducts to very high external irradiation doses and its can have some radiation effects. The effects have been observed in different populations of animals used as biological indicators. Although the majority of morphological parameters does not confirm the harmful influence of contamination the genetic indexes have been demonstrated the statistical differences between irradiated and control populations of animals in chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequencies and high genome instability. The health status of the Murzhik village human population was compared with control group health. With help of statistical analysis the considerable difference between two populations does not found by a majority of indexes. With help of micronuclei test it is revealed that lymphocyte cytogenesis damages frequency in the Murzhik inhabitants in two times higher than this value in the control group. The most noticeable effect - it is very high considerable increase (in 7 times, p

2001-01-01

92

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

NONE

1995-05-31

93

Strategic petroleum reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1995. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of 3 the weeks Island facility, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 4.5 million m{sup 3} (30 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Transfer of Weeks Island oil began in November, 1995 with 2.0 million m{sup 3} (12.5 million barrels) transferred by December 31, 1995. Degasifying the crude oil is a major pollution prevention initiative because it will reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements by three or more orders of magnitude. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. There were only two reportable oil and three reportable brine spills during 1995, down from a total of 10 reportable spills in 1994. Total volume of oil spilled in 1995 was 56.3 m{sup 3} (354 barrels), and the total volume of brine spilled was 131.1 m{sup 3} (825 barrels). The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to five in 1995. All of the spills were reported to appropriate agencies and immediately cleaned up, with no long term impacts observed.

NONE

1996-05-31

94

Design of an Electrical Network for the West Bank of Palestine with the Selection of Optimum Site of the Generating Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design an electrical network for the West Bank of Palestine selecting the optimum site of the generating power plant. The required network should have the optimum configuration and realize the technical and economical requirements. It should provide the consumer with electric energy of high quality, reduce the cost of electric energy supplied to consumer and have the minimum possible total annual cost.

Maher J. Khammash

2005-01-01

95

Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west crossdrift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestoneSP33ABM4.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model.

Ritcey, A.C.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; Wu, Y.S.; Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson,G.S.

1998-03-01

96

Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west cross drift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestone SP33ABM4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model

1998-01-01

97

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

1995-01-01

98

The diel copulation periodicity of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) at indoor and outdoor sites in Trinidad, West Indies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diel copulation periodicity of domestic Aedes aegypti in the field in Trinidad, West Indies was monitored weekly at indoor and outdoor sites over a 16 month period. At indoor sites two significant (P<0.02) peaks in copulation occurred between 06.00 and 08.00 (25% of copulation events) and between 16.00 and 18.00 (24%): at outdoor sites the copulation periodicity was similar to that observed indoors with an early morning peak in copulation at 06.00-08.00 (30%) and a late evening peak at 16.00-18.00h (25%). Laboratory studies showed similar copulation patterns to those observed at indoor and outdoor sites. Copulation occurred at two different locations: at outdoor sites copulation was primarily in close proximity to breeding sites while at indoor sites copulation was observed in close proximity to human bait or members of the household. The parity rate of copulating females collected indoors was 59% in contrast to only 15% collected outdoors, which suggests that females found indoors were older. The diel copulation periodicity, location where copulation occurs, parous rates and insemination rates are discussed in the context of sterile insect technique or genetic control modalities.

Chadee DD; Gilles J

2013-07-01

99

Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

Myers, J.A.

1995-06-05

100

CDC: West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

 
 
 
 
101

Revised Geostatistical Analysis of the Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the Unconfined Aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an updated estimate of the inventory of carbon tetrachloride (CTET) in the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 operable units. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) currently is preparing a plan identifying locations for groundwater extraction wells, injection wells, transfer stations, and one or more treatment facilities to address contaminants of concern identified in the 200-ZP-1 CERCLA Record of Decision. To accomplish this, a current understanding of the inventory of CTET is needed throughout the unconfined aquifer in the 200 West Area. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) previously developed an estimate of the CTET inventory in the area using a Monte Carlo approach based on geostatistical simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of CTET and chloroform in the aquifer. Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) (the previous site contractor) requested PNNL to update that inventory estimate using as input a set of geostatistical realizations of CTET and chloroform recently created for a related but separate project, referred to as the mapping project. The scope of work for the inventory revision complemented the scope of work for the mapping project, performed for FH by PNNL. This report briefly describes the spatial and univariate distribution of the CTET and chloroform data, along with the results of the geostatistical analysis and simulation performed for the mapping project.

Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

2008-12-30

102

Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

McKee, E.H.

1998-02-01

103

Geostatistical Analyses of the Persistence and Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents two separate geostatistical studies performed by researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the carbon tetrachloride plume in the groundwater on the Hanford Site.

Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju; Truex, Michael J.

2007-04-30

104

COSEE West Online Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This site features online professional development courses offered by the COSEE (Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence) West and College of Exploration. The site features workshop information, as well as access to online presentations and the College of Exploration's virtual campus. Registration is required to access the education information, but is free of charge.

105

Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

1993-01-01

106

Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

1993-05-01

107

Preliminary results of three-dimensional GPR-based study of a prehistoric site in Barbados, West Indies  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior results of surface artifact collecting, test excavations, and auger sampling on an archaeological site in Barbados suggested that we experiment with GPR as a method to target areas for future study. The site is associated with village occupations of Amerindians that are dated to between approximately 2000 and 500 years ago. Archaeological features include burials, hearths, ceramic lined wells and post holes. Artifact middens contain pottery sherds, conch shells, and other marine resource debris. The site selected was located at the southern tip of Barbados and is situated on a deep stabilized surface behind a large active dune system. The soil layer consists of dry, clean quartz sand. We obtained limited ground truth at the site by hand-auguring in areas of field- identified anomalies, and by auguring control holes away from anomalies. Anomalies were almost always large diffractors such as conch shells and rocks. We used 3D software to perform standard processing enhancements and to assemble the parallel lines into three-dimensional volumes. The dimensions, distribution, and shapes of time-sliced amplitude anomalies were consistent with those of previously excavated burials, poles, and pit structures. These features would not have been obvious using conventional a profile-based GPR survey.

Whiting, Brian M.; McFarland, Douglas P.; Hackenberger, Steven

2000-04-01

108

SOILS IN RELATION TO ARCHEOLOGY AT THE TELL SITE OF UIVAR IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An understanding of soils and how they develop is crucial for explaining why the archeological deposits are located in particular places. This is because the interaction of many soil-forming factors, including climate, topography, vegetation, and parental materials werealso important consideration to humans in deciding where habitation and other site types were established. Soil chemistry is being utilized for paleo-environmental reconstruction. Elements commonly enriched in soil due to human activity include carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and calcium, potassium and to a lesser degree sulfur, copper and zinc. The geomorphologic survey revealed significant changes of the alluvial landscape around the Late Neolithic/Early Copper Age, tell site of Uivar. Neolithic tell evolution started assoon as fluvial aggradation ceased ~ 6.5 Ka ago at the beginning of the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Basal parts of the colluvium of the tell site date at earliest 4-3.5 ka. The youngest colluvium in foot-slope position may date to the medieval period ~ 1 ka ago.The study showed that the mound is from bottom to the top made up by antrophogenic sediments. The tell site buries a fossil calcaric Fluvisols and at surface an Urbic –Humic – Anthropic –Regosol with an excessive content of mobile phosphorus (650 ppm) and mobilepotasium (840 ppm).

Gheorghe Rogobete; Dorin Tarau; R. Bertici; D. Dicu

2011-01-01

109

Securing of the spent nuclear fuel stored on Gremikha site - the former Soviet submarine base in north-west of Russia - 59371  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the G8 Global Partnership the French Commission on Atomic Energy (CEA) is in charge of the French funded projects aimed to secure the materials susceptible to be a subject of the proliferation or a malicious use. The securing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the former soviet submarines is of a special importance for CEA and the Russian Rosatom. Our main bilateral project has focused on two kinds of the SNF (alpha cores and VVR assemblies) stored at Gremikha, the former submarine base in the North-West of Russia. As of 2011 a significant results have been achieved: 2/3 of VVR type assemblies have been removed from Gremikha and reprocessed at PO Mayak. Nine alpha cores are unloaded and stored on at Gremikha. The main task now is to prepare the removal from Gremikha of all the remaining SNF and also to set up the needed infrastructure at the sites where this SNF will be moved. Substantial funding and technical assistance both from France and Russia will be required for that. Beyond the operator of the Gremikha site (SevRAO), the CEA and Rosatom involve many expert organizations from both countries such as AREVA, Kurchatov Institute and many others. Their contribution is one of the key elements of the success. (authors)

2012-01-01

110

Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: Implications for ozone uptake calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold. - Modelled and observed ozone concentrations and meteorology agreed well in daytime (poorer at night), leading to close agreement for estimates of plant ozone uptake

2008-01-01

111

An Assessment of Groundwater Nitrate and Nitrite Levels in the Industrial Sites in the West of Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitrate compounds as the last part of oxidation of nitrogen compounds, which may causemethaemoglobinaemia in infants.Nitrosamines are derivatives of both nitrites and nitrates and are often used as indicatorsof water pollution, largely because of concerns about their carcinogenic potential.With regard to the role of industrial waste (containing nitrates and nitrites) in the pollutionof ground water, in winter 1998 one hundred sites were selected for sampling andmeasurements of Nitrite Nitrate content among 300 large industrial - complexeslocated in the outskirts of Tehran (Tehran-Karaj Urban Zone). The findings showed thatthe mean Nitrate concentration in the aquifers studied was 51.96 mg/1, with maximumvalues of 85.49 mg/1 and a minimum of 5.9 mg/1.The mean nitrite level was 16.18 mg/1, ranging from 0.29 mg/1 to 314,22 mg/1.According to these findings, both Nitrite Nitrate levels were above WHO-specifiedlimits and the safety standards established by national guidelines.Statistical analysis showed a negative correlation between Nitrite concentrations anddepth of the aquifer (P-value = 0.034, R = 0.44), ie, with increasing depth there werelower nitrate levels.There was no relationship between nitrate concentrations and the distance of water wellsfrom the sites of wastewater discharge.

A.A Farshad; K Imandel

2003-01-01

112

Phytosociological Study in Quercus libani Oliv.’s Site by Analyzing Environmental Factors in West Azerbaijan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, Quercus libani Oliv.’s site in Sardasht has been studied phytosociologically. The vegetation has been carefully studied in Braun-Blanquet method. The relationship between environmental factors including topography and some of the most current physicochemical features of soil and plant associations was researched by means of multiple discriminant analysis. Based on AFC and CAH methods, 8 associations and 1 sub-association were achieved including: Trifolio stellati-Quercetum brantii, Pistacio atlanticae-Quercetum brantii, Violo modestue-Quercetum brantii, Trifolio campestri-Quercetum brantii, Quercetum brantii, Thalictro sultanabadensi-Quercetum libani, Quercetum libani-acerotosum cinerascens, Quercos boissieri-Quercetum libani and Quercetum libani. These plant associations belong to Quercetea persicae class and Quercetalia persicae order. The effective environmental factors in division of plant associations based on multiple discriminant analysis include respectively: pH, landform index, Terrain shape index and aspect.

Raza Basiri

2010-01-01

113

Composting moves west  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

Cotton, M. [Integrated Waste Management Consulting, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-05-01

114

Geothermal investigations in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

1982-11-01

115

Dynamics of sea surface temperature and organic burial off equatorial west Africa (ODP Site 959) across the Late Miocene/early Pliocene climate transition  

Science.gov (United States)

The late Miocene-early Pliocene (11 to 3.5 Ma) was a period of major transition in global climate and ocean circulation that had irreversible consequences for atmospheric and ocean circulation leading to global cooling, northern hemisphere glaciations and modern climate conditions. Long term cooling contributed to a change in global vegetation from C3 plants to C4 plants. Norris (1998) and Wagner (2000) proposed from bulk 18O foraminifera and TOC records covering the Miocene-Pliocene transition at ODP Site 959 off Ivory Coast/Ghana the initial onset of modern atmospheric circulation and linked continental upwelling off tropical West Africa in response to the emplacement of the ITCZ into its modern position at that time. In this project, we aim to investigate the nature of the observed TOC cycles and its relationships to continental climate, vegetation change and surface ocean dynamics at centennial time scale resolution. To infer variations in SST and supply of continental organic matter (OM) we have started to obtain bulk and molecular data including TOC, alkenone-derived SST and leaf wax n-alkanes. The results show TOC to be generally low, between 0.1 and 0.7 %, and highly variable at cm-scale ( 2.5-5 kyr) resolution. Alkenones (C37:2 and C37:3) were ubiquitously identified. U37K based SST estimates ranging from 25-28°C indicate fluctuations of about 3°C within the range of modern day conditions. Long chain odd numbered n-alkanes C27-33 were also identified, with leaf wax concentration peaking at C31 at 25?g/TOC. The evidence for leaf waxes in the sediments argues for wind driven deposition from terrestrial sources. The high amplitude record of the TOC confirms a distinct cycle pattern that is probably related to orbital precession. Time frequency analyses of the TOC records by depth support the existence of two domi-nant periods related to eccentricity and precessional cycles at approximately the 92cm, 52cm and 42cm corresponding to 100kyrs, 19kyrs and 23kyrs respectively. Elevated TOC tend to compare with elevated leaf wax n-alkanes but seems less clear when compared with the SST. Further molecular work on the ?D and ?13C of the n-alkanes is planned to reconstruct precipitation and vegetation change.

Eniola, Olunbunmi; Wagner, Thomas; McClymont, Erin

2010-05-01

116

Atmospheric nitric oxide and ozone at the WAIS Divide deep coring site: a discussion of local sources and transport in West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

First measurements of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) along with observations of ozone (O3), hydroperoxides (H2O2 and MHP) and snow nitrate (NO3-), on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) were carried out at the WAIS Divide deep ice-coring site between 10 December 2008 and 11 January 2009. Average ±1? mixing ratios of NO were 19 ± 31 pptv and confirmed prior model estimates for the summer boundary layer above WAIS. Mean ±1? mixing ratios of O3 of 14 ± 4 ppbv were in the range of previous measurements from overland traverses across WAIS during summer, while average ±1? concentrations of H2O2 and MHP revealed slightly higher levels with mixing ratios of 743 ± 362 and 519 ± 238 pptv, respectively. An upper limit for daily average NO2 emission fluxes of 4.6-6.6 × 108 molecule cm-2 s-1 was estimated based on photolysis of measured NO3- in surface snowpack. Assuming rapid and complete mixing into the overlying atmosphere, and steady state of NOx, these snow emissions are equivalent to an average (range) production of atmospheric NO2 of 7 (2-53) pptv h-1 for a typical atmospheric boundary-layer depth of 130 (490-20) m. This indicates that local emissions from the snowpack are a significant source of short-lived nitrogen oxides above the inner WAIS. The origins of the air masses reaching WAIS Divide during this campaign were investigated with a 4-day back-trajectory analysis every 4 h. The resulting 168 back trajectories revealed that in 73% of all runs air originated from East Antarctic Plateau regions below 2500 m (41%), coastal Antarctica (17%) and inner WAIS (15%). For these air sources O3 levels were on average 13 ± 3 ppbv. The remaining 27% are katabatic outflows from the East Antarctic Plateau above 2500 m. When near-surface air from the East Antarctic Plateau reaches WAIS Divide through a rapid transport of less than 3 days, O3 levels are on average 19 ± 4 ppbv with maximum mixing ratios of 30 ppbv. Episodes of elevated ozone at WAIS Divide are therefore linked to air mass export off the East Antarctic Plateau, demonstrating that outflows from the highly oxidizing summer atmospheric boundary layer in the interior of the continent can episodically raise the mixing ratios of long-lived atmospheric chemical species such as O3 and enhance the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere above WAIS.

Masclin, S.; Frey, M. M.; Rogge, W. F.; Bales, R. C.

2013-03-01

117

Multicultural American West  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Studies Program of Washington State University offers this online directory to Websites and resources on the multicultural American West. The directory presents a subject overview followed by a dozen or more subtopic headings which lead to annotated listings further broken down by subheadings. The site is frequently updated and provides a wealth of links for studying the last two centuries from a cultural studies viewpoint.

118

Atmospheric nitric oxide and ozone at the WAIS Divide deep coring site: a discussion of local sources and transport in West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

The first measurements of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) along with observations of ozone (O3), hydroperoxides (H2O2 and MHP) and snow nitrate (NO3-) on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) were carried out at the WAIS Divide deep ice-coring site between 10 December 2008 and 11 January 2009. Average ±1? mixing ratios of NO were 19 ± 31 pptv and confirmed prior model estimates for the summer boundary layer above WAIS. Mean ±1? mixing ratios of O3 of 14 ± 4 ppbv were in the range of previous measurements from overland traverses across WAIS during summer, while average ±1? concentrations of H2O2 and MHP revealed higher levels with mixing ratios of 743 ± 362 and 519 ± 238 pptv, respectively. An upper limit for daily average NO2 and NO emission fluxes from snow of 8.6 × 108 and 33.9 × 108 molecule cm-2 s-1, respectively, were estimated based on photolysis of measured NO3- and nitrite (NO2-) in the surface snowpack. The resulting high NOx emission flux may explain the little preservation of NO3- in snow (~ 30%) when compared to Summit, Greenland (75-93%). Assuming rapid and complete mixing into the overlying atmosphere, and steady state of NOx, these snow emissions are equivalent to an average (range) production of atmospheric NOx of 30 (21-566) pptv h-1 for a typical atmospheric boundary-layer depth of 250 (354-13) m. These upper bounds indicate that local emissions from the snowpack are a significant source of short-lived nitrogen oxides above the inner WAIS. The net O3 production of 0.8 ppbv day-1 triggered with NO higher than 2 pptv is too small to explain the observed O3 variability. Thus, the origins of the air masses reaching WAIS Divide during this campaign were investigated with a 4-day back-trajectory analysis every 4 h. The resulting 168 back trajectories revealed that in 75% of all runs air originated from the Antarctic coastal slopes (58%) and the inner WAIS (17%). For these air sources O3 levels were on average 13 ± 3 ppbv. The remaining 25% are katabatic outflows from the East Antarctic Plateau above 2500 m. When near-surface air from the East Antarctic Plateau reaches WAIS Divide through a rapid transport of less than 3 days, O3 levels are on average 19 ± 4 ppbv with maximum mixing ratios of 30 ppbv. Episodes of elevated ozone at WAIS Divide are therefore linked to air mass export off the East Antarctic Plateau, demonstrating that outflows from the highly oxidizing summer atmospheric boundary layer in the interior of the continent can episodically raise the mixing ratios of long-lived atmospheric chemical species such as O3 and enhance the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere above WAIS.

Masclin, S.; Frey, M. M.; Rogge, W. F.; Bales, R. C.

2013-09-01

119

Intake of trace and major elements through drinking water pathway by the adult population of the six villages around the uranium deposit site of Domiasiat, West Khasi hills, Meghalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elements such as Fe, Zn, K, Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Se and U were analyzed to determine their concentrations in drinking water collected from six villages around the uranium ore deposit site in Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. The estimation of the concentration of these elements in the drinking water samples collected was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, except for Uranium, estimation was done using a Laser based Fluorimeter. The concentration of the elements vary from 0.2 ppb -1.7 ppm and it has been observed that all the elemental concentration fall well below the WHO prescribe guidelines. Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected was found out to be less than 0.5 ppb. (author)

2007-01-01

120

LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE 200 WEST PUMP AND TREATMENT FACILITY CONSTRUCTION PROJECT AT THE US DOE HANFORD SITE - A LEADERSHIP FOR ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (LEED) GOLD-CERTIFIED FACILITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

Dorr KA; Ostrom MJ; Freeman-Pollard JR

2012-11-14

 
 
 
 
121

Using environmental isotopes to characterize hydrologic processes of the Nelson Tunnel acid mine drainage site, West Willow Creek watershed, Creede, CO  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid mine drainage continues to be a pressing ecological issue across the Mountain West. Traditional remediation strategies usually involve the installation of an expensive and unsightly “end-of-pipe” water treatment plant without a full understanding of the overall hydrology of the system. In this study we show how applying water chemistry techniques to investigate water sources, ages, flow paths and residence times in a watershed affected by acid mine drainage can lead to alternative, less expensive methods of reclamation. We use both radiogenic (3H and 14C) and stable (18O and D) environmental isotopes to age waters and characterize the level of surface and groundwater interaction. Tritium content for waters collected in the tunnel was largely found to be 0-3 TU, indicating an age of greater than 50 years. This was supported by 14C values of DIC in tunnel samples that indicated ages and a hydraulic residence time on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Stable isotopes 18O and D plotted closely to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Combined with the heavy faulting and dominant welded volcanic tuffs of the region, this all indicates a system with very little surface-ground water interaction and a long, deep, likely channelized flow path. A future up-gradient pumping test would help confirm these findings and further elucidate the location and mechanism of the system’s primary recharge to the mine workings.

Krupicka, A.; Williams, M. W.

2010-12-01

122

Modelling of variable-density groundwater flow with respect to planned radioactive waste disposal sites in West Germany - validation activities and first results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At planned disposal sites for radioactive waste, the fresh water in the aquifer system is frequently underlain by highly saline water. This has a large impact on the flow system. Verification and validation of groundwater models that take into account the variable water density are essential steps for site specific modelling. Previous model results from an INTRAVAL test case prove that parts of these models could be invalid in special situations. On the other hand, calculations of the groundwater movement in deep, layered aquifer systems demonstrate the general suitability of these models, as shown by the relatively good accordance with measured data. They suggest diffusion-dominated salt transport in such systems and indicate changes in flow velocities and pattern, which are important for a long-term safety assessment. Computer codes used: the 2-D finite-element model SUTRA and the 3-D finite difference model HS3D. 8 figs., 3 refs.

1991-01-01

123

Environmental consequences of postulated radionuclide releases from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site as a result of severe natural phenomena  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated radionuclide releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum radioactive material deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum radioactive material deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the events are well below the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The likely maximum residual contamination from beta and gamma emitters are far below the background produced by fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere.

Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

1982-02-01

124

Environmental consequences of postulated radionuclide releases from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site as a result of severe natural phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated radionuclide releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum radioactive material deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum radioactive material deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the events are well below the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ?Ci/m2. The likely maximum residual contamination from beta and gamma emitters are far below the background produced by fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere

1982-01-01

125

Preventing West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nile Virus Health Issues Listen Preventing West Nile Virus Article Body The West Nile virus has received plenty of attention in recent years. ... children have become ill when infected with the virus, in most cases the symptoms are mild. Mosquitoes ...

126

What's West Nile Virus?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Baseball Injuries Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size What exactly ...

127

West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be life- ...

128

West Nile: Virus Transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

129

Potential Use Of Activated Carbon To Recover Tc-99 From 200 West Area Groundwater As An Alternative To More Expensive Resins Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite(regsign) A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO4-) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO4- selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (4-. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

2009-01-01

130

POTENTIAL USE OF ACTIVATED CARBON TO RECOVER TC-99 FROM 200 WEST AREA GROUNDWATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO MORE EXPENSIVE RESINS HANFORD SITE RICHLAND WASNINGTON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO{sub 4}{sup -}) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO{sub 4}{sup -} selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (< 0.01 molarity). The column leaching studies confirmed a high adsorption capacity and selectivity of activated carbon for TCO{sub 4}{sup -}. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

BYRNES ME; ROSSI AJ; TORTOSO AC

2009-12-03

131

General investigation of radionuclide retention in migration pathways at the West Valley, New York low-level burial site. Annual report, September 1, 1977-September 30, 1978  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scope of this research program includes several basic parts: a surface water program, a geomorphic and erosion study, a trench water study, and a soil analysis study. The study involved the collection of surface water data, a geomorphic study and mapping of a 4.1 km reach of Buttermilk Creek and adjacent areas within the drainage basin, the analysis of water samples collected from waste burial trenches, and the analysis of soil samples collected from a research trench near the burial site. Buttermilk Creek Valley is being actively subjected to erosion by a combination of fluvial transport, lateral channel scour processes, transport on alluvial fans, and landsliding. Local ponding may contribute to landsliding and slumping by bringing moisture contents close to the liquid limit of the soil. Tests indicate that the soil in which the waste is buried has been subjected to a load greater than the present day overburden loadng. The theoretical depth limit to which cracks can penetrate in the soil is approximately 50 feet.

1979-01-01

132

Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.

2008-01-01

133

Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.

Oostrom, Mart; Thorne, Paul D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

2008-12-17

134

West Nile Virus Maps - 2002  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

135

West Greenlandic Eskimo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub-Arctic by not facing immediate endangerment, althoug the minority dialects (including East Greenlandic and Polar Eskimo) face increasing pressure from the standard Central West Greenlandic dialect.

Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

136

West Virginia Archives and History  

Science.gov (United States)

The state government of West Virginia has crafted this site to help residents of the state and others learn more about the history and culture of this unique place. The site contains over seventeen areas chronicling state history, quizzes, and resources for teachers. The Highway Historical Markers area is quite a bit of fun, as it can be used to plan a scholarly road trip based around these markers that chronicle the "Lost Colony," the Huntington State Hospital, and historic Brickyard Bend. The Teachers Resources area includes website activities and in-class lesson plans, such as those related to John Brown, racial integration in the public schools, and the Civil War. Finally, the Audio/Video section of the site contains over 70 clips of events like the 1971 Buffalo Creek Disaster, John F. Kennedy's campaign through the state in 1960, and excerpts from the Archives and History Library's evening program.

2013-01-01

137

Radioactive Material in the West Lake Landfill.  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. The report ...

1988-01-01

138

Wind energy potential in the state of West Bengal, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief article presents the data of monthly mean wind speeds at 15 places in the state of West Bengal, India. Using three different methods, the available wind power at these sites is estimated and the values compared.

Gopalakrishnan, R.; Sankar Kumar, G.

1987-01-01

139

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks FAQ: General Questions About West Nile Virus What is West Nile virus? How do people ... numbers of West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

140

West Country Songs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN]Collection of poems which contain Cornish English , Dialecto literario. -- Cornwall. -- Pertenece a la colección LD 1800-1950 del Salamanca Corpus. -- Mark Guy Pearse. -- West Country Songs. -- 1902.

Pearse, Mark Guy, 1842-1930

 
 
 
 
141

DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

2010-03-24

142

West Nile virus: review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE: Since its introduction in North America in 1999, West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW: PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS: West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16,196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780,000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In North America, West Nile virus has and will remain a formidable clinical and public health problem for years to come.

Petersen LR; Brault AC; Nasci RS

2013-07-01

143

Burnt Stone at West Heath, Hampstead  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available British mesolithic sites, often on acid sands, tend to yield little organic material other than charcoal. Flint assemblages form the greatest part of the archaeological evidence. Quantities of burnt stone are usually present. They may be a source of information on past avctivities and so provide important supporting data for the knapped flint. Experiments were carried out to ascertain if the red and white stones, recovered at West Heath, had been burnt.

Myfanwy Stewart

1990-01-01

144

West Virginia and SREB  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with West Virginia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

2009-01-01

145

West Virginia coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

West Virginia is the largest exporter of coal in the USA, nearly half of the USA`s exports come from there. It is also well advanced in the utilization of technology in mining, having the most longwalls of any state. Quality control is regarded as being important, and both coal preparation standards and land reclamation standards are world class.

Raney, W.B. [West Virginia Coal Association, Charleston, WV (United States)

1994-12-31

146

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

1988-04-01

147

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1988-01-01

148

Integration of remotely-sensed geobotanical and structural methods for hydrocarbon exploration in West-Central West Virginia. Quartery report, May 1, 1996--July 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on hydrocarbon exploration in West-Central West Virginia. In this period, the following tasks were carried out: a reconnaissance soil gas geochemical survey was performed at the Volcano test site and at the Lewis County test site; a geobotanical analysis of the September imagery was carried out in order to highlight spectral anomalies that appear to be associated with the historic volcano field and the Lewis County test site; and multi-temporal spectral reflectance measurements continued.

NONE

1997-06-01

149

Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

2002-01-01

150

West virginia baseline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Its purpose is to provide baseline information on West Virginia, one of six states included partly or totally in the ORBES region. The topics covered are terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, geology and climatology, socioeconomics, and a legal analysis of institutional accountability.

Cardi, V.P.; Baer, C.; Graham, A.; Hall, T.; Rankin, D.

1981-04-01

151

Analysis of Strategic Petroleum Reserve bubble point pressure data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mathematical models are presented to predict the bubble pressure for 481 cavern oil samples withdrawn from the Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Big Hill, and Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites. The predicted bubble point pressure is compared to experimentally measured bubble point pressure to resolve potential sources of error introduced to the experimental analysis. In order to gain a higher level of confidence in the measurement of the bubble point pressure, a stochastic analysis of the data is recommended in the future.

Lott, S.E.

1996-05-01

152

Preliminary geothermal investigations in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep sedimentary basins and warm spring systems are potential geothermal resources in West Virginia. A temperature gradient map based on 800 BHT for WV shows that variation of temperature gradients trend NE parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in the eastcentral WV and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome trough. Results of groundwater geochemistry indicate that the warm springs circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat flow data in WV varies from about .89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increases towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the State and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

Hendry, R. (State Univ. of New York/Buffalo, Amherst); Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.

1981-10-01

153

77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental...Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia (West Virginia) on July 8, 2011. This...

2012-09-12

154

75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice...Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929)...

2010-04-06

155

Napoleonville cavern usability in the SPR: a preliminary geotechnical assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One conclusion drawn from this preliminary analysis is that the web between the Georgia-Pacific cavern and Clifton cavern number 1 at Napoleonville should be stable if the pressure integrity of each cavern is maintained and the pillar width is not less than 100', but some spallation may occur if the pressure head cannot be maintained. The second conclusion drawn is that the creep closure of cavern number 6 at Napoleonville is not significantly different from that anticipated in cavern number 6 at West Hackberry. The primary recommendation which results from this evaluation is that prior to site acceptance a thorough program of field and laboratory investigations should be designed and conducted to assure cavern integrity and usability. In addition, the test procedures and results from the recertification tests on West Hackberry cavern number 6 should be carefully reviewed to aid in the evaluation of the Napoleonville caverns.

Tillerson, J.R.; Gubbels, M.H.

1980-01-01

156

Tuberculosis in West Bengal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inspite of the various curative and preventive measures the control of tuberculosis has not been effective. Today it persists as an endemic disease in many parts of India. The present study aims to map the spatial distribution of tuberculosis in West Bengal and to evaluate the spatial change over time between 1960 to 1980. The mortality data for the 16 districts of West Bengal have been used to map spatial distribution of tuberculosis for 1980 and the expected deaths have been calculated based on the mid-year population. The rural and urban sectors have been treated separately. Similarly a time space change in tuberculosis mortality has been calculated for the districts based on the quinquinneal population change between 1960, 1965, 1970, and 1980. In all cases the probability has been tested by Poissons Probability model at the significance levels of p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05. The principal zones of tuberculosis endemicity are the Nn.Hill region and the adjoining plains, the central plains of Bankura district, and Calcutta. A wide rural urban difference is perceptible in spatial context as well as in time scale. Though tuberculosis is principally a disease of the male population, it is more prevalent among females of the lower age group. The declining trend of tuberculosis though observable from 1965 is not uniform for all districts. An increasing trend in Purulia is apparent in the present decade while in Calcutta the trend of decline is very gradual.

Hazra J

1986-01-01

157

Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW)  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its curious name, Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW) is a powerful, free "C subroutine library for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in one or more dimensions, of both real and complex data, and of arbitrary input size." Developed by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, FFTW purportedly has outstanding performance when compared with other DFT algorithms. This statement is supported by experimental results from extensive speed and accuracy benchmarks. FFTW can be downloaded directly from this site, along with substantial documentation and three research papers stemming from its development.

Frigo, Matteo; Johnson, Steven G.

158

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with ... local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile virus is transmitted to birds through ...

159

Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

2013-01-11

160

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Conservation and Variability of West Nile Virus Proteins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged globally as an increasingly important pathogen for humans and domestic animals. Studies of the evolutionary diversity of the virus over its known history will help to elucidate conserved sites, and characterize their correspondence to other pathogens and their relev...

Koo, Qi Ying; Khan, Asif M.; Jung, Keun-Ok; Ramdas, Shweta; Miotto, Olivo; Tan, Tin Wee; Brusic, Vladimir; Salmon, Jerome

162

Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 5: Argonne National Laboratory-West site assessment team report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The facilities addressed in this study include the Analytical Laboratory (AL), the Experimental Fuels Laboratory (EFL), the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF), the Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) Laboratory, the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility, and the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Vault and Workroom. The Site Assessment Team found no ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the AL, EFL, NDA Laboratory, or TREAT. For those facilities, any potentially adverse conditions or potentially adverse conditions or potentially hazardous events were found to be of little or no consequence due to compensatory and mitigative measures existing in the facilities or within the ANL-W operations

1994-01-01

163

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

1988-06-01

164

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1988-01-01

165

Beggary in West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Westerners visiting Africa for the first time are often surprized --if not shocked--at the large number of beggars in the streets and the relative ease with which people solicit or give help although pure adherents of Islam are in favour of restricting beggary . A first reason for this is that most West African societies are deeply Islamized and that begging is a characteristic feature of Islamic societies. But a closer look at the traditional structures shows that the ancestral principle of mutual solidarity is also at the basis of most people's attitude. However, the increasing number of beggars and forms of begging have turned the phenomenon into a national concern. Senegalese novelists and film-makers, even Senegalese members of the Parliament often engage in debates about that national plague and what to do about it. This paper analyzes the various motives for begging and giving alms and discusses youth's attitude towards the issue. Its tentative conclusion is that despite the overall acceptance of the phenomenon for religious reasons--a position of principle--there are clear indications of an increasingly critical attitude towards begging . PMID:6725721

D'Hondt, W; Vandewiele, M

1984-03-01

166

Beggary in West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Westerners visiting Africa for the first time are often surprized --if not shocked--at the large number of beggars in the streets and the relative ease with which people solicit or give help although pure adherents of Islam are in favour of restricting beggary . A first reason for this is that most West African societies are deeply Islamized and that begging is a characteristic feature of Islamic societies. But a closer look at the traditional structures shows that the ancestral principle of mutual solidarity is also at the basis of most people's attitude. However, the increasing number of beggars and forms of begging have turned the phenomenon into a national concern. Senegalese novelists and film-makers, even Senegalese members of the Parliament often engage in debates about that national plague and what to do about it. This paper analyzes the various motives for begging and giving alms and discusses youth's attitude towards the issue. Its tentative conclusion is that despite the overall acceptance of the phenomenon for religious reasons--a position of principle--there are clear indications of an increasingly critical attitude towards begging .

D'Hondt W; Vandewiele M

1984-03-01

167

North-West Region Monitoring  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Ecological Assessment of the Region, where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities.

168

North-West Region Monitoring  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Ecological Assessment of the Region, Where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities. Part 2

169

Earthquakes Canada - West  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the earthquake information page of the Natural Resources Canada, Geologic Survey of Canada, Sidney Subdivision. It contains links to recent and historic earthquakes and earthquake hazards. The seismographs and seismic data sites contain data for the past twenty four hours from selected locations and activity for the past hour for fifty locations. There are two other sections. One has information about publications while the other contains general information.

170

77 FR 65520 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental...Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia for the purpose of establishing amendments...

2012-10-29

171

77 FR 65493 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental...direct final action to approve a revision to the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The...

2012-10-29

172

76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL  

Science.gov (United States)

...Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast...regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of Key West...traffic in certain waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The special local...

2011-11-04

173

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geological site characterization studies, Big Hill Salt Dome, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The salt mass at Big Hill dome, Texas, has been characterized using information from 28 wells that were drilled in preparation for solution mining of fourteen new 11.5 MMBBL caverns for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Beneath an exceptionally thick caprock (/approximately/1350 ft), the salt is very pure, with an average anhydrite content of about 1.7%, and only minor shale and sylvite along the southern tier of caverns. Anhydrite distribution between holes is correlative on the density logs, revealing two distinct spines in the salt mass. These are separated by a north-northeast- trending shear zone that is structurally aligned with the High Island -- Spindletop salt ridge and parallels the Hackberry Embayment, a major Gulf Coast feature. The shear zone appears to displace the caprock down to the east by as much as 100 ft. Additional cavern space along the western and southern boundaries cannot be ruled out until further exploration is completed. Other space is available to the north, and probably has better potential for expansion. The results further substantiate the conclusions of the original geological site characterization report (SAND81-1045) that the site is geologically superior for SPR cavern development. 10 figs., 1 tab.

Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.

1988-09-01

174

West Nile Fever: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile fever is caused by flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae which is composed of single stranded RNA .it is a vector borne disease usually transmitted through culex mosquito which also causes elephantatities in humans.apart from humans the virus can also infect some animals like horse. The name west nile fever is coined so because it was first found in west nile district of Uganda.viral meningo encephalitis was the manifestation of the infection which attracted scientists for doing research on west nile virus.the world wide spread of virus was possibaly through migration of infected birds or bu illegaly transportaed birds. Presence of IgM and IgG antibodies confirms the presence of virus in blood.use of antivirals like ribavirin,interferons and immunoglobulins can control the infections, however mosquito control is the best method to keep west nile fever at bay.vaccine till today is available only for horses and can not be used by humans.

Shashikant R Pattan; Nachiket S Dighe; Sanjay B Bhawar; Vinayak M Gaware; Mangesh B Hole; Deepak S Musmade; Mayur S Bhosale

2009-01-01

175

75 FR 69057 - Foreign-Trade Zone 226-Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Tulare Counties, California; Site Renumbering...  

Science.gov (United States)

...E. Anderson and E. Clinton Avenues, Fresno, and the adjacent City of Clovis Industrial Park located at the intersection of West Dakota Avenue & West Pontiac Way, Clovis (Fresno County); Site 11 (35 acres)--Reedley Industrial Park...

2010-11-10

176

West African crude production diversifies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

Aalund, L.

1983-06-01

177

West syndrome associated with hyperlexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two patients are reported with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia. They had peculiar linguistic and psychosocial development and autistic behavior, yet began to read Japanese and Chinese characters, numbers, Roman alphabet letters, and trademark letters at 3 years of age. Neuropsychologic, electroencephalographic, and radiologic studies were performed at 11 years of age in Patient 1 and at 10 years of age in Patient 2. Although they were able to read fluently with correct intonation, their comprehension was significantly impaired. The neuropsychologic evaluation of both patients demonstrated selective, excellent ability in auditory memory in contrast to impairment of associational abilities, visual retention, and visual constructional abilities. These findings suggest that the functions in the nondominant hemisphere were also impaired. Although children with West syndrome frequently have associated mental retardation, patients with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia have never been reported. A neuropsychologic investigation of epileptic children with mental retardation is necessary for the detection of hyperlexia. PMID:2242178

Ichiba, N

178

West syndrome associated with hyperlexia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two patients are reported with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia. They had peculiar linguistic and psychosocial development and autistic behavior, yet began to read Japanese and Chinese characters, numbers, Roman alphabet letters, and trademark letters at 3 years of age. Neuropsychologic, electroencephalographic, and radiologic studies were performed at 11 years of age in Patient 1 and at 10 years of age in Patient 2. Although they were able to read fluently with correct intonation, their comprehension was significantly impaired. The neuropsychologic evaluation of both patients demonstrated selective, excellent ability in auditory memory in contrast to impairment of associational abilities, visual retention, and visual constructional abilities. These findings suggest that the functions in the nondominant hemisphere were also impaired. Although children with West syndrome frequently have associated mental retardation, patients with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia have never been reported. A neuropsychologic investigation of epileptic children with mental retardation is necessary for the detection of hyperlexia.

Ichiba N

1990-09-01

179

Russia between East and West  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The East and West have been symbols in Russian culture for centuries and have served as reference points for Russians in their search of cultural and geopolitical identity. They continue this role in contemporary Russia. Should Russia be part of the East or West? Russian politicians, scholars, writers and thinkers have been this question for several hundred years. While no agreement has yet been reached the discussion, far from purely academic, has had practical political consequences. The political position and practical policy agenda of a contemporary Russian politician or any other member of the educated elite still depends largely on where he or she places Russia on the East-West axis of the geopolitical compass and where he or she wants to see the needle point in the future.

Lukin Alexander

2003-01-01

180

FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-28

 
 
 
 
181

[Aetiological aspects of West Syndrome].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: West Syndrome involves epileptic encephalopathy in infants, occurring with an incidence of 5/10000 live births. Its main clinical feature are spasms that occur in clusters, which are associated with an EEG pattern called hypsarrhythmia and psychomotor retardation in most patients. West Syndrome is associated with many underlying conditions and the terms idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic are used for its aetiological subgroups. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to determine the aetiological diagnosis of patients with West Syndrome and to compare the results with other studies. METHOD: In this 34-year longitudinal prospective one-centre study, 404 patients were studied. All patients exhibiting the diagnostic criteria for West Syndrome were investigated by clinical and neurological examination, EEG, ophthalmologic, psychological, metabolic, genetic, as well as neuroradiological methods, according to their particular indications. RESULTS: 36 (8.9%) patients had normal development, in whom infantile spasms occurred without any identifiable underlying cause, forming the idiopathic group. 51 patients (12.6%) with neurological impairment of unknown aetiology formed the cryptogenic group. The greatest number of patients (317 or 78.5%) formed the symptomatic group, in which neurological features and developmental delay preceded the onset of spasms. Disgenetic disorders and hereditary metabolic diseases were aetiological factors 44 (10.8%) patients. Prenatal and perinatal aetiological factors were revealed in one third of the patients (134 or 31%). Postnatal aetiological factors were revealed in 42 (10.2%) patients. In our study, disgenetic disorders were registered less frequently and perinatal complications more frequently than in other studies. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the possibility of preventing West Syndrome with good quality obstetric and neonatal care, as well as the early prenatal diagnosis of brain malformations. Modern, sophisticated investigation makes the more accurate aetiological diagnosis of West Syndrome possible.

Marjanovi? B; Duri? M; Zamurovi? D; Kravljanac R; Vlahovi? G; Komazec D

2006-05-01

182

West Nile Virus and Preventing Mosquito Bites  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks West Nile Virus and Preventing Mosquito Bites Stay healthy this summer. ... case counts by state [PDF - 270KB] . Where is West Nile virus a problem? Some states, such as those in ...

183

West Nile Virus in the Workplace  

Science.gov (United States)

... Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs NIOSH WEST NILE VIRUS On this Page Overview NIOSH Publications CDC Resources ... easy access to important safety information. Overview The West Nile virus (WNV) is most often spread to people from ...

184

West Nile Virus: Symptoms and Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Add this to... Añadir en... Favorites ... Most people (70-80%) who become infected with West Nile virus do not develop any symptoms. Febrile illness in ...

185

West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... birdbaths on a regular basis. Help Your Community West Nile Virus Surveillance and Control Programs Support your local community ... authorities. Dead birds may be a sign that West Nile virus is circulating between birds and the mosquitoes in ...

186

West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the ... advice from your health care provider. What is West Nile Virus (WNV)? WNV is a virus that can infect ...

187

The night west blew up.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The April 17 fertilizer plant explosion that killed 15 people and injured more than 160 in the Central Texas town of West put the state's disaster response system to the test. Area health professionals and emergency responders mobilized quickly to care for the injured and prevent more deaths.

Zuzek C

2013-01-01

188

Articulating Success in West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

2008-01-01

189

Potential East-West Migration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Examines the migration potential in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, & Slovakia, using 1996 survey data from 4,392 persons. Results indicate that all scenarios that predict an imminent exodus of people from East & Central Europe are exaggerating the real dimension of East-West migration. The mig...

Hintermann, Christiane; Fassmann, Heinz

190

Primary Schooling in West Bengal  

Science.gov (United States)

With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

Sen, Amartya

2010-01-01

191

The night west blew up.  

Science.gov (United States)

The April 17 fertilizer plant explosion that killed 15 people and injured more than 160 in the Central Texas town of West put the state's disaster response system to the test. Area health professionals and emergency responders mobilized quickly to care for the injured and prevent more deaths. PMID:23818221

Zuzek, Crystal

2013-07-01

192

S8G Prototype, Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York.  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction and operation of the S8G Naval nuclear propulsion plant prototype will have no significant short or long term effects on the quality of plant, animal or the human environment. Minor local environmental effects that would occur are as follows:...

1972-01-01

193

NIAID's Role in Addressing West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... information on enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area West Nile Virus Skip Content Marketing Share this: Close-up anterior ... of disease-causing microbes. What’s New in NIAID West Nile Virus Research View all NIAID West Nile virus news ...

194

Polluted sites; Sites pollues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through its research programs and its polluted site rehabilitation experience, the French Agency for Environment and Energy Conservation (ADEME) plays a leading role in the implementation of de-pollution programs and the assistance to the rising French de-pollution industry. An overview of the various issues and programs concerning industrial and municipal pollutions, polluted site inventory and rehabilitation, related pollution laws and regulations, safety and hygiene aspects of polluted sites and de-pollution programs, ADEME`s approaches and judicial proceedings, points of view of industries, professionals, local and public utilities and government policy, is presented

Anon.

1994-03-01

195

West Valley feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

Pirro, J.

1981-01-01

196

Tracks and Other Signs of Otters in Rice Fields in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra: a Preliminary Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We identified otters based on tracks and other signs in a West Sumatran rice field. Field surveys were conducted from July to December 2008 at Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia. We identified one species, Aonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815) based on the size and form of 8 fore and 17 hind footprints. Further, we describe three types of spraint site, sliding sites and other evidence of otter existence in this area.

Aadrean; Siti Salmah; Anas Salsabila; Rizaldi; M. Nazri Janra

2010-01-01

197

Bouguer gravity anomalies in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four regional gravity features in West Virginia primarily reflect major basement structures, intra-basement ultramafics and Alleghenian structural grain. The central West Virginia gravity high corresponds with the southern and central West Virginia basement arches. The adjacent western West Virginia gravity low correlates with Rome trough basement structure. Calculated gravity profiles, magnetics, deep well and seismic data support the relationship of the western West Virginia gravity low and central West Virginia high to thickened Rome trough sedimentary rocks, Rome trough faulting and ultramafic rocks within the central West Virginia arch. The eastern West Virginia-Virginia gravity low overlies the eastern West Virginia basement arch from Greenbrier County northward along the state line until it divides in Virginia immediately south of Pendleton County, West Virginia. The eastern bifurcation of the low parallels the Great Valley over much of its length and corresponds with tectonically thickened sedimentary rocks contained within the Martinsburg trough basement feature. The western bifurcation largely parallels the Allegheny structural front and Georges Creek syncline. A calculated gravity profile suggests the western bifurcation of the eastern West Virginia-Virginia gravity low and eastwardly adjacent Nittany high can be attributed to low density Middle-Upper Paleozoic rocks within the Georges Creek syncline and thrust fault thickened high density Cambrian - Ordovician carbonates coring Nittany anticlinorium structures. Finally, the Blue Ridge gravity gradient parallels the Blue Ridge front and overlies allochthonous Grenville age crystalline.

Kulander, B.R.; Dean, S.L.

1985-01-01

198

Site qualification activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirteen study locations in the North Atlantic have been evaluated in accordance with the Site Qualification Program Plan. This preliminary evaluation has shown that the characteristics of the Madcap, Great Meteor West, and Northern Bermuda Rise study locations are sufficiently unsuitable to warrant downgrading for further study. Archived geological, geophysical and oceanographic data from Cape Verde III and the Gambia Abyssal Plain must be more completely evaluated before a decision for intensive field study can be reached. The remaining study locations are acceptable for intensive field study; however, in some instances possible detracting characteristics, which may require special analysis, have been noted

1982-01-01

199

West Virginia mineral producers directory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 1000 mineral producers operating in West Virginia are listed alphabetically by commodity and county. Commodities are broken down into producers of clay and shale, coal, oil and gas, salt, sand and gravel, stone-limestone, and stone-sandstone. The commodity listing includes company name, address, phone number, company representative, county of operation, and surface or underground activity. The listings for oil and gas companies are based on their applications for drilling permits and the filed records of well completion. (DCK)

Dugolinsky, B.K.; Behling, M.C. (comps.)

1980-01-01

200

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

 
 
 
 
201

Minesoil development in central West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immediately after mining and regrading, minesoils usually have little or no horizon development. Over time, horizons begin to form and definite diagnostic properties develop. The purpose of this study was to document the genesis of a 13-year-old minesoil. The study site was a reclaimed surface mine in Upshur County, West Virginia. Transects were established in 1983 across the site immediately after mining and regrading but before revegetation. Soil pits were excavated to 100+ cm at nine points along those transects. Soil profiles were described at each point, and each minesoil horizon was sampled for analyses. In 1983, only C horizons were described because no structure had developed. In 1996, all nine profiles had developed A horizons ranging in thickness from 2 to 9 cm (mean 6.1 cm). Subsurface horizons (AC, Bw, or C/B), ranging in thickness from 7 to 17 cm (mean 11.8 cm), also had formed in each profile. The A horizons were identified by colors that were darker than the subsoil horizons and the presence of weak fine granular or subangular blocky structure. The AC, Bw and C/B horizons had weak fine to very coarse subangular blocky or weak medium to very thick platy structure. Chemical and physical properties of the minesoils supported the morphological properties indicating that definite pedogenic horizons have formed in 13 years

1998-01-01

202

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about West Nile virus in wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

PETER P. MARRA, SEAN GRIFFING, CAROLEE CAFFREY, A. MARM KILPATRICK, ROBERT McLEAN, CHRISTOPHER BRAND, EMI SAITO, ALAN P. DUPUIS, LAURA KRAMER, and ROBERT NOVAK (;)

2004-05-01

203

Arms control and East-West relations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents an historical examination of the course of East-West relations and militarization. Towle explores the primary causes of international conflict and tension, analyzes Soviet, Western, and Third World attitudes towards arms control and discusses how a deterioration in East-West relations has divided Western public opinion. After assessing the problems of verification and chemical and bilogical warfare, he outlines successful politico-military agreements from the past which offer hope for improved East-West relations.

Towle, P.

1983-01-01

204

Alternating current for the West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

205

78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway...Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1...are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local regulation is...

2013-01-15

206

78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway...Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1...are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local regulation is...

2013-04-15

207

76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

...660 [Docket No. 110223162-1268-01] RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2011-05-04

208

75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 660 [Docket No. 100218107-0199-01] RIN 0648-AY60 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and [[Page...

2010-05-05

209

20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

2012-02-15

210

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Skinner Landfill, West Chester, OH, June 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decision document presents the selected final remedial action for the Skinner Landfill site in West Chester, Ohio. The remedy is the second and final of two operable units for this site. The first operable unit addressed immediate site concerns, through the construction of a fence around the contaminated area, and by offering an alternate supply of drinking water to the potentially affected users of groundwater. This final operable unit addresses potential future migration of site contaminants into the groundwater and will limit the potential for direct exposure of site contaminants to humans through source control measures.

1993-06-04

211

West Nile Virus Problem Space  

Science.gov (United States)

As an emerging disease in the public eye, WNV continues to generate scientific interest as well. Researchers are exploring questions about its origin, evolution, transmission by multiple vectors and host tissues, replication in multiple hosts, viremic period, viral loads, seroconversion and antibody production, detection, vaccine potential, etc. Central to these investigations are the use of molecular data including nucleic acid sequences and the use of bioinformatics. There are multiple ways this data can be used in courses. Other instructors have used West Nile Virus to: * Help students become familiar with Biology Workbench, including the use of Nucleic Acid Tools such as ClustalW and SixFrame as well as Alignment Tools such as DrawGram, BoxShade, and MView, etc. * Locate and download sequence data on line using Biology WorkBench, NCBI, and more. Edit the sequences for comparing sequence data obtained from multiple sources and/or for making shorter labels. * Learn more about the West Nile Virus, including structure of the virus, transmission cycle, replication cycle, viremia, blood titers and the disease in reservoir and incidental hosts, vectors for virus, natural history in the US and around the world, and testing for WNV.

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College;); Stacey Kiser (Lane Community College;Biology)

2005-12-13

212

K West Basin canister survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

Pitner, A.L.

1998-08-26

213

Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heterogeneity in host populations and communities can have large effects on the transmission and control of a pathogen. In extreme cases, a few individuals give rise to the majority of secondary infections, which have been termed super spreading events. Here, we show that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in highly inflated reproductive ratios. A single relatively uncommon avian species, American robin (Turdus migratorius), appeared to be responsible for the majority of WNV-infectious mosquitoes and acted as the species equivalent of a super spreader for this multi-host pathogen. Crows were also highly preferred by mosquitoes at some sites, while house sparrows were significantly avoided. Nonetheless, due to their relative rarity, corvids (crows and jays) were relatively unimportant in WNV amplification. These results challenge current beliefs about the role of certain avian species in WNV amplification and demonstrate the importance of determining contact rates between vectors and host species to understand pathogen transmission dynamics.

Kilpatrick AM; Daszak P; Jones MJ; Marra PP; Kramer LD

2006-09-01

214

Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos.

1998-01-01

215

Images of the West in American Advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Before beginning my research on this topic, I had little knowledge about the process that led to the enormous popularity and presence of the West in American culture. I was well acquainted with the imagery of Western movies and cowboys even not being an American. It was somehow unclear how the West,...

Tóth, Bence János

216

Obtaining Financial Parity in West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

On March 28, 2008 West Virginia's governor signed into law House Bill 4117 that provides salary stipends to school psychologists and school nurses who are nationally certified. This accomplishment was largely due to 2 years of work undertaken by three dedicated persons in West Virginia: school psychologists Sarah Kendall and Terry Thorn and school…

Bohmann, Joan

2008-01-01

217

Weather Patterns in Southern West Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Southern West Pakistan is an area of transition between the Indian summer monsoon system to the east and the winter cyclonic system of southwest Asia to the west. As a transition area, it receives scanty, unreliable rainfall averaging less than 10 in. (25...

R. E. Snead

1968-01-01

218

USDA: West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

From the USDA Animal Welfare Information Center, this online Bibliography features an extensive array of scientific literature relating to West Nile virus published between 1965 and 2004. The literature "deals with the virus, its effects on animals, how the mosquito harbors and maintains the virus, how the virus is maintained over the seasons and how disease spreads. The major topics include: techniques of viral isolation and purification, viral genetics and strain differentiation, mosquito vector biology and behavior, transmission factors, animal species susceptible to the disease, animals as disease sentinels, disease reservoirs, surveillance programs, vector control programs, etc." Site visitors may view the Bibliography in separate sections, or as one entire document. [NL

219

Performance testing of West Valley Reference 6 glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical durability of West Valley Reference 6 glass is being evaluated by using a suite of laboratory tests which highlight the early, interim, and long-term stages of corrosion. The test results are being used to describe the glass corrosion path and its long-term durability. The long-term durability of the SRL Environmental Assessment glass is being evaluated for comparison. Test results also provide parameter values for an analytical corrosion model that can be used in performance assessments of specific disposal sites

1995-01-01

220

78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July...certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from severe storms...

2013-08-20

 
 
 
 
221

77 FR 69490 - West Virginia; Emergency and Related Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] West Virginia; Emergency and Related Determinations...an emergency for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-3358-EM), dated October...emergency conditions in the State of West Virginia resulting from Hurricane...

2012-11-19

222

77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID FEMA-2012-0002] West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4093-DR), dated November...certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from Hurricane...

2012-12-26

223

COBAS TaqScreen West Nile Virus Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... Resources for You. West Nile Virus (WNV). -. COBAS TaqScreen West Nile Virus Test. STN: BL 125245 Proper Name: West ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

224

Consolidated environmental regulation in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994, West Virginia enacted the single largest piece of legislation in its history. The 1,400-page bill that made up this legislation was the crowning achievement of more than a decade of efforts to consolidate and streamline West Virginia`s environmental regulatory programs. The result has been the empowerment of the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (DEP) as the centerpiece of environmental regulation in West Virginia. This Article explores the principal initiatives leading to the passage of the legislation empowering the DEP. In addition, it analyzes the substantive provisions of the DEP`s legislative authority and the relationship of that authority to other agencies. Finally, this Article identifies additional areas for the refinement of West Virginia`s environmental regulatory programs.

Flannery, D.M.; Beckett, K.G.; McThomas, M.P. [Robinson & McElwee, Charleston, WV (United States)

1995-05-01

225

Ghost Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much on the Net that is living and vibrant, but there is also much that is dead, stuffed, or embalmed, as Steve Baldwin, former Pathfinder (discussed in the November 14, 1997 ScoutReport) writer likes to say. At this site Baldwin tracks notable embalmed, dead, or dying web sites. Each issue of Ghost Sites reviews five to ten such sites. Sites discussed include the latest Pathfinder out-of-date update on the Unibomber, the stillborn MecklerWeb, and Electric Minds (discussed in the November 22, 1996 Scout Report), abandoned by Howard Rheingold. Sites are rated from Dying in I.C.U. to Site is Stuffed, Embalmed and Ready for Internet Museum. Ironically, several of the sites discussed have been resurrected or metamorphosed since they were discussed, proving, if nothing else, that anything is possible in cyberspace. Note that clicking on discussed sites opens a new browser window.

226

Event tourism in south west Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism events in South West Serbia are numerous and diverse regarding their origin, structure, genesis and other characteristics. This paper examines basic determinants of tourism events in South West Serbia, which is in compliance with the tendencies that tourism events should be qualitatively transformed and made highly adaptable and competitive as a part of tourism industry. The events in South West Serbia contribute to the creation of versatile tourist attractions and provide tourists with the opportunity to become more familiar with local community. It is often the case that an event, primarily designed for local population, eventually becomes very attractive for tourists.

Ivanovi? Miroslav; Besermenji Snežana

2013-01-01

227

Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

1994-01-01

228

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of West Virginia.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

229

Sites for Gamma-ray Astronomy in Argentina  

CERN Document Server

We have searched for possible sites in Argentina for the installation of large air Cherenkov telescope arrays and water Cherenkov systems. At present seven candidates are identified at altitudes from 2500 to 4500 m. The highest sites are located at the Northwest of the country, in La Puna. Sites at 2500 and 3100 m are located in the West at El Leoncito Observatory, with excellent infrastructure. A description of these candidate sites is presented with emphasis on infrastructure and climatology.

Rovero, A C; Allekotte, I; Bertou, X; Colombo, E; Etchegoyen, A; García, B; Garcia-Lambas, D; Levato, H; Medina, M C; Muriel, H; Recabarren, P

2008-01-01

230

District heating network Saar West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The building-up of a regional district heating grid has been taking place in several stages at the Saar since 1975. The basis of the grid is a district heating network which, on the one hand, is fed by heat generation based on industrial waste heat or combined heat and power systems and which, on the other hand, supplies cities and communities as well as large-scale industrial consumers with district heat. After completing and setting into operation the first part of the district heating network Saar - which includes the City of Saarbruecken and the City of Voelklingen - the next largest step in the building-up of the large-scale district heating grid Saar West will begin now. The article describes the project which is intended to be realized by 1990: For the supply of the City of Saarlouis and the City of Dillingen and of the Automobilwerke Ford in Saarlouis the three-stage generation principle will be consequently applied in which the base load generation of district heat will be provided by industrial waste heat, while the medium load demand and the peak load demand will be met by the industrial combined heat and power system of the Dillinger Huette and by primary energy, respectively. (orig.).

Besch, H.; Huembert, A.

1985-10-01

231

Geohydrologic Study of the West Lake Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this investigation was to (1) collect and interpret geochemical data on the surface, unconfined, and confined waters of the West Lake Basin, and (2) evaluate the potential for radiochemical contamination of the uppermost confined aquifers. ...

R. E. Gephart P. A. Eddy R. C. Arnett G. A. Robinson

1976-01-01

232

Surface mining in Appalachia. [USA - West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes mountain top surface mining operations at Hobet Mining's No. 07 and No. 21 coal mines in southern West Virginia. Coal preparation and land reclamation are also described briefly. 1 fig., 3 photos.

Sanda, A.P.

1994-07-01

233

West Virginia mineral producers and processors directory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical data on the amount, value, and distribution of mineral production in West Virginia for 1982 is presented. Coal, oil, gas, and stone were the most common and widespread extracted mineral resources. (ACR)

Kirstein, D.S.; Simcoe, N.L. (comps.)

1983-09-01

234

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

235

Combating Narco-Terrorism in West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2001, Africa has steadily gained strategic importance to the United States' national security interests. Vital humanitarian, security, and economic interests, including long-term access to energy in West Africa, are at risk. Inadequate border and ma...

R. C. Sevalia

2012-01-01

236

Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos/ West syndrome: report of nine eases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nove casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos. Abstract in english West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therapeutic features.

Kamiyama, Marina Aya; Yoshinaga, Lúcia; Tonholo-Silva, Edward R.

1993-09-01

237

Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos West syndrome: report of nine eases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nove casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos.West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therapeutic features.

Marina Aya Kamiyama; Lúcia Yoshinaga; Edward R. Tonholo-Silva

1993-01-01

238

West Nile virus: North American experience  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

Hofmeister, Erik K.

2011-01-01

239

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population frequency (both in adults and subadults) of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?). This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variationLas poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos) de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormente registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?). Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente

J. El Molto; Bruce M. Rothschild; Robert Woods; Christine Rothschild

2000-01-01

240

Geology of the reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the west-central Cold Creek syncline in the Columbia plateau, a 47- Km2 area is designated as the reference repository site for a nuclear waste repository. This paper presents an overview of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic settings of the reference repository. (The content of this paper is a summary of geologic information contained in the BWIP Site Characterization Report.)

1982-12-16

 
 
 
 
241

The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland. The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site. Holocene terrestrial vegetational development was inferred at each site from analyses of pollen and microscopical charred particles. Chronologies were provided by numerous I4C dates. Stratigraphies of wet ground and terrestrial pollen and spore types were zooned by stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis. Based on the resultant site pollen asemblage zones (site PAZ), regional PAZ were proposed. Using modem analogues, Holocene floristic richness was estimated from pollen richness in the microfossil assemblages. The results support the hypothesis that disturbance is one of the most important mechanisms behind the maintenance of floristic richness. In particular, the response of estimated floristic richness to the intensity of vegetational fires followed the predictions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. A period of elevated palynological richness and inferred vegetational disturbance was identified at all sites between 6000 and 5200 BC (calendar years). Using correspondence analysis (CA), the major gradient in the terrestrial pollen sequences was identified as a light-shade gradient, and CA first axis sample scores were used as a supplement to standard AP/NAP pollen ratios as an indicator of the shade-tolerancellight-demand of Holocene terrestrial plant communities. In spite of different vegetational developments since 4000 BC, the timing of major changes towards more light-demanding vegetation types were broadly synchronous at the three sites. Using chord distance as a dissimilarity index, rates of palynological change suggest that the interval between 8OOO and 7500 BC (calendar years) was the period of most rapid vegetational change during the Holocene. both in terrestrial as well as lacustrine ecosystems. While climatic forcing of the rapid events around 8000 BC is hypothesised, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response, as reflected by pollen assemblages. Formulated at one site and tested at the two other sites, the model explains regional Culluna-heathland expansions as a result of vegetational burning. Similarly, declines in heathland cover are explained by lack of maintenance by fire. Regional vegetational development in northern West Jutland is reconstructed and special consideration is given to heathland history. The Holocene heathland development is interpreted as resulting from its importance for grazing. It is hypothesized that on poor soils, Calluna-dominated heathland was a better grazing resource than grass-dominated pasture, due to the winter-grazing offered by Calluna and the low palatibility of dominant grasses on poor soils. This hypothesis is relevant for the explanation of the variation in timing of heathland expansions on the different soil types represented by the study sites.

Odgaard, Bent Vad

1994-01-01

242

Wind characterisation for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being a responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterisation of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400.? (Author)

Ganander, Hans [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, Ingemar [Chalmers Technical Univ., Marine Structural Engineering Div., Gothenburg (Sweden); Bergstroem, Hans [Uppsala Univ., Meteorological Dept., Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-12-31

243

Site operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance.

1989-01-01

244

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-030  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting waste site was located approximately 50 m southwest of the 185-D Building and approximately 16 m north of the east/west oriented road. The site consisted of a lead sheet covering a concrete pad. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2008-03-19

245

Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Methods Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Results Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26) in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90) in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. Conclusion Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed.

Syafruddin Din; Krisin; Asih Puji; Sekartuti; Dewi Rita M; Coutrier Farah; Rozy Ismail E; Susanti Augustina I; Elyazar Iqbal RF; Sutamihardja Awalludin; Rahmat Agus; Kinzer Michael; Rogers William O

2009-01-01

246

Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. METHODS: Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. RESULTS: Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26) in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90) in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0-34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. CONCLUSION: Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed.

Syafruddin D; Krisin; Asih P; Sekartuti; Dewi RM; Coutrier F; Rozy IE; Susanti AI; Elyazar IR; Sutamihardja A; Rahmat A; Kinzer M; Rogers WO

2009-01-01

247

Radiological survey of the former Aeroprojects Facility, West Chester, Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The former Aeroprojects, Incorporated, Facility is located at 200-T East Rosedale Avenue, West Chester, Pennsylvania. The facility was under contract to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) beginning in 1951 to investigate the use of ultrasonic energy in a variety of manufacturing procedures. An unknown quantity of alloys and compounds of aluminum, beryllium, mercury, thorium, and uranium were used on the site. In the mid-1960s, work for the AEC tapered off and Aeroprojects began doing R D under other government contracts. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Therefore, at the request of DOE, a radiological survey of this site was conducted in May 1988. The survey included a gamma scan of the interior of the building that had been used during the contract work and the area outdoors immediately adjacent to the building. The survey results show that all gamma exposure rates approximated typical background levels found in the southeastern Pennsylvania area and, furthermore, were well within the DOE guideline. However, recently discovered information suggests that small amounts of radioactive residuals may have been buried on site. The areas where these suspected burials would have occurred are included in areas planned to be remediated by the current owners. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Cottrell, W.D.; Carrier, R.F.

1990-10-01

248

Radiological survey of the former Aeroprojects Facility, West Chester, Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The former Aeroprojects, Incorporated, Facility is located at 200-T East Rosedale Avenue, West Chester, Pennsylvania. The facility was under contract to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) beginning in 1951 to investigate the use of ultrasonic energy in a variety of manufacturing procedures. An unknown quantity of alloys and compounds of aluminum, beryllium, mercury, thorium, and uranium were used on the site. In the mid-1960s, work for the AEC tapered off and Aeroprojects began doing R ampersand D under other government contracts. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Therefore, at the request of DOE, a radiological survey of this site was conducted in May 1988. The survey included a gamma scan of the interior of the building that had been used during the contract work and the area outdoors immediately adjacent to the building. The survey results show that all gamma exposure rates approximated typical background levels found in the southeastern Pennsylvania area and, furthermore, were well within the DOE guideline. However, recently discovered information suggests that small amounts of radioactive residuals may have been buried on site. The areas where these suspected burials would have occurred are included in areas planned to be remediated by the current owners. 5 refs., 1 fig

1990-01-01

249

Political struggle and West Indies cricket  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.). Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p.) Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.). Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p.) We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

Jay R. Mandle; Joan D. Mandle

1996-01-01

250

Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world.

Cande SC; Stock JM; Muller RD; Ishihara T

2000-03-01

251

Orthodontic referral behaviour of West Sussex dentists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: 1) To examine the orthodontic referral behaviour of dentists and 2) to examine dentists' familiarity with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: West Sussex Primary Care Trust (PCT) from September to December 2006. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to all dentists listed on the West Sussex PCT database, except those assumed not to make orthodontic referrals (n = 325). RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine questionnaires were returned, representing a 70% response rate. Fifty-two percent of dentists in West Sussex correctly identified which type of orthodontic provider to refer three different malocclusions using picture tests. Twenty percent of dentists made correct decisions on the timing of referral for three different malocclusions using picture tests. IOTN is not routinely used by 76% of West Sussex dentists when making an orthodontic referral. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that there is a need for postgraduate training or the development of referral guidelines to assist West Sussex dentists in making referrals for orthodontic treatment to the most appropriate provider at the most appropriate time. If dentists are to act as gatekeepers of orthodontic provision on the NHS there is a need to provide more support and education for them about the use of IOTN.

Jackson OA; Cunningham SJ; Moles DR; Clark JR

2009-11-01

252

Application of remote systems/robotics for decontamination at West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1980, Congress authorized DOE to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project. The former West Valley Nuclear Fuel Services Reprocessing Plant (NFS) was the site where this demonstration would take place. In 1981, Westinghouse was selected as the operating contractor for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In February 1982, Westinghouse took over the site and the West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNS) was established. Since that time, WVNS has been working an aggressive fast track schedule to decontaminate the larger radioactive contaminated cells to provide space for equipment to support the high level waste virtrification, liquid waste process equipment, and canister storage. Most of this decontamination work is done with the aid of remote systems, some of which were existing in the facility and many more designed and fabricated to fit the need. This paper describes the application of existing remote systems and the employment of new remote systems and robotics at West Valley in carrying out the decontamination of the facility. The use of remote systems for the new high level waste (HLW) processing systems is also described.

1987-04-02

253

Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

2011-07-15

254

Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

Le Goff Jean-Marie

2002-01-01

255

West nile virus infection in pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A recent outbreak of West Nile virus has allowed for observations as to the clinical course of this emerging pathogen during pregnancy. We present three cases of West Nile virus infection during pregnancy. Case 1 presented at term with focal subjective weakness and fever. With supportive care, her symptoms were resolved within 7 days, and she subsequently delivered an unaffected term infant. Case 2 presented in the first trimester with fever and headache. Her symptoms were resolved in 8 days with supportive care. Case 3 was diagnosed during the first trimester during workup of nonspecific respiratory symptoms, with resolution of all symptoms in 24 days. Obstetricians need to be aware of the varied clinical presentation of West Nile virus during pregnancy.

Stewart RD; Bryant SN; Sheffield JS

2013-01-01

256

West Nile virus and kidney disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus (WNV), the causative agent of West Nile fever and West Nile neuroinvasive disease in humans, has become endemic in many countries in all continents. Concerns on long-term mobility from WNV have arisen from recent studies that reported chronic kidney disease in patients who recovered from WNV infection, supported by data from animal models that showed prolonged excretion of the virus with urine. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the results of studies in the literature that investigated WNV infection of the kidney in humans and in animal models and WNV excretion with urine, the potential damage to the kidney caused by WNV infection, the risk of WNV disease in kidney transplant recipients, the significance of detecting WNV in urine and its use in the diagnosis of WNV infection, and kidney involvement by other mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

Barzon L; Pacenti M; Palù G

2013-05-01

257

Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

Saito, E. K.; Wild, M. A.

2004-01-01

258

West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

Anthony d. Kauders

2010-01-01

259

THE WEST AND THE CAPE SEA ROUTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changing perceptions and realities Western strategists and politicians have traditionally acknowledged the vital importance of the Cape Sea Route. Their South African counterparts, for their part, have in the past regarded the Cape Sea Route's importance to the West as almost axiomatic, and have frequently sought to use this fact as a bargaining point in their negotiations with the Western Powers.1 There are increasing signs, however, that are-assessment of the importance of the Cape Sea Route is taking place in the West.

W.A. Dorning

2012-01-01

260

West nile virus infection in Xinjiang, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outbreak of fever and meningitis/encephalitis occurred in Xinjiang, China, from August 5 to September 3, 2004. In preliminary diagnostic testing, several cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples showed positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus. Here, the CSF and serum samples of 6 cases collected at that time were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) for the existence of IgM antibody or neutralization antibody against West Nile virus (WNV) or other arboviruses. The results demonstrate the evidence of West Nile infection in Xinjiang, China.

Li XL; Fu SH; Liu WB; Wang HY; Lu Z; Tong SX; Li ZX; Nasci RS; Kosoy O; Cui Y; Liang GD

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 20  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Supplement 20 is comprised of changed pages for the SAR which reflect: (1) the change in design basis fuel fed to the process from a minimum of 180 days after reactor discharge to a minimum of 210 days and an effective 24 months after reactor discharge; (2) the design objective of NFS that the concentrations of radionuclides, other than tritium, will not exceed the concentration limits of 10 CFR 20, Appendix B, Table II, column 2, when measured at the discharge from NFS' lagoon system to the on-site waterway; (3) incorporation of modifications to fuel receiving and storage area; (4) an updating of the general information presented in Chapter 1.0; and (5) additional data from the new meteorological tower at West Valley and recent changes in demographic projections

1976-01-01

262

Avian hosts of west nile virus in Arizona.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix.

Komar N; Panella NA; Young GR; Brault AC; Levy CE

2013-09-01

263

Avian Hosts of West Nile Virus in Arizona.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix.

Komar N; Panella NA; Young GR; Brault AC; Levy CE

2013-07-01

264

Topographic data generated from Radarsat Images Over West Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indonesia is a tropical country which has dominant cloud coverage, and some of the area has cloud cover almost all year long. Mapping by optical sensors, especially with Photogrammetric method shows a very good result, but the main constraint is cloud cover conditions, and this was the weakness point of this method.This study describe the technique for deriving Topographic data from Radarsat Synthetic Aperture Radar stereo image pair and apply it to an image pair over West Kalimantan, Indonesia. This paper contains also brief discussion of the use of stereo SAR to derive Digital Elevation Model, the site condition and the source of validation data. The result shows that Radarsat data recommended only for 1 : 100.000 or smaller.

Ishak Hanafiah Ismullah; Rian Nurtyawan

2005-01-01

265

Energy Reform for West Africa in Climate Change Crisis Era  

Science.gov (United States)

UNFCCC reports indicate that those who are least responsible for climate change are also the most vulnerable to its projected impacts. In no place is this more evident than in Sub-Saharan Africa, where greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are negligible from a global scale. In Africa, energy demands could be the major factor that may lead to the increase of its emissions in the very near future. Forests are being lost for domestic energy, Oil produced energy increases carbon foot prints and Hydropower is unreliable due to uncertainties in rainfall patterns. By 2004, the energy consumption mix of West Africa was dominated by oil (58%) followed by natural gas (38%) and hydroelectric (8%) with coal and other energy forms not part of the mix. (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Rainfall and Global radiation using the Armstrong method was analyzed for sites in Nigeria and Ghana. A cost-benefit of the energy productions is presented.

Nwokocha, C.; Kasei, R.

2009-04-01

266

Radiological survey of the West Lake Landfill, St. Louis County, Missouri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a radiological survey of the West Lake Landfill, St. Louis County, Missouri, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the spring and summer of 1981 are presented. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of airborne contaminants, and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results indicate that large volumes of uranium ore residues, probably originating from the Hazelwood, Missouri, Latty Avenue site, have been buried at the West Lake Landfill. Two areas of contamination, covering more than 15 acres and located at depths of up to 20 feet below the present surface, have been identified. There is no indication that significant quantites of contaminants are moving off-site at this time.

Booth, L.F.; Groff, D.W.; McDowell, G.S.; Adler, J.J.; Peck, S.I.; Nyerges, P.L.; Bronson, F.L.

1982-05-01

267

Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-04-01

268

Encouraging smoking cessation during pregnancy in West Virginia: using Fax-to-Quit as a cessation strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite known dangers of smoking, a majority of pregnant women continue to smoke or relapse following delivery. West Virginia women have high unmet needs for smoking cessation, and the prenatal period presents a critical and unique opportunity for education and quitting assistance. West Virginia's Fax-to-Quit program uses provider-faxed referrals to the Quitline to engage smokers and connect them with cessation services. A 12-month feasibility evaluation of this Fax-to-Quit program for pregnant women was conducted. In February 2009, providers and staff from three OB/GYN clinics in three adjoining West Virginia counties were recruited. All participating sites received an intensive half-day training program. Adult pregnant smokers receiving prenatal care in these OB/GYN clinic sites were eligible to participate. Recruitment sites screened pregnant women for smoking; assessed readiness-to-quit; and enrolled consenting participants in the Fax-to-Quit Program. The Quitline measured cessation attempts with six-month follow-up of enrolled participants. Between March-December 2009, 58 referrals were made at these OB/GYN clinic sites, with 15 women (25.9%) enrolling in Quitline services. These enrolled women account for approximately one-quarter of calls from pregnant smokers to the West Virginia Quitline in the past 12 months. Contact, communication, and cooperation with office staff were relevant and important to successful project implementation. Findings indicate that Fax-to-Quit is feasible to engage providers and pregnant smokers with the West Virginia Quitline. Successful referrals and enrollment demonstrate Fax-to-Quit may support cessation by increasing Quitline use and connecting pregnant women who smoke with quitting services through provider-faxed referrals to the West Virginia Quitline.

Tworek C; Horn KA; Anderson RH; Chertok I; Danek RL; Holmes A; Adkins B

2013-03-01

269

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos) de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormen (more) te registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?). Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente Abstract in english Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population frequency (both in adults and subadults) of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in N (more) egev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?). This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variation

El Molto, J.; Rothschild, Bruce M.; Woods, Robert; Rothschild, Christine

2000-07-01

270

Public health assessment for Cal West Metals (USSBA), Lemitar, Socorro County, New Mexico, region 6. Cerclis No. NMD097960272. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cal-West Metals (CWM) is a former secondary battery recycling facility in Lemitar, New Mexico. Lead, antimony, arsenic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in soil on site at levels that could cause health problems if people were repeatedly exposed to them over a long period of time. Site cleanup was completed in spring 1995; no environmental pathways pose a human health threat. The Cal-West Metals site presents no apparent past or present public health hazard because past human exposures, if any, would have been intermittent at worst and highly unlikely to result in harmful effects.

NONE

1996-01-24

271

Site organization and site arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW)[de] Die Arbeit behandelt Kriterien fuer die Wahl eines Standorts fuer Produktionsanlagen oder Kernkraftwerke sowie die Organisation und Entwicklung eines Standorts im Hinblick auf seine besonderen Merkmale und beruecksichtigt Personalfragen bei der Organisation eines Standorts sowie das Problem der architektonischen Anpassung an die Landschaft. (RW)

1976-09-06

272

Designing the West Lake Station Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is one of 17 case studies on the management of the Metropolitan Atlanta Regional Transit Authority (MARTA). The case study report addresses the problems associated with the designing of the MARTA West Lake Station Area. It describes the design ...

R. T. Golembiewski

1979-01-01

273

Russian gas in the west European market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

Nikitin, B.A. [Gazprom, (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

274

Territorial fragmentation of the West Bank  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A combination of checkpoints, physical obstacles and a permit system has cut the West Bank into three distinct areas – in addition to East Jerusalem. Within these areas, sub-enclaves have been created,isolating many Palestinian communities, restricting their access to services and stifling commerce.

David Shearer

2006-01-01

275

The West Indian Americans. The New Americans.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This book, which is part of a series on new immigrant groups in the United States, captures the experiences of West Indian Americans who have arrived in the country since 1965. The seven chapters include: (1) "History of Jamaica and the English-Speaking Caribbean" (e.g., from plantation society to the third world and the Creolization of cultures…

Henke, Holger

276

Injury in West Virginia: a statewide survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine an estimate of the period prevalence of medically attended injury in West Virginia via a statewide random telephone survey. METHODS: A statewide random telephone survey, the West Virginia Social Indicator Survey (WVSIS), was modified to incorporate questions regarding the incidence and mechanisms of injury. The WVSIS is periodically conducted on a representative cross-section of West Virginians to gather information about their social and economic conditions as well as to monitor change in the quality of their lives over time. RESULTS: Of the 1,498 households interviewed, 412 (28%) reported having sustained injuries for which medical care had been obtained. This translates to a conservative estimate of 231,000 medically attended injuries within West Virginia in 1993. The average age of those injured was 35 years. Falls were the most frequently reported causes of injury, with motor vehicle crashes being the second most reported cause. Most injury victims (70%) were treated in an ED. Most respondents (67%) were able to suggest ways in which the injuries might have been avoided. Only 37% of the respondents with children < 13 years of age reported ever having received injury prevention information from a physician. The most commonly reported physician advice concerned childhood poisoning (34%). CONCLUSIONS: Injury questions added to ongoing state health surveillance surveys provide valuable insight into population-based injury rates and potential preventive measures.

Williams JM; Derk SJ; Furbee PM

1996-10-01

277

Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

Samantha Brandler; Frederic Tangy

2013-01-01

278

WEST NILE VIRUS IN REINDEER (RANGIFER TARANDUS)  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family (genus Flavivirus) transmitted among bird populations by mosquitoes and incidentally infecting mammals. First recognized in the United States in 1999, WNV has spread across the United States in subsequent years. Numerous cas...

279

Hepatitis B markers in West Yorkshire firemen.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Firemen have been considered at occupational risk of hepatitis (HBV) infection, but proof is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of risk by determining the prevalence of serological markers of past infection with HBV in members of the West Yorkshire Fire Service. Sera from 173 fi...

Crosse, B. A.; Teale, C.; Lees, E. M.

280

West Virginia U. Violated Procedures, Panel Says  

Science.gov (United States)

Administrators at West Virginia University violated procedures and displayed poor judgment in their "seriously flawed" response to an inquiry about a high-profile academic transcript, according to a report issued last week by an independent panel. The harshly worded report found that when the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" raised questions last October…

Fain, Paul

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This West Virginia edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

282

West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00)Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00)

Ronald N. Harpelle

2012-01-01

283

Great Belt : foundation of the West Bridge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil proper...

Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars

284

Structure of Immature West Nile Virus?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The structure of immature West Nile virus particles, propagated in the presence of ammonium chloride to block virus maturation in the low-pH environment of the trans-Golgi network, was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of these particles was similar to that of immature ...

Zhang, Ying; Kaufmann, Bärbel; Chipman, Paul R.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

285

Strategy for Integrating Serbia into the West.  

Science.gov (United States)

The liberal institutions of Western integration, such as NATO and the EU, have the best chance of socializing a multi ethnic Serbia into living in peace with its neighbors. Joining these institutions and integrating with the West will also provide Serbia ...

V. Urbancek

2009-01-01

286

The European energy challenge east and west  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This exceptionally thorough study provides a balanced analysis of most aspects of energy use in Europe west of the Soviet Union. Giving special attention to security of supply, Hoffman, of the University of Texas, urges more attention to domestic sources and increased cooperation among the Western countries.

Hoffman, G.W.; Dienes, L.

1985-01-01

287

Radiocaesium and circulation patterns west of Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patterns of circulation to the west of Scotland can be traced with the aid of radiocaesium isotopes of Sellafield origin contained in the coastal current water. A survey in July 1981 has provided data of flow rates and dilution for comparison with two previous surveys and, in extending the area of interest to the entire shelf region between the North Channel and Cape Wrath, has allowed assessments to be made firstly of the volume transport to the east and west of the Outer Hebrides and secondly of the Atlantic water input to the coastal system. Transport through the Minches was about 4.5 times the volume of the coastal flow west of the Hebrides. The North Channel outflow of approx. 4.7 x 104 m3 s-1 of Irsih Sea/Clyde water had been supplemented in the coastal current by approx. 6.5 x 104 m3 s-1 of Atlantic water when the east and west branches reached 580N. (author).

1986-01-01

288

East-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measurements made in 1974-1975 at the Aarne Karjalainen Observatory do not show any east-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings. Combining the photometric data available for 1913-1975, one finds that the asymmetry varies in an irregular manner without correlating with Saturn's orbital period. (Auth.)

1976-01-01

289

Amino acid geochronology of the type Cromerian of West Runton, Norfolk, UK.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aminostratigraphic studies of continental deposits in the UK have hitherto relied almost exclusively on data from the aragonitic shells of non-marine molluscs for dating Pleistocene sequences. This is usually based on the d/l value of a single amino acid, d-alloisoleucine/l-isoleucine (A/I), in the total shell proteins. Two genera of freshwater gastropods (Valvata and Bithynia) are used to explore the value of using multiple amino acids from the intra-crystalline fraction, which should be more protected from the effects of diagenesis than the inter-crystalline component. Results are compared from both the aragonitic shells and opercula composed of calcite, a more stable form of calcium carbonate. In order to put the amino acid data from the West Runton Freshwater Bed into perspective, statistical analyses are used to compare them with results from the Hoxnian (MIS 11) site at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex. Twelve protein decomposition indicators revealed that the results from the shells were not as clear-cut as those from the opercula. Five indicators from the Valvata shell suggest that West Runton is older than Clacton (at a 95% significance level), but two actually suggested a younger age. Seven indicators show that the Bithynia shells from West Runton are older than congeneric shells from Clacton. In marked contrast, all 12 indicators isolated from the opercula demonstrate that West Runton is significantly older than Clacton. The data are also compared with results from Waverley Wood, an important archaeological site in the English Midlands falling within the 'Cromerian Complex'. Contrary to earlier interpretations, the new amino acid data from Bithynia opercula indicate that West Runton is older than Waverley Wood, a relationship now consistent with the available biostratigraphy.

Penkman KE; Preece RC; Keen DH; Collins MJ

2010-12-01

290

Harmonious Development in West China Based on Constructive Postmodernism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West China represents 71% of the total land in mainland China. But believe it or not, due to being desert, among the soil of Western China, only 4.2% of it is arable. Given the limited arable land in West China, post-modernistic view on West China Development, in particular its stress on sustainability, I suggest that postmodernism, what I’ve been proposing, be our possible way out. Key words: harmonious development; West China; constructive postmodernism

Yong-yue YU

2009-01-01

291

Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

292

Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

1995-01-01

293

Site characterisation methods and data interpretation. The Drigg site characterisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Further site characterisation work is being undertaken to underpin the impact assessment of BNFL's Drigg low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. This site has been in operation for about forty years and is located approximately seven kilometres south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The site accepts the majority of LLW produced in the U.K. which may be generated by hospitals and general industry as well as the nuclear industry itself. Historically, waste was tumble tipped into trenches which were then covered with an interim cap incorporating a plastic membrane. Waste is now placed in a concrete vault within steel Isofreight containers. This practice will continue through to the end of operations which is anticipated to be in the middle of the next century. Subsequently, a final closure cap will be emplaced over the disposal area. The five year Drigg Site Characterisation programme was, therefore, set up in order to improve and build upon our current understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site. The first one and a half years are devoted entirely to data acquisition with the greatest activity surrounding the drilling and geophysical aspects of the programme. Four years will be devoted to collecting a high quality time series data set of water levels, stream flows and meteorological variables and to produce a comprehensive interpretation of the hydrogeology of the site. The programme to date has been very successful and the acquired information has enabled us to start refining our geological model of the site whichwill then be used to underpin our eventual conceptual hydrogeological model. 3 refs.

Booth, P.M. [Environmental Assessments Partnership, BNFL, Risley (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

294

77 FR 63736 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of Significant Deterioration...full approval of revisions to the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP), submitted by the State of West Virginia through the West Virginia...

2012-10-17

295

77 FR 76415 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of the West Virginia Portion of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH...SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia. The West Virginia Department of...

2012-12-28

296

Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

297

Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

1996-01-01

298

Sites internet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

http://biotribune.com/ Biotribune.com ou la biologie medicale sur internet. Ce site est concu comme un portail sur la biologie clinique. Accueil d'internautes sur une page comportant, entre autres, les rubriques : actualite, evenements, revue des connaissances, rubrique juridique et petites annonces. Biotribune propose regulierement des dossiers rediges par des specialistes comportant une mise a jour des connaissances orientee sur l'interet diagnostique des tests de biologie clinique. Le site propose egalement une revue de presse scientifique avec des resumes courts d'articles parus dans les grands journaux internationaux tels que The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Science, etc. Vous pouvez aussi y tester vos connaissances grace a des cas cliniques et des QCM. Ce site propose egalement des petites annonces pratiques pour les laboratoires de ville (remplacement, materiel d'occasion, etc.). Les problemes touchant l'assurance qualite, les RMO et la nomenclature font egalement l'objet d'information et de commentaires. Enfin, vous pourrez vous inscrire a l'un des forums proposes : discussion biomedicale ou opinion et reaction sur les sujets touchant au professionnel de la biologie medicale. En conclusion, un site complet et agreable que l'on souhaite voir s'enrichir et se renouveler regulierement. http://www.arcol.asso.fr Site du Comite francais de coordination de recherche sur l'atherosclerose et le cholesterol (Arcol). Ce site s'adresse a la fois aux cliniciens, aux biologistes et aux non-specialistes interesses par la pathologie cardio-vasculaire et ses traitements. On y trouve des rubriques tres didactiques sur la physiopathologie et les facteurs de risque de l'atherosclerose, la prise en charge nutritionnelle et medicamenteuse des patients. On peut tester ses connaissances a l'aide des nombreux cas cliniques richement commentes. Ce site regulierement mis a jour contient egalement les recommandations nationales et internationales sur la prise en charge du patient hyperlipidemique. On y trouve, bien sur, toutes les rubriques telles que : agenda des congres, lien avec les autres sites web, bibliographie, etc. Un index par mots cles permet une recherche efficace. Un site indispensable a consulter pour tous ceux qui s'interessent aux lipoproteines et a l'atherosclerose. n R. Couderc

Couderc R

2000-07-01

299

State Education Finance and Governance Profile: West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of West Virginia. West Virginia is the 41st largest state in the United States, with an area of 24,231 square miles. The total population of West Virginia in 2008 was 1,814,468, making it the 37th most populous state in the United States. Current expenditures per pupil are…

Orkodashvili, Mariam

2010-01-01

300

Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.).

Hamano, Shinichiro; Nara, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masaki; Arita, Jiro; Sakamoto, Masafumi; Eda, Naruyuki; Ogawara, Yoshikazu [Saitama Children`s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan); Maekawa, Kihei

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance.

RW Allen

2000-04-11

302

Site Diversity Gain Estimated from Rain Rate Records  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The site diversity is used to mitigate the rain attenuation onsatellite links. The attenuation is estimated through the rainrate-rain attenuation conversion based on the Assis-Einloft physicalmodel in this study. Through the comparison of instantaneousattenuations at two receiving sites the site diversity gain isestimated. Examples of rain rate measurements in the Czech Republicfollowed by the site diversity gain estimation are added. This gain isgreater on west-east situation of receiving sites achieving 10 dB on0.01% exceedance level/100 km.

O. Fiser

2003-01-01

303

Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

2008-09-00

304

Site development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

1989-01-01

305

Effects of highway construction on sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates in two tributaries of the lost river, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

During a three-year study of two tributaries being crossed by a four-lane highway under construction in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia, we found little difference in the amount of fine sediment collected at upstream and downstream sites. The downstream site on one tributary collected significantly greater amounts of sediment in 2003, prior to installation of sediment fencing. Despite several episodic flow events that caused changes in the streambed, benthic macroinvertebrate metrics did not differ significantly annually or seasonally between sites or between streams. On-site controls effectively checked new sedimentation, and benthic macroinvertebrates were not significantly impacted.

Hedrick, L. B.; Welsh, S. A.; Anderson, J. T.

2007-01-01

306

Health assessment for Skinner Landfill, West Chester, Butler County, Ohio, Region 5. CERCLIS No. OHD063963714. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Skinner Landfill is a former landfill in West Chester, Butler County, Ohio. On-site soil, groundwater, and surface water are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, pesticides, arsenic, and lead. Off-site contamination is minimal. The Skinner Landfill site poses an indeterminate public health hazard. Potential exposure pathways of concern are the ingestion of surface soils containing lead and the ingestion of VOCs in groundwater. Groundwater is a potential exposure pathway because there are uncertainties concerning the potential for contaminated groundwater to move off site.

1993-08-10

307

Site Restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

2001-01-01

308

REVIEW: Social and Environmental Issues of Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP) is a cluster of lakes located in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan Province with the total area of 132,000 ha. From 1981 to January 1999 this site was recognized as Suaka Margasatwa Danau Sentarum (Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve). Since 1994 this site had been declared as Ramsar site. DSNP is a “monumental site”, since the only undisturbed peat swamp forest was found in this site. Peat swamp forest in the national park stores the oldest tropical peat in the world. The lakes and the peat swamp forest in DSNP that always flood is the biggest water reservoir for West Kalimantan Province. Peat swamp forest in the national park served as water reservoir in the national park, which was able to keep 300 – 400 % of moisture content from dry weight basis. Based on our investigation, the decreasing income of fisherman and natural resources destruction affected other community to do illegal logging supported by investors from neighboring country in which they can get cash money easily. Using special approaches in law enforcement, technological, socio-economical, socio cultural and ecological aspects should solve social problems faced by DSNP. Eco-tourism might be one alternative solution for DSNP as one of tourism object.

ONRIZAL; CECEP KUSMANA; BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO; IIN PURWATI HANDAYANI; TSUYOSHI KATO

2005-01-01

309

Outburst management plans - The West Cliff experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An Outburst Management Plan is a set of procedures and practices adopted to introduce a balance between safety and production in the development workings of underground mines which are prone to outburst. The introduction of rigorous scientific principles has moved the focus from predicting outbursts to preventing outbursts. It is no longer acceptable to have an outburst, let alone a fatality as a result of an outburst. This paper discusses the evolution of the Outburst Management Plan at West Cliff, prior to 1997 when it was owned by Kembla Coal and Coke (CRA now Rio Tinto). West Cliff is a deep underground mine in the Bulli Seam, a seam traditionally prone to outburst. 10 refs.

Walsh, R. [BHP Coal (Australia). West Cliff Colliery

1997-12-31

310

Seismic stratigraphic investigation of west Florida basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An Upper Jurassic (.)-Lower Cretaceous basin in the eastern deep Gulf of Mexico, referred to as the West Florida basin, has been described from University of Texas Institute for Geophysics multichannel seismic profiles, DSDP wells, and some gravity and magnetic data. The basin extends beyond the limits of Middle Jurassic salt deposition, and is possibly a westward extension of the Tampa embayment, implying a relatively continuous westward-dipping basement below the central portion of the Florida escarpment. The Lower Cretaceous sequence within the basin is though to be the Valanginian section missing from the Gulf Coast shelf stratigraphy. The early geologic history of the West Florida basin, inferred from this study, favors the evolutionary models for the Gulf of Mexico that rotate the Yucatan peninsula counter-clockwise from a close Gulf position to its present location.

Lord, J.P.

1987-09-01

311

FISHING AS LIVELIHOOD IN WEST BENGAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fishing is one of the oldest means of livelihood of mankind and fisheries sectors play an important role in the national economy and in the socio-economic development of in India. West Bengal is one of the leading fish producing states in the country and the largest producer of fish seeds in the country. Fishery-related livelihoods are complex, dynamic and adaptive. A livelihood comprises the assets (natural, physical, human, financial and social capital), the activities and the access to these (mediated by institutions and social relations) that together determine the living gained by the individual or households. This paper is an attempt to focus on fisheries livelihoods in West Bengal. This study is based on secondary sources of data. The results show that fisheries livelihoods are more popular in southern districts in the state and it is less popular in the northern part of the states.

NASRIN BANU

2013-01-01

312

East -West Asia and the Oil Link  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While long-term security of oil supplies is a concern for the consuming countries of East Asia, a permanent and secured outlets for oil and related products is also of great concern to the oil producing countries of West Asia. The link in this matter between the two sides is so strong and important, and more efforts have to be made towards some degree of the development of reciprocal interest in oil and other areas. Therefore, it is essential for the oil consuming countries of East Asia to make their energy, trade and investment linkages with the oil producing countries of West Asia stronger, durable and a two-way dependency with clear reciprocal benefits. It is in the interest of both sides to review their important reciprocal dependency constantly not only to maintain it, but also improve and broaden it.

NONE

2001-06-01

313

Future markers of the West Greenlandic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about the aspectual marking and future marking in West Greenlandic. There are about 40-50 aspectual suffixes, divided into ‘inner’ phasal and ‘outer’ phasal aspect (Kristoffersen 1991) and about five future tense suffixes in WG (Fortescue 1980). The order of the suffixes is stem + inner aspect + outer aspect + tense + modality + inflection. In this presentation I shall talk about the future tense suffixes only. The future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future. All future tense suffixes have more than one meaning and belong to different semantic categories. It means that the same suffix can appear more than one time in the same word, and the meanings will be different depending on the telicity of the stem, the context and the suffixes added to it. The sources of the future tense suffixes are different, -niar (inevitable future, will) from intension and belongs to five different semantic categories, -ssa (should, future) from should and has a modal meaning too, -jumaar (vaque future) from wish, -ler (near future/be about to) from begin, and -ssamaar (planed future) a compound suffix coming from wish and should. –ssa (should, future) seems to be the default future suffix, and it is used when none of the others can be used. It seems that some of the tense suffixes i.e. past (-sima, perfective, perfect, preterite) and future (-ler, begin, be about to, near future) originally had a more or less concrete aspectual meanings and have developed into more abstract tense meanings (Fortescue 1996). The aim of the project is to find out when to use the different meanings in both written and spoken languages. It is based on interviews where the informants are talking about things about future, daily spoken language from colleges and in the media, and a questionnaire where the informants should fill in the empty slots in a verbal context with different inherent aspectual meanings. Fortescue, Michael (1980) Affix ordering in West Greenlandic derivational processes. In: International journal of American linguistics. – vol. 46, no. 4, p. 259-278. Fortescue, Michael (1996) Tense, mood and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic and Chukchi. In: La dynamique et la culture inuit. /Nicole Tersis et Michèle Terrien (eds.) p. 151-175. Kristoffersen, Lars (1991) Verbal derivation and inflection in a functional grammar of West Greenlandic. Magisterkonferens, Københavns Universitet, Institut for Eskimologi.

Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

314

Visual examinations of K west fuel elements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 250 fuel assemblies stored in sealed canisters in the K West Basin were extracted and visually examined for damage. Substantial damage was expected based on high cesium levels previously measured in water samples taken from these canisters. About 11% of the inner elements and 45% of the outer elements were found to be failed in these examinations. Canisters that had cesium levels of I curie or more generally had multiple instances of major fuel damage.

Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-03

315

Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented.

Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Johnson, S. G.; Mariani, R. D.; Simpson, M. F.; Westphal, B. R.

2000-03-20

316

MEDICAL SERVICES IN GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914. Six days later the South African Government agreed to take military action against German South West Africa. On 14 September the first troops embarked, and after a successful campaign the German forces were forced to surrender on 9 July 1915. Military hospitals were established at Swakopmund, LOderitzbucht, Karibib, Windhoek and Aus. Casualties to the South African forces were

R.J. Bouch

2012-01-01

317

West Africa LP gas market development study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jointly sponsored with the World Bank, this essential study explores the opportunity for greatly expanded LP Gas use in the West Africa region. LP Gas supply in the area is increasing rapidly, This offers the opportunity for bringing modern energy to millions without current access, protects forests the only current source of energy for many, and encourages governments to adopt proactive policies that will reap benefits of the increasing availability of LP Gas. (author)

NONE

2001-07-01

318

SPS beam to the West Hall  

CERN Multimedia

One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

1976-01-01

319

Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

Will Kymlicka

2002-01-01

320

West Africa LP gas market development study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jointly sponsored with the World Bank, this essential study explores the opportunity for greatly expanded LP Gas use in the West Africa region. LP Gas supply in the area is increasing rapidly, This offers the opportunity for bringing modern energy to millions without current access, protects forests the only current source of energy for many, and encourages governments to adopt proactive policies that will reap benefits of the increasing availability of LP Gas. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Tort reform recommendations for West Virginia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tort reform is central to resolution of the malpractice issue in West Virginia. This article examines tort law and malpractice as viewed from federal and state levels and compares general liability costs in states. The article also looks at national trends in malpractice awards; at state initiatives in tort reform; and finally extracts what works and what doesn't. It presents strategies for legislative approaches to tort reform.

Louda I; McColeman E; Ray R

1990-09-01

322

West Nile Virus: ecology, epidemiology and prevention.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

and adaptation strategies for human health. Darmstadt : Steinkopff, 2006, s. 217-242 ISBN 3-7985-1591-3Grant CEP: GA ?R GA206/03/0726Grant ostatní: European Commission EVK2-2000-00070Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z60930519Klí?ová slova: West Nile virusKód oboru RIV: FN - Epidemiologie, infek. nemoci a klin. imunologie

Hubálek, Zden?kG; K?íž, B.; Menne, B.

323

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulfur mines 7. Certification tests and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cavern 7 at the Sulphur Mines, Louisiana SPR oil storage site was certified for oil storage on December 17, 1977. The Dowell Sonar caliper survey taken November 29, 1977, indicated a total cavern volume of 5.60 x 10/sup 6/ bbls. The surveys taken December 19, 1979, and June 10, 1981, indicated a total cavern volume of 6.33 x 10/sup 6/ and 6.36 x 10/sup 6/ bbls respectively. This volume increase was a result of continued brining, prior to June 10, 1981, to get brine enrichment for PPG. A well leak test in May 1981 indicated some well leakage. Well workover actions to repair well and wellhead leaks were taken by Texas Brine Corp/Dravo Utility Constructors, Inc. (TBC/DUCI). Testing was restarted in June 1981 using test procedures which were developed in conjunction with the procedures and testing of West Hackberry cavern 6. This report includes a general history of the cavern and a description of the certification testing, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations. The data from cavern 7 and 6 indicate no fluid communication between caverns. Cavern 7 is about 160 ft from the dome edge. The pressure data at maximum operating pressure is comparable to the data from both West Hackberry cavern 6 and Sulphur Mines cavern 6. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that there is a leak to the dome edge. The well test data indicates leaks in the well casing seat area are approximately 100 bbls/yr.

Beasley, R.R.

1982-05-01

324

West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV) has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

Golding Nick; Nunn Miles A; Medlock Jolyon M; Purse Bethan V; Vaux Alexander GC; Schäfer Stefanie M

2012-01-01

325

Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. RESULTS: Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. CONCLUSION: As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of the temporal and spatial compartmentalization of West Nile virus subtypes within North America.

Chisenhall DM; Mores CN

2009-01-01

326

Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of the temporal and spatial compartmentalization of West Nile virus subtypes within North America.

Chisenhall Daniel M; Mores Christopher N

2009-01-01

327

Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-palestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 ?W cm-2, from TV broadcasting was 0.007 ?W cm-2 and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 ?W cm-2. The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 ?W cm-2. The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ?62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 ?W cm-2. (authors)

2012-01-01

328

Competition between West Indian anoles and birds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wright (1981) noted an inverse correlation between anole and insectivorous bird biomass in sclerophyll scrub habitats on seven West Indian islands. Anole biomass decreased and insectivorous bird biomass increased with increasing island size. He proposed the following explanation for this pattern: Anoles and insectivorous birds compete directly for arthropod prey, and anoles experience ecological release upon the extinction of an avian competitor. Bird populations are in greater danger of extinction on small rather than large islands in the West Indies, while anole populations seldom become extinct. Hence, anoles should experience ecological release and the resulting increase in abundance more often on small islands, while avian competitors of anoles should be relatively more abundant on large islands. Wright further states that in the process of expanding population size and taking a greater proportion of available anthropod prey after the extinction of an avian competitor, anoles may inhibit recolonization by insectivorous birds on small islands in the West Indes. Here we taken exception to Wright's argument for the following reasons: (1) An alternative hypothesis, that differences in predation account for the observed pattern, is at least as likely as the extinction-mediated competition hypothesis. Wright's superficial treatment of predation ignores the substantial and well-documented impact of introduced mammals and other predators on both lizards and birds. (2) Evidence of significant dietary overlap between birds and anoles is weak, at best. (3) Patterns observed in sclerophyll scrub cannot be generalized to other island habitats.

Waide, R.B.; Reagan, D.P.

1983-01-01

329

West Nile virus in farmed alligators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak.

Miller DL; Mauel MJ; Baldwin C; Burtle G; Ingram D; Hines ME 2nd; Frazier KS

2003-07-01

330

Zonal conference of drillers of West Siberia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1982 a zonal conference of workers of the adjoining enterprises of West Siberia took place in Surgut. It covered the topic ''mobilization of the labor collectives to guarantee accelerated development in 1982 and subsequent years of the five-year plan of drilling operations in West Siberia, improvement in their effectiveness and quality.'' In opening the conference, the minister of the oil industry N. A. Mal'tsev characterized the development of the sector and summarized the work of Glavtyumenneftegaz in 1981 and in the first quarter of 1982. Primary attention in the report of the first deputy minister V. Igrevskiy ''tasks of the collectives of brigades and organization for accelerated development of drilling operations in West Siberia in the 11th Five-Year Plan'' and in the speeches was focused on questions of further growth in labor productivity for drilling, improvement in the output per brigade per year. On the average for Glavtyumenneftegaz, drilling for one brigade during the year for in-house brigades is 50,400 m, for the contracting brigades 42,800 m. An appeal to the drillers of the country was adopted at the conference.

Gorshkova, R.S.; Krist, M.O.; Nazarov, V.I.

1982-01-01

331

History and the West Indian nation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.). Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95) Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p.) Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50) Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95) Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

Frank Birbalsingh

1998-01-01

332

Ash fusion study of West Virginia coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As more industries and utilities convert to coal, ash fusion information becomes more important for boiler design (waste disposal systems). For example, burning a low fusion temperature coal can cause slagging - the buildup of molten ash on boiler waterwall tubes. Not only is boiler efficiency lowered, but downtime is also increased. Recently, potential buyers of West Virginia coal have inquired frequently about ash fusion. However, the amount of information in the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey's data base is limited to data from about 800 samples, 50% of which were collected in five counties. Thus, the survey is conducting a study of ash fusion temperatures for the state's coals, to increase available data and its geographic coverage. A Leco AF-500 automated ash fusion analyzer was used in this study, which addresses: 1) reliability of results from an automated analyzer, 2) comparison of automated data with conventional data, 3) techniques of sample preparation, high-temperature ashing, and cone preparation, 4) ash-fusion trends in the state, and 5) research developments. The research sought to develop for West Virginia coal a statistical correlation model relating ash-elemental data with fusion data, and to investigate the relationship between ash color and fusion temperature. (Light-colored ashes generally have higher fusion temperatures than darker ashes.)

Ashton, K.C., Smith, C.J.; Hohn, M.E.

1984-12-01

333

Site development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW)[de] Dieser Vortrag gibt eine allgemeine Uebersicht ueber die Punkte, die bei der Vorbereitung des Baugelaendes beruecksichtigt werden muessen, nachdem die Standortwahl getroffen wurde und bevor mit der Errichtung des Kernkraftwerks begonnen wird. (orig./RW)

1975-09-08

334

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources.

Miller NG; Wassenaar LI; Hobson KA; Norris DR

2011-02-01

335

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

2010-07-14

336

Automated external defibrillators in West Virginia schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Sudden death, particularly when occurring in children and adolescents, is a traumatic event not only for the victim's family, but for the entire community. It has been shown that school-based automated external defibrillator (AED) programs provide a high survival rate for both students and nonstudents who suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) on school grounds. The use of AEDs is becoming increasingly more common in schools in the United States. In West Virginia middle and high schools, we analyzed the prevalence and use of AEDs, barriers to obtaining a device, and cases of sudden death on school grounds. METHODS: A mailed survey distributed to West Virginia high schools and middle schools collected general demographic data, AED data, and occurrences of sudden death on school grounds. Schools reporting a death were contacted to obtain details regarding the event. For schools with a device, the number of AEDs, length of possession, reasons for and means of obtaining the AED, personnel trained to operate the AED and the number of device uses were determined. For schools without an AED, barriers to and interest in obtaining a device were determined. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-five of 312 surveys (72%) were returned. One hundred and fifty-two schools (68%) currently have at least one AED and 73 schools (32%) do not have an AED. Public high schools had the highest prevalence of AEDs (76%) compared to public middle schools (62%) and private schools (67%). Sixty-nine percent of schools obtained their devices by donations or grants and 32% obtained them using school funds. Barriers to obtaining a device included cost (82%), lack of trained personnel (45%), unfamiliarity with AED (22%), and liability issues (19%). There were a total of 23 deaths on school premises reported by 20 schools. There was one reported occurrence of an AED being used to save a life. CONCLUSION: Over two thirds of West Virginia middle schools and high schools currently have at least one AED on their premises. An AED is an effective way of preventing death following sudden cardiac arrest, and has saved at least one life in a West Virginia school. While most schools without AEDs cite cost as the main deterrent, the majority of schools with a device received them via donation or grant. We submit that a number of sudden deaths on West Virginia school grounds could possibly have been averted by use of an AED.

Mercer CW; Rhodes LA; Phillips JR

2012-07-01

337

Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F), or a leucine-serine (L1014S) substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA) or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628), with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354) from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to determine: i) the importance of selection pressure exerted by both agricultural and public health use of pyrethroid insecticides, ii) the phenotypic effects, particularly when the two mutations co-occur; and iii) the epidemiological importance of kdr for both pyrethroid- and DDT-based malaria control operations, particularly if/when the two insecticides are to be used in concert.

Santolamazza Federica; Calzetta Maria; Etang Josiane; Barrese Elena; Dia Ibrahima; Caccone Adalgisa; Donnelly Martin J; Petrarca Vincenzo; Simard Frederic; Pinto Joao; della Torre Alessandra

2008-01-01

338

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 1. Executive summary. Preliminary feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of a preliminary study, of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the West Valley, New York site. In the hydraulic fracturing and injection process the liquid waste would be diluted, and mixed with cement, clay and other additives to form a stable solid matrix after injection. The waste could be injected into the shale beds, 800 to 1,500 feet below the existing site in zones suitable for horizontal fracturing and to provide satisfactory long term isolation. Hydraulic fracturing has been in use for the disposal of radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Tennessee since the mid 1960's. To date, over 1.8 million gallons of grout containing radioactive waste have been successfully injected at that site. In this study the West Valley site has been assessed in terms of the requirements for satisfactory disposal of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing on the basis of currently available information. A program of research and development, required to confirm or reject this means of disposal at the West Valley site, has been outlined

1978-01-01

339

Sulphur gas emissions in the boreal forest: the West Whitecourt case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research plan and background details of a four-year interdisciplinary case study designed to determine the consequences of chronic long-term exposure of a conifer forest ecosystem to low concentration S gas emissions originating from the AMOCO Canada Petroleum Company Limited, West Whitecourt sour gas processing plant in West Central Alberta, Canada, is presented. A brief outline of the operation of a sour gas processing and S recovery plant is given. Since the West Whitecourt Gas Plant commenced operations in 1961-1962, the S emission output per day has dropped almost an order of magnitude from 150 to 18 tonnes S day/sup -1/ in 1976 due to enhanced operating procedures and the addition of 'tail-gas' clean up units. A general description of the West Whitecourt Study Area and intensive experimental site 1.5 km east of the West Whitecourt Gas Plant is presented. An evolutionary interdisciplinary ecological approach is utilized in the case study. A conceptual model is developed to illustrate the dynamic relationship between the S gas 'source' and the generalized ecosystem 'sink' and to provide a framework for communication amongst the twelve research team members. The ecosystem is divided into four compartments: air, vegetation, soil and water. Cooperatively designed experiments were designed to evaluate not only the interfaces among ecosystem compartments but also the processes within ecosystem compartments. The design and application of an automated ambient air SO/sub 2/ profiling system developed for the case study is presented. The role of S as a mineral nutrient and toxicant is discussed. The point is made that the distinction between the assimilation and the accumulation of S of atmospheric origin by plants must be addressed.

Legge, A.H.

1982-05-01

340

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 6): South 8th Street Landfill, operable unit 1, West Memphis, AR, September 29, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the South 8th Street Superfund Site, in West Memphis, Arkansas. The site is being handled as two operable units: a source control operable unit, which is addressed by this ROD, and a groundwater operable unit, which will be addressed in a separate ROD at a later date. The principal concerns to be addressed at the site are contaminated sludges and contaminated soil and debris.

NONE

1995-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high.

Stoops CA; Rusmiarto S; Susapto D; Munif A; Andris H; Barbara KA; Sukowati S

2009-12-01

342

Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high. PMID:20836823

Stoops, Craig A; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Munif, Amurl; Andris, Heri; Barbara, Kathryn A; Sukowati, Supratman

2009-12-01

343

75 FR 65515 - NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,347] NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt Consulting, West Columbia, SC; Notice of...

2010-10-25

344

Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

Aguila RN

2013-01-01

345

The Distribution Characteristics of Salt Contaminants in West Coast Region with the Distance from Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the result of a study on the distribution characteristics of salt contaminants in the west coast region, from Inchon to Yearsoo, of South Korea. To evaluate the distribution characteristics of salt contaminants, we had measured the equivalent salt deposit density(ESDD) with brush wiping method for thirteen month(from May 1999 to Jun 2000). Under the consideration on the measuring interval and method, normalization method was applied for the ESDD data. Besides the measurement, the chemical analysis (chromatography) was carried to investigate the relationship, between the electrical property and the amount of specific ingredient, such as sodium, magnesium and chloride. From the result, we could get the representative value of contamination for each site and distribution characteristics of salt contaminants with the distance from sea in the west coast. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Choi, N. H.; Han, S. O. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

2001-06-01

346

Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

Aguila, Rayner Núñez

2013-09-20

347

West Valley demonstration project high level, transuranic, and greater than class C wastes - 59048  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Located in the scenic hills of Western New York, 35 miles south of Buffalo, the 68 hectare West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a unique and challenging environmental cleanup project that currently manages High Level, Transuranic, and Greater than Class C wastes. Before the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility of cleaning up the site, the site was the location of the only commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing facility to operate in the United States. Operated by Nuclear Fuels Services from 1966-72, the site was owned by the State of New York and licensed by the Atomic Energy Commission. During operations, the plant reprocessed approximately 640 metric tons of commercial and defense nuclear fuel. When commercial operations were discontinued and the facilities were returned to New York State, there were nearly 2, 271, 247 liters (nearly 600, 000 gallons) of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground storage tank, there were approximately 750 unprocessed fuel assemblies, and there was a highly contaminated Main Plant Process Building (MPPB). The West Valley Demonstration Project Act of 1980 (the Act) authorized DOE to conduct a cleanup of the site, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the State agency responsible for managing the property. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license was placed in abeyance and DOE arrived on site in 1981. Since that time, several significant cleanup milestones have been completed, including vitrification (solidification in a glass matrix) of the high level liquid waste, containing approximately 15 million curies, into 275 high level waste canisters and the disposition of more than 19, 000 subsequent drums of low-level radioactive waste (LLW); the shipment of the remaining 125 SNF assemblies that were in storage on site; and the shipment of more than 304, 800 cubic meters (1, 000, 000 cubic feet) of LLW for offsite disposal. More recent accomplishments at West Valley have included deactivation and decontamination of the still-very-contaminated MPPB, management of the underground high level waste tanks (4) and their associated vaults (3), and processing and packaging of both legacy waste and waste generated as a result of decommissioning activities. This paper focuses on the high level, greater than Class C, and Transuranic waste challenges at West Valley and the options to address those challenges. (authors)

2012-01-01

348

Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility, West Jefferson, Ohio, date of survey: May 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility located in West Jefferson, Ohio. Gamma ray data were collected over a 5.5 km2 area centered on the facility by flying east-west lines spaced 61 m apart. Processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was primarily due to radionuclides currently being processed due to the hot lab operations. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be due to naturally occurring background radiation consistent with variations due to geologic base terrain and land use of similar areas.

1979-01-01

349

West African Holocene climate variability: trends and centennial scale features  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-resolution (~20 yr/cm) climate record has been generated using core materials recovered from the Gulf of Guinea, eastern equatorial Atlantic. Under modern conditions, fresh water discharge of Niger and Sanaga rivers profoundly affects the seawater chemistry above the core site. Therefore, significant past changes in the precipitation over the drainage basins, which integrate a large part of West African monsoon (WAM) area, would be manifested in the trace element compositions of sea surface water which is archived in tests of shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifers that accumulate in marine sediment. We analyzed down core changes in Ba/Ca in shells of Globigerinoides ruber pink as proxies for changes in riverine discharge and sea surface temperature, respectively1,2. Ba/Ca is very high during the early and mid Holocene, suggesting wet conditions in WAM areas and high riverine discharges into the Gulf of Guinea. Gradual decline of Holocene monsoon precipitation started approximately 5.5 kyr before present (BP) and reaches its lowest level at the late Holocene, as suggested by the Ba/Ca record. Orbital scale WAM Holocene climate trend follows gradual changes in solar insolation over the WAM area and is consistent with the patterns of Arabian and East Asian monsoon records3,4. At centennial time scales, the Ba/Ca record suggests that the early and mid Holocene was punctuated by several rapid declines in WAM precipitation. The most-prominent drops in Ba/Ca occurred at 11,000 - 10,780, 9,450 - 9,150, and 8,430 - 8,140 yr BP, suggesting an abrupt decline of riverine runoff and precipitation over the monsoon areas at these times. Considering age model uncertainties, the timing of these declines in WAM rainfall correlate well with those of air temperature drops over Greenland5 and fresh water discharges into the North Atlantic6. The West African monsoon system, therefore, appears to be very sensitive to fresh water perturbation and ice shield instabilities in the northern high latitude. References: 1) Weldeab, S. et al. (2007): 155,000 years of West African monsoon and ocean thermal evolution. Science 316(5829): 1303-1307. 2) Weldeab, S. et al. (2007): Centennial scale climate instabilities in a wet early Holocene West African monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34. 3) Fleitmann, D. et al. (2003): Holocene Forcing of the Indian Ocean Monsoon record in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science 300: 1737-1740. 4) Wang, L. et al. (2001): A High-Resolution Absolute-Date Late pleistocene Monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294: 2345-2348. 5) Clark, P. et al. (2001). Freshwater Forcing of Abrupt Climate Change During the last glaciation. Science 293: 283-287. 6) NGRIP members (2004): High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431: 147-151.

Weldeab, S.

2009-12-01

350

West Edmonton Mall : buying into energy efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Edmonton Mall consists of 600 stores and services, as well as attractions including a marine life lagoon, a skating rink, the largest indoor wave pool in the world, and an amusement park. Lighting retrofits, power-factor correction equipment, and tenant energy-saving criteria all combine to make the West Edmonton Mall a model of energy efficiency. An energy consultant was hired in 2001 to develop an energy management plan in an attempt to find ways to save energy while providing a return on investment. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are a consequence of reduced energy consumption. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) were recently installed on heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) fans, with assistance from the Energy Innovators Initiative (EII) of Natural Resources Canada. In addition, the West Edmonton Mall is now signed up with Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. The retrofit involved the conversion of 42 constant speed, variable-pitch supply and return fans to a fixed pitch. The total cost of the retrofit was $970,000, and the energy savings are expected to reach $524,295 annually. A brief overview of energy savings measures implemented since 1985 was provided. Separate metering and billing for new tenants is a strategy to make sure that they are aware of their energy costs. This strategy makes them more active in reducing their energy consumption. An awareness and accountability system was put in place, and a variety of potential projects are being evaluated, such as a cogeneration system, updating fluid pumps, and adding new controls to hot water heaters. 1 tab.

Hanson, K. [West Edmonton Mall, AB (Canada)

2003-11-01

351

Lock-Crisp-West folding revisited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The signature of the Fermi surface sheets in spectra collected on high-Tc superconductors by the technique of two-dimensional angular correlation of the electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) is often very weak. The procedure proposed by Lock, Crisp and West (J. Phys. F: Metal Phys. 3, 561 (1973)) to enhance the signature of the Fermi surface in experimental 2D- ACAR spectra is optimized in two ways: by statement of clear cut criteria of the histogram regions which carry nothing but statistical noise and by adequate reformulation of the 2D-ACAR data from the detector to the crystal reference frame. (author). 21 refs.

1994-01-01

352

Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in human and equine sera in Iran. Blood samples were tested from 300 human samples and 315 equine samples in five geographic zones of north and central parts of Iran between 2010 and 2012. All samples were tested for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to WNV by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of all samples, 4 (1.3%) human and 9 (2.8%) equines were considered to be seropositive for WNV. These results suggest circulation and exposure of the human and equine populations to WNV in Iran.

Chinikar S; Shah-Hosseini N; Mostafavi E; Moradi M; Khakifirouz S; Jalali T; Goya MM; Shirzadi MR; Zainali M; Fooks AR

2013-08-01

353

The New Otter Centre in West Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The decision of the forest department of Lower Saxony to close the Oderhaus Otter Research Enclosure in December 31st, 1987 made it necessary to find a new organisational base for the German AKTION FISCHOTTERSCHUTZ. Since July 1987 the organisation has built a new otter centre in Hankensbüttel (50 km north of Braunschweig, 15 km west of the border to the GDR) . The otter centre will be opened at the end of April 1986. This report describes the organisation and function of the new centre.

Reuther C.

1988-01-01

354

Solar thermal applications in the West Indies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermal devices have been used in the West Indian islands for over a century. Traditionally, crops such as rice or cocoa have been dried in the sun on drying floors. In the last twenty five years solar water heaters have become commercially available and over 30,000 are now in use in Barbados and about 2000 in Jamaica. Solar stills and solar crop dryers have also been deployed and solar collectors have been used to power solar cookers and adsorption chillers. Compound parabolic concentrating solar collectors have been used for experimental purposes but the high level of diffuse radiation obtained during most months of the year makes concentrating collectors unsuitable. (Author)

Headley, Oliver St. C. [University of the West Indies, Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

1998-09-01

355

Underground lighting in West German coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors recall West German regulations on lighting equipment for use in mines and then proceed to give the criteria for lighting quality, studying in particular the level of illumination, the distribution of brightness, the limitation of dazzle, the direction of light and shade, the luminous colour and colour reproduction. They describe various types of lighting systems used at shaft access points, in roadways, underground workshops and drivages and on the face. Conclude with a brief summary of the results expected from the investigations being conducted. (In French)

Schuetz, R.; Voss, K.H.

1982-01-01

356

Seroprevalence of west nile virus in iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in human and equine sera in Iran. Blood samples were tested from 300 human samples and 315 equine samples in five geographic zones of north and central parts of Iran between 2010 and 2012. All samples were tested for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to WNV by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of all samples, 4 (1.3%) human and 9 (2.8%) equines were considered to be seropositive for WNV. These results suggest circulation and exposure of the human and equine populations to WNV in Iran. PMID:23697768

Chinikar, Sadegh; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Maryam; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Zainali, Mohammad; Fooks, Anthony R

2013-05-22

357

West Nile virus infection and immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging neurotropic flavivirus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. WNV has disseminated broadly in the Western hemisphere and now poses a significant public health risk. The continuing spread of WNV, combined with the lack of specific therapeutics or vaccines to combat or prevent infection, imparts a pressing need to identify the viral and host processes that control the outcome of and immunity to WNV infection. Here, we provide an overview of recent research that has revealed the virus-host interface controlling WNV infection and immunity.

Suthar MS; Diamond MS; Gale M Jr

2013-02-01

358

On a discrete West Nile epidemic model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A West Nile epidemic model in discrete-time is proposed. The model consists of two interacting populations, the vector and the avian populations. The avian population is classified into susceptible, infective, and recovered classes while an individual vector is either susceptible or infective. The transmission of the disease is assumed only by mosquitoes bites and vertical transmission in the vector population. The model behavior depends on a lumpedparameter R0. The disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 1. Consequently, the disease can persist in the populations if R0 > 1.

Sophia R.-J. Jang

2007-01-01

359

Trypanotolerant cattle in West and Central Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two native humpless types of Bos taurus cattle which are tolerant to trypanosomiasis were described in West Africa at the beginning of this century. In spite of the fact that they are small breeds, they already represent some 25% of all cattle present in the region. Their importation into the Congo basin countries has resulted in the development of a cattle industry. Some of the available data on these types are given and discussed. The possibility of satisfying the growing hunger for protein of Africa with trypanotolerant cattle is emphasized.

Chabeuf N

1983-09-01

360

Niobium content of soils from West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

Grimaldi, F. S.; Berger, I. A.

1961-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

1999-01-01

362

Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals : A multidisciplinary Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been analysed for heavy metals, organochlorines, stable isotopes and DNA. The obtained results of metal concentrations and DNA were included in the existing database, whereas no previous data on organochlorines and stable isotopes in West Greenland narwhals existed. The metal and POP concentrations and stable isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study.

Riget, F.; Dietz, R.

2002-01-01

363

Needs Analysis for the West Hills College at Lemoore, West Hills Community College District. Commission Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report reviews the proposal by the West Hills Community College District (WHCCD) (California) to transition its off-campus center to full college status. The proposal's objectives include: (1) establishing a new comprehensive college that will serve approximately 1,700 full-time-equivalent students by 2015; and (2) providing greater access to…

California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

364

Hybrid pine for tough sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

1994-01-01

365

Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF)/ Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas en ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistem (more) as de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas. Abstract in english The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environments of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange syste (more) ms of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

Durán, Víctor; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Cortegoso, Valeria; Neme, Gustavo; Cornejo, Luis; Bocci, Marco

2012-11-01

366

Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF) Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas en ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas.The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environments of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

Víctor Durán; Anna Maria De Francesco; Valeria Cortegoso; Gustavo Neme; Luis Cornejo; Marco Bocci

2012-01-01

367

Upgrade of the Proton West secondary beamline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As originally designed and operated, protons entering PW6 were steered by a series of EPB dipoles into a single interaction length beryllium target, some 43 feet from the enclosure wall. Ensuing secondary beams, either p+/?+ or p-/?-, were collected by a string of quadrupoles following the target, steered westward, away from the Proton Center line, through PW6 and PW7, and ultimately focussed on experiment production targets located within the large PW8 hall. Around the Spring of 1988 it was decided to upgrade the existing Proton West secondary beamline to allow for transport of a primary proton beam, anticipated to be either 800 or 900 GeV/c, through PW8. This upgrade project, which is now nearing completion, was largely motivated by the then recent approval of E-771, a hadronic beauty production experiment located in PW8. E-771 represents the third in a series of experiments for the large-acceptance dimuon spectrometer presently located at the end of the Proton West beamline. This Technical Memo is a summary of the upgrade --- an explanation of the underlying strategy and a documentation of the final locations of the secondary beamline elements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

1989-01-01

368

Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

1997-04-01

369

Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 ?Sv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

1991-01-01

370

Avian hosts of west nile virus in Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix. PMID:23857022

Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Young, Ginger R; Brault, Aaron C; Levy, Craig E

2013-07-15

371

West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, Idaho and Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies from 1979 to 1982 of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas fields farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molybdenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

Oriel, S.S.; Benham, J.R.

1984-01-01

372

Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

1985-01-01

373

Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided consist of the following: (1) large format aerial photography; (2) video from aerial platforms; (3) multispectral scanning; and (4) airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in the summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis. 2 figures

1984-01-01

374

Life-cycle cost analysis 200-West Weather Enclosure: Multi-function Waste Tank Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF)will provide environmentally safe and acceptable storage capacity for handling wastes resulting from the remediation of existing single-shell and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site. The MWTF will construct two tank farm facilities at two separate locations. A four-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site; a two-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-West Area. This report documents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) for the Weather Enclosure proposed to be constructed over the 200-West tanks. Currently, all tank farm operations on the Hanford Site are conducted in an open environment, with weather often affecting tank farm maintenance activities. The Weather Enclosure is being proposed to allow year-round tank farm operation and maintenance activities unconstrained by weather conditions. Elimination of weather-related delays at the MWTF and associated facilities will reduce operational costs. The life-cycle cost analysis contained in this report analyzes potential cost savings based on historical weather information, operational and maintenance costs, construction cost estimates, and other various assumptions

1995-01-01

375

West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

2012-11-01

376

Life-cycle cost analysis 200-West Weather Enclosure: Multi-function Waste Tank Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF)will provide environmentally safe and acceptable storage capacity for handling wastes resulting from the remediation of existing single-shell and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site. The MWTF will construct two tank farm facilities at two separate locations. A four-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site; a two-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-West Area. This report documents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) for the Weather Enclosure proposed to be constructed over the 200-West tanks. Currently, all tank farm operations on the Hanford Site are conducted in an open environment, with weather often affecting tank farm maintenance activities. The Weather Enclosure is being proposed to allow year-round tank farm operation and maintenance activities unconstrained by weather conditions. Elimination of weather-related delays at the MWTF and associated facilities will reduce operational costs. The life-cycle cost analysis contained in this report analyzes potential cost savings based on historical weather information, operational and maintenance costs, construction cost estimates, and other various assumptions.

Umphrey, M.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-16

377

Sources of resistance to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in groundnut genotypes in West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aflatoxin contamination is an important constraint to groundnut production in West Africa. During the 1989, 1990, and 1991 rainy seasons, we tested 25 lines, including germ plasm, advanced breeding lines, and cultivars, from West Africa, at Sadore, Bengou, and Maradi in Niger, at Kaolack in Senegal, and at Niangoloko in Burkina Faso. Average seed infection varied with site and year from 5 to 37%. Cultivars 55-437, Jll, and PI 337394 F were the least infected. Among the ICRISAT advanced breeding lines involving parents resistant to A. flavus, ICGV 87084, ICGV 87094, and ICGV 87110 were resistant. The results showed that some breeding lines possessed a good level of resistance to A. flavus, reflecting the presence of genes for resistance. A. flavus infection was significantly correlated with aflatoxin content, ranging from 1 to 450 ppb. Only one line, VAR 27, showed a high percentage of infection by A. flavus but a low level of aflatoxin, suggesting that this line may be resistant to aflatoxin production in West Africa. Among the ICRISAT breeding lines, ICGV 87110 had the lowest level of aflatoxin

Waliyar F; Ba A; Hassan H; Bonkoungou S; Bosc JP

1994-07-01

378

Multi-proxy temperature reconstruction from the West Qinling Mountains, China for the past 500 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 290 tree-ring samples, collected from six sites in the West Qinling Mountains of China, were used to develop six new standard tree-ring chronologies. In addition, 73 proxy records were assembled in collaboration with Chinese and international scholars, from 27 publically available proxy records and 40 tree-ring chronologies that are not available in public datasets. These records were used to reconstruct annual mean temperature variability in the West Qinling Mountains over the past 500 years (AD 1500-1995), using a modified point-by-point regression (hybrid PPR) method. The results demonstrate that the hybrid PPR method successfully integrates the temperature signals from different types of proxies, and that the method preserves a high degree of low-frequency variability. The reconstruction shows greater temperature variability in the West Qinling Mountains than has been found in previous studies. Our temperature reconstruction for this region shows: 1) five distinct cold periods, at approximately AD 1520-1535, AD 1560-1575, AD 1610-1620, AD 1850-1875 and AD 1965-1985, and four warm periods, at approximately AD 1645-1660, AD 1705-1725, AD 1785-1795 and AD 1920-1945; 2) that in this region, the 20(th) century was not the warmest period of the past 500 years; and 3) that a dominant and persistent oscillation of ca. 64 years is significantly identified in the 1640-1790 period.

Yang F; Wang N; Shi F; Ljungqvist FC; Wang S; Fan Z; Lu J

2013-01-01

379

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

Entz, Ray

2005-02-01

380

The prevalence of hypertension in seven populations of west African origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to describe the distribution of blood pressures, hypertension prevalence, and associated risk factors among seven populations of West African origin. METHODS: The rates of hypertension in West Africa (Nigeria and Cameroon), the Caribbean (Jamaica, St. Lucia, Barbados), and the United States (metropolitan Chicago, Illinois) were compared on the basis of a highly standardized collaborative protocol. After researchers were given central training in survey methods, population-based samples of 800 to 2500 adults over the age of 25 were examined in seven sites, yielding a total sample of 10014. RESULTS: A consistent gradient of hypertension prevalence was observed, rising from 16% in West Africa to 26% in the Caribbean and 33% in the United States. Mean blood pressures were similar among persons aged 25 to 34, while the increase in hypertension prevalence with age was twice as steep in the United States as in Africa. Environmental factors, most notably obesity and the intake of sodium and potassium, varied consistently with disease prevalence across regions. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate the determining role of social conditions in the evolution of hypertension risk in these populations.

Cooper, R; Rotimi, C; Ataman, S; McGee, D; Osotimehin, B; Kadiri, S; Muna, W; Kingue, S; Fraser, H; Forrester, T; Bennett, F; Wilks, R

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Effect of ancient river network on the formation of oil and gas accumulations in west Siberia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important prerequisites for oil and gas accumulation in the ancient river network of west Siberia is the presence of collectors. They can be sandy rocks of the coastal-offshore and alluvial origin, widely developed along the coasts of the ancient seas, in the valleys and the mouths of the paleorivers. It is assumed that in the region of the Nizhnevartovskiy anticline, there are the mouths of the pra-Ob, Pra-Angara, Pra-Podkamennaya Tunguska and pra-Yenisey. The mouths of these rivers in the Neocomian dropped far from each other into the sea basin of west Siberia. With the decline of the sea towards the west, they shifted into the region which corresponds to the Surgut anticline. Of great practical importance is the coastal zone of the seas of the early and middle Jurasic time which was relatively stable. Rivers in this time probably had a submeridional direction, and their mouths were located at the sites of intersection with troughs and grabens. The broad zone of increased content of sandy deposits of the early Valanzhin-Senoman age located roughly at the latitude of Nizhnaya Tunguska in the region of dispersal of the fields Russkiy, Zapolyarniy, Tazovskiy, Urengoy and Medvezh'ye are promising.

Markovskiy, N.I.

1980-01-01

382

Regional Flood Frequency Analysis Based on L-Moment Approach (Case Study West Azarbayjan Basins)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flood estimation with certain frequency is one of the fundamental factors for design ofHydraulic structures, Flood plain, River coastal stabling, Basin management, etc. Accurate estimation offlood frequency discharge increases safety of the structures. L-moment approach was used for floodfrequency analysis in west Azarbayjan province basins. For identifying homogeneous regions, the Wardhierarchical cluster method was used. Site data were used for independent testing of the cluster of the stationfor homogeneity. The west Azarbayjan province divided to four regions. In these regions parameters of theregional frequency distribution were evaluated by L-moment ratios. The L-moment diagram, goodness of fittest, and plotting position methods were used for the selection of appropriate distributions. In westAzarbayjan, Generalized Pareto distribution for region A, Generalized extreme value, Pearson type III andLognormal distributions for region B, Pearson type III, Lognormal, Generalized extreme value distributionsfor region C and Lognormal and Generalized extreme value distribution were appropriate for region D. Therelative Root Mean Square Error (rRMSE) between observed and estimated data in all stations is small.Regional model evaluated for determination of flood discharge magnitude in different frequency by linerand multiple regression method.

Ramin Rostami

2013-01-01

383

Use of DWPF redox measurement technique on glasses from West Valley Nuclear Fuel Services Demonstration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A similar vitrification facility exists at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Services. In both of these facilities, control of the oxidation/reduction (redox) equilibrium in the glass melter is critical for processing of the nuclear waste. Redox can be determined by measuring the ratio of ferrous to ferric ions in the glass melt. A colorimetric procedure has been developed for the DWPF which has been shown to give rapid and reliable analytical results. This colorimetric technique has been shown to measure the Fe{sup 2+} component of glasses more accurately than other existing redox measurement methods. The DWPF redox technique was applied to a series of six glasses taken from the West Valley melter during a transient melter excursion. This excursion caused the glasses to become progressively more reducing with time. Application of the DWPF redox technique to these glasses correctly indicated the redox trends with a higher precision and with more accuracy than the West Valley wet chemical method and/or Alfred University's Mossbauer method. 1 fig., 18 refs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1990-10-01

384

Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java (S.A. Siradz ): Red soilis a common name used to identify any soil showing yellowish to reddish colour, these soils mainly occur in tropicaland subtropical regions. The term is frequently used to convey an image of red, infertile, acid soils in the tropics andis associated with tropical and subtropical climates which are characterized by high temperature and humidity. Majorsoil constraints to crop production may include low pH, low available P and high P fixation capacity, toxicity due toAl and sometimes Mn and Fe, deficiencies of N, Ca, Mg, K, and micronutrients e.g. Mo, Zn and Cu, low CEC and lowbase saturation, and very low content of weatherable minerals. The aim of this study was to determine the phosphorussorption characteristics of red soils from Lampung, West Java and Central Java. Soils were sampled at depth of 0-20cm from minimally disturbed sites after discarding the uppermost few cm consisting of an accumulation of litter. Thesamples were air-dried, crushed using a ceramic mortar and pestle and then passed through a 0.5 mm stainless steelsieve. Measurements of P sorption were conducted by equilibrating 200 mg of air dry soil ( West Java and Central Java. Values of pH(NaF), Ald, and exchangeable Ca were most predictive of Psorption in these soils.

Syamsul Arifin Siradz

2009-01-01

385

Radiological survey of the West Lake Landfill, St. Louis County, Missour. Final report Apr 81-Feb 82  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the West Lake Landfill, St. Louis County, Missouri, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the spring and summer of 1981. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results indicate that large volumes of uranium ore residues, probably originating from the Hazelwood, Missouri, Latty Avenue site, have been buried at the West Lake Landfill. Two areas of contamination, covering more than 15 acres and located at depths of up to 20 feet below the present surface, have been identified. There is no indication that significant quantities of contaminants are moving off-site at this time.

Booth, L.F.; Groff, D.W.; McDowell, G.S.; Adler, J.J.; Peck, S.I.

1982-05-01

386

West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

Towers, George

2005-01-01

387

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

388

West Virginia sells LP-gas throughout the Northeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mountain State of West Virginia is one of the few states in the Northeastern U.S. that produce and process natural gas liquids from local wells. Because customers in this heavily populated region are easy to come by, West Virginia remains a net exporter of propane and butane.

Maslowski, A.

1988-02-01

389

What Preceded Dallas’ 2012 West Nile Virus Outbreak?  

Science.gov (United States)

... NLM Director’s Comments Transcript What Preceded Dallas’ 2012 West Nile Virus Outbreak? : 08/26/2013 To use the sharing ... what's new this week in MedlinePlus. The 2012 West Nile virus outbreak in Dallas followed a mild winter, a ...

390

Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease, California, 2005  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2005, 880 West Nile virus cases were reported in California; 305 case-patients exhibited neuroinvasive disease, including meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. Risk factors independently associated with developing neuroinvasive disease rather than West Nile fever included older ag...

Jean, Cynthia M.; Honarmand, Somayeh; Louie, Janice K.; Glaser, Carol A.

391

West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

1975-01-01

392

Unusual case of failure in old oil-shale workings at Pumpherston, West Lothian, Scotland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the result of a drilling exercise in the Camps Shale, at the base of the Upper Oil Shale Group which lies in the Lower Carboniferous. One borehole, later duplicated, indicated that the stooped out area had failed in a manner totally unexpected and unpredicted. The site investigated lies to the east of Livingston New Town, in an area being considered for an extension of Livingston's industrial area in West Lothian District. The work was supervised by the author, funded by the Scottish Development Agency, and the contract let by the Derelict Land Rehabilitation Unit of Lothian Regional Council. 5 figures.

Henry, J.

1983-03-01

393

West Nile virus protease activity in detergent solutions and application for affinity tag removal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Affinity tags are typically used to facilitate membrane protein purification. A protease needs to remain active in the presence of detergent to remove a fusion tag from a recombinant membrane protein. Our results show that the West Nile virus (WNV) protease activity was not affected while in the presence of a wide range of detergents. In a detergent solution, the WNV protease can remove the fusion tag from a recombinant protein containing KCNE3 and a WNV protease site. Therefore, the WNV protease may be useful as an alternative enzyme to remove affinity tags in protein purifications.

Huang Q; Li Q; Chen AS; Kang C

2013-04-01

394

Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

1994-07-01

395

Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

1994-01-01

396

Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

Skinner, A.

2007-07-15

397

75 FR 30295 - Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT  

Science.gov (United States)

...Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...will modify Class E airspace at West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using...Approach Procedure (SIAP) at West Yellowstone Airport. This will improve the...

2010-06-01

398

78 FR 4368 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Requirements for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Requirements for Determining...revision submitted by the State of West Virginia for the purpose of amending the...submittal are available at the West Virginia Department of Environmental...

2013-01-22

399

78 FR 4333 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Requirements for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Requirements for Determining...action to approve a revision to the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP...a legislative rule adopted by West Virginia to amend its prior general...

2013-01-22

400

78 FR 27062 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of Significant Deterioration...revision submitted by the State of West Virginia on August 31, 2011. EPA is taking...10 ). In addition, because West Virginia's August 31, 2011 SIP...

2013-05-09

 
 
 
 
401

78 FR 16449 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of Significant Deterioration...revision submitted by the State of West Virginia on August 31, 2011. EPA is proposing...pollutant.'' Additionally, because West Virginia's August 31, 2011 SIP...

2013-03-15

402

78 FR 44884 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials Incorporated...by reference (IBR) into the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP...been previously submitted by the West Virginia Department of Environmental...

2013-07-25

403

78 FR 48466 - Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California; Notice of Negative...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California; Notice of Negative...Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California (subject firm). The...Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California, to apply for...

2013-08-08

404

77 FR 17363 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...to establish Class E airspace at West Memphis, AR. Separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding West Memphis Municipal Airport from the Class E...

2012-03-26

405

77 FR 42430 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...establishes Class E airspace at West Memphis, AR. Separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding West Memphis Municipal Airport from the Class E...

2012-07-19

406

76 FR 38680 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...may submit comments related to the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy...

2011-07-01

407

77 FR 71446 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy...

2012-11-30

408

76 FR 43634 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia and Ohio...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation Plans; West Virginia and Ohio; Determinations of Attainment of the 1997...Parkersburg- Marietta, West Virginia-Ohio (WV-OH) nonattainment area and the...West Virginia) and 40 CFR 81.336 (Ohio). The Parkersburg- Marietta,...

2011-07-21

409

Texas site selection and licensing status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

Avant, R.V. Jr.

1989-11-01

410

Water resources data for West Virginia, water year 1979, Appendix-coal areas. Report for Feb 76-Jan 80  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water resources data for the 1979 water year for coal regions of West Virginia consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams, wells, mines, and abandoned mine shafts; and water levels in wells and abandoned mine shafts. Section 1 consists of data obtained for the statewide Coal Hydrology Monitoring project and includes discharge and water-quality data collected during two sampling periods at 361 sites.

1980-11-01

411

Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, West Pullman Iron and Metal (a/k/a West Pullman/Victory Heights), Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, Region 5: CERCLIS number ILD005428651. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Pullman/Victory Heights/Maple Park site consists of two abandoned industrial properties. The Navistar International Transportation Corporation (Navistar) property is commonly called International Harvester (IH) and the NL Industries, Incorporated property is commonly called Dutch Boy (DB). These industries were active from the early part of this century until the early 1980s when the factories were closed and abandoned. Currently, for people trespassing on the site, both the Dutch Boy and the International Harvester properties represent a potential public health hazard. Limited data are available to assess potential off-site exposures to site-related contaminants, and therefore, exposure to off-site contaminants from the International Harvester and Dutch Boy properties is classified as an indeterminate public health hazard.

NONE

1999-03-01

412

West valley glass product qualification durability studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pacific Northwest Laboratory is examining the effects of composition, ferrous/ferric ratio (redox state), heat treatment, and groundwater on the chemical durability of a glass proposed for solidification of West Valley nuclear waste. Several experiments have been conducted, and preliminary results are given in this paper. The results of the experiments conducted to date indicate that waste glass is more durable in groundwater than in deionized water; also, durability is affected by isothermal and simulated canister cooling heat treatments. However, the durability of the waste glass is not strongly affected by the variation of glass redox state. Linear mixture models were fitted to the glass compositional variation data and validated. These models may be used to predict the effects of varying specific components on the reference glass durability within the defined composition region

1988-03-03

413

The neuroimmune response to West Nile virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recent introduction of highly pathogenic strains of West Nile virus (WNV) into naïve populations in Europe, Israel, and the USA has resulted in a marked increase in both the number of reported cases and the severity of disease compared to previous outbreaks. The impact of the increased virulence of recently emerged strains of WNV is exacerbated by the fact that antiviral therapies and vaccines are not currently available for use in humans. A greater understanding of the viral and host factors involved in WNV-mediated neuropathology is necessary to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic approaches. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of the cell-intrinsic innate immune responses as well as the cell-mediated innate and adaptive immune responses in promoting the detection and clearance of WNV from the CNS.

Fredericksen BL

2013-07-01

414

Small molecule inhibitors of West Nile virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus is a human pathogen which is rapidly expanding worldwide. It is a member of the Flavivirus genus and it is transmitted by mosquitos between its avian hosts and occasionally in vertebrate hosts. In humans, the infection is often asymptomatic, but the most severe cases result in encephalitis or meningitis. Around 10% of cases of neuroinvasive disease are fatal. To date there is no effective human vaccine or effective antiviral therapy available to treat WNV infections For this reason, research in this field is rapidly growing. In this article we will review the latest efforts in the design and development of novel WNV inhibitors from a medicinal chemistry point of view, highlighting challenges and opportunities for the researchers working in this field.

Elseginy SA; Massarotti A; Nawwar GA; Amin KM; Brancale A

2013-05-01

415

Application of West Nile virus diagnostic techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae and belongs to Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex group. The WNV has a wide geographic distribution that includes Africa, Europe, Asia, America and Australia. Recently, it has re-emerged as an important pathogenic organism, illustrated by the series of WNV outbreaks in North America and in Europe. Several hundred people are sacrificed by WNV infection every year. WNV can infect many mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. A variety of diagnoses for WNV infection have been developed, such as virus isolation, nucleotide amplification, antigen detection and serology. Flaviviruses, including WNV, share common nucleotide sequences and antigenic epitopes. Understanding these properties that can influence cross-reactivity is important for accurate diagnosis, especially because areas with multiple flaviviruses are currently expanding. Herein, the authors outline the different diagnostic methods for detecting WNV infection as well as important considerations in using these methods. PMID:23977935

Hirota, Jiro; Shimizu, Shinya; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

2013-08-01

416

West Nile Virus: Immunity and Pathogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic, arthropod-borne flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but can also infect and cause disease in horses and humans. WNV is endemic in parts of Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, and since 1999 has spread to North America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean. WNV infects the central nervous system (CNS) and can cause severe disease in a small minority of infected humans, mostly immunocompromised or the elderly. This review discusses some of the mechanisms by which the immune system can limit dissemination of WNV infection and elaborates on the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis. Reasons for susceptibility to WNV-associated neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of cases remain unexplained, but one favored hypothesis is that the involvement of the CNS is associated with a weak immune response allowing robust WNV replication in the periphery and spread of the virus to the CNS.

Stephanie M. Lim; Penelope Koraka; Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus; Byron E.E. Martina

2011-01-01

417

Application of West Nile virus diagnostic techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae and belongs to Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex group. The WNV has a wide geographic distribution that includes Africa, Europe, Asia, America and Australia. Recently, it has re-emerged as an important pathogenic organism, illustrated by the series of WNV outbreaks in North America and in Europe. Several hundred people are sacrificed by WNV infection every year. WNV can infect many mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. A variety of diagnoses for WNV infection have been developed, such as virus isolation, nucleotide amplification, antigen detection and serology. Flaviviruses, including WNV, share common nucleotide sequences and antigenic epitopes. Understanding these properties that can influence cross-reactivity is important for accurate diagnosis, especially because areas with multiple flaviviruses are currently expanding. Herein, the authors outline the different diagnostic methods for detecting WNV infection as well as important considerations in using these methods.

Hirota J; Shimizu S; Shibahara T

2013-08-01

418

Serologic diagnosis of West Nile virus infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The epidemic of West Nile virus (WNV) in the USA in 2002 represents the largest outbreak of meningoencephalitis in the Western Hemisphere ever reported. Besides natural transmission by mosquitoes, five new modes of WNV transmission to humans have been reported: blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental transmission, breastfeeding and laboratory-acquired infection. The recognition of these new transmission routes has made the development of rapid and accurate serological diagnosis of WNV infection a public health priority. In this article, the current serologic assays for WNV diagnosis are reviewed, including immunoglobulin M antibody-capture ELISA, immunoglobulin G ELISA, indirect fluorescent antibody tests, hemagglutination inhibition tests and plaque reduction neutralization tests. The recently developed immunoassays that use purified recombinant envelope and nonstructural protein 5 of WNV as antigens are also reviewed. The nonstructural protein 5 protein-based assay can reliably discriminate between WNV and dengue or St. Louis encephalitis virus, as well as between natural WNV infection and flavivirus vaccination.

Shi PY; Wong SJ

2003-11-01

419

West Virginia Medical Institute: the Quality Improvement Organization for West Virginia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Federal Quality Improvement program, (QIO), charged with quality improvement and some case review activities is conducted under a contract with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (formerly HCFA), now CMS. Every state has one organization which handles this program and in West Virginia, the West Virginia Medical Institute has been responsible for this work for over 30 years. When case review is involved, the conclusions are communicated to individual physicians and hospitals. Occasionally, serious quality of care concerns are encountered. This article explains the case review process and why cases are selected, and also makes suggestions about how individual physicians may appeal or respond. It is designed to help enhance understanding of the program and its goals.

Brehm JG; Smith SM

2004-09-01

420

Movements of walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) between Central West Greenland and Southeast Baffin Island, 2005-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2008, 31 walruses were tagged with Argos satellite transmitters at their wintering grounds at Store Hellefiske Banke, Central West Greenland (N=23), and at their summering grounds off the coast of Southeast Baffin Island, Canada (N=8). Two male walruses moved along the Greenland coast from Store Hellefiske Banke north to Disko Banke, where contact was lost. Two other males went further north, up to the Upernavik area. Contact was lost with one of these tags, but the other animal travelled southward again and went towards SE Baffin Island. Eight of the tagged walruses moved between West Greenland and Baffin Island, demonstrating a connection between walruses at these sites. Walruses left the Store Hellefiske Banke during the period 7 April to 17 May and on average used 7 days to swim the 400 km across Davis Strait. The migration routes were quite similar; they travelled over the shallowest areas at the narrowest part of the strait. The timing of the spring dispersal and migration towards Canada was closely linked to the extent and timing of the retreat of the pack ice edge. One flipper tagged male that was marked off South Baffin Island was recovered in a hunt on Store Hellefiske Banke, documenting that the reverse migration also occurs. Off West Greenland satellite tagged walruses spent a lot of time around the Store Hellefiske Banke (55.0o-56.5o W), using this shallow area as feeding grounds irrespective of the ice cover in this area. Partial sexual segregation was observed. Despite a tendency in West Greenland for males to occur farther offshore, farther from the ice edge and at greater depths, only their preference for denser ice cover (64% ice cover) differed significantly (P=0.019) from the habitat preferences of females (52% ice cover). Coast dispersal was more condensed and the segregation between males and females was more pronounced during autumn along the Southeast Baffin Island. Females remained farther north (P

Rune Dietz; Erik W Born; Robert EA Stewart; Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen; Harry Stern; Frank Rigét; Leif Toudal; Clement Lanthier; Mikkel Villum Jensen; Jonas Teilmann

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Adaptation of the ITER facility design to a Canadian site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the status of Canadian efforts to adapt the newly revised ITER facility design to suit the specific characteristics of the proposed Canadian site located in Clarington, west of Toronto, Ontario. ITER Canada formed a site-specific design team in 1999, comprising participants from three Canadian consulting companies to undertake this work. The technical aspects of this design activity includes: construction planning, geotechnical investigations, plant layout, heat sink design, electrical system interface, site-specific modifications and tie-ins, seismic design, and radwaste management. These areas are each addressed in this paper. (author)

2001-01-01

422

Atmospheric Layers Measured from the NASA DC-8 During PEM-West B and Comparison with PEM-West A.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pacific Exploratory Mission-West B (PEM-West B) explored atmospheric layer structure using measurements of O3, H2O, CO, and CH4 from the NASA DC-8 fast-response instruments. The mission took place in February-March 1994 over the western Pacific, mainl...

Z. Wu R. E. Newell Y. Zhu B. E. Anderson E. V. Browell G. L. Gregory G. W. Sachse J. E. Collins

1997-01-01

423

Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-03-01

424

77 FR 73544 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Emissions...emissions inventory portion of the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia, through the West Virginia...

2012-12-11

425

77 FR 60085 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory...emissions inventory portion of the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia, through the West Virginia...

2012-10-02

426

77 FR 60087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory...emissions inventory portion of the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia, through the West Virginia...

2012-10-02

427

77 FR 60094 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory...emissions inventory portion of the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia (WV), through the West...

2012-10-02

428

77 FR 73923 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Emissions...emissions inventory portion of the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia, through the West Virginia...

2012-12-12

429

77 FR 73924 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Emissions...emissions inventory portion of the West Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia, through the West Virginia...

2012-12-12

430

Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Site Needs Assessment FY 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This is the fifth edition of the TFA site needs assessment. As with previous editions, this edition serves to provide the basis for accurately defining the TFA program for the upcoming fiscal year (FY), and adds definition to the program for up to 4 additional outyears. Therefore, this version distinctly defines the FY 2000 progrti and adds further definition to the FY 2001- FY 2004 program. Each year, the TFA reviews and amends its program in response to site users' science and technology needs.

RW Allen

1999-05-03

431

Síndrome de West: etiología, fisiopatología, aspectos clínicos y pronósticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El síndrome de West es una encefalopatía epiléptica dependiente de la edad caracterizada por la tríada electroclínica de espasmos epilépticos, retardo del desarrollo psicomotor y patrón electroencefalográfico de hipsarritmia en el electroencefalograma, aunque uno de estos elementos puede estar ausente. Se inicia en la mayoría de los pacientes durante el primer año de vida. Desde el punto de vista etiológico se clasifica en idiopático, criptogénico y sintomát (more) ico. Las causas prenatales son las más frecuentes. Diversas hipótesis se han planteado para explicar el origen del síndrome de West. Los espasmos epilépticos son las crisis características del síndrome de West, los cuales pueden ser en flexión, extensión y mixtos. Se realiza una revisión de aspectos importantes de la etiología, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico diferencial y pronóstico del síndrome de West. Abstract in english West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy characterized by electoclinical triad of epileptic spasms, retardation of psychomotor development and electroencephalographic pattern of hipsarrythmia, although one of these elements may not be present. The majority of patients develop this syndrome in the first year of life. From the etiological viewpoint, Western syndrome is idiopathic, cryptogenic and symptomatic. The prenatal causes are the most frequent ones. (more) Various hypotheses have been presented to explain the origin of West syndrome. Epileptic spasms are the characteristic crises that can be in flexion, extension or combined. A review is made on important aspects of etiology, physiopathology, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis and prognosis of West syndrome.

Pozo Alonso, Albia J.; Pozo Lauzán, Desiderio; Pozo Alonso, Desi

2002-06-01

432

Síndrome de West: etiología, fisiopatología, aspectos clínicos y pronósticos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El síndrome de West es una encefalopatía epiléptica dependiente de la edad caracterizada por la tríada electroclínica de espasmos epilépticos, retardo del desarrollo psicomotor y patrón electroencefalográfico de hipsarritmia en el electroencefalograma, aunque uno de estos elementos puede estar ausente. Se inicia en la mayoría de los pacientes durante el primer año de vida. Desde el punto de vista etiológico se clasifica en idiopático, criptogénico y sintomático. Las causas prenatales son las más frecuentes. Diversas hipótesis se han planteado para explicar el origen del síndrome de West. Los espasmos epilépticos son las crisis características del síndrome de West, los cuales pueden ser en flexión, extensión y mixtos. Se realiza una revisión de aspectos importantes de la etiología, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico diferencial y pronóstico del síndrome de West.West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy characterized by electoclinical triad of epileptic spasms, retardation of psychomotor development and electroencephalographic pattern of hipsarrythmia, although one of these elements may not be present. The majority of patients develop this syndrome in the first year of life. From the etiological viewpoint, Western syndrome is idiopathic, cryptogenic and symptomatic. The prenatal causes are the most frequent ones. Various hypotheses have been presented to explain the origin of West syndrome. Epileptic spasms are the characteristic crises that can be in flexion, extension or combined. A review is made on important aspects of etiology, physiopathology, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis and prognosis of West syndrome.

Albia J. Pozo Alonso; Desiderio Pozo Lauzán; Desi Pozo Alonso

2002-01-01