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Sample records for west hackberry site

  1. Analysis of subsidence data for the West Hackberry site, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, S.J. [ed.

    1997-08-01

    The elevation change data measured at the West Hackberry SPR site over the last 14+ years has been studied and a model utilized to project elevation changes into the future. The subsidence rate has decreased with time due to instituting maintenance of higher operating pressures for caverns (since about 1990) and the normal decrease in creep closure rate of caverns with time. However, the subsidence at the site is projected to continue. As a result, low lying regions exist and the extents of these regions are projected to increase with time. These low lying regions are susceptible to inundation with water from Black Lake and/or hurricane storm surges. This work may assist DOE in planning the construction and location of mitigative measures for flood control.

  2. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  3. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  4. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  5. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  6. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  7. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  8. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  10. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  11. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  12. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  1. 76 FR 45879 - West, a Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...Administration [TA-W-73,198] West, a Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...2010, applicable to workers of West, A Thomson Reuters Legal, including on-site leased workers...

  2. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...studies. 9. Existing water quality and ecology of the site as determined by available...baseline surveys. The water quality and ecology of the proposed ODMDS-West generally...bottoms, including mud, rock, sand, intertidal vegetation, and shell substrates....

  3. 76 FR 68510 - Grays Harbor Paper, LLC, Including on-site Workers From Barrier West, Inc., Hoquiam, WA; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...on-site Workers From Barrier West, Inc., Hoquiam...Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance...Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance...that workers from Barrier West, Inc. were...on-site workers from Barrier West, Inc., Hoquiam...Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974,...

  4. 76 FR 50272 - West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...Administration [TA-W-75,099] West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...workers and former workers of West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division,...

  5. 76 FR 27365 - West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...Administration [TA-W-75,099] West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...workers and former workers of West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division,...

  6. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3H and 99Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2007-09-27

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2006-09-21

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment

  13. Site Ranking and Potential Assessment for Concentrating Solar Power in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Anselme Rungundu; Gildas Tapsoba; Abeeku Brew-Hammond; Emmanuel Wendsongre Ramdé; Yao Azoumah

    2013-01-01

    Access to electricity is poor in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) presents better opportunities for increasing access to electricity and for diversifying sources of energy in the ECOWAS region; however, to date, except for Burkina Faso, no site evaluation pertaining to the region has ever been performed for CSP. This study provides potential assessment and site ranking for large-scale CSP projects in the ECOWAS region. It computes the no...

  14. Site Ranking and Potential Assessment for Concentrating Solar Power in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselme Rungundu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to electricity is poor in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP presents better opportunities for increasing access to electricity and for diversifying sources of energy in the ECOWAS region; however, to date, except for Burkina Faso, no site evaluation pertaining to the region has ever been performed for CSP. This study provides potential assessment and site ranking for large-scale CSP projects in the ECOWAS region. It computes the nominal potential power and gives the corresponding energy yield with many scenarios. By considering only 1% of the suitable land area with daily DNI greater or equal to 5 kWh/m2, a land slope less or equal to 5% and distance to transmission line not more than 100 km, the study showed, for example, that West Africa has a potential nominal capacity of 21.3 GW for parabolic trough technology.

  15. Oceanographic studies off Beypore Port, west coast of India to locate a dredge dumping site

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Srinivas, K.; Thottam, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    operations is considered to be minimum. Keywords: Beypore port, dredge disposal site, environmental impacts, model simulation of currents and tides, west coast of India 1. Introduction Port privatisation is one of the most significant policies adopted... harbours of ancient Kerala and an important trade and maritime centre – much sought after by the merchants of Western Asia for it’s ship building industry. The proposed LPG terminal is located just downstream of river Chaliyar and opposite to the existing...

  16. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report

  19. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  20. 1982 environmental-monitoring program report for the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared and submitted in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1 and presents environmental monitoring program data collected at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) site from February 26, 1982, through December 31, 1982. The WVDP objective is to solidify approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level liquid radioactive waste stored at the former Nuclear Fuel Services reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. Nuclear Fuel Services conducted an environmental monitoring program in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements which were appropriate for shutdown maintenance operations conducted at the site. That program was embraced by West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNS) at the time of transition (February 26, 1982) and will be modified to provide a comprehensive monitoring program in preparation for waste solidification operations scheduled for startup in June 1988. As such, the data presented in this report is considered preoperational in nature in accordance with DOE Order 5484.1, Chapter III, Paragraph 1. The environmental monitoring program planned for the operating phase of the project will be fully implemented by fiscal year 1985 and will provide at least two years of preoperational data prior to startup

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CH2M HILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

    2012-09-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2013-09-19

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

    2011-09-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS Corporation

    2010-09-17

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2014-09-16

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2013. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2013. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2013 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  8. Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources

  9. Initial site characterization approach and preliminary results, 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride Expedited Response Action, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Expedited Response Action (ERA) is being proposed to remediate the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington. The ERA is based on the preliminary conceptual model that carbon tetrachloride vapors remaining in the unsaturated zone continue to provide a source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to the groundwater. The goal of the initial phase of site characterization was to refine this conceptual model, and to collect data in support of the selection and design of an initial remedial action, while meeting the accelerated schedule of the ERA. Using this approach, site characterization activities were designed to make optimum use of field screening-level data and existing boreholes. Field tasks included analysis of soil gas samples collected from the bottoms of boreholes or detected at the wellhead; a soil gas survey; a pilot test of a vapor extraction system; and groundwater sampling and analysis. Results of this initial phase of site characterization suggest that carbon tetrachloride vapors are still contained within the unsaturated zone in concentrations sufficient to support an effective early removal action

  10. West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

  11. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  12. Radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park site, West Chicago, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park, West Chicago, Illinois, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the fall of 1981 and the spring of 1982. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of water and airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results show that the materials containing 232Th and daughters are present in surface and subsurface locations, comprising a total volume of about 15,000 cubic yards, with concentrations as high as 11,000 pCi/g. These contaminants are a source of radon and daughter radionuclides which may produce slightly elevated airborne radioactivity levels off-site. There is no evidence that materials are moving off-site through ground water, although small subsurface deposits exceeding 5 pCi/g exist north of the fenced site in a landfill area, and to the southeast of the site near the tennis courts. These off-site deposits do not present a significant radiological hazard to the public at this time

  13. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities

  14. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-12

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities.

  15. Sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilen, Katie L; Marshall, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Primates spend at least half their lives sleeping; hence, sleeping site selection can have important effects on behavior and fitness. As proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) often sleep along rivers and form bands (aggregations of one male groups) at their sleeping sites, understanding sleeping site selection may shed light on two unusual aspects of this species' socioecology: their close association with rivers and their multilevel social organization. We studied sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys for twelve months at Sungai Tolak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia to test two main hypotheses regarding the drivers of sleeping site selection: reduction of molestation by mosquitoes and anti-predator behavior. We identified to genus and collected data on the physical structure (diameter at breast height, relative height, branch structure, and leaf coverage) of sleeping trees and available trees in three forest types. We used resource selection function models to test specific predictions derived from our two hypotheses. The monkeys preferred to sleep in large trees with few canopy connections located along rivers. The selection of large emergent trees was consistent with both of our main hypotheses: decreased molestation by mosquitoes and reduced potential entry routes for terrestrial predators. Although we are only beginning to understand how sleeping sites might influence behavior, grouping, and potential survival of this species, our study has shown that proboscis monkeys (at Sungai Tolak) have a very strong preference for large trees located near the river. As these trees are often the first to be logged by local villagers, this may exacerbate the problems of forest loss for these endangered monkeys. PMID:24810395

  16. Geophysical interpretations west of and within the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauch, V.J.; Sawyer, D.A.; Fridrich, C.J.; Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    This report focuses on interpretation of gravity and new magnetic data west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and within the northwestern part of NTS. The interpretations integrate the gravity and magnetic data with other geophysical, geological, and rock property data to put constraints on tectonic and magmatic features not exposed at the surface. West of NTS, where drill hole information is absent, these geophysical data provide the best available information on the subsurface. Interpreted subsurface features include calderas, intrusions, basalt flows and volcanoes, Tertiary basins, structurally high pre-Tertiary rocks, and fault zones. New features revealed by this study include (1) a north-south buried tectonic fault east of Oasis Mountain, which the authors call the Hogback fault; (2) an east striking fault or accommodation zone along the south side of Oasis Valley basin, which they call the Hot Springs fault; (3) a NNE striking structural zone coinciding with the western margins of the caldera complexes; (4) regional magnetic highs that probably represent a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks; and (5) two probable buried calderas that may be related to the tuffs of Tolicha Peak and of Sleeping Butte, respectively.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2009-09-24

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  19. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.40N, Long. 2.30E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  20. Site effects in Avcilar, West of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, O.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 1000 people were killed in the collapse of buildings in Istanbul, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 I??zmit earthquake, whose epicenter was roughly 90 km east of the city. Most of the fatalities and damage occurred in the suburb of Avcilar that is 20 km further west of the epicenter than the city proper. To investigate this pattern of damage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), deployed portable digital seismographs at seven free-field sites in western Istanbul, to record aftershocks during the period from 24 August to 2 September. The primary objective of this deployment was to study the site effects by comparing the aftershock ground motions recorded at sites inside and outside the damaged area, and to correlate site effects with the distribution of the damaged buildings. In addition to using weak-motion data, mainshock and aftershock acceleration records from the KOERI permanent strong-motion array were also used in estimating the site effects. Site effects were estimated using S waves from both types of records. For the weak-motion data set, 22 events were selected according to the criteria of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the number of stations recording the same event. The magnitudes of these events ranged from 3.0 to 5.2. The acceleration data set consisted of 12 events with magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 and included two mainshock events. Results show that the amplifying frequency band is, in general, less than 4 Hz, and the physical properties of the geologic materials are capable of amplifying the motions by a factor of 5-10. In this frequency band, there is a good agreement among the spectral ratios obtained from the two mainshocks and their aftershocks. The damage pattern for the 17 August I??zmit earthquake is determined by several factors. However, our study suggests that the site effects in Avcilar played an important role in contributing to the damage.

  1. Precipitation pathways for five new ice core sites in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.

    2015-04-01

    Ice cores provide a wealth of information about past climate and atmospheric circulation however a good understanding of the precipitation patterns, potential source regions and transport pathways is essential in their interpretation. Here we investigate the precipitation pathways for a transect of five new ice cores drilled in the southern Antarctic Peninsula and Ellsworth Land. We utilize in situ observations from automatic weather stations to confirm that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data adequately captures annual and sub-annual variability, with evidence of a slight cold bias in the 2 m temperatures. Back trajectory analysis, from the British Atmospheric Data Centre trajectory service, reveals that warm and snowy years are associated with air masses that originate (5 days before reaching the site) from the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea, while cold and dry years are associated with air masses from the Antarctic continent. There is a clear seasonal migration in the trajectories at each site, reflecting the east to west migration of the Amundsen Sea Low, known to have a strong influence on climate in this region.

  2. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Summary report on the low-level radioactive waste burial site, West Valley, New York (1963-1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to take the information gathered in the lithological boring study along with information from other pertinent studies performed on the West Valley low-level radioactive waste burial site through March 1975 and examine the several pathways, actual and potential, for radioactivity to move from the site. Using the same information an examination of the status of this site will be compared with recommendations made for low-level nuclear waste disposal sites and hazardous material disposal sites. Possible improvements in the areas of the site selection, development, and operation to reduce environmental impacts of this and similar sites will be recommended. Finally, follow up studies that are either needed or being performed will be described

  4. Climatology of aerosol composition (organic versus inorganic) at nonurban sites on a west-east transect across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pio, Casimiro; Legrand, Michel; Oliveira, Tiago S.; Afonso, Joana; Santos, C.; Caseiro, A.; Fialho, Paulo; Barata, Filipe; Puxbaum, Hans; Sanchez-Ochoa, A.; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Gelencsér, András; Preunkert, Susanne; Schock, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the European CARBOSOL project (Present and Retrospective State of Organic versus Inorganic Aerosol over Europe: Implications for Climate), atmospheric aerosol was continuously sampled for 2 years at six sites along a west-east transect extending from Azores, in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, to K-Puszta (Hungary), in central Europe. Aerosols were analyzed for ²¹°Pb, inorganic ions, elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), macromolecular type...

  5. Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Mark E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States); Simmons, Sally [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, Washington (United States); Morse, John [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing Purolite{sup R} A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCg{sup TM}, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludg

  6. Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing PuroliteR A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCgTM, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludge is then disposed at

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2003 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. During 2003, cleanup of radioactive waste from the former nuclear fuels reprocessing plant that shut down operations in the 1970s was continued at the WVDP. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Work activities at the WVDP during 2003 included: (1) maintaining canisters of vitrified high-level waste in a shielded facility; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste offsite for disposal; (3) shipping packaged spent nuclear fuel assemblies to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; (4) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely size-reduced and packaged for disposal; (5) decontaminating the fuel storage pool and the cask unloading pool; (6) decontaminating the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (7) cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (8) planning for decontamination and dismantlement of the vitrification facility; (9) continuing preparation of the Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Impact Statement; and (10) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises

  8. The origin of summertime crust and surface hoar formation at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegyveresi, J. M.; Alley, R. B.; Spencer, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Summertime field observations at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica, indicate a very active surface. Over five consecutive seasons (2008-2013), daily surface measurements were made along with photography of the surface and of back-lit snowpits, where densities were measured. The Automatic Weather Station in the University of Wisconsin network was supplemented by various independent sensors deployed on site, including pyranometer sensor arrays and net-radiometers in order to better quantify the short-wave and long-wave radiation conditions surrounding near-surface metamorphism. Prominent 'glazed' crusts occur frequently. Surface and pit observations show that such crusts form in summertime during relative low-wind, low-humidity, high-temperature episodes that immediately follow a succession of strong wind events. During each documented case of formation, these episodes were also brought about during clear-sky days with maximum diurnal variability of incoming solar energy. Shallow firn temperature measurements indicate strong inversions during crust formation that likely lead to increased vapor transport. Furthermore, distinct hoar frost growth was observed on crusts that were exposed to multiple clear-sky days, likely as a result of increased insolation, humidity, and vertical vapor transport in the near-surface. There was no obvious indication of melt associated with glazed features during initial inspection. Examination of the WDC06A ice core and its associated ECM record indicates that numerous crusts are present very regularly throughout the core and in all seasons. Crusts are about 40% more abundant in summertime than in wintertime deposits, likely due to the formation of 'glazed' surfaces; formation mechanisms of the less-common wintertime crusts have not been observed and are not known. Over the ice-core record, there is little change in frequency of occurrence of wintertime crusts, but some changes in summertime, perhaps indicating changes in occurrence frequency of those sunny conditions that lead to crust formation. Future work will incorporate the use of SSM/I brightness data to corroborate crust and hoar formation episodes. Additionally it is hoped that a better understanding of wintertime crusting can be achieved.

  9. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory. PMID:25784608

  10. FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes thsessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. This analysis does not consider temporary construction items and, therefore, does not consider hazards associated with temporary construction items. This analysis will be reviewed and updated to reflect new East-West Drift design changes, construction modifications, and ''as built'' documentation of the East-West Drift when completed. A major difference between this analysis and previous ESF SSAs is the inclusion of hazards that arise as a result of non-accident events, (e.g., ''off-normal'' operations, adverse environmental conditions, or ''out-of-tolerance'' conditions). Non-accident events, that were not included in previous ESF SSAs, include environmental and/or toxic hazards such as leaking gases/fluids, off-gassing reactions, and excessive dust, particulates, exhaust fumes, noise, temperature, etc. which could have an adverse health effect on personnel

  12. Radiochemical measurements for evaluating air quality in the vicinity of low-level waste burial sites - the West Valley experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes buried in the commercial low-level burial site at West Valley, New York, consist primarily of low-density, low-specific-activity wastes. Except for contaminated soil and building rubble the wastes were shipped and buried uncompacted in steel drums, wooden boxes, cardboard cartons, or concrete casks. The wet climate at West Valley led to decomposition of the containers and biodegradation of much of the organic material in the wastes. As anoxic conditions developed in the trenches, appreciable quantities of organic complexing agents formed in the trench water, and a variety of gaseous decomposition products formed in the void space within each trench. The escape of the gaseous decomposition products through the trench cover presents the most significant pathway for uncontrolled release of radioactivity from the trenches and the greatest impact on air quality at the now inoperative West Valley site. The radioactive gases HT, 85Kr, 14CH4, 3HCH3, 14CO, 14CO2, 222Rn, and 14C- and 3H-hydrocarbons were identified in the voids beneath the trench covers. Studies were conducted to identify radionuclides and chemical species vented to the atmosphere, to evaluate the mechanisms of venting, and to quantify the leak rate of each radioactive gas. These studies required specialized techniques for sample collection, species separation, and radionucllection, species separation, and radionuclide measurement. A close relationship exists between the experimental data obtained and the computer models which were developed to estimate gas production rates in a trench and the transport to and escape from the surface of a trench. As a result, field measurements and computer calculations are found to be as important for post-closure characterization of the site as are the radiochemical measurements

  13. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    OpenAIRE

    Proorocu, M.; Dinut?a?, A.; Hat?egan, Raluca; Popovici, Antoanela; Beldean, P.; Pauliuc, Si?nziana

    2009-01-01

    Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Amon...

  14. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980's, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site

  15. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-08-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

  16. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROOROCU M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Among these, a goodexample is the hexachlorocyclohexane soil pollution from Turda Area. The soil quality from this region is also affected by otheractivities like: waste disposal, oil and natural gases extraction.

  17. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  18. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    2013-01-01

    deposit is between 20 and 75 cm. Rediocarbon and thermoluminescence dates from these sites provide a time bracket for the settlement between the 18th and the 12th century BC. Other two sites namely Kanjetar and Kaj are situated on the mid-saurashtra coast...

  19. Subglacial Lake CECs: Discovery and in situ survey of a privileged research site in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Andrés.; Uribe, José; Zamora, Rodrigo; Oberreuter, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery and on-the-ground radar mapping of a subglacial lake in Antarctica, that we have named Lake CECs (Centro de Estudios Científicos) in honor of the institute we belong to. It is located in the central part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, right underneath the Institute Ice Stream and Minnesota Glacier ice divide, and has not experienced surface elevation changes during the last 10 years. The ratio between the area of the subglacial lake and that of its feeding basin is larger than those for either subglacial lakes Ellsworth or Whillans, and it has a depth comparable to that of Ellsworth and greater than that of Whillans. Its ice thickness is ˜600 m less than that over Ellsworth. The lake is very likely a system with long water residence time. The recent finding of microbial life in Lake Whillans emphasizes the potential of Subglacial Lake CECs for biological exploration.

  20. Site Selection of Local Marketing Cooperatives of Agricultural Crops in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalalzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly one of the necessities of today's world is the competition with other countries to achieve a balanced position, yet superior in many aspects of economic, social, political and cultural aspects. Based on the statistics, 31.54 percent of the Iran total population lives in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of their income. One of the major problems of agricultural economy in Iran refers to many brokers and intermediaries in the transfer of goods from the producer to the consumer. This reduces the producer's share of the proceeds from the sale of products. Agricultural marketing cooperatives are very important tools to decrease this gap. So in this research have been tried to know and recognize the best places in creating Local Marketing Cooperatives of Agricultural Crops in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.in this regard, 18 place information layers have been used and finally the best places were known.

  1. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  2. Estimation of Daily Streamflow Series at Ungaged Sites in the Semi-arid Volta Basin of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Archfield, S.; Vogel, R.

    2009-04-01

    Time series of streamflow are needed for flood management, sizing of on-stream reservoirs, environmental flow assessment and other applications. In the semi-arid Volta Basin of West Africa, such streamflow data are limited due to lack of long-term, continuous gaging stations. Thus, methods to estimate streamflow at ungauged locations are essential for management of water resources in this basin. A new method, which first estimates a flow-duration curve at an ungaged site and then transforms the curve to a time series of streamflows using a nearby index gage, was developed for the northeastern United States. First a daily flow-duration curve at an ungaged site is estimated using regional regression methods. A time series of daily flows is then created by transferring the timing of the daily flows at an index gage to the ungaged site at equivalent exceedance probabilities. The selection of the index gage is based on a geostatistical analysis which we term correlation maps implemented using a Geographic Information System. This method offers improvement over traditional approaches such as the drainage-ratio method. Initial results show the method produces goodness-of-fit values comparable to those achieved from calibrated rainfall-runoff models developed for this region. To test the applicability of this method to other areas, this methodology is applied to ungaged locations in Ghana and Burkina Faso and a jack-knife cross-validation experiment is conducted to evaluate the agreement between observed and estimated flow series.

  3. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-31

    The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

  5. 2001 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The 2001 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 2001 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the U.S. Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that any potential risk posed by these residues is much less than the risks encountered in normal everyday life.

  6. Geological and hydrological investigations at Sidi Kreir Site, west of Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidi-Kreir site lies along the Mediterranean Sea coast at km 30 to km 33 westwards from the center of the city of Alexandria. The studied site covers approximately 10 km2 from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Mallehet (Lake) Maryut southward. This study includes the results of geological investigation of the site both structurally and stratigraphically, and the groundwater conditions, in relation to the erection of a nuclear power station in the site. The surface geology has been mapped using aerial photographs on scale of 1:20,000. Twenty-five drillholes were core-drilled in order to outline the subsurface geology and to observe the groundwater fluctuations. Selected core samples and soil samples were tested geologically in thin sections, physically and mechanically. Water samples were also collected and tested for total dissolved solids and specific weight. Groundwater level fluctuations were observed for a period of one year in 75 wells and drillholes. Furthermore three pumping tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the freshwater aquifer. These properties were also calculated using the core samples data

  7. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, A coastal site on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (+ or - 0.15) and 0.23 (+ or - 0.097), respectively, while...

  8. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of the skin by a 'beta-rich' object. This is an object for which the content of the beta/gamma-emitting radionuclide caesium-137 exceeds the content of americium-241. It has been shown that it is extremely unlikely that deterministic effects could occur from encountering any of the beta-rich objects found on West Cumbrian beaches. The likelihood of members of the public ingesting a radioactive particle from the consumption of seafood and the associated health risks have also been estimated using a conservative scoping approach in consultation with the Food Standards Agency. The risks to local consumers of seafood have again been found to be very low. The assessment approach and findings of the studies undertaken will be described. (authors)

  9. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joanne; Etherington, George; Pellow, Peter [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of the skin by a 'beta-rich' object. This is an object for which the content of the beta/gamma-emitting radionuclide caesium-137 exceeds the content of americium-241. It has been shown that it is extremely unlikely that deterministic effects could occur from encountering any of the beta-rich objects found on West Cumbrian beaches. The likelihood of members of the public ingesting a radioactive particle from the consumption of seafood and the associated health risks have also been estimated using a conservative scoping approach in consultation with the Food Standards Agency. The risks to local consumers of seafood have again been found to be very low. The assessment approach and findings of the studies undertaken will be described. (authors)

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

  12. Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west cross drift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestone SP33ABM4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model

  13. Relative Geomagnetic Paleointensity, Environmental Magnetism, and Cyclicity of Contourites from the West Iberian Margin (IODP Site U1389)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, C.; Horton, L. B.; Acton, G.; Sidorovskaia, N.; Sierro, F. J.; Xuan, C.; Verosub, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Mediterranean Outflow Expedition provides an outstanding opportunity to address paleoceanographic questions about the evolution of the Mediterranean and North Atlantic climate system over the past 6 million years. As part of the overall project, we present high-resolution paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the top ~36 meters composite depth (mcd) of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1389 (36º 25.515'N; 7º 16.683'W, 644 m water depth) located approximately 90 km west of Cádiz. The sedimentary section is represented by a thick, rapidly accumulated (mean sediment accumulation rate of ~40 cm/kyr), and very uniform series of contouritic sediment. The age model was obtained by tuning the planktonic foraminifer oxygen isotope data to the NGRIP ice core record. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements were collected at 1-cm interval resolution on U-channel samples covering the top ~36 mcd, with the goal of extracting a high-resolution record of paleosecular variation, relative geomagnetic paleointensity change, and the variability of the paleoenvironmental conditions. Detailed demagnetization of the natural remanence (NRM) reveals the successful removal of a secondary magnetization and identification of a stable and strong primary magnetization carried by the sediment samples (average MAD associated with principal component analysis: 0.97º). Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition curves and excellent behavior of the samples during alternating field demagnetization suggest magnetite as the main magnetic remanence carrier. Relative paleointensity estimates were calculated by normalizing NRM with ARM, IRM, as well as magnetic susceptibility. Time-frequency analyses of high-resolution concentration and grain-size dependent paleomagnetic proxy data and other physical properties are in progress and will be presented with the goal of identifying the driver of cyclic changes in the sedimentary section.

  14. Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 ± 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

  15. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

  16. Relationships between climate, soil moisture and phenology of the woody cover in two sites located along the West African latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghieri, Josiane; Vescovo, Aude; Padel, Karine; Soubie, Remy; Arjounin, Marc; Boulain, Nicolas; de Rosnay, Patricia; Galle, Sylvie; Gosset, Marielle; Mouctar, Abakar H.; Peugeot, Christophe; Timouk, Franck

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe study quantifies the relationships at local scale between phenology and determinants of climate and soil water resources at two sites located along the latitudinal gradient of West Africa, one in the central Sahel (Mali), the other in the Sudanian bioclimatic zone (Benin). The aim is to improve our knowledge on possible vegetation response to possible climate change. Within the Sudanian site, average annual rainfall is 1200 mm, extending from April to October, while, in the Sahelian site, it is 370 mm, occurring from June to September. Physical data were collected from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis research programme. The phenology of the dominant species was monitored in four types of vegetation cover at the wetter site, and in three types of vegetation cover at the drier site. For each sampled plant, leafing, flowering and fruiting were recorded as binary variables in terms of the presence/absence of phenophases. A small proportion of the variability of each phenophase occurrence is explained by the logit models. However, rainfall rise is significantly linked to leafing probability increase in the Sahelian site but not in the Sudanian site. Day length extension and temperature decrease are significantly correlated with an increase in leafing in the Sudanian site, but not in the Sahelian. On both sites, the increase in cumulative rainfall is not found to be linked to an increased probability of reproductive phenophases (negative or non-significant relationships). Air temperature is positively correlated with flowering rate in the Sudanian site, but, all other factors being constant, no climate factors are found to be highly significant of flowering occurrence in the Sahel. Fruiting probability is positively correlated mainly with temperature within the Sahelian site. Leafing occurrence is positively correlated with soil moisture in the 0-1 m layer for the Sudanian site, but not for the Sahelian site. Significant relationships between fruiting occurrence and soil moisture may reflect a prior selection of plants on fruiting period that maximizes seed dispersion and germination differently at the two sites. While vegetative and reproduction schedules may be determined by specific genetic factors, the physical environment controls the possibility of their expression. Reduction of the rainfall amount and intensity may increase reproduction rates in wet areas. Although this factor should decrease leafing rate, it does not influence reproduction at dry sites, except through the decrease in air humidity. In wetter areas, increasing temperature may reduce leafing, but may increase reproduction rates. Cover reduction may have an impact on local physical factors and, consequently, probably also affects vegetation phenology.

  17. Regulatory examination of the radiation-hygienic situation at Sites of Temporary Storage in North-West Russia prior to the beginning of major spent fuel removal works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a regulatory project carried out, under a collaborative agreement between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation (FMBA) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), by the Institute of Biophysics (Technical Support Organisation to FMBA) and western specialists. The project is one several addressing aspects of the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste at Sites of Temporary Storage (STSs) operated by Federal Enterprise SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha on the Kola Peninsula in North-West Russia, and the decommissioning of the sites. Industrial and regulatory projects are addressing options for removing spent submarine fuel currently stored in poor conditions at the sites and moving it to more appropriate storage facilities. The work described in this paper was to review and collate independent data on the current radiation situation and radiation control in the areas at and around the sites. The project has the ultimate objectives to develop norms and standards and supporting regulatory guidance for application during and upon completion of rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and Gremikha, and this work provides a 'baseline' of radiation conditions, before operations begin to remove the spent fuel. The examination identified and prioritised areas of contamination on and around the sites in terms of their current significance for the safety and health of workers and the public and their possible future signifhe public and their possible future significance for the environment and potential future users of the sites. Some areas on the sites had high dose rates - up to about 140 ?Sv/h in Andreeva Bay and 8500 ?Sv/h in Gremikha - due to contamination from past spent fuel storage practices. Although there do not appear currently to be areas of severe contamination outside the sites, some of the contamination on-site is in forms that will migrate with time, for example in streams and marine sediments. (author)

  18. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William A., Jr.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  19. CDC: West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

  20. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  1. Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, C.J.; Reid, J.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Easton, D.E.; Kochman, H.I.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the principal period of breeding activity, but there was no difference between the sexes in daily travel rate during the winter. The timing of seasonal migrations differed markedly between geographic regions. Most long-distance movements in the southern half of the study area occurred between November and March in response to changing temperatures, whereas most migrations in the northern region took place during the warmer, non-winter months. Manatees left their warm-season range in central Florida in response to cold fronts that dropped water temperatures by an average of 2.0??C over the 24-hr period preceding departure. Water temperature at departure from the warm-season range averaged 19??C, but varied among individuals (16-22??C) and was not related to body size or female reproductive status. The presence of industrial warm-water effluents permitted many manatees to overwinter north of their historic winter range, and for some migrants this delayed autumn migrations and facilitated earlier spring migrations. Southward autumn and northward spring migrations lasted an average of 10 and 15 days at mean rates of 33.5 (SD = 7.6) and 27.3 (SD = 10.5) km/day, respectively. The highest rate of travel during migration was 87 km/day (3.6 km/hr) during winter. Manatees overwintering in southeastern Florida often traveled north during mild weather - sometimes reaching their warm-season range - only to return south again with the next major cold front. Manatees were consistent in their seasonal movement patterns across years and showed strong fidelity, to warm-season and winter ranges. Within a season, individuals usually occupied only 1 or 2 core use areas that encompassed about 90% of daily locations. Most manatees returned faithfully to the same seasonal ranges year after year (median distance between range centers was <5 km between years). Seasonal movements of 4 immature manatees tracked as calves with their mothers

  2. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site'')....

  3. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the oldest (2.34 Ma) Lokalalei archaeological site complex of the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, northern Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Schuster, Mathieu; Roche, Hélène; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Thuo, Peter; Prat, Sandrine; Harmand, Sonia; Davtian, Gourguen; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Bohn, Marcel

    2010-09-01

    At the northwest end of the Lake Turkana Basin (northern Kenya Rift), intensive fieldwork conducted on the Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine Nachukui Formation by the National Museums of Kenya and the West Turkana Archaeological Project (WTAP), led to the discovery of more than 50 archaeological sites aged between 2.4 and 0.7 Ma. Among them is the Lokalalei archaeological site complex, which includes the two oldest archaeological sites (2.34 Ma) found in the Kenyan segment of the East African Rift System. The environmental background of the two sites was described as a succession of ephemeral streams with floodplain palaeosols in which the archaeological sites are situated, bordering the western bank of a large axial meandering river flowing southward. The Lokalalei 1 (LA1) and Lokalalei 2C (LA2C) archaeological sites are of extreme importance in terms of knowledge of hominins' knapping activities. The stratigraphic position of the LA1 and LA2C sites as well as implications on the technical differences between the two sites have been successively discussed by Roche et al. (1999), Brown and Gathogo (2002), and Delagnes and Roche (2005). In terms of stratigraphic position, Lokalalei 2C was estimated to be slightly higher in the section (i.e. younger) than Lokalalei 1. An alternative stratigraphic correlation was proposed by Brown and Gathogo (2002), who suggested that LA2C site should have been approximately 100,000 years younger than LA1. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the Lokalalei sites have been developed following controversy on the stratigraphic position and time interval between the LA1 and LA2C sites. High-resolution lithostratigraphic work based on bed-to-bed field correlations, facies sedimentology and tephra geochemistry confirms that the LA2C site is slightly higher in the section than the LA1 site by about 11.20 m. This represents a time interval of ˜74,000 years based on an assumed sedimentation rate of 152 mm/ka. Sedimentary facies analysis indicates that the hominin occupation sites were situated in the vicinity of a lagoon/embayment environment close to the shoreline of an open lake. This lake was part of the broad lake development described across East Africa during the 2.7-2.4 Ma period. Palaeontological data associated with the sites suggest at the LA1 site a lake margin habitat, and at the LA2 sites an habitat with poor and sparse vegetation along channels of an alluvial fan system landward of the lake margin. They also confirm the aridity trend mentioned at the global scale for this period, which is demonstrated in the upper Lokalalei sediment sequence by progradation of an alluvial fan environment over the lake shoreline. Associated conglomeratic deposits could have been the source from which the knappers collected their raw materials. In addition, rapid variations from humid to arid episodes in a unique environment such as the East African Rift may have had a major influence in controlling hominin evolution.

  4. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

  5. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

  6. Hydrochemical And Isotopic Characterization Of The El-Negella Site As A Candidate Site For Nuclear Power Plant West Matrouh, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes the geochemical and radiological evaluation for samples of ground and surface water and was also carried out to study the suitability of the selected site (El- Negeila site, Egypt) for construction of nuclear power plant. The results will be evaluated to establish the radiological baseline and to monitor the impact of power plant on the surrounding area. To achieve this purpose, the study was subdivided into two parts; the first one deals with the radioactivity distribution in the environment while the second part was focused on the hydrochemistry of water resources. Generally, at the site selection of any nuclear power reactor, the distribution pattern of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides is essential for evaluation and control of public exposure, and investigations have been performed for hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater including chemical analysis of major and minor elements. The study deals with studying the major cations such as Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++ (by using the acationic ion chromatographic column) and the major anions such as Cl-, NO3- and SO4-- as well as measurement of stable isotopes (2H, 18O). These parameters are highly essential to evaluate the hydrological cycle, characterizing water masses and their origin, interconnection of water bodies and identification of recharge sources and recharge zones. Tritium was used as environmental radioactive isotope to study the groundwater recharge and dating, identification of recharge sources and recharge zone, surface water and groundwater interaction as well as sea water intrusion. The study could mainly applied to initiate a radiological assessment program for Egypt, and to establish a baseline map of background levels at El-Negeila site which will be of great value when a nuclear power plant at El-Negeila site, Egypt, will be constructed.

  7. Soil biota development in post mining sites on climatic gradient from East to Mid-west of USA.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Pižl, Václav; Tajovský, Karel; Starý, Josef; Hán?l, Ladislav; Nováková, Alena; Lukešová, Alena; Krišt?fek, Václav; Devetter, Miloslav; Cajthaml, T.

    Lexington : American Society of Mining and Reclamation, 2012. s. 135. [Annual National Conference of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation /29./. 08.06.2012-15.06.2012, Tupelo] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil biota development * post mining sites * climatic gradient Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. SOILS IN RELATION TO ARCHEOLOGY AT THE TELL SITE OF UIVAR IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Rogobete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of soils and how they develop is crucial for explaining why the archeological deposits are located in particular places. This is because the interaction of many soil-forming factors, including climate, topography, vegetation, and parental materials werealso important consideration to humans in deciding where habitation and other site types were established. Soil chemistry is being utilized for paleo-environmental reconstruction. Elements commonly enriched in soil due to human activity include carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and calcium, potassium and to a lesser degree sulfur, copper and zinc. The geomorphologic survey revealed significant changes of the alluvial landscape around the Late Neolithic/Early Copper Age, tell site of Uivar. Neolithic tell evolution started assoon as fluvial aggradation ceased ~ 6.5 Ka ago at the beginning of the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Basal parts of the colluvium of the tell site date at earliest 4-3.5 ka. The youngest colluvium in foot-slope position may date to the medieval period ~ 1 ka ago.The study showed that the mound is from bottom to the top made up by antrophogenic sediments. The tell site buries a fossil calcaric Fluvisols and at surface an Urbic –Humic – Anthropic –Regosol with an excessive content of mobile phosphorus (650 ppm and mobilepotasium (840 ppm.

  9. Securing of the spent nuclear fuel stored on Gremikha site - the former Soviet submarine base in north-west of Russia - 59371

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the G8 Global Partnership the French Commission on Atomic Energy (CEA) is in charge of the French funded projects aimed to secure the materials susceptible to be a subject of the proliferation or a malicious use. The securing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the former soviet submarines is of a special importance for CEA and the Russian Rosatom. Our main bilateral project has focused on two kinds of the SNF (alpha cores and VVR assemblies) stored at Gremikha, the former submarine base in the North-West of Russia. As of 2011 a significant results have been achieved: 2/3 of VVR type assemblies have been removed from Gremikha and reprocessed at PO Mayak. Nine alpha cores are unloaded and stored on at Gremikha. The main task now is to prepare the removal from Gremikha of all the remaining SNF and also to set up the needed infrastructure at the sites where this SNF will be moved. Substantial funding and technical assistance both from France and Russia will be required for that. Beyond the operator of the Gremikha site (SevRAO), the CEA and Rosatom involve many expert organizations from both countries such as AREVA, Kurchatov Institute and many others. Their contribution is one of the key elements of the success. (authors)

  10. Stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for West Nile virus vectors in Delaware during 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Jack B; Anderson, Robert D; Williams, Gregory M; O'Connor, Linda; Harkins, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    We performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in Delaware from June to September 2004. We analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. The 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. In terms of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce Aedes vexans, culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans. Retention ponds generally produced the same species as wetlands, except that Cx. p. pipiens was more abundant than Cx. restuans in retention ponds. Aedes vexans and Culex salinarius were the most abundant species to Conservation Restoration Enhancement Program ponds. Sand filters uniquely produced high numbers of Cx. restuans, Cx. p. pipiens, and Aedes japonicus japonicus, a newly invasive vector species. Site that alternately dried and flooded, mostly detention ponds, forebays of retention ponds, and some wetlands often produced Ae. vexans, an occasional WNV bridge vector species. Overall, seasonal distribution of vectors was bimodal, with peaks occurring during early and late summer. Ponds with shallow sides and heavy shade generally produced an abundance of mosquitoes, unless insect predators were abundant. Bright, sunny ponds with steep sides and little vegetation generally produced the fewest mosquitoes. The associations among mosquito species and selected vegetation types are discussed. PMID:17019774

  11. West Coast Poverty Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

  12. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Harilal B., E-mail: harilalm@gmail.com [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Shirodkar, Shilpa [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat State 380009 (India); Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-01

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD{sub 0}.{sub 500} {sub ?m} and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD{sub 0.500} {sub ?m} exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m{sup 3} and 4.5 ?g/m{sup 3}, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between ? 14.1 W m{sup ?2} and ? 35.6 W m{sup ?2}, ? 6.7 W m{sup ?2} and ? 13.4 W m{sup ?2} and 5.5 W m{sup ?2} to 22.5 W m{sup ?2}, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is regulated by BC, which results in a positive forcing. • The surface forcing is governed by scattering aerosol leading to a negative forcing. • These two neutralize and the resultant TOA negative forcing is constant annually.

  13. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500?m and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500?m exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m3 and 4.5 ?g/m3, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between ? 14.1 W m?2 and ? 35.6 W m?2, ? 6.7 W m?2 and ? 13.4 W m?2 and 5.5 W m?2 to 22.5 W m?2, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is regulated by BC, which results in a positive forcing. • The surface forcing is governed by scattering aerosol leading to a negative forcing. • These two neutralize and the resultant TOA negative forcing is constant annually

  14. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  15. West Nile Virus Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

  16. Elemental characterization of metal artifacts recovered from archaeological sites Higueras 1sector west and sector B and Esquivilca south central coast of Lima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 70 metal artifacts from the Archaeological Rescue Project Loop Costa have been analyzed using non-destructive methods of analysis by X-ray fluorescence, in order to characterize them and to determine the chemical elemental composition of these objects, finding that these pieces are copper alloys, material used to manufacture their distinct metal utensils in every place. In Esquivilca Sector B copper-tin alloys and copper were used and in Higueras 1 Southwest Sector, copper-antimony and arsenic allows. Also some parts have an adhered material which contains sulfur and mercury, which leads us to think that in Higueras 1 Sector South West, pigments of these minerals were used on metal parts. (orig.)

  17. Intake of trace and major elements through drinking water pathway by the adult population of the six villages around the uranium deposit site of Domiasiat, West Khasi hills, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elements such as Fe, Zn, K, Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Se and U were analyzed to determine their concentrations in drinking water collected from six villages around the uranium ore deposit site in Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. The estimation of the concentration of these elements in the drinking water samples collected was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, except for Uranium, estimation was done using a Laser based Fluorimeter. The concentration of the elements vary from 0.2 ppb -1.7 ppm and it has been observed that all the elemental concentration fall well below the WHO prescribe guidelines. Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected was found out to be less than 0.5 ppb. (author)

  18. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  19. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  20. Inversion of resistivity soundings in the archaeological site of Mahilaka (North-West of Madagascar) using the generalized linear inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the generalized inverse method which is used for the inversion of resistivity sounding. The technique has been applied to a resistivity soundings survey whose stations are selected in the zones of resistivity anomalies over an archaeological site. The site covers an area of 0.75 square kilometer in the north-western part of Madagascar, bordering the east Mozambic Channel. The one-dimensional (1-D) model fits well the observed data and the generalized linear inverse method appears to be a powerful scheme with which to interpret resistivity sounding data. (author). 29 refs, 6 figs

  1. Environmental consequences of postulated radionuclide releases from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site as a result of severe natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated radionuclide releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum radioactive material deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum radioactive material deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the events are well below the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ?Ci/m2. The likely maximum residual contamination from beta and gamma emitters are far below the background produced by fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere

  2. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y. are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10-8 centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and(or) reduced soil in their walls extend 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975--76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 10-5 to 10-3 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidntamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes

  3. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, NY, are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10-8 centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and/or reduced soil in their walls extend 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975--76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 10-5 to 10-3 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidlyamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes

  4. East-West Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Started in 1960 by the U.S. Congress, the East-West Center's primary purpose is "to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States." To accomplish this purpose, the Center serves as a functional hub for education, cooperative research, and scholarly dialogue. On their homepage, visitors can look over the latest news from scholars at the Center, look over a list of upcoming events sponsored by the Center, and also learn about some of their most recent publications. Academics visiting the site may wish to click on over to the "Research" area. Here they will find information on their primary areas of interest, which include population and health, environmental change, and politics and governance. Finally, visitors should look at their "Publications" area, as it includes free downloads, abstracts, and access to ordering information.

  5. West Nile Fever: A Medical Detective Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at the West Nile virus. Tracking an Epidemic reports on how the link was made between sick crows and people during the summer of 1999 in New York City. West Nile Q&A answers more than 20 frequently asked questions. Taking on West Nile tracks the efforts of scientists and officials to study and combat the virus in the year following the New York City outbreak. Mosquito Hunting, with text, photos, and audio, shows the work of an entomologist and her team of students as they look for the potential vectors of the virus.

  6. General investigation of radionuclide retention in migration pathways at the West Valley, New York low-level burial site. Annual report, September 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this research program includes several basic parts: a surface water program, a geomorphic and erosion study, a trench water study, and a soil analysis study. The study involved the collection of surface water data, a geomorphic study and mapping of a 4.1 km reach of Buttermilk Creek and adjacent areas within the drainage basin, the analysis of water samples collected from waste burial trenches, and the analysis of soil samples collected from a research trench near the burial site. Buttermilk Creek Valley is being actively subjected to erosion by a combination of fluvial transport, lateral channel scour processes, transport on alluvial fans, and landsliding. Local ponding may contribute to landsliding and slumping by bringing moisture contents close to the liquid limit of the soil. Tests indicate that the soil in which the waste is buried has been subjected to a load greater than the present day overburden loadng. The theoretical depth limit to which cracks can penetrate in the soil is approximately 50 feet

  7. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as a swelling of the brain called encephalitis (say: en-seff-uh-lie-tuss) or swelling ... vaccine for West Nile virus? There is no vaccine to prevent West Nile virus in humans ... treatment is best for me? Will cold or flu medicines help? Can my child get West Nile ...

  8. West Point Bridge Design Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second annual West Point Bridge Design Contest concluded in May 2003. Although it is uncertain whether the contest will receive funding for future competitions, its Web site has a number of educational resources for middle and high school students. The main feature is the bridge design software, which allows the user to "model, test, and optimize a steel highway bridge, based on realistic specifications, constraints, and performance criteria." Completed designs can be submitted online for unofficial judging. The book, Designing and Building File-Folder Bridges, can also be freely downloaded. [CL

  9. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub-Arctic by not facing immediate endangerment, althoug the minority dialects (including East Greenlandic and Polar Eskimo) face increasing pressure from the standard Central West Greenlandic dialect.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

    2010-03-24

    Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

  11. West Coast Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Rose

    2013-01-04

    In this data activity, learners will explore shipwrecks from four National Marine Sanctuaries on the West Coast of the United States. Learners will practice map skills while exploring historical and modern ocean navigation technology.

  12. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907–12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L–H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  13. West Indian amblyopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasler, J. J.; Rose, F C

    1980-01-01

    A series of 21 patients admitted to St Thomas' Hospital, Medical Ophthalmology Unit, with a diagnosis of West Indian or West African amblyopia is reported. Patients were investigated for haematological, biochemical, serological, and radiological abnormalities and particular attention was paid to dietary history. Patients admitted in recent years also underwent neurophysiological investigations. No definite correlation between visual loss and dietary or family history was found, and there was ...

  14. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  16. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  17. Strategies for Public Involvement at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project Act (WVDP Act) of 1980 authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to lead a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in West Valley, New York. The site is owned by the State of New York, through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and its predecessor company, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), have been the prime contractors at the site since the beginning of the Project. One of the primary missions of the Act, demonstrating techniques for solidifying high-level liquid waste, was completed in 2002, a crowning achievement in technical innovation. Since that time, wide-scale decontamination and dismantlement work has continued at the demonstration project, moving the site closer to final cleanup decisions. Since the Act was passed, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) personnel have worked hard to establish trust with the local community through a variety of public education, participation, and involvement activities. These efforts have been varied, and have collectively contributed to the WVDP's success. As the cleanup moves forward, the WVDP partners continue to utilize public involvement strategies to increase trust in a safe and secure future for the community. This paper reviews the various public involvement activities that have, and continvolvement activities that have, and continue to be, employed at the WVDP. (authors)

  18. West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the history of the West Valley nuclear facility from its legacy as the world's first nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to its role as a demonstration project for the nation's high level nuclear waste program. Included are discussions on how different types of nuclear waste are handled as well as a summary on the disposal areas located there

  19. Wildfires Out West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate Central

    This video from ClimateCentral looks at the way climate conditions can affect vegetation in the West, and what influence this has on wildfires. Drought and rainfall can have very different wildfire outcomes, depending on vegetation type, extent, and location.

  20. West Nile Virus: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page Get email updates Order publications Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. West ...

  1. Understanding West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page Get email updates Order publications Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. West ...

  2. Integrating geodiversity into the planning system : an example from West Lothian, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, H.; Arkley, S.; Browne, M.

    2006-01-01

    Integrating geodiversity into the planning system: An example from west Lothian, Scotland H. Barron. S. Arkley & M. Browne Bntish Geological Survey, Murchison House. West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, Scotland, UK Keywords: Geodiversity, protected sites, planning, Scotland West Lothian's Carboniferous bedrock and superficial deposits display a variety of Earth heritage features set within a varied landscape. In the first project of its kind in Scotland, this local geodiversity ...

  3. The evaluation of several corrosion mitigation strategies for oil coolers used by the strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkebein, Thomas E.; Levin, Bruce L.; Enos, David George

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this study was to first establish the fitness for service of the carbon steel based oil coolers presently located at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry sites, and second, to compare quantitatively the performance of two proposed corrosion mitigation strategies. To address these goals, a series of flow loops were constructed to simulate the conditions present within the oil coolers allowing the performance of each corrosion mitigation strategy, as well as the baseline performance of the existing systems, to be assessed. As prior experimentation had indicated that the corrosion and fouling was relatively uniform within the oil coolers, the hot and cold side of the system were simulated, representing the extremes of temperature observed within a typical oil cooler. Upon completion of the experiment, the depth of localized attack observed on carbon steel was such that perforation of the tube walls would likely result within a 180 day drawdown procedure at West Hackberry. Furthermore, considering the average rate of wall recession (from LPR measurements), combined with the extensive localized attack (pitting) which occurred in both environments, the tubing wall thickness remaining after 180 days would be less than that required to contain the operating pressures of the oil coolers for both sites. Finally, the inhibitor package, while it did reduce the measured corrosion rate in the case of the West Hackberry solutions, did not provide a sufficient reduction in the observed attack to justify its use.

  4. Study of the Vulnerability of Fractured Aquifers in the Context of an Implementation of a Modern Landfill: Application of Remote Sensing and the Geotechnical Method on the Site of Kossihouen (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Blaise KOFFI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The workshop of the interdepartmental committee responsible for managing household waste in Abidjan (Ivory Coast in 2007 showed that the landfill site should be chosen out of the coastal sedimentary basin to protect the groundwater of the Continental Terminal aquifer against pollution. Indeed, this aquifer provides the potable water to Abidjan populations and also assures uniformity of the price of water by the water company of the Ivory Coast. But, given the groundwater flow and the possibility of transfer of fluid between the discontinuous and continuous aquifers, is it possible that an activity taking place outside the coastal sedimentary basin of Côte d'Ivoire (such as a landfill site contributes to the pollution of the groundwater in Abidjan. To resolve this problem, the geotechnical surveys, the laboratory tests and in-situ tests were conducted to determine the types of the soil across the study site. The Landsat TM scenes 196-56 of 12/30/1990 were processed to study the fracturation of the site. The geotechnical tests carried out in situ on the study area and the laboratory test allowed knowing the nature of the formations and their differents permeabilities. Indeed, the formations are generally complex and formed of sandy clay of low to very low permeability ranging from 9.8. 10-7 to 1.1. 10-5 m/s in situ and 1.68.10-6 to 1.76. 10-5 m / s in the laboratory. Regarding remote sensing, the Landsat image processing revealed mega-fractures (NE-SW on the site of the modern landfill of Kossihouen.

  5. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljevi? Petrovi?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the ?a?ak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  6. Post Monitoring (2003) of the West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration Project -- Stowe, Vermont

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the Federal Emergency...

  7. The West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration Project (2001) and Post Monitoring Project (2002) -- Stowe, Vermont

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the Federal Emergency...

  8. West Syndrome: Response to valproate

    OpenAIRE

    RashmiKumar

    2012-01-01

    Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. Objective: To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndrome. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general outpatient department (OPD) were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30?mg...

  9. Antibody Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Birds, Illinois, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ringia, Adam M.; BLITVICH, BRADLEY J.; Koo, Hyun-Young; Van de Wyngaerde, Marshall; Brawn, Jeff D.; NOVAK, ROBERT J.

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies to West Nile virus were detected in 94 of 1,784 Illinois birds during 2002. Captive and urban birds had higher seropositivity than did birds from natural areas, and northern and central Illinois birds’ seropositivity was greater than that from birds from the southern sites. Adult and hatch-year exposure rates did not differ significantly.

  10. 75 FR 52932 - Foreign-Trade Zone 43-Battle Creek, MI; Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ...Industrial Park, Battle Creek; Site 2 (21 acres)--Columbia West Industrial Park, Battle Creek; Site 3 (23 acres)--6677 Beatrice Drive in Texas Township (Kalamazoo County); Site 4 (22 acres)--8250 Logistic Drive, Zeeland Township (Ottawa...

  11. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  12. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  13. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  14. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  15. Nitrogen compounds emission and deposition in West African ecosystems: comparison between wet and dry savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Delon, C.; Galy-lacaux, C.; Adon, M.; Liousse, C.; Serc?a, D.; Diop, B.; Akpo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface emission and deposition fluxes of reactive nitrogen compounds have been studied in five sites of West Africa during the period 2002 to 2007. Measurements of N deposition fluxes have been performed in IDAF sites representative of main west and central African ecosystems, i.e., 3 stations in dry savanna ecosystems (from 15° N to 12° N), and 2 stations in wet savanna ecosystems (from 9° N to 6° N). Dry deposition fluxes are calculated from surface measurem...

  16. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 5: Argonne National Laboratory-West site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilities addressed in this study include the Analytical Laboratory (AL), the Experimental Fuels Laboratory (EFL), the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF), the Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) Laboratory, the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility, and the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Vault and Workroom. The Site Assessment Team found no ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the AL, EFL, NDA Laboratory, or TREAT. For those facilities, any potentially adverse conditions or potentially adverse conditions or potentially hazardous events were found to be of little or no consequence due to compensatory and mitigative measures existing in the facilities or within the ANL-W operations

  17. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  18. Tourist events in the area of West Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current tourist offer, tourism of events presents a kind of tourism that could contribute to extending the tourist demand, especially towards natural and anthropogenic values of a tourist site or region. West Morava's area is the southernmost Panonian-subregion in Serbia, and is related to the valley of the West Morava River. This region is also one of the most visited tourist destinations in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to establish the correlation between the formal events and spa resorts, rural, cultural, and gastronomic tourism in the area which also presents a significant transitive tourist destination.

  19. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  1. Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ? 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ? 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

  3. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  4. Safer than sleeping with your spouse - The West Valley experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste burial site are reviewed in terms of the following issues: entry of water into burial trenches, transport of radionuclides out of the trenches, ultimate fate of the radionuclides, regulatory and health implications, dose levels from West Valley, and additional measures to reduce effluents. Despite burial of unacceptable waste forms and poor management of the site, annual doses from shallow-land burial at the West Valley site are well within existing and forthcoming standards. Even the maximum annual health risks, less than two in one billion for a public water supply customer and less than four in one billion for a fisherman result in lifetime risks for each which are more than 100-fold below one in a million, a value commonly considered acceptable. Decomposition of buried biodegradable wastes will result in the production of large volumes of gas which in turn will create problems with management of a disposal site. Since tritium and 14C will escape to the atmosphere regardless of whether or not the wastes are incinerated, management of any disposal site may be improved by incineration prior to burial. It appears that worker and public doses will increase if incineration is used, however

  5. North-West Region Monitoring

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Ecological Assessment of the Region, Where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities. Part 2

  6. North-West Region Monitoring

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Ecological Assessment of the Region, where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities.

  7. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance Madagascar.

  8. West Indian intellectuals in Britain:

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things - new musics, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This lively, innovative book explores the intellectual ideas which the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that for more than a century West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. This is the first comprehensive discussion of the major Caribbean thinkers who came to live in twentieth-cen...

  9. West Lothian leads in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Hugh; Arkley, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Scotland’s first Local Geodiversity Action Plan – the West Lothian Geodiversity Framework – is nearing completion. With help from West Lothian Council, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Lothian and Borders RIGS Group, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has finished the geodiversity audit and the associated report; the GIS & database and outline action plan are well advanced. The project, funded by the Scottish Executive Aggregates Levy Fund and BGS, assesses the state of geodiversity i...

  10. West Syndrome: Response to Valproate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Surabhi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Kumar, Chandrakanta; Kumar, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. Objective: To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndrome. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general outpatient department (OPD) were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30?mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2?weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy. Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5%) showed a good response, but seven later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and three were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrhythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1%) had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and two were lost to follow up. Conclusion: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients. PMID:23189070

  11. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ...Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: Comments and related...

  12. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...

  13. Microplastics in the coastal environment of West Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Dippo, Benjamin 1984

    2012-01-01

    Microplastic particles in the marine environment and the effects on wildlife, human and ecosystem health are just beginning to be understood in a global setting. The presence of microplastics particle in West Iceland are evaluated to determine if there is a detectable gradient of decreasing plastic concentrations with increasing distance from the urban centres around Reykjavik. The study region includes sample sites within urban, semi-rural and rural coastal settings, with 4 si...

  14. Multi-Proxy Temperature Reconstruction from the West Qinling Mountains, China, for the Past 500 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fengmei; Wang, Naiang; Shi, Feng; Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; Wang, Shigong; Fan, Zexin; Lu, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    A total of 290 tree-ring samples, collected from six sites in the West Qinling Mountains of China, were used to develop six new standard tree-ring chronologies. In addition, 73 proxy records were assembled in collaboration with Chinese and international scholars, from 27 publically available proxy records and 40 tree-ring chronologies that are not available in public datasets. These records were used to reconstruct annual mean temperature variability in the West Qinling Mountains over the pas...

  15. RESTORATIVE PRACTICES IN ACTION: Tallaght West Childhood Development Initiatives’ Restorative Practices Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This article describes CDI’s Restorative Practices (RP) programme in Tallaght West by discussing the origins, implementation and independent evaluation of the programme. A definition and explanation of RP based on existing literature and research is offered and the findings of the evaluation of CDI’s RP programme are presented along with testimonies from users of RP in Tallaght West. CDI was one of three Prevention and Early Intervention Programme sites and is now funded under the Government’...

  16. Arsenic in groundwater of West Bengal: Implications from a field study

    OpenAIRE

    Neidhardt, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents results of an interdisciplinary field study assessing the contribution of biological and inorganic processes in the mobilisation and accumulation of arsenic in groundwater of the Bengal Delta Plain, West Bengal. Investigations were focussed on the distribution of arsenic in sediments and shallow groundwater of two representative study sites. All results were combined in an effort to develop a conceptional model describing the mobility of arsenic in West Bengal aquifers.

  17. 76 FR 54793 - Westpoint Home, Inc., Manufacturing Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ...workers at the Manufacturing Division and the Distribution Center are engaged...on-site at the Manufacturing Division and the Distribution Center of WestPoint...on-site at the Manufacturing Division and the Distribution Center,...

  18. Ebola Donations Slow to Reach West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_150779.html Ebola Donations Slow to Reach West Africa Just 40 ... 9 billion in international aid promised for the Ebola outbreak in West Africa had reached the hard- ...

  19. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  20. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  1. Arthurdale: Homesteading in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, Deanna

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the history of the first subsistence community founded under the National Industrial Recovery Act during the Great Depression. Arthurdale, West Virginia, provided unemployed workers with rural homes on small plots where they could grow food and supply other needs through part-time industrial employment. A progressive community school…

  2. Borrelia crocidurae meningoencephalitis, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, Sandrine; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Pinel, Claudine; Bosseray, Annick; Hoen, Bruno; Couetdic, Gérard; Bourahoui, Amina; Lapostolle, Claire; Pelloux, Hervé; Garnier, Martine; Sertour, Natacha; Pelloux, Isabelle; Pavese, Patricia; Cornet, Muriel

    2013-02-01

    Borrelia crocidurae-associated relapsing fever is endemic to West Africa and is considered benign. We report 4 patients with B. crocidurae-associated neurologic symptoms; 2 of their cases had been misdiagnosed. Frequency and severity of this disease could be underestimated; molecular methods and serodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease might be helpful in its detection. PMID:23347436

  3. Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Goutier, Sandrine; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Pinel, Claudine; Bosseray, Annick; Hoen, Bruno; Couetdic, Ge?rard; Bourahoui, Amina; Lapostolle, Claire; Pelloux, Herve?; Garnier, Martine; Sertour, Natacha; Pelloux, Isabelle; Pavese, Patricia; Cornet, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia crocidurae–associated relapsing fever is endemic to West Africa and is considered benign. We report 4 patients with B. crocidurae–associated neurologic symptoms; 2 of their cases had been misdiagnosed. Frequency and severity of this disease could be underestimated; molecular methods and serodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease might be helpful in its detection.

  4. Career Guidance in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Career guidance in West Germany is provided by the Federal Employment Institute. These services are easily accessible to all persons in the country. Career guidance personnel perform a variety of functions to assist the handicapped, the unemployed, public school students, and those who desire to change careers. (KP)

  5. West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

  6. West Valley feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems

  7. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor West Wing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  8. West Syndrome: Response to valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RashmiKumar

    2012-11-01

    Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5% showed a good response, but 7 later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and 3 were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1% had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and 2 were lost to follow up. Conclusions: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

  9. ASMET: Flooding in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2012-01-10

    The rainy season in Sahelian West Africa extends from June to September and is tied to the position of the intertropical front. During this period, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) often produce significant rainfall that can lead to flooding. This module examines an extreme flooding event that occurred in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from 31 August to 1 September 2009. Learners assume the role of forecaster, assessing meteorological conditions to see if an MCS will develop that can lead to heavy rain and flooding. They follow a forecast process that emphasizes the use of satellite data, standard surface and upper-air charts, and model output. The forecast process is tied to a conceptual model of the key features that drive convective activities in West Africa.

  10. Revisiting the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Brunner, A.; Collins, G.; Cohen, B. A.; Coulter, A.; Elphic, R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Hodges, K.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The West and East Clearwater Lake impact structures are two of the most distinctive and recognizable impact structures on Earth. Known regionally as the "Clearwater Lake Complex", these structures are located in northern Quebec, Canada (56 deg 10 N, 74 deg 20 W) approximately 125 km east of Hudson Bay. The currently accepted diameters are 36 km and 26 km for the West and East structures, respectively. Long thought to represent a rare example of a double impact, recent age dating has called this into question with ages of approximately 286 Ma and approximately 460-470 Ma being proposed for the West and East structures, respectively. Relatively little is known about the East Clearwater Lake structure. There is no surface exposure and what information there is comes from geophysics and two drill cores obtained in the 1960s. In contrast, the West Clearwater Lake structure is relatively well preserved with large ring of islands in the approximately 30 km diameter lake. Much of the work done on West Clearwater stems from field investigations carried out in 1977 driven by the Apollo program, with a focus on the impact melt rocks and other impactites, which are well exposed on the ring of islands. To our knowledge, the Clearwater Lake impact structures have not been the focus of detailed impact geology field investigations since the 1977 expedition and the only geological map that exists is from the 1960s and is at the reconnaissance level. Our knowledge of impact cratering processes have increased substantially since this time, as have the analytical techniques available for samples. This provided the motivation for a joint Canadian-US-UK expedition to the West Clearwater Lake impact structure in August and September 2015, under the auspices of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project, part of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). We focus here on the impactites of the West Clearwater Lake impact structure. Other ongoing studies, also presented at this conference, focus on central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, xxxx and using WCIS as an analog test site for crew studies of sampling protocols].

  11. West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Y?lmaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

  12. Tracking the West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

  13. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in ...

  14. Sites for Gamma-ray Astronomy in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Allekotte, I; Bertou, X; Colombo, E; Etchegoyen, A; García, B; Garcia-Lambas, D; Levato, H; Medina, M C; Muriel, H; Recabarren, P

    2008-01-01

    We have searched for possible sites in Argentina for the installation of large air Cherenkov telescope arrays and water Cherenkov systems. At present seven candidates are identified at altitudes from 2500 to 4500 m. The highest sites are located at the Northwest of the country, in La Puna. Sites at 2500 and 3100 m are located in the West at El Leoncito Observatory, with excellent infrastructure. A description of these candidate sites is presented with emphasis on infrastructure and climatology.

  15. The West family chiropractic dynasty: celebrating a century of accomplishment in Canada: Part II: Samson J. West, David I. West, Neil A. West, Megan L. West, R. Ian Buchanan and James L. West

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    This historical paper documents the unbroken legacy of the West family of chiropractors which has flourished in Canada for over 100 years. Part I, unearthed the origins, development and careers of Archibald West, the founder of this dynasty, his son Samuel and grandson Stephen. Part II, delves into the life of Archie’s brother Samson, and Samson’s chiropractic progeny: grandsons David and Neil, and great granddaughter Megan. Then it goes back to look at Stephen West’s nephew, R. Ian Buc...

  16. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

  17. The Paradox of Open Space Ballot Initiatives in the American West: A New West-Old West Phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Shanahan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Support for local open space ballot initiatives in the American West is surprising, given that federal land conservation legislation tends to be lightning rod issues. The central focus of this study is to explore the extent to which the New West-Old West concept explains varying levels of support for local land conservation initiatives. Principal component analysis is used to obtain orthogonal variables of regionally relevant data on population, housing, and occupation/industry. Weighted Least Squares Regression is used to regress the factor analysis variables and population migration variables onto percent voting ‘yes’ for open space initiative. All community variables are significant predictors of levels of support: affluent communities, Old West communities, commuter communities, communities with decennial population increases, communities with non-Western state in-migration, and communities with farm population losses. What explains varying levels of support is not the polarized New West-Old West concept but, rather, a nuanced conception of the changing American West. Keywords: New West-Old West; open space; land conservation; ballot initiatives; environmental concern

  18. West Nile virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Christal G

    2008-06-01

    West Nile virus causes sporadic disease in the Eastern hemisphere that is often asymptomatic or mild, whereas in the Western hemisphere, West Nile virus has been associated with illness and profound mortality in many avian species. West Nile virus might have been transported to North America by an infected mosquito or the virus could have entered within a vertebrate host like a bird. Although the most important method of West Nile virus transmission is by Culex species mosquitoes, additional modes of transmission have been identified. West Nile virus has been isolated from almost 300 species of Western birds. The long-term effects on common species such as corvids, sparrows, grackles, finches, hawks, and robins are still being debated. However the potential effect of West Nile virus on small populations or species with limited geographic distribution, such as Hawaiian avifauna, could be much more catastrophic. PMID:18689077

  19. Magnetotelluric array data analysis from north-west Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Jones, A. G.; Pedersen, L. B.; Becken, M.; Biolik, M.; Cherevatova, M.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Gurk, M.; Hübert, J.; Jones, A. G.; Junge, A.; Kamm, J.; Korja, T.; Lahti, I.; Löwer, A.; Nittinger, C.; Pedersen, L. B.; Savvaidis, A.; Smirnov, M.

    2015-06-01

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 synchronous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites was occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. We estimated MT transfer functions in the period range from 0.003 to 105 s. The Q-function multi-site multi-frequency analysis and the phase tensor were used to estimate strike and dimensionality of MT data. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 2-D behaviour of the data with 3-D effects at some sites and period bands. In this paper we present 2-D inversion of the data, 3-D inversion models are shown in the parallel paper. We choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Seven crustal-scale and four lithospheric-scale 2-D models are presented. The resistive regions are images of the Archaean and Proterozoic basement in the east and thin Caledonian nappes in the west. The middle and lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. The southern end of the Kittilä Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. The thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozioc Svecofennian Domain, not in the Archaean. The thickness of the lithosphere is around 200 km in the north and 300 km in the south-west.

  20. Performance testing of West Valley Reference 6 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical durability of West Valley Reference 6 glass is being evaluated by using a suite of laboratory tests which highlight the early, interim, and long-term stages of corrosion. The test results are being used to describe the glass corrosion path and its long-term durability. The long-term durability of the SRL Environmental Assessment glass is being evaluated for comparison. Test results also provide parameter values for an analytical corrosion model that can be used in performance assessments of specific disposal sites

  1. USDA: West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    From the USDA Animal Welfare Information Center, this online Bibliography features an extensive array of scientific literature relating to West Nile virus published between 1965 and 2004. The literature "deals with the virus, its effects on animals, how the mosquito harbors and maintains the virus, how the virus is maintained over the seasons and how disease spreads. The major topics include: techniques of viral isolation and purification, viral genetics and strain differentiation, mosquito vector biology and behavior, transmission factors, animal species susceptible to the disease, animals as disease sentinels, disease reservoirs, surveillance programs, vector control programs, etc." Site visitors may view the Bibliography in separate sections, or as one entire document. [NL

  2. Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene mollusks of Silveirinha (Figueira da Foz, West Central Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Callapez, P.

    2010-01-01

    A collection of fossil gastropods and bivalves assembled at the Thanetian/Ypresian vertebrate site of Silveirinha (Figueira da Foz, West Central Portugal) is analysed from the point of view of systematics and palaeoecology. The diversity is scarce but the age and exceptional characteristics of the site are factors that substantiate a detailed study. The taxa identified are: Bithynia soaresi sp. nov., Gyraulus antunesi sp. nov., Chlamys sp. and Cardiiacea gen. sp. indet. The prevailing of f...

  3. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  4. Peatland classification of West Siberia based on Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentieva, I.; Glagolev, M.; Lapshina, E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest in peatlands for prediction of environmental changes requires an understanding of its geographical distribution. West Siberia Plain is the biggest peatland area in Eurasia and is situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. West Siberian taiga mires are important globally, accounting for about 12.5% of the global wetland area. A number of peatland maps of the West Siberia was developed in 1970s, but their accuracy is limited. Here we report the effort in mapping West Siberian peatlands using 30 m resolution Landsat imagery. As a first step, peatland classification scheme oriented on environmental parameter upscaling was developed. The overall workflow involves data pre-processing, training data collection, image classification on a scene-by-scene basis, regrouping of the derived classes into final peatland types and accuracy assessment. To avoid misclassification peatlands were distinguished from other landscapes using threshold method: for each scene, Green-Red Vegetation Indices was used for peatland masking and 5th channel was used for masking water bodies. Peatland image masks were made in Quantum GIS, filtered in MATLAB and then classified in Multispec (Purdue Research Foundation) using maximum likelihood algorithm of supervised classification method. Training sample selection was mostly based on spectral signatures due to limited ancillary and high-resolution image data. As an additional source of information, we applied our field knowledge resulting from more than 10 years of fieldwork in West Siberia summarized in an extensive dataset of botanical relevés, field photos, pH and electrical conductivity data from 40 test sites. After the classification procedure, discriminated spectral classes were generalized into 12 peatland types. Overall accuracy assessment was based on 439 randomly assigned test sites showing final map accuracy was 80%. Total peatland area was estimated at 73.0 Mha. Various ridge-hollow and ridge-hollow-pool bog complexes prevail here occupying 34.5 Mha. They are followed by lakes (11.1 Mha), fens (10.7 Mha), pine-dwarf-shrub sphagnum bogs (9.3 Mha) and palsa complexes (7.4 Mha).

  5. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  6. 75 FR 51757 - Foreign-Trade Zone 167-Green Bay, WI; Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...Foreign-Trade Zone 167--Green Bay, WI; Site Renumbering...totaling 4,001 acres in the Green Bay area. The current update...acres)--Oshkosh Southwest Development Park located west of Oakwood...Corporation (Oneida Tribe Economic Development) facility located west...

  7. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  8. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple parameters. It is planned as decision and planning tool for town planners and engineers in local municipality governments and to consulting engineers and contractors in Greenland, which also may be used in other arctic regions. Risk is classified in four categories: Low, Limited, Medium and High based on environmental properties as surface conditions (rock or sedimentary basins), soil grain size classification (gravel, sand, silt and clay) and ice content in the ground. The model uses ground thermal conditions quantified as the Permafrost Thaw Potential, which is defined as the potential active layer increase due to climate warming and surface alterations. Using this methodology it is expected that mapping of vulnerability in towns and construction areas together with proposed adaption and mitigation technologies will be of practical use to technical institutions and public as well as a general tool for the scientific community. The presentation will focus on the application of the Risk Evaluation diagram used in the selected towns in different permafrost zones and is illustrated with present observations of permafrost detoriation in West Greenland.

  9. Design, installation, testing and startup of a material handling system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and the U.S. Department of Energy decided to install a Cement Solidification System (CSS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project to handle certain lower level radioactive wastes. In August 1984, design was initiated on a 55 gallon Material Handling System (MHS) which would interface with and support the operation of the CSS. This paper describes and discusses the design and fabrication of equipment, installation of the system at the site, and startup and performance testing of the system

  10. Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

  11. Tree survival on mountaintop mines in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Skousen, J. [West Virginia University, WV (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this research was to assess several factors that influence tree survival and growth on mountaintop surface mines in West Virginia. Evaluating tree survival across many species and among various site and environmental planning conditions may allow coal operators to improve tree establishment and growth, thereby reducing the chance of failure on commercial forestry post-mining and uses. During the summer of 2002, over 50 plantations at the Samples surface mine in West Virginia were sampled to determine the effects of planting date, slope, aspect, and ground cover on the survival of transplanted trees. Plantations were established in spring 1999 and spring and fall of 2001. Average tree survival across these three dates and among all tree species was 65%. Black alder was the largest of the transported trees, but sycamore, pine, white ash, red maple and black cherry also showed good growth. Slope was used as a surrogate for soil compaction and tree survival was 75% on slopes > 50%, 62% on slopes 31-50%, and 67% on slopes < 30%. Three survival was not different among five aspect classes. Tree survival was higher (75%) in areas with < 50% groundcover and lowest (62%) in ares with > 70% ground cover. More time is needed to see if these tree survival trends continue with these site factors. 2 tabs.

  12. Site Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This Site Calibration report is describing the results of a measured site calibration for a site in Denmark. The calibration is carried out by DTU Wind Energy in accordance with Ref.[3] and Ref.[4]. The measurement period is given. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment is detailed described in [1] and [2]. All parts of the sensors and the measurement system have been installed by DTU Wind Energy.

  13. Estrategia de evaluación genética en el Síndrome West / A strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deysi, Licourt Otero; Anitery, Travieso Téllez.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La epilepsia ocupa el segundo lugar entre las enfermedades neurológicas de la infancia y produce afectaciones en las esferas afectiva, cognitiva y social de quienes la padecen, así como en su contexto familiar. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para la evaluación genética del Síndrome W [...] est. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome West atendidos en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Pinar del Río desde el primero de enero del 2010 al 31 de Agosto del 2011. Resultados: predominó el Síndrome West en el sexo masculino, con debut de los síntomas entre 4 y 6 meses. Se obtuvo una alta correspondencia entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la identificación de antecedentes prenatales positivos. La amenaza de aborto, el parto pretérmino y la hipoxia neonatal fueron las causas perinatales más atribuidas al desarrollo de la enfermedad. El examen físico dismorfológico fue positivo en la mayoría de los pacientes y aportó elementos que ofrecieron el diagnóstico en casos sin etiología definida. Las pruebas metabólicas y cromosómicas, resultaron útiles en la identificación etiológica del Síndrome West. Se diseñó una estrategia de evaluación genética para los pacientes con Síndrome West. Conclusiones: la caracterización del Síndrome West según los protocolos de estudio, facilitó el manejo de forma integral, permitió identificar las causas responsables del trastorno y se diseñó la estrategia para la evaluación genética de los niños con esta enfermedad. Abstract in english Introduction: epilepsy occupies the second place among neurological diseases in childhood and it provokes affectations in the emotional, cognitive and social spheres of epilepsy sufferers, as well as in their familial context. Objective: to design a strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome. [...] Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients suffering from West’s syndrome attended at Provincial Medical Genetics Center in Pinar del Rio from January 1, 2010 - August 31, 2011. Results: West’s syndrome prevailed in male sex and the onset of symptoms by 4 and 6 months. A high correspondence was found between diagnosis of the disease and the identification of positive prenatal history. Threatened abortion, preterm labor and neonatal hypoxia were the perinatal causes ascribed to the development of the disease. Dysmorphological physical examination was positive in the majority of patients and it provided elements that helped with diagnosis of cases without presenting a definite etiology. Metabolic and chromosomal tests were valuable to perform the etiological identification of West’s syndrome. A strategy to carry out the genetic assessment for West’s syndrome patients was designed. Conclusions: West’s syndrome characterization following the protocols of study eased a comprehensive management which allowed the identification of causes and the design of a strategy to complete the genetic assessment of children suffering from this disease.

  14. Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

  15. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

  16. The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Bent Vad

    1994-01-01

    Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland. The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site. Holocene terrestrial vegetational development was inferred at each site from analyses of pollen and microscopical charred particles. Chronologies were provided by numerous I4C dates. Stratigraphies of wet ground and terrestrial pollen and spore types were zooned by stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis. Based on the resultant site pollen asemblage zones (site PAZ), regional PAZ were proposed. Using modem analogues, Holocene floristic richness was estimated from pollen richness in the microfossil assemblages. The results support the hypothesis that disturbance is one of the most important mechanisms behind the maintenance of floristic richness. In particular, the response of estimated floristic richness to the intensity of vegetational fires followed the predictions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. A period of elevated palynological richness and inferred vegetational disturbance was identified at all sites between 6000 and 5200 BC (calendar years). Using correspondence analysis (CA), the major gradient in the terrestrial pollen sequences was identified as a light-shade gradient, and CA first axis sample scores were used as a supplement to standard AP/NAP pollen ratios as an indicator of the shade-tolerancellight-demand of Holocene terrestrial plant communities. In spite of different vegetational developments since 4000 BC, the timing of major changes towards more light-demanding vegetation types were broadly synchronous at the three sites. Using chord distance as a dissimilarity index, rates of palynological change suggest that the interval between 8OOO and 7500 BC (calendar years) was the period of most rapid vegetational change during the Holocene. both in terrestrial as well as lacustrine ecosystems. While climatic forcing of the rapid events around 8000 BC is hypothesised, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response, as reflected by pollen assemblages. Formulated at one site and tested at the two other sites, the model explains regional Culluna-heathland expansions as a result of vegetational burning. Similarly, declines in heathland cover are explained by lack of maintenance by fire. Regional vegetational development in northern West Jutland is reconstructed and special consideration is given to heathland history. The Holocene heathland development is interpreted as resulting from its importance for grazing. It is hypothesized that on poor soils, Calluna-dominated heathland was a better grazing resource than grass-dominated pasture, due to the winter-grazing offered by Calluna and the low palatibility of dominant grasses on poor soils. This hypothesis is relevant for the explanation of the variation in timing of heathland expansions on the different soil types represented by the study sites.

  17. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ArturoLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in Nitro, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2010-08-01

    The study described in this report assessed brownfield sites designated by the City of Nitro, West Virginia for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The study analyzed three different types of PV systems for eight sites. The report estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of thin film technology and crystalline silicon panels (both fixed-axis tracking and single-axis tracking systems). Potential job creation and electrical rate increases were also considered, and the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  19. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  20. Biomass burning in West African savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter approaches the influence of West African savanna ecosystems on the regional climate by giving, as precisely as possible, the amount of volatilized elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) annually released by bush fires into the atmosphere. In spite of the relative functional similarity of West African savannas, fire behavior and effects vary with the different bioclimatic and phytogeographic zones of the region: Guinea or humid zone; Sudan or mesic zone; and, Sahel or arid zone. In order to reach an acceptable accuracy, results are given for each of the zones described and summarized for West Africa

  1. Hydrographic data report, west coast of Puerto Rico, 1973--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrographic data included in this report were collected as part of a site selection survey to provide basic oceanographic data to assist the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority in determining the best locations for additional electrical power generating facilities on the island, both nuclear and fossil fuel. Classical oceanographic methods were used in sampling and analyzing sea water at depths from 10 to 300 meters. This report includes data from two sites: the Punta Higuero site, PHI, is the site of the former ''BONUS'' nuclear power plant and the Cabo Rojo Platform, CRP, is a possible site for offshore power generating plants. The two west coast sites are centered about 30 kilometers apart. (CH)

  2. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

  3. Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Allen

    2000-04-11

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance.

  4. UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Molto

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population frequency (both in adults and subadults of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?. This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variationLas poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormente registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?. Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente

  5. UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., El Molto; Bruce M., Rothschild; Robert, Woods; Christine, Rothschild.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las [...] Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos) de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormente registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?). Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente Abstract in english Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population [...] frequency (both in adults and subadults) of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?). This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variation

  6. Major geological events and uranium metallogenesis in South-west China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is widely distributed in South-west China, with all types but on a not-so-large scale. South-west China is located on the combining site of several large tectonic elements and every tectonic movement has different effects on different regions. To study and clarify the correlation between the major geological events in South-west China and the Uranium metallogenesis, comprehensive research and field investigation are made besides collecting a lot of materials. Through analysis and research on the major geological events in South-west China, the evolution of those e vents is basically clarified and the events closely related with uranium mineralization are determined. It is discovered that there are several ore-forming geologic events in the geological history of South-west China; almost every major tectonic movement cycle is accompanied with uranium metallogenesis, from Jinning Movement to Chengjiang Movement, to Hercynian Movement, to Indosinian Movement. to Yanshan Movement. to Himalayan movement. Even though every major tectonic cycle is accompanied with uranium mineralization, three major geological events are generally obviously related with uranium metallogenesis, i.e. the Rodinian supercontinent breakup even in Jinning-Chengjiang Period, Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement, in which the first one is the process of uranium pre-enrichment and provides the source of uranium. Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement are the important processes for mineralization, mainly the hydrothermal superimposed mineralization. (authors)

  7. Revitalization of a community site-specific art and art festivals : a case of art site Naoshima

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Junko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates public art and art festivals in the West, and a large scale art project in Japan, Benesse Art Site Naoshima, which is yet to be defined its place in the academic world. Through the case study of Benesse Art Site Naoshima, public art, site-specific art, art festivals, and a role of art museums are discussed. There are two parts to the thesis: (1) a brief survey of public art and site-specific art (of which has roots in Land art) and, (2) the case study of Art Site ...

  8. View from... Photonics West: MEMS the word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Amber

    2007-04-01

    The optics field is booming, as reflected by the impressive turn out at Photonics West this year. The conference brought researchers and industry figures together to forge the latest light paths, and microelectromechanical systems technology featured strongly.

  9. Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Averett, Ellen; Neuberger, John S.; Hansen, Gail; Fox, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the 2003 Kansas West Nile virus public education campaign. Awareness was widespread but compliance was low. Spanish-speaking persons were poorly informed. Relevant factors included population segment variability, campaign content, media choice, and materials delivery methods.

  10. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  11. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  12. Radiological survey of the former Aeroprojects Facility, West Chester, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former Aeroprojects, Incorporated, Facility is located at 200-T East Rosedale Avenue, West Chester, Pennsylvania. The facility was under contract to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) beginning in 1951 to investigate the use of ultrasonic energy in a variety of manufacturing procedures. An unknown quantity of alloys and compounds of aluminum, beryllium, mercury, thorium, and uranium were used on the site. In the mid-1960s, work for the AEC tapered off and Aeroprojects began doing R ampersand D under other government contracts. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Therefore, at the request of DOE, a radiological survey of this site was conducted in May 1988. The survey included a gamma scan of the interior of the building that had been used during the contract work and the area outdoors immediately adjacent to the building. The survey results show that all gamma exposure rates approximated typical background levels found in the southeastern Pennsylvania area and, furthermore, were well within the DOE guideline. However, recently discovered information suggests that small amounts of radioactive residuals may have been buried on site. The areas where these suspected burials would have occurred are included in areas planned to be remediated by the current owners. 5 refs., 1 fig

  13. Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos / West syndrome: report of nine eases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Aya, Kamiyama; Lúcia, Yoshinaga; Edward R., Tonholo-Silva.

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nov [...] e casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos. Abstract in english West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therape [...] utic features.

  14. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; Keatley, Eva; Rasmussen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realit...

  16. Classification of west german business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Heilemann, Ullrich; Mu?nch, Heinz Josef

    1999-01-01

    This paper applies linear discriminant analysis to classify West German business cycles from 1955 to 1994 into a four phase scheme (upswing, downswing, and upper/lower turning point phases). It describes the scheme as well as the selection of the classifying variables, and presents classification results for various sample periods. Special attention is given to changes of the explanatory power of the variables and its implication for changes of West German cycle patterns.

  17. Lucy West: Insights Into Effective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this series of 18 brief videos (1 hr 16 min total) Lucy West shares her ideas on various aspects of effective mathematics teaching practice. She discusses strategies for providing effective feedback to students, engaging them in meaningful dialogue, questioning to elicit accountable talk and listening, and designing curriculum. West addresses the dynamics and culture of an effective professional learning community and the role of school leaders in fostering collaborative partnerships among staff. Videos can be streamed or downloaded.

  18. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    RIPHAHN, Regina T.; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  19. Wildlife resources of the West African savanne.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bie, S

    1991-01-01

    The wild fauna in Africa is a renewable resource and its overexploitation has led to the depletion of animal populations. This thesis focusses on the ecological characterization of the ungulate community of the West African savanna, with special reference to the Biosphere Reserve 'Boucle du Baoulé' in Mali, and makes a contribution to the ecological knowledge required for the conservation and management of West African savanna ecosystems.Part I contains background information on the environm...

  20. Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

  1. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

  2. Birmingham and West Point 10 x 20 NTMS areas, Alabama: data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples were collected at 898 and 102 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Ground water samples were collected at 1178 and 189 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Stream water samples were collected at 534 and 69 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Neutron activation analyses results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water and stream water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented. Data from ground water and stream water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, V, and, when available, He). Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and measurements for ground water and stream water in the Birmingham quadrangle are included. Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements, and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and measurements for ss for most elements and measurements for stream sediments in the Birmingham quadrangle are included on microfiche. Uranium concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.3 to 31.2 ppM with an average of 4.12 ppM. Uranium concentrations in ground water samples ranged from 0.006 to 16.66 ppB with an average of 0.143 ppB. Uranium concentrations in stream water samples ranged from 0.006 to 2.3 ppB with an average of 0.076 ppB

  3. West Valley operation of an integrated radwaste treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York, between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the project's fully integrated waste program is the management of low-level wastes (LLWs) that result from treating high-level waste. At the West Valley Demonstration Project, ?650,000 gal of high-level radioactive waste is stored in an underground tank. The waste has separated into two phases, i.e., a liquid or supernatant that comprises 90% of this 650,000 gal and a 10% layer of sludge on the bottom of the tank. Estimates based on radiochemical analysis show that the supernatant contains ?7.4 million Ci of predominantly 137Cs. The purpose of the integrated radwaste treatment system (IRTS) is to remove as much 137Cs as possible from the supernatant by utilizing an ion exchange technique and to solidify the remaining liquid into a certifiable class C cement LLW form that meets the waste form criteria specified in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) 10CFR61. Waste is to be solidified in 71-gal square drums and remotely handled and stored on-site until determination of final disposition. This paper describes the very successful experiences gained in the treatment and solidification of the LLW stream produced as well as the processes and controls employed on the cemented wastemented waste

  4. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km2, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  5. Site Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institutes of Health, NIH is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

  6. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  7. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  8. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-01

    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  9. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  10. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  11. Sahel, Savana, Riverine and Urban Malaria in West Africa: Similar Control Policies with Different Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ceesay, Serign J.; Bojang, Kalifa A.; Nwakanma, Davis; Conway, David J.; Koita, Ousmane A.; Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Coulibaly, Tinzana F.; Diakite?, Mahamadou; Traore?, Sekou F.; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Ndiaye, Jean-louis; Sarr, Ousmane; Gaye, Oumar; Konate?, Lassana

    2011-01-01

    The study sites for the West African ICEMR are in three countries (The Gambia, Senegal, Mali) and are located within 750 km of each other. In addition, the National Malaria Control Programmes of these countries have virtually identical policies: 1] Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection, 2] Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated bed Nets (LLINs) to reduce the Entomololgic Inoculation Rate (EIR) and 3] Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for t...

  12. Survey of the mineral status of pastures and small ruminants in the West Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Njwe, Rm; Kom, J.

    1988-01-01

    Four dominant grass species (Hyparrhenia rufa, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum and Sporobolus africanus) of natural pastures of the West Region of Cameroon were sampled at 60 sites between September and November of 1985. The grass samples were analysed for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, mangenese, copper and zinc. Serum was also collected from goats and sheep at the same locations where forages were sampled and analysed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, z...

  13. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal : HighARCS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, SØren

    2013-01-01

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010

  14. Regional Flood Frequency Analysis Based on L-Moment Approach (Case Study West Azarbayjan Basins)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Rostami

    2013-01-01

    Flood estimation with certain frequency is one of the fundamental factors for design ofHydraulic structures, Flood plain, River coastal stabling, Basin management, etc. Accurate estimation offlood frequency discharge increases safety of the structures. L-moment approach was used for floodfrequency analysis in west Azarbayjan province basins. For identifying homogeneous regions, the Wardhierarchical cluster method was used. Site data were used for independent testing of the cluster of the stat...

  15. Physico-chemical characterization of urban atmospheric pollution in West Africa and health impact study

    OpenAIRE

    Doumbia, El Hadji Thierno

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was a contribution to the CORUS-POLCA (French acronym for " POLlution des Capitales Africaines ") program with the aim to characterize particulate pollution on traffic sites of two West-African capitals (Bamako, Mali and Dakar, Senegal) and to study aerosol biological impacts on lung inflammation. Urban particulate pollution with levels much higher than WHO norms, are in the focus due to intense African traffic sources and domestic fires. In this context, fundamental research of t...

  16. Awareness and utilization of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megabiaw Berihun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Contraception is a major component of reproductive health. Assessing the levels of contraceptive awareness and use helps to identify potential areas of intervention. Hence, this study was conducted to assess awareness, practice and associated factors of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 204 street women from Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Participants were recruited from “cluster” sites such ...

  17. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?...

  18. An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, R. M.; Rautenbach, I. L.; Avery, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and o...

  19. Satellite-Based actual evapotranspiration over drying semiarid terrain in West-Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schuttemeyer, D.; Schillings, Ch; Moene, A. F.; Bruin, H. A. R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple satellite-based algorithm for estimating actual evaporation based on Makkink¿s equation is applied to a seasonal cycle in 2002 at three test sites in Ghana, West Africa: at a location in the humid tropical southern region and two in the drier northern region. The required input for the algorithm is incoming solar radiation, air temperature at standard level, and the green-vegetation fraction. These data are obtained from Meteorological Satellite (Meteosat) and Moderate-Resolution Im...

  20. Scale effects in Hortonian surface runoff on agricultural slopes in West Africa: Field data and models

    OpenAIRE

    Giesen, N.; Stomph, T. J.; Ajayi, A. E.; Bagayoko, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of both experimental and modeling research carried out over the past 15 years by the authors addressing scaling effects in Hortonian surface runoff. Hortonian surface runoff occurs when rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity of the soil. At three sites in West Africa (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Burkina Faso) runoff was measured from plots of different lengths to assess scale effects. Consistently, longer plots showed much lower runoff percentages ...

  1. Biodiversity in a forest island: reptiles and amphibians of the West African Togo Hills

    OpenAIRE

    Leaché, Adam D.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Linkem, Charles W.; Diaz, Raul E.; Hillers, Annika; Fujita, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Our recent surveys of the herpetological diversity of the West African Togo Hills documented a total of 65 reptile and amphibian species, making Kyabobo National Park one of the most diverse sites surveyed in Ghana. We provide accounts for all species recorded along with photographs to aid in identification. We recorded 26 amphibians, including six new records for Kyabobo N. P., one of which is a record for the Togo Hills. Our collection of reptile species (22 lizards, 16 snakes, and one croc...

  2. Phytosociology and pedological characteristics of selected beats of Durgapur Forest Range, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Bauri; Debnath Palit; Ambarish Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to analyze phytosociological characteristics and diversity pattern of five selected beats of tropical dry deciduous forest of Durgapur Forest Range, Burdwan, West Bengal, India. The present investigation was carried out through quadrat method for analysis of phytosociological aspect of vegetation. The soil of the different study sites were analyzed by following standard methodology. The results reflect dominancy of dicotyledons over monocotyledons in the five ...

  3. The Official Leonard Bernstein Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard Bernstein was one of America's foremost conductors and champions of classical music in the 20th century, along with composing such works as West Side Story, Candide, and his Mass. Developed and maintained by the Leonard Bernstein Society, this site contains a wealth of printed interviews, musical excerpts, and other ephemera that will be of great interest to those with a passion for American music. Visitors to the site can explore the sections through a pull-down menu located on the homepage, or search for a specific media type under the Browse Site section. A message board allows users to post and respond to questions about Leonard Bernstein, and the left side of the main page contains news updates about upcoming performances of his different works. Under the Life's Works section, users can access the Red Book, which is a comprehensive and detailed catalog of Bernsteins compositions, speeches, and honors, along with a discography and selection of recommended recordings. The site is rounded out with a nice collection of audio clips such as highlights of Mr. Bernstein's auspicious debut with the New York Philarmonic, the famed Norton Lectures at Harvard, and selections from the Young Peoples Concerts.

  4. Investigation on river water quality near PTEPBN project, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work has been done to examine the quality of river water near uranium ores exploration and processing facilities (PTEPBN) in West Kalimantan. River water samples were analyzed for their heavy metals content and radioactivity. Atomic absorption and UV-VIS spectrometries, fluorimetry and radiometry were employed for analysis. Analytical data showed that the concentrations of arsenic and radioactivity exceeded those of group D standard water quality. For example, the arsenic concentrations varied between 1.36-2.77 mg/l, meanwhile total alpha activity varied between 0.11-0.45 Bq/l and total beta activity varied between 1.07-1.68 Bq/l among several sampling site. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab, 1 fig

  5. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement 20 is comprised of changed pages for the SAR which reflect: (1) the change in design basis fuel fed to the process from a minimum of 180 days after reactor discharge to a minimum of 210 days and an effective 24 months after reactor discharge; (2) the design objective of NFS that the concentrations of radionuclides, other than tritium, will not exceed the concentration limits of 10 CFR 20, Appendix B, Table II, column 2, when measured at the discharge from NFS' lagoon system to the on-site waterway; (3) incorporation of modifications to fuel receiving and storage area; (4) an updating of the general information presented in Chapter 1.0; and (5) additional data from the new meteorological tower at West Valley and recent changes in demographic projections

  6. The West Valley Demonstration Project: A decade of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, directed by the United States Department of Energy, is at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in the United States. Operation of the plant ceased in the early 1970s. It was determined in 1980 that the facility provided a unique opportunity for proving known nuclear waste management technology related to both high-level and low-level wastes. The project's overall goal, mandated by Congress in Public Law 96-368, is to demonstrate the solidification of approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level nuclear waste, decontamination and decommissioning of facilities used, disposal of low-level and transuranic waste produced by solidification, and shipment of the solidified high-level waste to a federal repository. This paper discusses the progress made during the first ten years. (author)

  7. Energy Reform for West Africa in Climate Change Crisis Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C.; Kasei, R.

    2009-04-01

    UNFCCC reports indicate that those who are least responsible for climate change are also the most vulnerable to its projected impacts. In no place is this more evident than in Sub-Saharan Africa, where greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are negligible from a global scale. In Africa, energy demands could be the major factor that may lead to the increase of its emissions in the very near future. Forests are being lost for domestic energy, Oil produced energy increases carbon foot prints and Hydropower is unreliable due to uncertainties in rainfall patterns. By 2004, the energy consumption mix of West Africa was dominated by oil (58%) followed by natural gas (38%) and hydroelectric (8%) with coal and other energy forms not part of the mix. (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Rainfall and Global radiation using the Armstrong method was analyzed for sites in Nigeria and Ghana. A cost-benefit of the energy productions is presented.

  8. FINDING SOLUTIONS AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) faces a number of sizeable challenges as it begins to transform its mission from managing risk to reducing and eliminating risk throughout the DOE Complex. One of the greatest challenges being addressed by DOE-EM as this transformation takes place is accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning of thousands of facilities within the DOE Complex that were once used to support nuclear-related programs and projects. These facilities are now unused and aging. Finding solutions to complete the cleanup of these aging facilities more safely, efficiently, and effectively while reducing costs is critical to successfully meeting DOE-EM's cleanup challenge. The Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) of Hot Cells at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a near-term project funded through the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) for the specific purpose of identifying, evaluating, demonstrating, and deploying commercially available technologies that are capable of streamlining the cleanup of hot cells in unused facilities while improving worker safety. Two DOE project sites are participating in this LSDDP: the WVDP site in West Valley, New York and the Hanford River Corridor Project (RCP) site in Richland, Washington. The WVDP site serves as the host site for the project. Technologies considered for demonstration and potential deployment at both LSDDtion and potential deployment at both LSDDP sites are targeted for application in hot cells that require the use of remote and semi-remote techniques to conduct various cleanup-related activities because of high radiation or high contamination levels. These hot cells, the type of cleanup activities being conducted, and technologies selected for demonstration are the main topics discussed in this paper. The range of cleanup-related activities addressed include in-situ characterization, size-reduction, contamination control, decontamination, in-c ell viewing, and various types of handling, retrieval, and dismantlement tasks. The primary focus of the LSDDP of Hot Cells is on demonstrating technologies capable of reducing cost and schedule baselines for work scopes involving in-situ characterization (including nondestructive examination to access in-cell areas), size-reducing equipment and piping, contamination control, and decontaminating surfaces (including equipment surfaces). Demonstrations of technologies that can streamline these tasks are scheduled for the WVDP site. Demonstrations scheduled for the Hanford RCP site focus on work scope activities involving remote-inspection and viewing. Each demonstration conducted will be assessed using evaluation criteria established by the participating sites to determine if selected technologies represent a significant improvement over current baseline technologies being used to perform work. If proven to be effective, each of the commercially available technologies demonstrated has th e potential to be quickly deployed at other sites, resulting in improved worker safety, reduced cleanup costs, and accelerated schedule completion for many of the most challenging cleanup efforts now underway throughout the DOE Complex

  9. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

  10. Heritage sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Tomáš

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; K?pp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 138-141 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * heritage sites * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  13. The distribution of transuranic elements in sediment profiles from an intertidal area in West Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intertidal areas in West Cumbria have received anthropogenic inputs of the actinide elements via pipeline disposal of low level waste from the Sellafield reprocessing plant on the Cumbrian coast. The paper describes a sediment profile taken from an intertidal site containing radioactivity from the Sellafield reprocessing site. The profile mirrors the discharge history for plutonium isotopes, but shows a marked difference to the discharge patterns anticipated for 237Np. The 237Np profile is explained in terms of remobilization within the soil core. (orig.)

  14. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  15. Effects of wind farm construction and operation on mire and wet heath vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, north-west Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fagúndez, J.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment for the construction of a wind farm within the Monte Maior Natura 2000 Site of Community Importance (SCI) in Galicia, north-west Spain, a complete analysis of the development site’s important mire and wet heath plant communities was performed. The study included phytosociological characterisation, species-area metrics, calculation of ? and ? diversity, and analysis of physiognomical characteristics such as life forms, distribution ranges and phen...

  16. Evidence for elevated and spatially variable geothermal flux beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Dustin M; Blankenship, Donald D; Young, Duncan A; Quartini, Enrica

    2014-06-24

    Heterogeneous hydrologic, lithologic, and geologic basal boundary conditions can exert strong control on the evolution, stability, and sea level contribution of marine ice sheets. Geothermal flux is one of the most dynamically critical ice sheet boundary conditions but is extremely difficult to constrain at the scale required to understand and predict the behavior of rapidly changing glaciers. This lack of observational constraint on geothermal flux is particularly problematic for the glacier catchments of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet within the low topography of the West Antarctic Rift System where geothermal fluxes are expected to be high, heterogeneous, and possibly transient. We use airborne radar sounding data with a subglacial water routing model to estimate the distribution of basal melting and geothermal flux beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica. We show that the Thwaites Glacier catchment has a minimum average geothermal flux of ? 114 ± 10 mW/m(2) with areas of high flux exceeding 200 mW/m(2) consistent with hypothesized rift-associated magmatic migration and volcanism. These areas of highest geothermal flux include the westernmost tributary of Thwaites Glacier adjacent to the subaerial Mount Takahe volcano and the upper reaches of the central tributary near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core drilling site. PMID:24927578

  17. Indian Muslim perceptions of the West during the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Gulfishan

    1993-01-01

    ?The present thesis, entitled "Indian Muslim Perceptions of the West during the Eighteenth century", deals with Muslim images of the West at the turn of the eighteenth century as they were formulated in the minds of Indian Muslim intellectuals. It examines the modalities of experience and categories of knowledge of the West as they were perceived by Muslim scholars who had come into contact with the contemporary West. The main purpose of the present enquiry is to analyze the ...

  18. Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting Waste Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting waste site was located approximately 50 m southwest of the 185-D Building and approximately 16 m north of the east/west oriented road. The site consisted of a lead sheet covering a concrete pad. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  20. Sellafield's Role in the Socio-Economic Development of West Cumbria - 12459

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It would be hard to imagine what West Cumbria, a remote area in the North West of England, would look like without the huge Sellafield nuclear complex. The site is owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and managed by Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), an international private partnership consisting of URS from the United States of America, AMEC from the UK and AREVA from France. Today some 10,000 people work at Sellafield with many more employed through the site's supply chain, a large percentage of which is located directly in West Cumbria. The Government, through the NDA, has committed around pounds 1.5 billion a year for the next three years as we at NMP bring our vast global expertise and experience to deliver substantial improvements to the clean-up mission there. Of this total budget, more than Pounds 800 million a year is spent in that supply chain and around 30 percent of that goes directly to firms in West Cumbria. But the dependency on the nuclear industry is immense and, with the site now entering an extensive decommissioning programme, the threats to jobs, and therefore the local economy, is severe. While Sellafield provides wealth, there are areas of deep deprivation and worklessness. Consequently, Sellafield Ltd, NMP and NDA have partnered with the local community leaders and politicians to form Britain's Energy Coast, a strategic regeneration body driving economic improvements and projects to deliver a vibrant economy for West Cumbria, long into the future. While the threats to our economy are real, the opportunities are potentially transformational. The UK is on the brink of a nuclear renaissance and, if we are successful through the Energy Coast programme, West Cumbria will become the hub, not only of the nuclear industry, but also of green energy production in the UK, with obvious benefits to our local economy. But to achieve this, Sellafield and its new owners are having to change the opportunistic ways of the past to provide a new strategic mode of socio-economic contribution to deliver a sustainable future for the local community. The results so far have been impressive, with over pounds 56 m being committed to socio-economic projects, but the long term aim is to achieve pounds 116 m investment through public/ private partnership. Sellafield is fundamental to this goal. (authors)

  1. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  2. Comparative symptomatology of West Nile fever.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zden?k

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 358, ?. 9278 (2001), s. 254-255. ISSN 0140-6736 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 13.251, year: 2001 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673601054915/fulltext

  3. Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Panella, Nicholas A.; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Schooley, Lynn M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Nasci, Roger S.; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    We compared the VecTest WNV antigen assay with standard methods of West Nile virus (WNV) detection in swabs from American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). The VecTest detected WNV more frequently than the plaque assay and was comparable to a TaqMan reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction.

  4. West Nile Virus Detection in American Crows

    OpenAIRE

    Yaremych, Sarah A.; Warner, Richard E.; Wyngaerde, Marshall T.; Ringia, Adam M.; Lampman, Richard; Novak, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    A dipstick immunochromatographic assay used for West Nile virus (WNV) detection in mosquitoes was investigated for application to testing of fecal, saliva, and tissue samples from dead American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Results suggest that VecTest may be an efficient method for WNV detection in field-collected, dead American Crows, although confirmation of results and further investigation are warranted.

  5. Radiocaesium and circulation patterns west of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patterns of circulation to the west of Scotland can be traced with the aid of radiocaesium isotopes of Sellafield origin contained in the coastal current water. A survey in July 1981 has provided data of flow rates and dilution for comparison with two previous surveys and, in extending the area of interest to the entire shelf region between the North Channel and Cape Wrath, has allowed assessments to be made firstly of the volume transport to the east and west of the Outer Hebrides and secondly of the Atlantic water input to the coastal system. Transport through the Minches was about 4.5 times the volume of the coastal flow west of the Hebrides. The North Channel outflow of approx. 4.7 x 104 m3 s-1 of Irsih Sea/Clyde water had been supplemented in the coastal current by approx. 6.5 x 104 m3 s-1 of Atlantic water when the east and west branches reached 580N. (author)

  6. Structural preconditions of West Bohemia earthquake swarms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Miroslav; Špi?ák, Aleš; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 34, ?. 4 (2013), s. 491-519. ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia earthquake swarms * depth-recursive refraction tomography * CEL09 refraction profile Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 5.112, year: 2013

  7. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  8. Teacher Expectation and West Indian Underachievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Geoffrey

    1985-01-01

    Examines the claim that unintentional racism is widespread within the teaching profession and contributes, via the self-fulfilling prophecy, to the relative academic failure of West Indian children. This article deals with the latter in terms of the model of teacher expectations advanced by Brophy and Good (1970). (Author/CT)

  9. Fast Recession of a West Antarctic Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, in West Antarctica, reveal that the hinge-line position of this major ice stream retreated 1.2+/-0.2 km per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies ice thinning at 3.5+/-0.6m ice per year.

  10. Costs of Space in the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Maurice M.

    Space, in a geographic sense, entails costs when there is too much of it in relation to population and income. In the West, by comparison with more populous areas to the east, the level of personal income per square mile and per capita is low; costs per unit of, and per capita for, transportation, health and medical care, and education are high;…

  11. Neurologic Sequelae of West Nile Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gerpen, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    This review encompasses the extant literature on West Nile virus (WNV)-associated neurologic complications and also includes some of the author's experiences with Louisiana patients infected with WNV in the Summer of 2002 who sustained neurologic sequelae. In the appropriate clinical context, patients should be screened for WNV.

  12. West Nile Virus: ecology, epidemiology and prevention.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zden?k; K?íž, B.; Menne, B.

    Darmstadt : Steinkopff, 2006, s. 217-242 ISBN 3-7985-1591-3 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/0726 Grant ostatní: European Commission EVK2-2000-00070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  13. Russian gas in the west European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

  14. Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Utah Seismograph Stations

    This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

  15. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  16. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International...announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County...announces that the FAA finds that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted for the Key...

  17. 76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...100223162-1268-01] RIN 0648-XA551 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications...Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 5 Through 26 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  18. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  19. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 1. Executive summary. Preliminary feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a preliminary study, of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the West Valley, New York site. In the hydraulic fracturing and injection process the liquid waste would be diluted, and mixed with cement, clay and other additives to form a stable solid matrix after injection. The waste could be injected into the shale beds, 800 to 1,500 feet below the existing site in zones suitable for horizontal fracturing and to provide satisfactory long term isolation. Hydraulic fracturing has been in use for the disposal of radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Tennessee since the mid 1960's. To date, over 1.8 million gallons of grout containing radioactive waste have been successfully injected at that site. In this study the West Valley site has been assessed in terms of the requirements for satisfactory disposal of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing on the basis of currently available information. A program of research and development, required to confirm or reject this means of disposal at the West Valley site, has been outlined

  20. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

  1. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  2. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme of safety upgrading. Development of safety measures and their incorporation into the power plant design is being performed

  3. Regional analysis of convective systems during the West African monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Bradley Nicholas

    The West African monsoon (WAM) occurs during the boreal summer and is responsible for a majority of precipitation in the northern portion of West Africa. A distinct shift of precipitation, often driven by large propagating mesoscale convective systems, is indicated from satellite observations. Excepting the coarser satellite observations, sparse data across the continent has prevented understanding of mesoscale variability of these important systems. The interaction between synoptic and mesoscale features appears to be an important part of the WAM system. Without an understanding of the mesoscale properties of precipitating systems, improved understanding of the feedback mechanism between spatial scales cannot be attained. Convective and microphysical characteristics of West African convective systems are explored using various observational data sets. Focus is directed toward meso -alpha and -beta scale convective systems to improve our understanding of characteristics at this spatial scale and contextualize their interaction with the larger-scale. Ground-based radar observations at three distinct geographical locations in West Africa along a common latitudinal band (Niamey, Niger [continental], Kawsara, Senegal [coastal], and Praia, Republic of Cape Verde [maritime]) are analyzed to determine convective system characteristics in each domain during a 29 day period in 2006. Ancillary datasets provided by the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) and NASA-AMMA (NAMMA) field campaigns are also used to place the radar observations in context. Results show that the total precipitation is dominated by propagating mesoscale convective systems. Convective characteristics vary according to environmental properties, such as vertical shear, CAPE, and the degree of synoptic forcing. Data are bifurcated based on the presence or absence of African easterly waves. In general, African easterly waves appear to enhance mesoscale convective system strength characteristics (e.g. total precipitation and vertical reflectivity profiles) at the inland and maritime sites. The wave regime also resulted in an increased population of the largest observed mesoscale convective systems observed near the coast, which led to an increase in stratiform precipitation. Despite this increase, differentiation of convective strength characteristics was less obvious between wave and no-wave regimes at the coast. Due to the propagating nature of these advecting mesoscale convective systems, interaction with the regional thermodynamic and dynamic environment appears to result in more variability than enhancements due to the wave regime, independent of location. A 13-year (1998-2010) climatology of mesoscale convective characteristics associated with the West African monsoon are also investigated using precipitation radar and passive microwave data from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Seven regions defined as continental northeast and northwest, southeast and southwest, coastal, and maritime north and south are compared to analyze zonal and meridional differences. Data are categorized according to identified African easterly wave (AEW) phase and when no wave is present. While some enhancements are observed in association with AEW regimes, regional differences were generally more apparent than wave vs. no-wave differences. Convective intensity metrics confirm that land-based systems exhibit stronger characteristics, such as higher storm top and maximum 30-dBZ heights and significant 85-GHz brightness temperature depressions. Continental systems also contain a lower fraction of points identified as stratiform. Results suggest that precipitation processes also varied depending upon region and AEW regime, with warm-rain processes more apparent over the ocean and the southwest continental region and ice-based microphysics more dominant over land, including mixed-phase processes. AEW regimes did show variability in stratiform fraction and ice and liquid water content, suggesting modulation of mesoscale characteristics possibly throug

  4. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  5. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  6. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  7. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the University of Hamburg, Germany. One of the responsibilities of TEPO is to provide assistance to students taking part in scientific research (undergraduate and post-graduate practical work and organization of summer schools and seminars). In 2005 a joint summer student field excursion with the Moscow State University Department of Cryolithology and Glaciology took place at TEPO headquarters. The teaching courses consist of the following main topics: 1. Environment and Permafrost of northern West Siberia; 2. Paleocryogenic Formation of Alluvial Terraces; 3. Hydrology and Hydrogeological Conditions of the Territory; 4. Geotechnical Monitoring of Gas Fields; 5. Geotechnical Dangers in the Cryolithozone. The workshop "Stability of Pipelines in the Cryolithozone" held in Nadym at August, 29-31 with participation of "Nadymgasprom", TSOGU and Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan) included a field excursion. TEPO is expected to be the basis for scientific and educational exchange with national and foreign universities and research institutes and part of the global international monitoring in the northern regions.

  8. Epidemiological studies on bluetongue virus infection in West Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In monitoring of sentinel cattle in West Java, seroconversions to orbiviruses occurred mostly at the end of the wet season. A low altitude site gave more reactors than did a high altitude site. Due to perceived inefficiencies of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) was applied and the results compared with the AGID test results. C-ELISA detected antibodies at an earlier stage of infection than did the AGID test. Not all sera reacting in the AGID test reacted in C-ELISA, suggesting that the C-ELISA is more specific in detecting bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies than the AGID. However, as the infection status of most field sera was not known, this could not be confirmed conclusively from the available data. A comparison of isolation methods indicated that isolates were obtained more frequently if samples were passaged in embryonated eggs before blind passage in A edes albopictus cells followed by passage in BHK-21 cells. Six BTV serotypes, 1,7,9,12,20,21 and 23 were identified and confirmed from apparently healthy sentinel cattle blood at low altitudes; BTV serotype 21 was also isolated from a pool of the Avaritia sub-genus of the Culicoides spp which contained 227 C. fulvus and 20 C. orientalis. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen prevalence among pregnant women in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, D D; Gordon, H; Moore, G; Larsen, B

    1992-12-01

    During 1990, more than 2,100 women who received prenatal care at one of four clinics which serve 11 West Virginia counties, were screened for chlamydial antigen. Overall, 5.6 percent of the women screened had positive antigen tests and 90 percent of these individuals were under the age of 25. The prevalence of chlamydia was different at three geographic sites with the highest rate of positive antigen test being 9.4 percent at one site. These findings led to a careful analysis of the prevalence of this disease among women who lived in rural areas versus those who lived in urban areas. This detailed analysis involved only patients seen in the Grafton and Morgantown clinics, and revealed a tendency for most positive antigen tests to occur among women with urban addresses. Our study indicates that a substantial chlamydial problem exists among pregnant women of young age. Although screening all pregnant women for chlamydia may not be cost effective, knowing which individuals are at highest risk may help target limited screening for these patients. PMID:1492405

  10. West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golding Nick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

  11. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994)

  12. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  13. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations

  14. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  15. Minnesota's experiences in siting hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1970's two major siting controversies occurred in Minnesota, the siting of a demonstration Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility and the routing of a power line from North Dakota through the west central part of the state. In both, the public was belatedly involved. In 1980 when the state legislature undertook to develop a process to provide hazardous waste disposal, collection, treatment, and storage facilities, a comprehensive public education and participation effort was built into the siting plan. This paper describes the public education program and its performance and cites the major causes for successes and failures in several communities. The program included not only the citizens and local governments of Minnesota, but also those of the neighboring states and provinces of Canada

  16. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

  17. Texas site selection and licensing status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

  18. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd3) (2.1 million cubic meters [m3]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m3) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd3(420,000 m3). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd3 (2.58 million m3)

  19. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 ?W cm-2, from TV broadcasting was 0.007 ?W cm-2 and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 ?W cm-2. The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 ?W cm-2. The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ?62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average totphone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 ?W cm-2. (authors)

  20. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Hammash, Alaa

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 ?W cm(-2), from TV broadcasting was 0.007 ?W cm(-2) and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 ?W cm(-2). The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 ?W cm(-2). The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ~62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 ?W cm(-2). PMID:21835841

  1. Environmental monitoring program interaction between the West Valley Demonstration Project and New York State agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the 1982 initiation of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) and the takeover of most of the facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) by the US Department of Energy, the working relationship between the site operator and state regulatory agencies changed significantly. An upgrading of the environmental monitoring program by the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor West Valley Nuclear Services Company was concurrent with a change in New York State departmental responsibility for monitoring of the site environs. An agreement was reached between DOE and New York State which allowed more efficient use of available manpower for collection of samples, such as game animals and other biological media, as well as routine air and water samples potentially affected by site effluents. Additionally, the State has contributed significantly to WVDP wildlife and land-use surveys. These surveys produced valuable data for use in preparing safety analysis reports and dose assessments for the annual environmental monitoring summaries. During the past year, there were two occurrences which had the potential of raising public concerns about release of radioactivity to uncontrolled areas. In both cases there was excellent cooperation between Project personnel and state agencies in conducting a rapid investigation. Site interaction with state agencies regulating nonradiological effluents under the State Pollution Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) also has been characterized by effective communication and cooperation

  2. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

  3. Predicted impacts of climate change on malaria transmission in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation due to climate change are expected to alter the spatial distribution of malaria transmission. This is especially true in West Africa, where malaria prevalence follows the current north-south gradients in temperature and precipitation. We assess the skill of GCMs at simulating past and present climate in West Africa in order to select the most credible climate predictions for the periods 2030-2060 and 2070-2100. We then use the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model of malaria transmission, to translate the predicted changes in climate into predicted changes availability of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito populations, and malaria prevalence. We investigate the role of acquired immunity in determining a population's response to changes in exposure to the malaria parasite.

  4. Adaptation of the ITER facility design to a Canadian site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the status of Canadian efforts to adapt the newly revised ITER facility design to suit the specific characteristics of the proposed Canadian site located in Clarington, west of Toronto, Ontario. ITER Canada formed a site-specific design team in 1999, comprising participants from three Canadian consulting companies to undertake this work. The technical aspects of this design activity includes: construction planning, geotechnical investigations, plant layout, heat sink design, electrical system interface, site-specific modifications and tie-ins, seismic design, and radwaste management. These areas are each addressed in this paper. (author)

  5. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to determine: i the importance of selection pressure exerted by both agricultural and public health use of pyrethroid insecticides, ii the phenotypic effects, particularly when the two mutations co-occur; and iii the epidemiological importance of kdr for both pyrethroid- and DDT-based malaria control operations, particularly if/when the two insecticides are to be used in concert.

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  8. Summary of oceanographic and water–quality measurements in West Falmouth Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Thomas, Jennifer A.; Borden, Jonathan; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Twomey, Erin R.; Martini, Marinna A.

    2011-01-01

    This data report presents oceanographic and water-quality observations made at six locations in West Falmouth Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, from August 2009 to September 2010. Both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor are estuarine embayments; the input of freshwater on the eastern margin of Buzzards Bay adjacent to Cape Cod and West Falmouth Harbor is largely due to groundwater. In West Falmouth Harbor, the groundwater that seeps into the harbor is characterized by relatively high levels of nitrate. This high nitrate load has modified the ecology of the harbor (Howes and others, 2006) and may be a significant source of nitrate to Buzzards Bay during seasons with low biological nitrate uptake. The U.S. Geological Survey undertook these measurements to improve understanding of circulation, residence time, and water quality in the harbor and bay. We set up and monitored multiple sites in both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor, measuring depth, water velocity,salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, and nitrate concentration. In this report we present the processed time-series data at these locations and provide access to the data and metadata. The results will be used to understand circulation mechanisms and verify numerical models of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry.

  9. Qualification of West Valley production glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications for the West Valley Demonstration Project High Level Waste Form (WAPS) requires that the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) provide the elemental, crystalline, and radionuclide composition of its high-level waste product. Elemental and crystalline composition ensures that those specimens that underwent radionuclide release rate testing during the testing program were valid specimens, and radionuclide composition ensures that radionuclide inventories are monitored and do not exceed limits. Because the canistered high-level waste form has a high dose rate associated with it, any sample removed from the actual glass to provide the above information must be capable of being obtained easily during radioactive operations and not require repair of the canister. Reporting of the composition of the WVDP vitrified waste is planned to be provided by sampling and analyzing the feed and by sampling and analyzing a glass shard that can be removed from a glass filled canister

  10. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about the aspectual marking and future marking in West Greenlandic. There are about 40-50 aspectual suffixes, divided into ‘inner’ phasal and ‘outer’ phasal aspect (Kristoffersen 1991) and about five future tense suffixes in WG (Fortescue 1980). The order of the suffixes is stem + inner aspect + outer aspect + tense + modality + inflection. In this presentation I shall talk about the future tense suffixes only. The future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future. All future tense suffixes have more than one meaning and belong to different semantic categories. It means that the same suffix can appear more than one time in the same word, and the meanings will be different depending on the telicity of the stem, the context and the suffixes added to it. The sources of the future tense suffixes are different, -niar (inevitable future, will) from intension and belongs to five different semantic categories, -ssa (should, future) from should and has a modal meaning too, -jumaar (vaque future) from wish, -ler (near future/be about to) from begin, and -ssamaar (planed future) a compound suffix coming from wish and should. –ssa (should, future) seems to be the default future suffix, and it is used when none of the others can be used. It seems that some of the tense suffixes i.e. past (-sima, perfective, perfect, preterite) and future (-ler, begin, be about to, near future) originally had a more or less concrete aspectual meanings and have developed into more abstract tense meanings (Fortescue 1996). The aim of the project is to find out when to use the different meanings in both written and spoken languages. It is based on interviews where the informants are talking about things about future, daily spoken language from colleges and in the media, and a questionnaire where the informants should fill in the empty slots in a verbal context with different inherent aspectual meanings. Fortescue, Michael (1980) Affix ordering in West Greenlandic derivational processes. In: International journal of American linguistics. – vol. 46, no. 4, p. 259-278. Fortescue, Michael (1996) Tense, mood and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic and Chukchi. In: La dynamique et la culture inuit. /Nicole Tersis et Michèle Terrien (eds.) p. 151-175. Kristoffersen, Lars (1991) Verbal derivation and inflection in a functional grammar of West Greenlandic. Magisterkonferens, Københavns Universitet, Institut for Eskimologi.

  11. Aerial view of the West Area complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  12. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Site Needs Assessment FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Allen

    1999-05-03

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This is the fifth edition of the TFA site needs assessment. As with previous editions, this edition serves to provide the basis for accurately defining the TFA program for the upcoming fiscal year (FY), and adds definition to the program for up to 4 additional outyears. Therefore, this version distinctly defines the FY 2000 progrti and adds further definition to the FY 2001- FY 2004 program. Each year, the TFA reviews and amends its program in response to site users' science and technology needs.

  13. ANÁLISE DA PROFILAXIA ANTIMICROBIANA PARA A PREVENÇÃO DA INFECÇÃO DO SÍTIO CIRÚRGICO EM UM HOSPITAL DO CENTRO-OESTE BRASILEIRO / ANTIMICROBIAL PROPHYLAXIS ANALYSIS FOR PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTION IN A BRAZIL CENTRE-WEST HOSPITAL / ANÁLISIS DE LA PROFILAXIS ANTIMICROBIANA PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE LA INFECCIÓN DEL SITIO QUIRÚRGICO EN UN HOSPITAL DE LA REGIÓN CENTRO OESTE DE BRASIL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cyanéa, Ferreira Lima Gebrim; Jéssica, Guimarães Rodrigues; Maressa Noemia, Rodrigues Queiroz; Regiane Aparecida, Santos Soares Barreto; Marinésia Aparecida, Prado Palos.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetiva analisar a profilaxia antimicrobiana no perioperatório de cirurgias limpas, em um hospital universitário do Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Estudo transversal descritivo, realizado em 700 prontuários de pacientes maiores ou igual a 18 anos, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico limpo ent [...] re 2008 a 2010. Utilizou-se formulário estruturado e previamente avaliado. Para análise dos dados foram computados dois indicadores: a profilaxia antimicrobiana em até uma hora antes da incisão cirúrgica e a profilaxia antimicrobiana até 24 horas no pós-operatório, além das variáveis: antimicrobiano de escolha; dose de acordo com o peso do paciente e doses adicionais (repique) no intraoperatório, em cirurgias com tempo superior a 4 horas. Foram considerados os registros de até 30 dias após o procedimento cirúrgico ou de 12 meses nos casos de implantes de próteses e similares. Verificou-se que 86,6% receberam profilaxia antimicrobiana, em 75,1%, a primeira dose obedeceu ao tempo preconizado e em 96,9%, o antimicrobiano de escolha foi a Cefazolina. Houve inadequação em 70,6% quanto à duração da profilaxia, 96,8% dose de acordo com o peso e 70% das doses adicionais. A taxa de infecção do sítio cirúrgico foi de 10%, sendo o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à Meticilina, o agente etiológico mais frequente. Apesar das diretrizes referirem cautela quanto à profilaxia antimicrobiana, o estudo mostrou inadequações que podem trazer prejuízos para a segurança dos pacientes. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la profilaxis antimicrobiana en el perioperatorio de cirugías limpias en un hospital clínico de la región Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Estudio transversal descriptivo, realizado en 700 historiales de pacientes mayores de 18 años, sometidos a procedimientos quirúrg [...] icos limpios entre 2008 y 2010. Se utilizó un formulario estructurado y previamente validado. Para analizar los datos fueron calculados dos indicadores: profilaxis antimicrobiana hasta antes de una hora de la incisión quirúrgica, y profilaxis antimicrobiana hasta 24 horas del postoperatorio, además de las siguientes variables: antibiótico elegido; dosis de acuerdo con el peso del paciente; dosis adicionales en el intraoperatorio, en cirugías de duración mayor a 4 horas. Fueron considerados los registros de hasta 30 días después del procedimiento quirúrgico, o 12 meses en los casos de implantes de prótesis o similares. Se verificó que el 86,6% de los pacientes recibió profilaxis antimicrobiana; en el 75,1% de los pacientes la primera dosis obedeció al tiempo recomendado; y en el 96,9% de los casos, el antibiótico elegido fue Cefazolina. Hubo disconformidades en el 70,6% de los pacientes en cuando a la duración de la profilaxis, en el 96,8% respecto a la dosis de acuerdo con el peso y en el 70% de las dosis adicionales. La tasa de infección en el sitio quirúrgico fue de 10%, siendo el Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la Meticilina, el agente etiológico más frecuente. A pesar de que las directrices indican cuidado en cuanto a la profilaxis antimicrobiana, el estudio mostró disconformidades que pueden provocar perjuicios en la seguridad de los pacientes. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean surgery, at a university hospital in Centre-West Brazil. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was completed using 700 records of patients 18 years of age or older undergoing clean surgery between 2008 and 201 [...] 0. The study used a previously evaluated, structured form for data collection. Two indicators were analyzed: antimicrobial prophylaxis within one hour of incision, and antimicrobial prophylaxis 24 hours postoperatively, considering the following variables: antimicrobial selected; dose according to the weight of the patient, additional doses during surgery, and surgical procedures taking longer than four hours. Records completed within 30 days of the surgical procedure were considered, 12 mont

  14. West syndrome associated with mosaic Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Madoka; Ichiyama, Takashi; Akashi, Akiko; Suenaga, Naoko; Matsufuji, Hironori; Furukawa, Susumu

    2007-08-01

    We report a girl with West syndrome associated with mosaic Down syndrome. She had repetitive tonic spasms at 6 months and an electroencephalography (EEG) showed hypsarrhythmia. Her facial appearance was normal and she had no minor anomalies. Her karyotype was mosaic(46,XX/47,XX,+21). Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) therapy was effective, and her developmental quotient was 76 at 17 months. This report re-emphasize that chromosomal analysis is recommended for epileptic patients with infantile onset when the cause is unclear. PMID:17307326

  15. Ash composition of oils of West Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakirova, S.F.; Aleshin, G.N.; Kalinin, S.K.; Kotova, A.V.; Nadirov, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of studying the distribution of trace elements in oils of new fields of West Kazakhstan. It is indicated that for the majority of oils studied, the concentration of trace elements does not depend on the ash content of oils. For resinous asphaltenes and highly sulfur oils of the Buzachi region, there is an increase in the content of iron, vanadium, nickel with a rise in ash content of oils. This is possibly associated with their secondary enrichment with trace elements.

  16. Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

  17. Electronic Dissertations at West Virginia University

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, John

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of the West Virginia University Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD) program has proven to be one of our most effective marketing tools to promote the graduate research of our students, faculty and programs. A multimedia demo will be presented which highlights notable multimedia submissions of actual WVU ETDs, including video clips, still shots, and informational slides accompanied by musical background themes. The merits of adopting ETD and other digital document publica...

  18. Collaborative work between the West and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hser, Yih-ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-01-01

    The “Collaborative Work between the West and Asia” session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  19. THE WEST AND THE CAPE SEA ROUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Dorning, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Changing perceptions and realities Western strategists and politicians have traditionally acknowledged the vital importance of the Cape Sea Route. Their South African counterparts, for their part, have in the past regarded the Cape Sea Route's importance to the West as almost axiomatic, and have frequently sought to use this fact as a bargaining point in their negotiations with the Western Powers.1 There are increasing signs, however, that are-assessment of the importance of the Cape Sea Rout...

  20. Great Belt : foundation of the West Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil properties for ship impact and ice loading are described briefly, and first experiences from settlement monitoring of the structure during erection are presented.

  1. Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented

  2. Health Perceptions - where the East meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

  3. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which European and other Western powers have played a role. Occidentalisms are additionally found to be influenced by the ideological background from which the images are crafted. This is shown by a threef...

  4. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  5. IAIMS: An Interview with Dick West

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, Joan S; Johnson, Frances E.

    1999-01-01

    Richard T. West, IAIMS (Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems) Program Officer at the National Library of Medicine for 13 years, reflects on the origin, development, effectiveness, and future of IAIMS efforts. He dwells on the changes that have taken place as the concept of IAIMS has evolved from a technology-based to an organization-based level of integration. The role of IAIMS in patient care, education, and research is discussed, along with the role of the librarian in t...

  6. Recharge modelling for the West Bank aquifers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, A. G.; Mansour, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Recharge can take two main forms, direct recharge from rainfall infiltrating the ground or indirect recharge from leakage from wadi beds. The recharge processes operating in the West Bank can be summarised as rainfall recharge, wadi recharge, urban recharge processes and irrigation losses. Rainfall recharge is the predominant form of recharge, whilst wadi recharge, urban and irrigation losses are only minor components. However, these minor components can be locally important. ...

  7. Rett's syndrome in the west of Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, A. M.; Stephenson, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen girls with characteristic features of Rett's syndrome, including normal initial development, regression at about 12 months of age, repetitive hand movements, and severe mental handicap were studied. This represents an estimated incidence of one in 30 000 live births (one in 15 000 girls) in the west of Scotland. Although the children were often initially considered to be autistic, they did not conform to this diagnosis as they made good personal contact within the limits of their men...

  8. West Lothian Geodiversity. Volumes 1 - 3

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, H. F.; Browne, M. A. E.; Finlayson, A.

    2006-01-01

    For its size, Scotland has the most varied geology, natural landscapes and landforms of any country on the planet. This variety, or geodiversity, has resulted in the dramatically different landscapes we see in Scotland today. Although not as striking as some of the iconic landscapes in other parts of Scotland, West Lothian’s Carboniferous bedrock and cover of glacial deposits nevertheless exhibit a large variety of rock types, structures, fossils, processes, soils and landfor...

  9. Migratory birds and West Nile virus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zden?k

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58. ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  10. Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Marm Kilpatrick, A; Daszak, Peter; Jones, Matthew J.; Marra, Peter P; KRAMER, LAURA D.

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneity in host populations and communities can have large effects on the transmission and control of a pathogen. In extreme cases, a few individuals give rise to the majority of secondary infections, which have been termed super spreading events. Here, we show that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in highly inflated reproductive ratios. A single relatively uncommon avian species, American robin (Turdus migrator...

  11. West Africa LP gas market development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jointly sponsored with the World Bank, this essential study explores the opportunity for greatly expanded LP Gas use in the West Africa region. LP Gas supply in the area is increasing rapidly, This offers the opportunity for bringing modern energy to millions without current access, protects forests the only current source of energy for many, and encourages governments to adopt proactive policies that will reap benefits of the increasing availability of LP Gas. (author)

  12. Use of the Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Citation Process at the West Valley Demonstration Project - 12250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project recently achieved a breakthrough in management of radioactive waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by taking advantage of lessons learned at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites in implementation of the waste-incidental-to-reprocessing citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. This breakthrough involved a revision to the site procedure on waste-incidental to reprocessing. This procedure revision served as the basis for a determination by the DOE West Valley field office using the citation process that three secondary waste streams consisting of equipment that had once been contaminated by association with HLW are not HLW following decontamination and may be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) or transuranic waste. These waste streams, which comprised much of the approximately 380 cubic meters of West Valley waste contaminated by association with HLW, included several vessels and certain tank farm equipment. By making use of lessons learned in use of the citation process by other DOE sites and information developed to support use of the citation process at the Hanford site and the Savannah River Site, the team developed a technical basis for showing that use of the citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1 for the three new waste stream was appropriate and technically justified. The Waste Management Working Group of the EFCOG assisted in transferring lessons learned by drawing on experience from around the DOE complex. This process shared knowledge about effective implementation of the citation process in a manner that proved to be beneficial to the West Valley Demonstration Project and resulted in a technical basis document that could be used to determine that the three new waste streams were not HLW. (authors)

  13. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  14. History and the West Indian nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birbalsingh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.. Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p. Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50 Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95 Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

  15. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

  16. John Muir National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Muir was a man who liked to wander, but with a purpose. His affinity for the natural world in all of its manifestations was omnipresent in his writings as well as in his efforts to assure that future generations would be able to see some of the landscapes that he surveyed in the 19th century. While Muir spent some of his formative years in Wisconsin, after leaving the University of Wisconsin, he journeyed west, and for the remainder of his life he lived with his family in Martinez, California. Muir did not build the home himself, but he and his family took up residence in 1890, and many decades after his death, the John Muir Historic Site was created to preserve this unique place. Recently, the National Park Service created this website to pay homage to the man and his legacy, and in doing so, they have also crafted a site that can also be used to educate young and old alike about Muir's work. Within the various sections, users can learn about Muir's family through slide shows of historic images, and also about his writings.

  17. Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Durán

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas en ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas.The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environments of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

  18. Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF) / Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor, Durán; Anna Maria, De Francesco; Valeria, Cortegoso; Gustavo, Neme; Luis, Cornejo; Marco, Bocci.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas e [...] n ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas. Abstract in english The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environm [...] ents of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

  19. Atmospheric Layers Measured from the NASA DC-8 During PEM-West B and Comparison with PEM-West A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongxiang; Newell, Reginald E.; Zhu, Yong; Anderson, Bruce E.; Browell, Edward V.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Collins, James E., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Pacific Exploratory Mission-West B (PEM-West B) explored atmospheric layer structure using measurements of O3, H2O, CO, and CH4 from the NASA DC-8 fast-response instruments. The mission took place in February-March 1994 over the western Pacific, mainly in the northern hemisphere. Results were compared with similar measurements made during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A (PEM-West A) in September-October 1991. PEM-West B sampled 94 vertical profiles, with an average atmospheric depth per profile of 6.4 km, and this sampling yielded 254 discrete layers. PEM-West A sampled 105 profiles, also with a 6.4 km average depth, yielding 538 layers. Both missions revealed that layers containing high ozone and low water vapor were the most abundant, and low ozone and high water vapor layers were the next most abundant. Lidar images and potential vorticity cross sections showed the former associated with subsidence from the stratosphere in middle latitudes, spreading into the tropics. The latter was associated with convection from the boundary layer. The partition among different types of layers only changed slightly in the two missions, although PEM-West B had half as many layers. Compared to PEM-West A, PEM-West B showed only one-third the number of layers associated with polluted continental air. However, PEM-West B revealed significantly more layers showing characteristics of descended clean marine air. In some cases these layers originated from the southern hemisphere. For ozone- and water-vapor-rich layers, the ozone deviation amplitude was higher in low latitudes and lower in high latitudes in PEM-West B. The mean thickness of layers increased from about 450 m in PEM-West A to 680 in in PEM-West B. Layers also existed in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. CO2 measurements had sufficient vertical resolution to show layer structure as well.

  20. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  1. Life-cycle cost analysis 200-West Weather Enclosure: Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF)will provide environmentally safe and acceptable storage capacity for handling wastes resulting from the remediation of existing single-shell and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site. The MWTF will construct two tank farm facilities at two separate locations. A four-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site; a two-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-West Area. This report documents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) for the Weather Enclosure proposed to be constructed over the 200-West tanks. Currently, all tank farm operations on the Hanford Site are conducted in an open environment, with weather often affecting tank farm maintenance activities. The Weather Enclosure is being proposed to allow year-round tank farm operation and maintenance activities unconstrained by weather conditions. Elimination of weather-related delays at the MWTF and associated facilities will reduce operational costs. The life-cycle cost analysis contained in this report analyzes potential cost savings based on historical weather information, operational and maintenance costs, construction cost estimates, and other various assumptions

  2. Expedited response action proposal (EE/CA EA) for 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The report contains the proposal for an expedited response action (ERA) for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. It provides the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with information regarding the need for the ERA and an evaluation of alternatives to reduce the mobility, toxicity, and/or volume of the carbon tetrachloride in the unsaturated soils. This report is intended to aid the EPA and Ecology in selecting a preferred alternative for implementing the ERA. This proposal does not address remediation of carbon tetrachloride in the ground water underlying the 200 West Area; nor is the radioactive waste mixed with the carbon tetrachloride in the disposal site the subject of this ERA. This report has also been prepared to address the requirements for an environmental assessment (EA). The purpose of this ERA is to prevent, or at least minimize, further migration of carbon tetrachloride contamination from the unsaturated soils to uncontaminated areas. This action is needed to ensure that the environment and public health are adequately protected and to reduce the threat of further groundwater contamination. Information on the origin, nature, and extent of carbon tetrachloride (and co-contaminants), and other site characteristics used as a basis for evaluating remedial alternatives is presented.

  3. Expedited response action proposal (EE/CA & EA) for 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The report contains the proposal for an expedited response action (ERA) for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. It provides the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with information regarding the need for the ERA and an evaluation of alternatives to reduce the mobility, toxicity, and/or volume of the carbon tetrachloride in the unsaturated soils. This report is intended to aid the EPA and Ecology in selecting a preferred alternative for implementing the ERA. This proposal does not address remediation of carbon tetrachloride in the ground water underlying the 200 West Area; nor is the radioactive waste mixed with the carbon tetrachloride in the disposal site the subject of this ERA. This report has also been prepared to address the requirements for an environmental assessment (EA). The purpose of this ERA is to prevent, or at least minimize, further migration of carbon tetrachloride contamination from the unsaturated soils to uncontaminated areas. This action is needed to ensure that the environment and public health are adequately protected and to reduce the threat of further groundwater contamination. Information on the origin, nature, and extent of carbon tetrachloride (and co-contaminants), and other site characteristics used as a basis for evaluating remedial alternatives is presented.

  4. Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental History of the Upper West Amarillo Creek Valley at Archaeological Site 41PT185/C, Texas, USA / Historia paleoambiental del Holoceno tardío en el valle Amarillo Creek superior occidental en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C, Texas, EUA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel R, Palacios-Fest.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En combinación, los microinvertebrados, algas calcáreas (Charophyta), e isótopos estables de ostrácodos y girogonitos (los restos calcáreos de carófitas) constituyen una herramienta muy poderosa para reconstruir paleoclimas. Este estudio compara las firmas paleoambientales de moluscos terrestres y a [...] cuáticos, ostrácodos, y carófitas con los valores de los isótopos estables (?18O and ?13C) obtenidos de Cypridopsis sp. (un ostrácodo) y los girogonitos de Chara globularis y Nitella flexilis. Cada una de ellas contribuye con su propia evidencia sobre el cambio ambiental ocurrido entre 1890 ± 40 A.P. y después de 750 ± 40 A.P. en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C en el norte de Texas, Estados Unidos de América. La combinación interpretativa de los datos permite una reconstrucción detallada de la variabilidad paleoclimática durante la transición de la Anomalía Climática Medieval a la Pequeña Edad del Hielo, que permite inferir el impacto que dicho cambio tuvo sobre las poblaciones humanas en esta parte del Sudoeste de los Estados Unidos. Abstract in english In combination, microinvertebrates, calcareous algae (Charophyta), and the stable isotopes from ostracodes and gyrogonites (the calcareous remains of charophytes) are a powerful tool for reconstructing paleoclimates. This study compares the paleoenvironmental signatures of land and aquatic mollusks, [...] ostracodes, and charophytes with stable-isotope (?18O and ?13C) values for Cypridopsis sp. (an ostracode) and the gyrogonites of Chara globularis and Nitella flexilis. Each individual signature contributes its own evidence of environmental change between 1890 ± 40 years B.P. and post-750 ± 40 years B.P. at archaeological site 41PT185/C in northern Texas, United States of America. The interpretation of the combined data permits a detailed reconstruction of paleoclimatic variability at the transition from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, allowing inferences about the impact of such environmental change on human populations in this part of the U.S. Southwest.

  5. Distribution and abundance of host-seeking Culex species at three proximate locations with different levels of West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, I.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Culex species were monitored at three proximate sites with historically different West Nile virus (WNV) activities. The site with human WNV transmission (epidemic) had the lowest abundance of the putative bridge vectors, Culex pipiens and Cx. salinarius. The site with horse cases but not human cases (epizootic) had the highest percent composition of Cx. salinarius, whereas the site with WNV-positive birds only (enzootic) had the highest Cx. pipiens abundance and percent composition. A total of 29 WNV-positive Culex pools were collected at the enzootic site, 17 at the epidemic site, and 14 at the epizootic site. Published models of human risk using Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius as the primary bridge vectors did not explain WNV activity at our sites. Other variables, such as additional vector species, environmental components, and socioeconomic factors, need to be examined to explain the observed patterns of WNV epidemic activity.

  6. The West Family Chiropractic Dynasty: celebrating a century of accomplishment in Canada: Part I: Archibald B. West, DC, Samuel H. West, DC and Stephen E. West, DC: The Founding Father, his Son and Grandson

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    This historical treatise documents the unbroken legacy of the West family of chiropractors which has flourished in Canada for over 100 years. Part I, unearths the origins, development and careers of Archibald West, the founder of this dynasty, his son Samuel and grandson Stephen. Part II, not yet ready for publication, will delve into the lives of Archibald’s brother Samson and his chiropractic progeny, as well as a nephew of Stephen and another relative of Frederick West.

  7. On The Development of West African Accounting System

    OpenAIRE

    Boka Moussa

    2010-01-01

    The authorities of the West African Economic and Monetary Union UEMOA fully understand that accounting plays the significant role in the process of economic development and regional integration in the member states. They decided to establish a common new accounting system, called West African Accounting System (SYSCOA). The accounting system has been developed on the initiative of the Central Bank of West African States "BCEAO". The various accounting systems previously in effect within the W...

  8. Social access and dispersal of condiments in North-West Europe from the Roman to the medieval period

    OpenAIRE

    Livarda, Alexandra; Veen, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    The introduction and dispersal histories of eight common condiments in North-West Europe are explored: celery, dill, coriander, black mustard, fennel, summer savory, caraway and parsley. The presence of these condiments in archaeobotanical reports from the study area was recorded, together with information on chronological phase, type of site, social status and mode of preservation. Analysis of the data suggests the presence of very distinct patterns of dispersal that highlight the socio-cult...

  9. Evaluation of granular activated carbon reactivation and regeneration alternatives for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of an engineering study to evaluate alternative technologies for the reactivation or regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) resulting from remediation operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of the study was to determine whether there is a more cost-effective (onsite or offsite) method of regenerating/reactivating GAC than the present method of shipping the GAC offsite to a commercial reactivation facility in Pennsylvania

  10. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Amiard; Zitouni Boutiba; Imène Benali; Hamida Gherras; Amina Ykhlef-Allal; Taleb, Zohei?r M.; Benabdellah Bachir-Bouiadjra

    2009-01-01

    An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sampled from the Kristel (K) site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007) to Oran Harbour (OH) and Mostaganem Harbour (MH), areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lys...

  11. Distribution and conservation of the Himalayan newt (Tylototriton verrucosus, Urodela, Salamandridae) in the Darjeeling District, West Bengal (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Giacoma, Cristina; Seglie, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    The Himalayan newt, Tylototriton verrucosus, is reported from the mountainous region of Nepal, India, Bhutan, Burma, Vietnam, Thailand, and Southwest China. This species is the only representative of the order Caudata in the Indian subcontinent. We investigated the distribution of this taxon in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal and we evaluated the conservation status of the species from observations collected in 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2002. All the suitable sites present in the area of s...

  12. Earthquake scenario in West Bengal with emphasis on seismic hazard microzonation of the city of Kolkata, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, S.K.; Adhikari, M. D.; S.K. Maiti; N. Devaraj; Srivastava, N.; Mohapatra, L. D.

    2014-01-01

    Seismic microzonation is a process of estimating site-specific effects due to an earthquake on urban centers for its disaster mitigation and management. The state of West Bengal, located in the western foreland of the Assam–Arakan Orogenic Belt, the Himalayan foothills and Surma Valley, has been struck by several devastating earthquakes in the past, indicating the need for a seismotectonic review of the province, especially in light of probable seismic threat to its capit...

  13. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov

  14. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site

  15. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals : A multidisciplinary Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been analysed for heavy metals, organochlorines, stable isotopes and DNA. The obtained results of metal concentrations and DNA were included in the existing database, whereas no previous data on organochlorines and stable isotopes in West Greenland narwhals existed. The metal and POP concentrations and stable isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study.

  16. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  17. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  18. Kiviõlis kõlavad "West Side Story" laulud / Inna Grünfeldt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Georg Otsa nim. Muusikakooli viiepäevasest treeninglaagrist Kiviõli Keemiatööstuse hoones ja kontserdist muusikali "West Side Story" lauludega 27. aug. (ettevalmistus 4. sept. Tallinnas esietenduvale muusikalile, projektijuht Eerika Kurm)

  19. Nuclear installations sites safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into ten parts bearing: 1 Safety analysis procedures for Basis Nuclear Installations sites (BNI) in France 2 Site safety for BNI in France 3 Industrial and transport activities risks for BNI in France 4 Demographic characteristics near BNI sites in France 5 Meteorologic characteristics of BNI sites in France 6 Geological aspects near the BNI sites in France 7 Seismic studies for BNI sites in France 8 Hydrogeological aspects near BNI sites in France 9 Hydrological aspects near BNI sites in France 10 Ecological and radioecological studies of BNI sites in France

  20. West Edmonton Mall : buying into energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K. [West Edmonton Mall, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The West Edmonton Mall consists of 600 stores and services, as well as attractions including a marine life lagoon, a skating rink, the largest indoor wave pool in the world, and an amusement park. Lighting retrofits, power-factor correction equipment, and tenant energy-saving criteria all combine to make the West Edmonton Mall a model of energy efficiency. An energy consultant was hired in 2001 to develop an energy management plan in an attempt to find ways to save energy while providing a return on investment. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are a consequence of reduced energy consumption. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) were recently installed on heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) fans, with assistance from the Energy Innovators Initiative (EII) of Natural Resources Canada. In addition, the West Edmonton Mall is now signed up with Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. The retrofit involved the conversion of 42 constant speed, variable-pitch supply and return fans to a fixed pitch. The total cost of the retrofit was $970,000, and the energy savings are expected to reach $524,295 annually. A brief overview of energy savings measures implemented since 1985 was provided. Separate metering and billing for new tenants is a strategy to make sure that they are aware of their energy costs. This strategy makes them more active in reducing their energy consumption. An awareness and accountability system was put in place, and a variety of potential projects are being evaluated, such as a cogeneration system, updating fluid pumps, and adding new controls to hot water heaters. 1 tab.

  1. Building military influenza surveillance capacity in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronmann, Karl C; Ampofo, William; Nzussouo, Talla; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Agbenohevi, Prince; Carroll, John; Diabate, Mory; Sourabie, Seydou; Puplampu, Naiki; Clemens, Michaela; Oyofo, Buhari A

    2013-03-01

    Militaries are especially susceptible to operationally important outbreaks of acute respiratory infections such as pandemic and seasonal influenza. In addition, militaries play important roles for State Parties working to meet International Health Regulations 2005, particularly in developing countries. In 2009, the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 joined with the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research and the armed forces of Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Côte d'Ivoire to create or improve influenza surveillance capacities within the militaries. This article describes the process undertaken to achieve this goal. In the Ghana Armed Forces, influenza surveillance for outpatients was instituted at seven medical stations throughout the country and for inpatients at the tertiary referral hospital in Accra. As a result, military sites now contribute around half of the influenza cases detected in Ghana and reported weekly to the World Health Organization. Samples were also collected by the militaries of Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso, although political instability slowed progress. This effort is part of an ongoing strategy to build influenza surveillance capacity within West African militaries in support of military services, global outbreak investigations, International Health Regulations-2005, and the development of country-specific pandemic preparedness plans. PMID:23707118

  2. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  3. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  4. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 ?Sv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  5. Alteration of microstructure of West Valley glass by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of West Valley reference glass WVCM-59 were subjected to isothermal heat treatment according to a systematic schedule of time-temperature combinations. Phases crystallizing during heat treatment were analyzed and quantified using an SEM equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray detector and image processing and analyzing capabilities. Only small amounts of noble metals (e.g. Rh, Pd) and RuO2 were present in the as-melted glass, but these frequently serve as nucleation sites during heat treatment. Iron-group spinels containing Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn in variable proportions were the most common phases observed, appearing in quantities up to 3.5 vol% in heat treated glass. The formation of a thoria-ceria phase occurred at temperatures of 900C and below. Acmites formed at temperatures of 800C and below. A lithium phosphate phase with a particularly interesting morphology developed after prolonged heat treatment at temperatures between 600-750C. The same phase appeared in a range of glass compositions. However, canister cooling curves preclude such a phase in production glass. Furthermore, no such phase was found in actual canister-cooled glass

  6. Radioactive waste solidification at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the United States Congress authorized establishment of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) as a US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste management project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center site. The high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the WVDP resulted from the commercial reprocessing of approximately 640 metric tons of spent fuel by Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS). The mission of the WVDP is to immobilize the HLW in a stable and nondispersible form. The US Department of Energy has selected vitrification as the method of solidification and borosilicate glass as the waste form. The HLW immobilized in this glass waste form is being proposed to be placed in a deep geologic burial vault (federal repository) where it will become one component of a permanent, multibarrier waste isolation system. The WVDP has demonstrated successful performance of the vitrification system by establishing the bases for reliable and safe operations for converting HLW into glass. A target glass composition has been established within the processing range which meets the requirements for the safe disposal of the HLW

  7. Radiation balance over low-lying and mountainous areas in south-west Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iziomon, M. G.; Mayer, H.; Wicke, W.; Matzarakis, A.

    Surface radiative fluxes play a major role in the energy exchange process between the atmosphere and earth surface and are thus very crucial to climatic processes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Based on four years REKLIP (REgio-KLIma-Project) data set of measured radiative fluxes and additional supporting meteorological variables, the surface radiation regime for selected lowland site (Bremgarten 212m a.s.l.) and mountain sites (Geiersnest at 870m a.s.l.; Feldberg 1489m a.s.l.) in the southern Upper Rhine valley region (south-west Germany) has been reported. Time series of radiative fluxes and surface albedo showed significant inter-site differences. Possible reasons for the observed differences have been made. Downward atmospheric radiation Al at the study sites was parameterised in terms of air temperature, vapour pressure and cloud amount, all of which strongly govern the variation of Al. Effective terrestrial radiation amounted to about 50% of absorbed shortwave radiation at the study sites annually. During clear sky conditions, global solar irradiance Gs constituted about 76.0% of the incident extraterrestrial solar irradiance at Feldberg mountain site but only 68.5% of that at Bremgarten lowland site. Annual cumulative of net radiative flux Rn amounted to 1722MJm-2yr-1 at the lowland site, while that at Geiersnest and Feldberg mountain sites constituted 84% and 73% respectively of the corresponding magnitude for the lowland site. In the same vein, annual mean of radiation efficiency (defined here as Rn/Gs) amounted to 0.32 in Feldberg, 0.37 in Geiersnest and 0.41 in Bremgarten. Consequently the annual available energy, of which net radiative flux is representative, was smaller at the mountain ous sites relative to the lowland site during the study period. Inter-annual variability of net radiative flux, its constituent variables and derivatives at the study sites were generally below 10%, with longwave fluxes showing the lowest fluctuation. This renders the measured data quite suitable for modelling purposes. In winter, mean daily sums of Rn showed a slow rise with cloud amount N at the lowland site but a sharp rise with N at Feldberg mountain site. In summer however, mean daily sums of Rn declined significantly with N as well as Linke turbidity factor at the study sites.

  8. 77 FR 21587 - Bayer Cropscience, LP, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Jacobs PSG, Middough Associates, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ...Training Administration [TA-W-81,021] Bayer Cropscience, LP, Including On-Site...February 3, 2012, applicable to workers of Bayer Cropscience, LP, including on-site...the Institute, West Virginia location of Bayer CropScience, LP. The Department has...

  9. Selection of nuclear waste repository sites in the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since late 1977, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting environmental and geologic studies in order to identify potential sites for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste from commercial reactors. The DOE proposes to bury the waste deep underground in conventionally-mined repositories located in stable geologic deposits such as salt formations. Geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic studies led to the identification of two potentially suitable repository sites in the Permian bedded salt formation of west Texas. Detailed multi-disciplinary studies will be required to confirm the ability of these sites to isolate the high-level nuclear waste from the human environment for a period of 10,000 years in an environmentally sound manner. This report provides a description and discussion of the multi-step site selection process that identified the two 9 square mile (23 square kilometer) sites from the 80,000 square mile (26,000 square kilometer) Permian salt formation

  10. West Nile Virus Outbreak in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    This video segment adapted from Rx for Survival follows Tracey McNamara, lead pathologist at the Bronx Zoo, and her work to explain why crows in New York City were literally falling dead from the sky during one summer. McNamara traced the cause of the mystery illness to a mosquito-borne virus, and then suggested a possible link between the animal illness and an ongoing outbreak of human illness. In the end, McNamara was proven correct: it turned out that the same virus—West Nile virus—was infecting both birds and humans. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

  11. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  12. Hepatitis B markers in West Yorkshire firemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Crosse, B. A.; Teale, C.; Lees, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    Firemen have been considered at occupational risk of hepatitis (HBV) infection, but proof is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of risk by determining the prevalence of serological markers of past infection with HBV in members of the West Yorkshire Fire Service. Sera from 173 firemen, 9.3% of the brigade, were tested for antibodies to HBV surface antigen and to core antigen. Those containing anti-HBs greater than or equal to 10 IU/L or anti-core antibody, were also tested...

  13. West of Shetlands FPSO or TLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most promising and active areas, in terms of exploration, for hydrocarbon production offshore Europe is located West of the Shetland Islands and lies in water depths ranging from 350 m to 900 m subject to an extremely harsh environment. Three different field-proven concepts from the Doris Engineering's point of view must be considered for this deep water area: a floating Production Storage and Off-loading (FPSO) unit, a production Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and a mini TLP designed to support wellheads and work aver facility. (author). 1 fig

  14. Lock-Crisp-West folding revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signature of the Fermi surface sheets in spectra collected on high-Tc superconductors by the technique of two-dimensional angular correlation of the electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) is often very weak. The procedure proposed by Lock, Crisp and West (J. Phys. F: Metal Phys. 3, 561 (1973)) to enhance the signature of the Fermi surface in experimental 2D- ACAR spectra is optimized in two ways: by statement of clear cut criteria of the histogram regions which carry nothing but statistical noise and by adequate reformulation of the 2D-ACAR data from the detector to the crystal reference frame. (author). 21 refs

  15. Once upon a Time in the... West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Pineda Franco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objectif d’observer la manière avec laquelle les films américains sur la Révolution mexicaine ont donné un sens –en perpétuant ou en mettant en doute le mythe national de l’Ouest Nord-Américain– à quelques convictions politiques des Etats-Unis tout au long du XXe siècle. À la fin du XIXe siècle, la vie au Far West est soumise à un processus accéléré de modernisation et l’ère du frontier arrive à son terme. Ironiquement, c’est à ce moment précis que le mythe national de l’Ouest prend de l’ampleur suite à la prolifération d’un vaste corpus culturel qui inclut l’essai historique « The Significance of the Frontier in American History » (1893 de Fredrick Jackson Turner. Dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle, les films de l’Ouest documentent et consolident le mythe du caractère américain décrit par Turner. Ces films ont éveillé chez le citadin nord-américain du XXe siècle de la nostalgie envers son légendaire ascendant de l’Ouest. Cependant, à partir des années cinquante, cette nostalgie a acquis un sens critique et s’est politisée, curieusement, dans des films traitant de la Révolution mexicaine. En recréant la Révolution mexicaine comme une frontière renouvelée pleine de promesses utopiques et de souvenirs nostalgiques du Far West, ces films américains rappellent les tensions politiques de certaines périodes dans l’histoire américaine, comme le maccarthysme et la guerre du Viêtnam.This article investigates the manner in which American motion pictures on the Mexican Revolution provided significance –in either perpetuating or questioning America’s foundational myth of the frontier– to particular ideologies and political beliefs in the United States throughout the twentieth century. At the end of the nineteenth century, the life of the American frontier came to an end due to an accelerated process of modernization. Ironically it was during these years that the myth of the frontier was also made up by means of historical discourses such as “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893 by Fredrick Jackson Turner. During the first decades of the twentieth century, the film genre of the Western documented and consolidated this myth. These movies promoted a nostalgic view of the Wild West. However, this nostalgic view became politicized in those Westerns dealing with the Mexican Revolution. Through recasting the Mexican Revolution as a renewed frontier full of utopian promises and nostalgic recollections of America’s Wild West, these American films recall the political tensions of certain periods in American history, such as McCarthyism, and the Vietnam years.

  16. Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Arifin Siradz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java (S.A. Siradz : Red soilis a common name used to identify any soil showing yellowish to reddish colour, these soils mainly occur in tropicaland subtropical regions. The term is frequently used to convey an image of red, infertile, acid soils in the tropics andis associated with tropical and subtropical climates which are characterized by high temperature and humidity. Majorsoil constraints to crop production may include low pH, low available P and high P fixation capacity, toxicity due toAl and sometimes Mn and Fe, deficiencies of N, Ca, Mg, K, and micronutrients e.g. Mo, Zn and Cu, low CEC and lowbase saturation, and very low content of weatherable minerals. The aim of this study was to determine the phosphorussorption characteristics of red soils from Lampung, West Java and Central Java. Soils were sampled at depth of 0-20cm from minimally disturbed sites after discarding the uppermost few cm consisting of an accumulation of litter. Thesamples were air-dried, crushed using a ceramic mortar and pestle and then passed through a 0.5 mm stainless steelsieve. Measurements of P sorption were conducted by equilibrating 200 mg of air dry soil ( West Java and Central Java. Values of pH(NaF, Ald, and exchangeable Ca were most predictive of Psorption in these soils.

  17. Limits—Urban Density and Mobility Networks in West Berlin during the Period of Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Miriam Carlow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available If space may be conceptualized as a natural resource, much like gas, oil, or minerals, then its production and use can also be thought of as something to be properly managed, taken care of, and not wasted. Limiting the expansion of the footprint of built-up land in urban areas forces this particular resource (space to be used more efficiently—in a sense, compelling it to be more creative and productive. These spatial constraints on urban areas generate different kinds of densification processes within the existing city, propagating densification, and with it new patterns and uses in urban development, as well as novel approaches to mitigating the hazards of dense urban environments. This paper examines the case of how spatial containment in West Berlin during the period of the Berlin Wall (1961–1989 produced such outcomes. West Berlin during this period can be considered a unique case of spatial containment, where a relatively large and vibrant modern city had to work around a clear and indelible limit to its physical expansion. This paper will discuss ways in which the containment influenced patterns of development in West Berlin toward densification and connectivity, focusing on the expansion of its infrastructural networks, and discuss the development of a new building culture around transformation and densification, including hybrid architectures and mitigation devices to deal with difficult sites produced by the densification.

  18. Electrical conductivity structure of north-west Fennoscandia from three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Korja, T.; Pedersen, L. B.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Becken, M.

    2015-06-01

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 simultaneous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites were occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. The 3-D inversion of the MaSca data was obtained using the ModEM 3-D code. The full impedance and tipper data were used for the inversion. The rocks of Archaean and Proterozoic basement towards east and the Caledonian nappes towards west are modelled as resistive structures. In the central and southern parts, the whole crust is resistive and reflects the Trans-Scandinavian Igneous Belt granitoids. The middle to lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. An uppermost crustal conductor is revealed in the Skellefteå Ore District. The south end of the Kittilä Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. A map of the crustal conductance for the north-west Fennoscandian Shield is presented.

  19. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  20. Using dual isotopes to evaluate sources and transformations of nitrate in the West Lake watershed, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zanfang; Qin, Xue; Chen, Lingxiao; Jin, Mantong; Li, Feili

    2015-01-01

    The West Lake is a World Heritage site in the West Lake watershed in eastern China. In this study, the hydrogeological and dual isotopic approaches were integrated to evaluate the seasonal and spatial variations of nitrate (NO3(-)) in the West Lake watershed, and to characterize NO3(-) sources and transformations. The results revealed that the geochemical facies of the water samples were dominated by Ca(2+)+Na(+)-HCO3(-)+SO4(2)(-) in the surface water and transfer water, Ca(2+)+Na(+)-HCO3(-) and Ca(2+)+Na(+)-SO4(2-) in the groundwater, which most likely reflect natural reactions and anthropogenic inputs. About 13% of the groundwater samples containing NO3(-) exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 10mgNL(-1). NO3(-) was the dominant form of total nitrogen (TN) and was the main surface water contaminant in the West Lake watershed. The ?(15)NNO3 and ?(18)ONO3 values indicated that the dominant NO3(-) sources in surface water were soil nitrogen (soil N) and chemical fertilizers, while the main NO3(-) sources in groundwater were soil N from the forest, chemical fertilizers and manure in the tea garden, domestic sewage from the small, old residential area in the forest as well as urban areas. The distribution of NO3(-) in groundwater was strongly influenced by land use. Results also suggest that there was significant nitrification in surface water and groundwater in the West Lake watershed, and that there were also denitrification processes in groundwater. The annual net fluxes of TN, NO3(-), and NH4(+) into the West Lake were 2.0×10(4), 4.0×10(3), and 1.31×10(4)kg as N, respectively. PMID:25835546

  1. Using dual isotopes to evaluate sources and transformations of nitrate in the West Lake watershed, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zanfang; Qin, Xue; Chen, Lingxiao; Jin, Mantong; Li, Feili

    2015-06-01

    The West Lake is a World Heritage site in the West Lake watershed in eastern China. In this study, the hydrogeological and dual isotopic approaches were integrated to evaluate the seasonal and spatial variations of nitrate (NO3-) in the West Lake watershed, and to characterize NO3- sources and transformations. The results revealed that the geochemical facies of the water samples were dominated by Ca2 + + Na+-HCO3- + SO42- in the surface water and transfer water, Ca2 + + Na+-HCO3- and Ca2 + + Na+-SO42 - in the groundwater, which most likely reflect natural reactions and anthropogenic inputs. About 13% of the groundwater samples containing NO3- exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 10 mg N L- 1. NO3- was the dominant form of total nitrogen (TN) and was the main surface water contaminant in the West Lake watershed. The ?15NNO3 and ?18ONO3 values indicated that the dominant NO3- sources in surface water were soil nitrogen (soil N) and chemical fertilizers, while the main NO3- sources in groundwater were soil N from the forest, chemical fertilizers and manure in the tea garden, domestic sewage from the small, old residential area in the forest as well as urban areas. The distribution of NO3- in groundwater was strongly influenced by land use. Results also suggest that there was significant nitrification in surface water and groundwater in the West Lake watershed, and that there were also denitrification processes in groundwater. The annual net fluxes of TN, NO3-, and NH4+ into the West Lake were 2.0 × 104, 4.0 × 103, and 1.31 × 104 kg as N, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110o - 130o E the direction and 60o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  3. Recent Site-Wide Transport Modeling Related to the Carbon Tetrachloride Plume at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Cole, C R.

    2005-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride transport in the unconfined aquifer system at the Hanford Site has been the subject of follow-on studies since the Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program was completed in FY 2002. These scoping analyses were undertaken to provide support for strategic planning and guidance for the more robust modeling needed to obtain a final record of decision (ROD) for the carbon tetrachloride plume in the 200 West Area. This report documents the technical approach and the results of these follow-on, site-wide scale-modeling efforts. The existing site-wide groundwater model was used in this effort. The work extended that performed as part of the ITRD modeling study in which a 200 West Area scale submodel was developed to examine arrival concentrations at an arbitrary boundary between the 200 E and 200 W areas. These scoping analyses extended the analysis to predict the arrival of the carbon tetrachloride plume at the Columbia River. The results of these analyses illustrate the importance of developing field-scale estimates of natural attenuation parameters, abiotic degradation rate and soil/water equilibrium sorption coefficient, for carbon tetrachloride. With these parameters set to zero, carbon tetrachloride concentrations will exceed the compliance limit of 5 ?g/L outside the 200 Area Plateau Waste Management Area, and the aquifer source loading and area of the aquifer affected will continue to grow until arrival rates of carbon tetrachloride equal source release rates, estimated at 33 kg/yr. Results of this scoping analysis show that the natural attenuation parameters are critical in predicting the future movement of carbon tetrachloride from the 200 West Area. Results also show the significant change in predictions between continual source release from the vadose zone and complete source removal.

  4. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  5. Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle Memorial Institute's nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S ampersand M and D ampersand D activities. Battelle's King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed

  6. Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-30

    Battelle Memorial Institute`s nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S&M and D&D activities. Battelle`s King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed.

  7. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  8. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events

  9. Buoyant Currents West and East of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Y.; Bacon, S.; Nurser, G.; Coward, A.

    2014-12-01

    Low salinity buoyant polar waters exit the Arctic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic, affecting deep convection in the Nordic and Labrador Seas with potential impacts on the meridional overturning circulation. The pathways of the polar water in Davis Strait, Fram Strait and then to the south are well documented by observations and model simulations. In contrast, measurements upstream of Fram Strait are too sparse to allow us to explain what causes the outflows to exit either west or east of Greenland or to attribute the variability in the Arctic outflows to atmospheric or oceanic mechanisms. Two high-resolution global ocean general circulation models (OGCM), NEMO-ORCA025, of ~12 km resolution, and NEMO-ORCA12, of ~4 km resolution, have been used to examine the dynamics and seasonal variability of the outflow west and east of Greenland. Montgomery potential analysis is used to investigate the dynamics of the currents in the area. The model results suggest wind as a driving mechanism for the seasonal variability of the ocean circulation in the area.

  10. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jannick Kirk

    Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa, with a specific aim at the dissemination of knowledge in field of interaction design both in an academic context, as well as among practitioners. More specifically the paper discusses how interaction design knowledge can be disseminated in West Africa, particularly in Higher Education.

  11. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  12. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  13. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.231 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West...

  15. 76 FR 38680 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...may submit comments related to the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy...

  16. 77 FR 71446 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation...Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy...

  17. Site Closure Strategy Model for Creosote Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conjunction with RCRA site corrective action at an active wood preserving facility, a risk-based site closure strategy was developed and incorporated the performance of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source recovery remedy, a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) remedy for dissolved phase groundwater, and institutional controls. Innovative creosote DNAPL source recovery has been undertaken at the Site since 1998. Pooled creosote DNAPL is present 90 feet below ground within a transmissive sand and gravel aquifer with a saturated thickness of approximately 80 feet. The creosote DNAPL source is situated on the property boundary of the site and has generated a 1/2 mile off-site dissolved phase plume, creating significant NAPL management and remedial technology verification issues. To date, over 120,000 gallons of creosote DNAPL have been recovered from the subsurface utilizing a modified circulation well technology. A mass discharge flux protocol was developed to serve as a major performance metrics for the continuation of source removal efforts and to support the application of monitored natural attenuation as an associated remedial technology for groundwater. The mass removal success has supported the MNA remedy for dissolved phase groundwater and the associated development of institutional controls. The enacted site management strategy outlines the current and future risk management activities for the Site and represents an appropriate site closure strategysents an appropriate site closure strategy for the Site. (authors)

  18. 33 CFR 117.511 - West Pearl River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Pearl River. 117.511 Section 117.511...Requirements Louisiana § 117.511 West Pearl River. (a) The draw of the Norfolk Southern railroad bridge, mile 22.1 at Pearl River Station, shall open on signal...

  19. Antibodies against Lagos Bat Virus in Megachiroptera from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayman, David T. S.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Horton, Daniel; Suu-ire, Richard; Breed, Andrew C.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the presence of Lagos bat virus (LBV)–specific antibodies in megachiroptera from West Africa, we conducted fluorescent antibody virus neutralization tests. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in Eidolon helvum (37%), Epomophorus gambianus (3%), and Epomops buettikoferi (33%, 2/6) from Ghana. These findings confirm the presence of LBV in West Africa.

  20. Fostering E-Mail Security Awareness: The West Point Carronade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Aaron J.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point had a problem with some cadets clicking on suspicious attachments and embedded links, significantly affecting network performance and resource availability. West Point information technology leadership needed a way to increase e-mail security awareness in hopes of maintaining a strong…

  1. Health assessment for West Lake Landfill, Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri, Region 7. CERCLIS No. MODO79900932. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Lake Landfill, located in the City of Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri, was proposed for the National Priorities List (NPL) in October 1989. Soil contaminated with radioactive waste from decontamination efforts at the Cotter Corporation's Latty Avenue plant in Hazelwood, Missouri, was dumped at the landfill in 1973. The radioactive soil was used as cover over refuse and in later years the radioactive soil itself was covered with additional soil and debris. The area around the landfill consists mostly of industrial buildings and business offices with small residential communities to the south and east. Agricultural river bottom land borders to the west, but it is fast being encroached upon by Earth City which is being developed for commercial purposes. The site presents no apparent public health hazard because the available data indicate human health is not currently being affected. Exposures of concern could occur if ground water contamination increases and spreads, exposed radioactive materials on the northwestern edges of the landfill move off site, or on-site worker exposure increases. Continued monitoring is recommended until additional environmental data are available to assess the on-site and off-site contamination and help predict future activity

  2. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are accompanied by the WASCAL Graduate Research Program on the West African Climate System. The GRP-WACS provides ten scholarships per year for West African PhD students with a duration of three years. Present and future WASCAL PhD students will constitute one important user group of the Linux cluster that will be installed at the Competence Center in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Regional Land-Atmosphere Simulations A key research activity of the WASCAL Core Research Program is the analysis of interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere to investigate how land surface changes affect hydro-meteorological surface fluxes such as evapotranspiration. Since current land surface models of global and regional climate models neglect dominant lateral hydrological processes such as surface runoff, a novel land surface model is used, the NCAR Distributed Hydrological Modeling System (NDHMS). This model can be coupled to WRF (WRF-Hydro) to perform two-way coupled atmospheric-hydrological simulations for the watershed of interest. Hardware and network prerequisites include a HPC cluster, network switches, internal storage media, Internet connectivity of sufficient bandwidth. Competences needed are HPC, storage, and visualization systems optimized for climate research, parallelization and optimization of climate models and workflows, efficient management of highest data volumes.

  3. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy-Lacaux, C.; Delon, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000?2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NOx and NH3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha?1 yr?1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha?1 yr?1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha?1 yr?1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated by wet plus dry deposition processes (14.75 ± 2.36 kgN ha?1 yr?1), compared to emissions processes (8.54 ± 0.50 kgN ha?1 yr?1).

  4. Observations and Modeling of the North West Shelf of Australia during Austral Summer 2011/2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Jeffrey; Pequignet, A.-Christine; Macdonald, Helen; Jones, Nicole; Lowe, Ryan; Ivey, Gregory; Rice, Ana; Rowley, Clark; Brinkman, Richard; Steinberg, Craig; Strutton, Peter

    2015-04-01

    During the austral summer of 2011/2012, a series of collaborations between U.S. and Australian funded projects led to the collection of a large observational and modeling dataset for the North West Shelf of Australia. These partnerships resulted in the deployment of 30 moorings at 23 different sites and 5 AUV gliders for various intervals of measurement between November 2011 and August 2012. This region is best known for its strong tidal flows and highly energetic internal tides, but lower frequency flows are also significant with the postulated Holloway Current flowing towards the southwest along the coast and providing a possible limited connecting pathway between the Indonesian Throughflow and the Leeuwin Current. Observations from ADCP current meters over this austral summer showed a weak (3-12 cm/s) mean southwestward flow, but this mean masked generally stronger low-frequency, along-shore flows that reached 25 cm/s or more in either direction, reversing at weekly or longer periods. In general currents tended to be northeastward in Nov.-Dec. and southwestward in Jan.-Apr., but reversals from these trends occurred during both periods. Bottom pressure records from the moorings indicated highly coherent bottom pressure anomaly fluctuations at all sites but also showed a reversal of the onshore/offshore pressure gradient from Nov. to Apr. Two tropical cyclones (Iggy and Lua) passed close by the North West Shelf during the observational period, and in both cases the coastal circulation towards the southwest was strengthened during the storms and then reversed towards the northeast after the storms. Other reversals occurred that were not associated with tropical cyclone dynamics. Analyses of these data and associated modeling runs are ongoing and directed towards the goal of better understanding the low-frequency dynamics of this coastal current. Additionally, understanding the physical forcing of this connecting current will be helpful for future work on the biological connectivity between reef communities located along the North West Shelf.

  5. Interim management and site stabilization at a closed commercial shallow land burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is the custodial agency responsible for the closed commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal area in West Valley, New York. In this regard, the Energy Authority, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, has initiated a project with the following primary objectives: (1) formulate a recommended strategy for permanent stabilization of the LLRW disposal area; design a project to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the trench stabilization portion of the plan and develop an improved interim site management plan for use until the stabilization plan is implemented; (2) identify West Valley LLRW disposal experiences that may apply to the development of new disposal facilities at other sites with similar characteristics; and (3) evaluate the LLRW disposal area's site characteristics in light of pertinent regulatory requirements. Based upon a detailed literature review, the West Valley LLRW disposal area site characteristics were summarized and site problems to be addressed by the site stabilization plan were identified. A systematic evaluation of the Universe of Design Elements capable of correcting these problems led to the development of six site stabilization candidates. This presentation will briefly describe the characteristics and operational history of the LLRW disposal area and the status of the project to date. In addition, the process that identified and ranked six candidate plans, and the implications and associated costs of instituting specific candidate plans, will be discussed

  6. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  7. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site's radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials

  8. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10?3 m w.e. m?1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  9. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at 8 sites along a transect over an altitude range of 390–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10?3 m w.e. m?1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower 3 sites within 10 km of the margin experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  10. Results of the radiological survey at 136 West Central Avenue (MJ030), Maywood, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Energy and Water Appropriations Act of Fiscal Year 1984, the property discussed in this report and properties in its vicinity contaminated with residues from the former Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) were included as a decontamination research and development project under the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. As part of this project, DOE is conducting radiological surveys in the vicinity of the site to identify properties contaminated with residues derived from the MCW. The principal radionuclide of concern is thorium-232. The radiological survey discussed in this report is part of that effort and was conducted, at the request of DOE by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A radiological survey of the private, residential property at 136 West Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey, was conducted during 1987. The survey and sampling of the ground surface and subsurface were carried out on April 29, 1987

  11. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  12. Results of detailed characterization on CH-TRU mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have jointly participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental Test Program since 1990. A new facility at Argonne was developed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of contact-handled transuranic mixed waste characterization and to decrease the potential for facility contamination and personnel exposures. This new facility, the Waste Characterization Area, was approved for radioactive operations in March 1994. Between April and September 1994, forty-two waste drums containing mixed debris waste were characterized to support a study being performed to evaluate volatile organic compound concentrations in the void volume headspaces of waste drums. This paper presents the results of characterization performed at Argonne, emphasizing parameters important from a facility standpoint. Specifically, information is presented on drum surface dose rate, fissile content, number and type of gas samples, volatile organic compound concentration, and facility contamination levels. Actual values are compared to enveloping conditions assumed in the safety assessment for the characterization facility. Argonne-West is one of the first DOE sites to perform detailed waste characterization under the DOE's Transuranic Waste Characterization Program. The information presented herein could aid other storage and generator sites in developing characterization procedures and facilities

  13. West Foster Creek 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    A follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the West Foster Creek (Smith acquisition) wildlife mitigation site in May 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance and maintain the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The West Foster Creek 2007 follow-up HEP survey generated 2,981.96 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for a 34% increase (+751.34 HUs) above baseline HU credit (the 1999 baseline HEP survey generated 2,230.62 habitat units or 1.13 HUs per acre). The 2007 follow-up HEP analysis yielded 1,380.26 sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) habitat units, 879.40 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) HUs, and 722.29 western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) habitat units. Mule deer and sharp-tailed grouse habitat units increased by 346.42 HUs and 470.62 HUs respectively over baseline (1999) survey results due largely to cessation of livestock grazing and subsequent passive restoration. In contrast, the western meadowlark generated slightly fewer habitat units in 2007 (-67.31) than in 1999, because of increased shrub cover, which lowers habitat suitability for that species.

  14. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  15. Results of the radiological survey at 142 West Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ041)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 142 West Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ041), was conducted during 1988. Results of the survey indicated scattered radiation or ''shine'' from a storage pile, located off the property, containing residual radioactive material. Lead-shielded measurements showed radioactivity in the range of normal background for the northern New Jersey area. Radiological assessments of soil samples from the site demonstrate no radionuclide concentrations in excess of DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Suitability Evaluation for Lowland Rice in Inland Valleys in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideto, Fujii; Muralikrishna, Gumma; Prasad, Thenkabail; Regassa, Namara

    A GIS based model developed by the authors are applied for selecting suitable rice cultivation area in inland valleys that has high potential for rice production in West Africa where rice consumption is increasing very rapidly. The model has the following features. 1) The model is to evaluate the suitability of the land for lowland rice based on score distribution maps respectively made by the data of 29 evaluation parameters. 2) The parameters are classified into 4 categories; bio-physical, technical, socio-economic and health-environmental parameters. 3) Each scored map (layer) is integrated to obtain total scores by multiplying a weight which is determined by the importance of parameters. The suitability for rice in two study sites was evaluated using the model. Mankran and Jolo-Kwaha watershed selected as the study sites from different agro-ecological zone in Ghana. Applying the data of 12 parameters acquired in the study sites to the model, “very suitable” or “suitable” occupies around 30% in Mankran study site and around 60% in Jolo-Kwaha study site.

  17. Petroleum reserves in West Africa: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gulf of Guinea region in West Africa is one in which production and reserves have increased the most during the last few years, essentially due to offshore operation. It is also there that the most spectacular discoveries have been made in recent years, particularly with deep-sea drilling. The low production costs and enthusiastic welcome for foreign investors make the region a favoured destination for large international companies, even if uncertainties and political tensions remain to make the situation delicate. In these conditions, the relationship between the host State and the foreign petrol companies are changing. Beyond the purely formal aspects of these new contacts, the whole former system of 'reserved markets' is being threatened by the increasing tendency to open the sector to competition. Eight countries are examined in detail: Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, the Ivory Coast and Chad. (authors)

  18. Microelements in petroleums of West Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sc, Sb, Hf and Hg content in petroleums and gas-condensates of 22 beds of West Kazakhstan is determined by neutron-activation. The average concentration of these microelements is minimum in petroleums obtained from layers adjacent to salt-bearing deposits of Upper Permian age and increases in persalt petroleums with a reduction and in subsalt petroleums - with increasing depth of occurrence and age of the holding reservoirs. Fe, Ni, Co, Sc and Sb content in petroleums subjected to catagenic transformations from subsalt deposits increases in proportion to the extent of their metamorphic change. Gas-condensates contain on average the same metal microimpurities, which indicates a fairly high volatility of organometallic complexes under conditions of retrograde evaporation of mineral resources. 5 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  19. Ecosystem variability in west Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, E.; Pedersen, SØren Anker

    2004-01-01

    A review of the climate conditions off West Greenland during the past 50 years shows large variability in the atmospheric, oceanographic and sea-ice variables, as well as in fish stocks. A positive relationship is found between water temperature and the recruitment of cod and redfish, whereas the recruitment of shrimp and halibut is negatively related to temperature. Observed shifts in the hydrographic conditions during the second half of the 1990s indicate that some changes in the environment may be expected in the coming years. Relationships between the past variations in fish resources, hydrographic conditions, and the large-scale climatic conditions, as expressed by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), strongly support the incorporation of environmental variability into prediction models for fish recruitment and therefore into the assessment of the fish resources.

  20. Russia, the West and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George F. Kennan, awarded with the peace prize of the German book-trade in 1982, has in the fifties already attracted world-wide attention with his lectures resumed in this book, and given rise to violent discussions by claiming a creative policy of the West. 'Shall we, like chased animals, race from one kind of defensive means to another, the one more expensive and disgraceful than the other, hide underground today, desert our towns tomorrow, surround ourselves with complicated electronic shields the day after to-morrow, only taking care of prolonging our lives and to sacrifice everything which makes life worth living.' Kennan's questions and claims are still of timely nature to the peace movement as well as for the disarmament controversy, even if the technical and military conditions have changed. (orig.)

  1. Changes in the West Antarctic ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The portion of the West Antarctic ice sheet that flows into the Ross Sea is thinning in some places and thickening in others. These changes are not caused by any current climatic change, but by the combination of a delayed response to the end of the last global glacial cycle and an internal instability. The near-future impact of the ice sheet on global sea level is largely due to processes internal to the movement of the ice sheet, and not so much to the threat of a possible greenhouse warming. Thus the near-term future of the ice sheet is already determined. However, too little of the ice sheet has been surveyed to predict its overall future behavior

  2. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) wered Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  3. A retrospective tiered environmental assessment of the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, West Virginia,USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Day, Robin [No Affiliation; Strickland, M. Dale [Western EcoSystems Technology

    2012-11-01

    Bird and bat fatalities from wind energy projects are an environmental and public concern, with post-construction fatalities sometimes differing from predictions. Siting facilities in this context can be a challenge. In March 2012 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Land-based Wind Energy Guidelines to assess collision fatalities and other potential impacts to species of concern and their habitats to aid in siting and management. The Guidelines recommend a tiered approach for assessing risk to wildlife, including a preliminary site evaluation that may evaluate alternative sites, a site characterization, field studies to document wildlife and habitat and to predict project impacts, post construction studies to estimate impacts, and other post construction studies. We applied the tiered assessment framework to a case study site, the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility in Grant County, West Virginia, USA, to demonstrate the use of the USFWS assessment approach, to indicate how the use of a tiered assessment framework might have altered outputs of wildlife assessments previously undertaken for the case study site, and to assess benefits of a tiered ecological assessment framework for siting wind energy facilities. The conclusions of this tiered assessment for birds are similar to those of previous environmental assessments for Mount Storm. This assessment found risk to individual migratory tree-roosting bats that was not emphasized in previous preconstruction assessments. Differences compared to previous environmental assessments are more related to knowledge accrued in the past 10 years rather than to the tiered structure of the Guidelines. Benefits of the tiered assessment framework include good communication among stakeholders, clear decision points, a standard assessment trajectory, narrowing the list of species of concern, improving study protocols, promoting consideration of population-level effects, promoting adaptive management through post-construction assessment and mitigation, and sharing information that can be used in other assessments.

  4. Case study: West Valley - a status update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FUSRAP in New Jersey consists of five sites, representing 17% of all sites in the FUSRAP program. Three of these; one in Middlesex, one in Wayne, and one in Maywood are discussed. Each of these is being used as an interim storage site for contaminated material from vicinity properties. They also represent three distinct stages of completion of interim remedial action also having been accomplished. Contrasts range from drastically different attitudes in the public and local government sector to significant differences in quantities of contaminated materials, and the mechanisms by which they migrated to vicinity properties. And, in each case, the main concern on the part of the public is lack of a location for permanent disposal. The history, objectives, and accomplishments for each site will be discussed; and, in keeping with the overall theme of the conference, those activities which were undertaken during FY 1986 to enhance productivity enhancement will be described and several areas demonstrating improved cost effectiveness will be discussed

  5. Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?

    OpenAIRE

    RASELIMANANA, ACHILLE P; Daniel Rakotondravony; Gilbert Razafimanjato; The Seing Sam; Tolojanahary R. A. Andriamalala; Marius Rakotondratsima; Russell Thorstrom; Lily-Arison Rene de Roland; Jeanneney Rabearivony; Michel Rakotoson

    2010-01-01

    The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar). These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha) and Mandrozo (15,145 ha) in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha) in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of ...

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Síndrome de West: etiología, fisiopatología, aspectos clínicos y pronósticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albia J. Pozo Alonso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de West es una encefalopatía epiléptica dependiente de la edad caracterizada por la tríada electroclínica de espasmos epilépticos, retardo del desarrollo psicomotor y patrón electroencefalográfico de hipsarritmia en el electroencefalograma, aunque uno de estos elementos puede estar ausente. Se inicia en la mayoría de los pacientes durante el primer año de vida. Desde el punto de vista etiológico se clasifica en idiopático, criptogénico y sintomático. Las causas prenatales son las más frecuentes. Diversas hipótesis se han planteado para explicar el origen del síndrome de West. Los espasmos epilépticos son las crisis características del síndrome de West, los cuales pueden ser en flexión, extensión y mixtos. Se realiza una revisión de aspectos importantes de la etiología, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico diferencial y pronóstico del síndrome de West.West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy characterized by electoclinical triad of epileptic spasms, retardation of psychomotor development and electroencephalographic pattern of hipsarrythmia, although one of these elements may not be present. The majority of patients develop this syndrome in the first year of life. From the etiological viewpoint, Western syndrome is idiopathic, cryptogenic and symptomatic. The prenatal causes are the most frequent ones. Various hypotheses have been presented to explain the origin of West syndrome. Epileptic spasms are the characteristic crises that can be in flexion, extension or combined. A review is made on important aspects of etiology, physiopathology, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis and prognosis of West syndrome.

  9. Síndrome de West: etiología, fisiopatología, aspectos clínicos y pronósticos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Albia J., Pozo Alonso; Desiderio, Pozo Lauzán; Desi, Pozo Alonso.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de West es una encefalopatía epiléptica dependiente de la edad caracterizada por la tríada electroclínica de espasmos epilépticos, retardo del desarrollo psicomotor y patrón electroencefalográfico de hipsarritmia en el electroencefalograma, aunque uno de estos elementos puede estar ausen [...] te. Se inicia en la mayoría de los pacientes durante el primer año de vida. Desde el punto de vista etiológico se clasifica en idiopático, criptogénico y sintomático. Las causas prenatales son las más frecuentes. Diversas hipótesis se han planteado para explicar el origen del síndrome de West. Los espasmos epilépticos son las crisis características del síndrome de West, los cuales pueden ser en flexión, extensión y mixtos. Se realiza una revisión de aspectos importantes de la etiología, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico diferencial y pronóstico del síndrome de West. Abstract in english West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy characterized by electoclinical triad of epileptic spasms, retardation of psychomotor development and electroencephalographic pattern of hipsarrythmia, although one of these elements may not be present. The majority of patients develop this [...] syndrome in the first year of life. From the etiological viewpoint, Western syndrome is idiopathic, cryptogenic and symptomatic. The prenatal causes are the most frequent ones. Various hypotheses have been presented to explain the origin of West syndrome. Epileptic spasms are the characteristic crises that can be in flexion, extension or combined. A review is made on important aspects of etiology, physiopathology, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis and prognosis of West syndrome.

  10. The World Cricket Cup Arrives in the West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Max

    2007-03-09

    Marley's Ghost to Welcome Fans for Cricket World Cuphttp://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/02/world/americas/02kingston.html?ref=americasICC Cricket World Cup 2007 [iTunes]http://cricketworldcup.indya.com/The Rules of Crickethttp://www.therulesofcricket.co.uk/CaribbeanCricket.comhttp://caribbeancricket.com/Cricket for Americahttp://www.nakedwhiz.com/crickgl.htm#bushIn the year 1611, two men in Sussex found themselves in a spot of trouble as they were prosecuted for playing cricket on Sunday instead of attending church. The draw of this immensely popular sport has continued unabated for four centuries, and like many other things associated with the British Empire, it spread quickly, and passions surrounding the sport and its matches often dominate conversations everywhere from Islamabad to Kingston. This March finds cricket fans looking towards the West Indies, as they will be playing host to the Cricket World Cup. In past years, the event has been held in India and South Africa, and this year finds a number of countries in the region (including Guyana and Jamaica) hosting different matches. This year's World Cup has seen a number of logistical challenges, not the least of which is the difficult problem of obtaining travel visas for all of the players, coaches, and support staff. Fortunately, most of these issues have been resolved, and the coming weeks promise to be rather exciting ones for those people with a penchant for all-rounders, cabbage patches, and of course, googlies. The first link leads to a delightful story from the Pakistan Daily Times which talks about a number of cricket "outsiders", including Canada, Scotland, and Bermuda, and their respective chances in the Cricket World Cup. The second link leads to a recent piece from the New York Times which talks about the various preparations going on in places such as Kingston and Barbados for the huge influx of die-hard cricket fans that is due to begin shortly. Moving on, the third link leads to the very thorough official Cricket World Cup website, which includes press releases, information on the teams, and details on the venues themselves. Visitors to the site can also listen in on the official song of the 2007 Cricket World Cup, which happens to be sung by Faye-Ann Lyons of Trinidad and the Jamaican-born artist, Shaggy. The fourth site leads to the official and complete rules of cricket, which has been canonized into 42 laws. The fifth link will whisk users away to CaribbeanCricket.com, which serves as the "independent voice of West Indies Cricket." The final link will be most helpful to those who may be confused with argot used in the world of cricket. This online version of "The Devil's Dictionary of Cricket" by Miss Frances Bush will answer many, many questions about dozens of cricket terms.

  11. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Simpevarp, Forsmark, and Tierp north. The site investigations have started at Simpevarp and Forsmark. The municipal council of Tierp rejected a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial Site Investigation is performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The Initial Site Investigation is expected to take about 3 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, Complete Site Investigation will follow for an expected duration of another 3 years. The purpose of the Complete Site Investigation is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. The site-specific programme gives an overview of the whole site investigation phase as well as a detailed description of the initial stage. The results of the initial investigations will determine whether Simpevarp is appropriate for further investigation, i.e. the Complete Site Investigation. This document summarizes the investigations that will be carried out at Simpevarp during the Initial Site Investigations. The document is a working document, which will be successively updated as results from the investigations become available. The main aim of the site investigation is to obtain permits to site and build the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and the encapsulation plant. The main task of the site investigation at Simpevarp is to study the local bedrock and environment. This information is needed to evaluate the long-term safety of a repository for spent nuclear fuel at the studied site. Data is also needed to describe how the above- and underground parts of the deep repository can be designed and built with respect to the bedrock conditions and infrastructure. In addition, information is needed for the evaluation of the consequences of a repository for the environment during the construction and operating phases. In the feasibility study, it was shown that the bedrock on the Simpevarp peninsula is generally more heterogeneous than the rock further to west. It was not clear whether there is a sufficiently large volume of rock with suitable properties for the construction of a deep repository on the peninsula. However, the positive experiences from the construction of the existing rock-facility, CLAB, should be pointed out. The conclusions of the feasibility study were that a site investigation should focus on the characterisation of the conditions at depth both on the Simpevarp peninsula and in the area to the west of Simpevarp. The investigation programme takes into account both site-specific questions that have been identified in the feasibility study as well as questions of a more general nature. In addition, new site-specific questions will probably arise as the investigation proceeds. Important geological questions which have been identified and which must be addressed are: The size and position of bedrock blocks with favourable properties. The size of the blocks is especially important on the Simpevarp peninsula. The occurrence of veins of fine-grained granite and fracture zones and their importance to permeability to water. There are additional questions which must be addressed, for example the occurrence of high rock-stresses, th

  12. Potential sites suitable for relocation and/or reprocessing of the Grand Junction and Rifle uranium-mill-tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure and results of a regional search for sites that appear to be suitable for the relocation and/or reprocessing of the Grand Junction and Rifle uranium mill tailings piles are described. This search identified nine potential sites within the study area that are offered to the Candidate Site Review Committee for further consideration. All nine sites can be used for joint disposal of the uranium tailings in both Grand Junction and Rifle. Disposal of any individual pile at any of the nine sites may also be considered by the Committee. It is the responsibility of the Committee to determine which of these sites should be recommended to the US Department of Energy for detailed evaluation of their suitability for uranium tailings disposal. This should include consideration of sites for joint disposal as well as disposal in separate sites. All sites are entirely on federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The sites fall within five general geographic locations. Two Road, McDonald Creek, and 6 and 50 Reservoir sites lie west of Mack near the Utah-Colorado border. East Salt Creek and Camp Gulch sites are north of Mack near the Mesa-Garfield County Line. Halls Basin and Cheney Reservoir sites are found southeast of Grand Junction west of and below Grand Mesa. Lucas Mesa site lies east of DeBeque across the Colorado River. Flatiron Mesa site is south of Rifle on the northeast flank of Battlement Mesa. A comprehensive site selection process was used rehensive site selection process was used to identify the recommended potential sites. None of the sites are completely ideal when all relevant factors are considered. The Committee must compare and weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each site to determine which sites are the most favorable for continued evaluation for long-term containment of the uranium tailings. It must be emphasized that this investigation is of a regional nature and therefore is preliminary

  13. Site Selection of Local Marketing Cooperatives of Agricultural Crops in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jalalzadeh; Seyed Hedayatollah Nouri Zamanabadi; Khalil Kalantari

    2014-01-01

    Undoubtedly one of the necessities of today's world is the competition with other countries to achieve a balanced position, yet superior in many aspects of economic, social, political and cultural aspects. Based on the statistics, 31.54 percent of the Iran total population lives in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of their income. One of the major problems of agricultural economy in Iran refers to many brokers and intermediaries in the transfer of goods from the producer to th...

  14. Changes in water quality at Cochin harbour dredging site, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The water quality in the vicinity of the dredging did not show any appreciable change. All dissolved nutrients recorded sharp changes in the water column. After 20 minutes and 2 hours, the conditions at the dredging were much different from the pre...

  15. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...Designation of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged...6WQ-EC), 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200...free of any defects or viruses. Docket: All documents...Protection Agency, 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200...reception area at 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 700,...

  16. West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experimental Station Bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interested in livestock auction markets in West Virginia? How about interregional competition in the US broiler industry? This intriguing collection of experimental station bulletins from West Virginia University has got you covered. Visitors can browse this collection of over 200 items by date, bulletin number, and author. The homepage has a Basic Search feature that makes this quite easy and visitors can also store items of note in an online "bookbag" for later consideration. Some of the more recent publications include "Empirical analysis of income distribution in West Virginia" and "Occurrence, etiology and management of ringworm in ewes.�

  17. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  18. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement schemes, but by 1970 these schemes had only absorbed about 100,000 people. The failure to reduce poverty during the 1955-1970 period resulted from the use of strategies that tried to resolve the poverty problem by using more modern methods of agriculture to increase the output of rice and rubber while leaving traditional patterns of peasant agriculture undisturbed. There was a failure to recognize that poverty was the result of these traditional patterns, with its tiny landholdings, high rents, and low-value crops. The strategies, which perpetuated peasant smallholding, worked to reinforce and bind the farmer into a structure that he needed to get away from if he were to escape poverty. Radical initiatives are needed. These would include a faster alienation of land, a shift away from the smallholder cultivation of rice and rubber, and a plan to facilitate a large number of the rural poor moving out of peasant farming. PMID:12337651

  19. The multifaceted West Greenland passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Sonja; Damm, Volkmar; Block, Martin; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Heyde, Ingo; Nelson, Catherine; Kouwe, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The Baffin Bay located between Greenland and Canada, is the northward extension of the Labrador Sea. The Davis Strait High separates these two marine basins. The evolution of these basins is closely linked, and is as well affiliated to the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The opening history started in the Cretaceous with the formation of several terrestrial rift basins with a block-faulted, metamorphic Precambrian basement. The further opening of the Baffin Bay coincides with the volcanic activity (60.9-52.5 Ma) along the West Greenland margin (Storey et al., 1998). The subsequent seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay is linked to the Labrador Sea by the Ungava Fault Zone (UFZ), which is the most prominent transform fault in this region. Two main problems are still unsolved: 1) There are clear indications for normal seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay like the seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) on the Canadian side (Skaarup et al., 2006) and on the Greenland side based on our data. On the other hand, associated magnetic spreading anomalies are not yet discovered in the Baffin Bay or are not formed. These findings may either point to slow or ultraslow spreading or underlying strongly extended continental crust and/or serpentinised mantle. 2) The Greenlandic margin is much wider than the Canadian. In addition, a breakup unconformity can only be traced on the Greenland side and is not reported for the Canadian side. Which process causes this asymmetric margin and differences in shelf width? Is it a result of asymmetric spreading or connected to volcanic activity during breakup processes? In summer 2008, a marine geoscientific expedition (MSM09/03) was conducted with the research vessel "Maria S. Merian" in the Davis Strait and southern Baffin Bay. Approximately 1800 km of multichannel reflection seismic data were acquired. To supplement the database, a subsequent marine geoscientific expedition ARK-XXV/3 with RV POLARSTERN in summer 2010 was conducted. In our presentation we demonstrate the various structural characteristics of the Greenland margin based on new geophysical and potential field data acquired along profiles in the West Baffin Bay. Based on the new processed seismic reflection data the Davis Strait area can be characterised as a typical passive continental margin structure with its large rotated basement blocks and with its pronounced basement highs separating the internal basins. Further north, in the southern Baffin Bay the geological setting changes. Here, the new discovered SDRs on the Greenland side point to a volcanic passive margin. In the reconstruction of the Baffin Bay, (Oakey and Chalmers, 2012) show corresponding SDRs on the Canadian side, which build the conjugated margin to ours. The extinct spreading centre can be distinguished and changes from normal to slow or ultra-slow spreading can be documented from the seismic data. Oakey, G.N. and Chalmers, J.A., 2012. A new model for the Paleogene motion of Greenland relative to North America: Plate reconstructions of the Davis Strait and Nares Strait regions between Canada and Greenland. J. Geophys. Res., 117(B10): B10401. Skaarup, N., Jackson, H.R. and Oakey, G., 2006. Margin segmentation of Baffin Bay/Davis Strait, eastern Canada based on seismic reflection and potential field data. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 23(1): 127-144. Storey, M., Duncan, R.A., Pedersen, A.K., Larsen, L.M. and Larsen, H.C., 1998. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the West Greenland Tertiary volcanic province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 160(3-4): 569-586.

  20. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2007-01-29

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2 degrees C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6 degrees C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6 degrees C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in icedependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate/ecological gradients extending along the WAP and the presence of monitoring systems, field stations and long-term research programmes make the region an invaluable observatory of climate change and marine ecosystem response. PMID:17405208

  1. External Web Site Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us External Web Site Policy When you see this

  2. Inventory Control Related Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inventory Control Related Sites is a straightforward index of Websites dealing with inventory control, created by Kyle Thill, a 20-year veteran of inventory control. The sites are fully annotated and cover Census Bureau information, articles, and other metasites.

  3. Drupal 7 Multilingual Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.

  4. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 21 contains responses to USNRC questions on quality assurance contained in USNRC letter to NFS dated January 22, 1976, revised pages for the safety analysis report, and Appendix IX ''Quality Assurance Manual--West Valley Construction Projects.''

  5. Differential Virulence of West Nile Strains for American Crows

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Aaron C.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Panella, Nicholas A.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Miller, Barry R.; Komar, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Increased viremia and deaths in American Crows inoculated with a North American West Nile viral genotype indicate that viral genetic determinants enhance avian pathogenicity and increase transmission potential of WNV.

  6. The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about West Nile Virus and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/12/2012.

  7. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    1993-01-01

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  8. The Long Gray Lie: West Point in Children's Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Timothy Dow

    1981-01-01

    Although often represented in movies and on television, West Point's most frequent and influential appearance in popular culture has been in children's literature, most notably in juvenile series books. (HOD)

  9. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semipermanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992 crop...

  10. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  11. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    Spectacular spits of different sizes and variety of shapes bordering west coast of India were mapped with remote sensing techniques. By gathering information on geomorphological and locational parameters of spits, "SPITBASE", a database of spits...

  12. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  13. Characterizing freshwater and nutrient fluxes to West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present oceanographic and water-quality observations made at 4 locations in West Falmouth Harbor and 3 in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. While both...

  14. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    1992-01-01

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  15. Food Habits of Black Ducks Wintering in West Central Tennessee

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reports covers food habits of black ducks wintering in west central Tennessee This study was conducted to describe the food habits of black ducks Anas rubripes...

  16. Great Leap Forward Means More Contact with the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the new Chinese policy of increased contacts with the West, the reform of higher education, and the embarking on a program for the development of science and technology. (GA)

  17. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  18. Littoral transport studies along west coast of India - A reivew

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an overview of investigations that were carried out to determine the dynamics of littoral transport along the west coast of India, during last three decades. Sedimentological methods, wave refraction diagrams, tracer tracking...

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) West Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the West Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  20. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  1. Hydrological deformation induced by the West African Monsoon: Comparison of GPS, GRACE and loading models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmani, Samuel; Bock, Olivier; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Boy, Jean-Paul; Collilieux, Xavier; Métivier, Laurent; Panet, Isabelle; Genthon, Pierre; de Linage, Caroline; Wöppelmann, Guy

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional ground deformation measured with permanent GPS stations in West Africa was used for investigating the hydrological loading deformation associated with Monsoon precipitation. The GPS data were processed within a global network for the 2003-2008 period. Weekly station positions were retrieved with a repeatability (including unmodeled loading effects) of 1-2 mm in the horizontal components and between 2.5 and 6 mm in the vertical component. The annual signal in the vertical component for sites located between 9.6°N and 16.7°N is in the range 10-15 mm. It is consistent at the 3 mm-level with the annual regional-scale loading deformations estimated from GRACE satellite products and modeled with a combination of hydrological, atmospheric, and nontidal oceanic models. An additional 6 month transient signal was detected in the vertical component of GPS estimates at most of the West African sites. It takes the form of an oscillation occurring between September and March, and reaching a maximum amplitude of 12-16 mm at Ouagadougou (12.5°N). The analysis of in situ hydro-geological data revealed a strong coincidence between this transient signal and peak river discharge at three sites located along the Niger River (Timbuktu, Gao, and Niamey). At Ouagadougou, a similar coincidence was found with the seasonal variations of the water table depth. We propose a mechanism to account for this signal that involves a sequence of swelling/shrinking of clays combined with local loading effects associated with flooding of the Niger River.

  2. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure

  3. The AMMA-CATCH Gourma observatory site in Mali : relating climatic variations to changes in vegetation, surface hydrology, fluxes and natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mougin, E.; Hiernaux, Pierre; Kergoat, L.; Grippa, Manuela; Rosnay, Patricia; Timouk, F.; Le Dantec, Vale?rie; Demarez, Vale?rie; Lavenu, F.; Arjounin, M.; Lebel, Thierry; Soumaguel, N.; Ceschia, Eric; Mougenot, Bernard; Baup, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Gourma site in Mali is one of the 3 instrumented meso-scale sites deployed in West- Africa as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project. Located both in the Sahelian zone sensu stricto, and in the Saharo-Sahelian transition zone, the Gourma meso-scale window is the northernmost site of the AMMA-CATCH observatory reached by the West-African monsoon. The experimental strategy includes deployment of a variety of instruments, from local to meso-scale, dedicated to ...

  4. Precipitation and lake-level changes in the West and Midwest over the past 10,000 to 24,000 years. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the research described in this report is to document the climatic variability over the past 10,000 to 20,000 years in areas in which sites may be designated for the burial of nuclear wastes. Three separate data sets were studied, and the results are presented in three chapters. The first data set consisted of radiocarbon dates documenting past changes in lake levels in lakes and playas in the western United States. The sites were mapped where water levels were higher than the levels today and were presented in a table telling what evidence is available at each site. The lake-level fluctuations for the past 24,000 years at sites in the West were also mapped and time series for these fluctuations at four sites were presented. The second data set was a selection of the published radiocarbon-dated pollen diagrams from the western United States. These data are a valuable source of climatic information and complement the geological evidence of lake-level fluctuations in the West. A table is presented that gives the location, elevation, and number of radiocarbon dates for each site. The third data set was a set of fossil pollen data from 20 sites in the upper Midwest. These data were calibrated in terms of precipitation changes over the past 10,000 years, and maps are presented of the estimated precipitation changes between 10,000 and 7000 years ago and between 7000 years ago and today

  5. Precipitation and lake-level changes in the West and Midwest over the past 10,000 to 24,000 years. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T. III; Street, F.A.; Howe, S.

    1980-02-04

    The goal of the research described in this report is to document the climatic variability over the past 10,000 to 20,000 years in areas in which sites may be designated for the burial of nuclear wastes. Three separate data sets were studied, and the results are presented in three chapters. The first data set consisted of radiocarbon dates documenting past changes in lake levels in lakes and playas in the western United States. The sites were mapped where water levels were higher than the levels today and were presented in a table telling what evidence is available at each site. The lake-level fluctuations for the past 24,000 years at sites in the West were also mapped and time series for these fluctuations at four sites were presented. The second data set was a selection of the published radiocarbon-dated pollen diagrams from the western United States. These data are a valuable source of climatic information and complement the geological evidence of lake-level fluctuations in the West. A table is presented that gives the location, elevation, and number of radiocarbon dates for each site. The third data set was a set of fossil pollen data from 20 sites in the upper Midwest. These data were calibrated in terms of precipitation changes over the past 10,000 years, and maps are presented of the estimated precipitation changes between 10,000 and 7000 years ago and between 7000 years ago and today.

  6. [West Nile virus. II. Immunopathophysiology in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteri, Marion C; Diamond, Michael S; Norris, Philip J; Busch, Michael P

    2011-04-01

    Since its emergence in 1999 in America, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States. The infection is often asymptomatic but, when clinical manifestations occur, a broad range of symptoms is observed from flu-like symptoms to more serious neurological disorders that can sometimes lead to death. No treatment or vaccine is available for humans. Ongoing studies are trying to understand the host-virus dynamics that lead to the development of severe neurological symptoms in a minority of infected subjects. The amount of knowledge that was gained from parallel studies in animals and humans, comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, and using what was known of other Flaviviruses, will eventually translate to the development of potential therapeutic and prophylactic solutions. This review presents a synthesis of the most relevant findings concerning the immune response to WNV and its impact on disease outcome and gives an overview of the most promising therapeutic and prophylactic solutions. PMID:21524402

  7. Precambrian geology west of Scottburgh, Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proterozoic rocks exposed within the study area west of Scottburgh form part of the Mapumulo Group in the eastern or Natal sector of the Namaqua-Natal Mobile-Belt. The Mzinto Formation, comprising a supracrustal sequence of high grade gneisses and schists, is recognised as being the oldest group of rocks in the area. A suite of granitoid rocks was identified comprising six different granitoids with a widespread distribution and including pegmatite and aplite phases. A foliation of tectonic origin was recognised in five of the granitoids indicating that they underwent intense deformation and regional metamorphism following emplacement. The faint foliation develop in the sixth granitoid is suggestive of intrusion during or after deformation. Four phases of deformation are recognised. Three phases of metamorphism are associated with the respective phases of deformation. A total-count scintillometer survey of the area was carried out in conjunction with geological mapping. Results of the scintillometer survey are discussed together with some theoretical ideas on the possible types of uranium deposit which might be expected to occur within this geological environment

  8. Environmental security in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arms race and military security during the Cold War cost trillions of dollars. It has been claimed that the processes of disarmament, and the large-scale conversion from military to civilian production that is now under way, will be equally costly. This includes the cost of environmental clean up and other measures to deal with the environmental legacy of the Cold War. Norway strongly supports a holistic approach to environmental issues. The armed forces and military industry must also adapt to environmental demands and adopt the principles of modern environmental management. Our own defence forces have for some time been basing their choice of equipment partly on modern environmental criteria and are taking steps to remedy previous environmental damage. Field training and exercises are subject to stringent environmental restrictions. All along the former East-West divide the scope of military activity has been dramatically reduced. The time has come to focus more attention on military or arms-related environmental issues

  9. Population control programme in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K V

    1996-01-01

    Population size doubled over the period 1947-81 and continues to grow. Such a rapid increase in population size has serious repercussions upon socioeconomic development. Population growth threatens to nullify efforts to improve the condition of the poor. Indeed, all gains in the field of agriculture, industry, and national income look marginal when measured in per capita terms. The family welfare program seeks to promote, on a voluntary basis, responsible and planned parenthood of a two-child norm devoid of any bias for or against the sex of a given child. Use of the mass media and interpersonal communication to explain various methods of contraception and remove sociocultural barriers has led to an increase in the number of family planning acceptors in recent years. However, despite the family welfare program being in operation for four decades, population continues to grow at an alarming rate. It is clear that program strategy and mode of implementation must be reviewed. The state government of West Bengal is determined to implement the family welfare program effectively through the motivation and education of married couples, while making various types of contraceptive services available to the people. PMID:12347749

  10. Coccinia intermedia - a new Cucurbitaceae species from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Norbert; Renner, Susanne S

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species' monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions. PMID:22287923

  11. Coccinia intermedia - a new Cucurbitaceae species from West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Renner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species` monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions.

  12. Coccinia intermedia - a new Cucurbitaceae species from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Renner; Norbert Holstein

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species' monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions.

  13. Coccinia intermedia – a new Cucurbitaceae species from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Norbert; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species' monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions. PMID:22287923

  14. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  15. Natural resources endowment and economic growth: The West African Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Jalloh

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth ...

  16. ECOWAS and West Africa's Future : Problems or possibilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Ro?nnba?ck, Ann-sofi

    2008-01-01

    West Africa is a region characterized by problems and possibilities. Protracted civil wars, coup d’etats, the majority of the population living in poverty, extensive supplies of natural resources, post-conflict reconstruction and attempts to achieve regional cooperation are all parts of West Africa’s past and current situation. The region is also of importance for global actors such as China, US and the EU in their need to secure present and future supplies of strategically important natu...

  17. Road Density and Levels of Development in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshad; Dr. Jabir Hasan Khan

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyse the spatial patterns of road density, variations in the level of development and casual relationship between road density (dependent variable) and selected variables of socio-economic development (independent variables) among the districts of the state of West Bengal. The entire research work is based on secondary sources of data, collected from Census of India publications (2001), New Delhi and Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, West Bengal...

  18. The CIAO: Web portal of geographic information for West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Georis-creuseveau, Jade; Gourmelon, Franc?oise; Rouan, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the “CIAO” project, based on an international initiative, part of the « Programme Régional de Conservation de la Zone Côtière et Marine d'Afrique de l'Ouest » or PRCM (Regional Program for the Conservation of the Coastal and Marine Area of West Africa). It leads to a web portal of information for the West African coastal zone. Investigations among the main producers of information have led to a first inventory of available geographical information. The informatio...

  19. Oligochaeta, Naididae of the West Indies and adjacent regions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilberto, Righi; Viviane, Hamoui.

    Full Text Available A very large collection of Naididae of the West Indies (153 localities), Suriname (15), Venezuela (2) and Florida (1) is studied. Five new species Nais barua, Dero scalariformis, D. tuna, Aulophorus kalina, A. barbatus are described. Dero magna, D. trifida, Aulophorus tridentatus, Allonais japonica, [...] Pristina sima are redescribed. The 46 Naididae species of the West Indies are discussed by their taxonomy, distribution and habitat.

  20. Soviet policy in West Africa, 1957-64

    OpenAIRE

    Iandolo, Alessandro; Anne, Deighton; Alex, Pravda

    2011-01-01

    Between 1957 and 1964 the Soviet Union sought to export to West Africa a model of economic and social development. Moscow’s policy was driven by the conviction that socialism was a superior economic system, and could be replicated in Ghana, Guinea, and Mali. However, Soviet confidence in the project was undermined by the unreliability of local leaders, and then by the Congo crisis. The setback in West Africa taught the Soviet leadership crucial lessons, including the importance of supportin...