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1

Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2009-05-01

2

West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvi of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer

3

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

4

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01

5

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

6

West Hackberry Tertiary Project, Class I; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries

7

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

8

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

9

Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

Demetrois Yannimaras; Travis Gillham

1998-04-15

10

Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

Demetrios Yannimaras; Travis Gillham

1998-07-14

11

Annual Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. Air injection on the west flank began in November of 1994. Although west flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the west flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest downstructure well.

Allen Fornea; Bruce Cerveny; Travis H. Gillham

1997-09-30

12

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

13

Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

1978-11-01

14

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

Taylor, A

1980-02-29

15

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

N/A

2004-08-31

16

West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

1982-01-01

17

Environmental characterization of the West Valley site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 1982, on-site work officially began to develop and implement a program to solidify the high-level liquid radioactive waste stored at the former nuclear fuel reprocessing facility located at West Valley, New York for future disposal at a federal high-level waste repository. A comprehensive pre-solidification environmental characterization of the site was undertaken to provide baseline information prior to solidification activities. Ground-level measurements of aerial radiation survey areas were performed and a permanent grid set up for detailed site surveys. Core sampling methods for waste water holding pond sludge and surface soil were adapted to the site needs. The principles used to establish correlation between ground level and aerial measurements are discussed, and the methods used for site gamma surveys and sample collection are presented

18

Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

19

Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

20

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

 
 
 
 
21

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

None Available

2000-06-01

22

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

NONE

1999-06-01

23

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

None

1998-06-01

24

The Approach to Cleanup at West Cumbria's Nuclear Sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cleanup of West Cumbria's nuclear sites is one of the most important and demanding managerial, technical and environmental challenges facing the UK over the next century. Considerable progress has already been made in cleaning up the Sellafield, Calder Hall, and Low-level Waste Repository (LLWR) sites but there remains significant challenge ahead. There are more than 200 nuclear facilities at the sites including redundant fuel storage ponds, redundant chemical plants and silos of solid waste and sludge. These legacy buildings exist alongside commercially operating reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. They are all linked together by a complex network of services including gas supplies, water supplies, waste disposal routes, and chemical supply routes. Many of the buildings requiring cleanup are very old and date back to the early years of the British nuclear industry. They were not designed with decommissioning in mind, and some require substantial improvement to provide a safe foundation from which to retrieve waste and decommission. The cleanup of these legacy facilities must be carefully balanced with the ongoing operations that provide services to commercial customers. Cleanup must be carried out safely and efficiently, without impacting upon commercial operations whose revenue is vital to funding the Cleanup organizations scope of work. This paper will introduce the cleanup approach at West Cumbria's Sellafield nuclear site. It will provide an overview of what is being done in preparation to meet the formidable but rewarding challenge ahead. (authors)

25

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

26

An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3H and 99Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

27

An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of {sup 235}U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated {sup 235}U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

1991-03-01

28

Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

1992-03-01

29

Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

2002-05-14

30

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2006-09-21

31

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2007-09-27

32

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2008-12-17

33

Geophysical survey for cone penetrometer site, CPT-4, 200 West area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a geophysical survey performed at the Hanford Reservation. The objective of the survey was to locate subsurface obstructions that may affect cone penetrometer work at site CPT-4, adjacent to and west of borehole 299-W18-252, Figure 1. Based upon the results of the survey, possible ''drill sites'' within the zone, with the least likelihood of encountering identified obstructions, were identified

34

Site Ranking and Potential Assessment for Concentrating Solar Power in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access to electricity is poor in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP presents better opportunities for increasing access to electricity and for diversifying sources of energy in the ECOWAS region; however, to date, except for Burkina Faso, no site evaluation pertaining to the region has ever been performed for CSP. This study provides potential assessment and site ranking for large-scale CSP projects in the ECOWAS region. It computes the nominal potential power and gives the corresponding energy yield with many scenarios. By considering only 1% of the suitable land area with daily DNI greater or equal to 5 kWh/m2, a land slope less or equal to 5% and distance to transmission line not more than 100 km, the study showed, for example, that West Africa has a potential nominal capacity of 21.3 GW for parabolic trough technology.

Anselme Rungundu

2013-03-01

35

Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl4. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl4 distributions

36

Sampling and analysis plan for RCRA closure activities at 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides guidance for sampling and analysis activities associated with the proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) clean closure of the 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site. Soil samples will be taken around the blasting pit, in order to verify that the concentrations of all detonation activity contaminants are below action levels. The borrow pit was used for demolition of discarded explosive chemicals, tumbleweed incineration, and as a source of soil for construction material. The demolition site was located apart from the others within the borrow pit

37

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report

38

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

NONE

1997-06-01

39

1982 environmental-monitoring program report for the West Valley Demonstration Project site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is prepared and submitted in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1 and presents environmental monitoring program data collected at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) site from February 26, 1982, through December 31, 1982. The WVDP objective is to solidify approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level liquid radioactive waste stored at the former Nuclear Fuel Services reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. Nuclear Fuel Services conducted an environmental monitoring program in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements which were appropriate for shutdown maintenance operations conducted at the site. That program was embraced by West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNS) at the time of transition (February 26, 1982) and will be modified to provide a comprehensive monitoring program in preparation for waste solidification operations scheduled for startup in June 1988. As such, the data presented in this report is considered preoperational in nature in accordance with DOE Order 5484.1, Chapter III, Paragraph 1. The environmental monitoring program planned for the operating phase of the project will be fully implemented by fiscal year 1985 and will provide at least two years of preoperational data prior to startup

40

Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

 
 
 
 
41

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

2011-09-28

42

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

2013-09-19

43

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

CH2M HILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

2012-09-27

44

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2013  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2013. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2013. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2013 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

Rendall, John D. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

2014-09-16

45

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS Corporation

2010-09-17

46

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

47

Decontamination and decommissioning at the West Valley Site progress and plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination and Decommissioning (D/D) at the West Valley Site includes all of the radioactive cleanup and dismantling operations associated with a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant that has been in operation for several years. The existing building and plant facilities at West Valley will be used to the greatest extent possible to accommodate the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) processing and vitrification system and equipment, which are described in other reports. Therefore, the objective of the initial or previtrification D/D Operations is to make the various shielded cells and other plant facilities suitable for installation and operation of the HLW processing and vitrification systems. This will also include establishing facilities for supporting the D/D Operations and the other required services. After all of the HLW processing and vitrification operations are completed, there will be a final D/D to be jointly defined by DOE, NRC, EPA, and NYSERDA

48

Sorption measurements performed under site-specific conditions - Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, disposal sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sorption coefficients have been determined using site-specific sediments and trench waters, collected from the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Experimental apparatus and procedures are described to preserve the anoxic character of the liquid phases during experiments. Experiments using anoxic and oxidized trench waters were performed as functions of solution pH, soil/solution ratio, water and soil composition. The lowest sorption was observed with the combination of anoxic waters and untreated soil - the combination most closely resembling the immediate trench environment. For best results in predictive applications, sorption data should be determined under conditions which simulate those in the field as closely as possible. The total radionuclide retention capacity of reducing geochemical environments is the sum of sorption processes on solid phases, as well as precicipation, and coprecipitation reactions involving iron mineral phases

49

Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

1992-03-01

50

Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources

51

Real time black carbon measurements in West and Central Africa urban sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Real time measurements of Black Carbon (BC) in PM2.5 aerosols were performed during AMMA and POLCA programs, between 2005 and 2010 in Cotonou (Benin), Dakar (Senegal), Bamako (Mali), and Yaounde (Cameroon). Indeed, BC was chosen as a metric because of its interest as an urban pollutant. The instrumented sites are representative of the traffic source. At Dakar, BC concentrations are high from November to April (13,000 ± 3500 ng m-3) and lower from May to September (8000 ± 3200 ng m-3). In dry season (November-April), high BC concentrations occurred as a result of northeasterly long-range transport of polluted air masses over West Africa, in addition to local emissions. However, during wet season (May-September) reduced traffic levels, school vacations and wet deposition processes contribute to lower BC concentration levels. Measured diurnal BC peak concentrations, at all sites, mainly occur during morning and evening rush-hour periods, indicating the paramount role of traffic. Highest values are observed between 5-9 a.m. and from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. depending on the site, while lowest are occurred at night time and middle afternoon when activities of the population are reduced. BC source apportionment from absorption measurements also confirmed the relative importance of traffic (88%) versus biomass burning (12%). Also, BC measurements were functions of days of the week, with highest values occurring on Fridays and lowest ones on Sundays. Spatial variations associated to BC levels are very different from one site to another, revealing different types of sources with strong variations at the regional scale. It appears that mean BC concentrations in Dakar are lower by a factor of two, compared to those observed in Bamako, but remain higher than in some other West African sites (e.g. Cotonou, Yaounde). Overall, BC concentrations in our different sites are comparable to reported European and Asian megacity levels. Finally, using measured BC/PM2.5 ratios, we have estimated PM2.5 mass concentrations in Dakar from June 2008 to June 2009 to be 44.4 ± 14.3 ?g m-3, well above the WHO (2005) threshold of 10 ?g m-3. This paper clearly highlights high pollution levels in West African large cities, with potential important impacts on the health of the regional population.

Doumbia, El Hadji Thierno; Liousse, Catherine; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Ndiaye, Seydi Ababacar; Diop, Babacar; Ouafo, Marie; Assamoi, Eric Michel; Gardrat, Eric; Castera, Pierre; Rosset, Robert; Akpo, Aristide; Sigha, Luc

2012-07-01

52

Long-term site management plan: West Valley LLRW disposal area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal area at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley (30 miles south of Buffalo) is a former commercial LLRW disposal facility. Disposal operations at the facility stopped in March 1975, shortly after contaminated trench leachate was reported to be seeping through two trench covers. Recently, the Energy Authority and the US Dept. of Energy selected, Envirosphere Company to develop a long-term site management plan for the disposal area. This project supports a series of technical studies required to develop an integrated site management plan ultimately aimed at bringing the disposal areas to the eventual point where passive custoidal care and monitoring activities will be sufficient to protect public health and safety and the environment. The primary objectives of this project are: (1) to formulate and evaluate alternative technical strategies for improved management and eventual stabilization of the disposal area. (2) To design a project to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the site management plan selected by the Energy Authority for the site. (3) To develop an interim site management plan for use until the long-term site strategy is implemented

53

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

Science.gov (United States)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

Shama, Ayman A.

2011-03-01

54

Radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park site, West Chicago, Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park, West Chicago, Illinois, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the fall of 1981 and the spring of 1982. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of water and airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results show that the materials containing 232Th and daughters are present in surface and subsurface locations, comprising a total volume of about 15,000 cubic yards, with concentrations as high as 11,000 pCi/g. These contaminants are a source of radon and daughter radionuclides which may produce slightly elevated airborne radioactivity levels off-site. There is no evidence that materials are moving off-site through ground water, although small subsurface deposits exceeding 5 pCi/g exist north of the fenced site in a landfill area, and to the southeast of the site near the tennis courts. These off-site deposits do not present a significant radiological hazard to the public at this time

55

Spectral Ratio Estimates for Site Effects on the Horst-Graben System in West Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Recordings of micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes have been used to quantify site effects in the central-west Turkey which contains one of the world's best examples of a rapid intra-continental extension with its high population and industrial potential. We analyzed 436 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging between 2.0 and 5.6 using three component digital recordings from 32 stations. Site functions were obtained using two different spectral ratio approaches (horizontal to vertical spectral ratio, HVSR, and standard spectral ratio, SSR). HVSR estimates of transverse and radial S-waves were compared with one another. Epicentral distance, magnitude and back-azimuth dependencies of site functions were also evaluated. In general, HVSR values from transverse and radial S-waves are similar within a factor of 2. The back-azimuth dependencies of transverse S-wave HVSR results are more significant than distance and magnitude dependencies. On the other hand, averaging of transverse and radial S-wave HVSR results eliminates systematic back-azimuth dependencies caused by source radiation effects. Distributions of HVSR estimates along ~N-S linear array, which traversed main grabens in the region with a station spacing of 3-4 km, reflect subsurface geological complexities in the region. The sites located near the basin edges are characterized by broader HVSR curves. Broad HVSR peaks could be attributed to the complexity of wave propagation related to significant 2D/3D velocity variations at the sediment-bedrock interface near the basin edges. The results also show that, even if the site is located on a horst, the presence of weathered zones along the surface could cause moderate frequency dependent site effects. Comparison of HVSR and SSR estimates for the stations on the graben sites showed that SSR estimates give larger values at lower frequencies which could be attributed to lateral variations in regional velocity and attenuation values caused by basin geometry and edge effects.

Akyol, N?hal; Kurtulmu?, Tevf?k Özgür; Çamyildiz, Murat; Güngör, Tal?p

2013-12-01

56

200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ash Pit Demolition Site had two known demolition events, the first occurred in November of 1984, and the second occurred in June of 1986. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the Ash Pit Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'', Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A, Form 3, Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 4) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A, Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the Ash,Pit Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the Ash Pit Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in the demolitions, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only''. Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from Ash Pit Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accorde addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

57

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2009-09-24

58

Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

1992-03-01

59

Precipitation pathways for five new ice core sites in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice cores provide a wealth of information about past climate and atmospheric circulation however a good understanding of the precipitation patterns, potential source regions and transport pathways is essential in their interpretation. Here we investigate the precipitation pathways for a transect of five new ice cores drilled in the southern Antarctic Peninsula and Ellsworth Land. We utilize in situ observations from automatic weather stations to confirm that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data adequately captures annual and sub-annual variability, with evidence of a slight cold bias in the 2 m temperatures. Back trajectory analysis, from the British Atmospheric Data Centre trajectory service, reveals that warm and snowy years are associated with air masses that originate (5 days before reaching the site) from the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea, while cold and dry years are associated with air masses from the Antarctic continent. There is a clear seasonal migration in the trajectories at each site, reflecting the east to west migration of the Amundsen Sea Low, known to have a strong influence on climate in this region.

Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.

2014-06-01

60

West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

62

Remedial design process for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge radium sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites, located in Essex County, New Jersey, are contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials. The waste materials originated from radium processing facilities prevalent in the area during the early 1900's. The two sites consist of 769 residential and commercial properties having a combined land area of approximately 210 acres. Historically, radioactive waste materials were disposed as landfill material in what were once rural areas. As development flourished, homes and streets were constructed over the landfilled waste. In 1981 the EPA conducted an aerial gamma radiation survey of the area to determine the presence of radioactive materials. It was from this survey that subsequent ground studies where initiated, and elevated gamma radiation and radon levels were discovered. The paper will discuss the methods used to obtain data through field investigations; the relationship between the interpretation of data to define the vertical and lateral limits of contamination and the selection of remedial design methods used to develop excavation plans; the evolution of remediation methods and technologies relative to the remediation of structures by underpinning basements, on-grade structures, and chimneys; removal of contaminated material beneath footings without cribbing; and demolition of basement foundation walls (where contaminated) without use of traditional support methods. Finally, the paper will discuss remedial action execution of the work

63

Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

Ehman, K D

2006-05-10

64

Spawning sites of the Japanese eel in relation to oceanographic structure and the West Mariana Ridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150-180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning. PMID:24551155

Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

2014-01-01

65

Spawning Sites of the Japanese Eel in Relation to Oceanographic Structure and the West Mariana Ridge  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150–180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning. PMID:24551155

Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J.; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

2014-01-01

66

The Hydrogeologic Conditions in the Upper Dockum Group at the Waste Control Specialists Site, West Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site in Andrews County, west Texas has licenses from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous material. Four landfills are constructed on the WCS site, including a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. All landfills are constructed below grade and within the low-permeability Triassic Dockum Group mudrocks (Cooper Canyon Formation). The Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. The Dockum would be generally classified as an aquitard. At the WCS site, the vertical effective hydraulic conductivity of the Dockum is 1.2×10-9 cm/s, and its horizontal effective conductivity is 2.9×10-7 cm/s. Core samples reveal that at least the upper 300+ feet of the Dockum is in the unsaturated zone. The average capillary pressure in Dockum core samples is -2.84 MPa, with an average saturation of 0.87. High saturation values are not surprising, as Dockum air-entry pressures range from 0.016 to 9.8 MPa, with a mean of 1.0 MPa. Heat dissipation sensors, thermocouple psychrometers, and advanced tensiometers installed in Dockum borehole arrays generally show capillary pressures one order of magnitude less than those measured on core samples. These differences with core data are attributed to the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase within Dockum materials. In the vicinity of an instrumented borehole, the gas phase pressure equilibrates with atmospheric pressure, lowering the capillary pressure. Little fluid has circulated vertically through the Dockum. Measurements of the electrical conductivity of a saturated paste consisting of water and crushed core sample (a metric for pore-water salinity) show strong vertical variations. A chloride bulge in the sediments above the Dockum indicates that the Dockum has received very little recharge in the past.

Holt, R. M.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Pickens, J. F.; Powers, D. W.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cook, S.

2011-12-01

67

Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing Purolite{sup R} A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCg{sup TM}, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludg

Byrnes, Mark E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States); Simmons, Sally [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, Washington (United States); Morse, John [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington (United States)

2013-07-01

68

Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing PuroliteR A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCgTM, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludge is then disposed at

69

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2003 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. During 2003, cleanup of radioactive waste from the former nuclear fuels reprocessing plant that shut down operations in the 1970s was continued at the WVDP. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Work activities at the WVDP during 2003 included: (1) maintaining canisters of vitrified high-level waste in a shielded facility; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste offsite for disposal; (3) shipping packaged spent nuclear fuel assemblies to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; (4) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely size-reduced and packaged for disposal; (5) decontaminating the fuel storage pool and the cask unloading pool; (6) decontaminating the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (7) cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (8) planning for decontamination and dismantlement of the vitrification facility; (9) continuing preparation of the Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Impact Statement; and (10) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises

70

Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program final report: Site characterization of the Pacific Study Area, West Coast, Northern Site (W-N)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the outcome of a Pacific Ocean research program begun in November 1978 by Sandia National Laboratories for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. The six-year oceanographic program was in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation of possible sea disposal of defueled, decommissioned, nuclear-powered submarines. Evaluation guidelines were written to define a site suitable for such sea disposal. This final report, which combines results from two previous progress reports and data from recently completed studies, characterizes a suitable site, the West Coast, Northern Site (W-N). Although W-N is neither the only possible nor the best Pacific site, it is one suitable location under the site evaluation guidelines. 95 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs

71

New Seep Sites along the West-African Passive Margin Identified from Seismo-Acoustic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and ongoing venting activity is documented offshore West Africa by large pockmarks, as has been observed by previous marine expeditions along the continental margin (e.g. Meteor Cruises M47/3 and M56). In summer 2008, an interdisciplinary campaign was carried out in cooperation between the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences in Bremen and IFREMER, Brest. The main scientific goal of the cruise was to assess the influence of different geological settings on the nature of venting and related features. Multi-frequency seismo-acoustic tools including swath bathymetry, sediment echosounder, flare imagery, and high-resolution multichannel seismics were utilized within the scope of geophysical studies for investigating the distribution of seep structures and associated subsurface feeder systems. Observations confirm a widespread occurrence of pockmarks along the continental margins of Gabon, Congo and Angola in deep water. Spatial surveys have further shown that venting-related features are present on different scales, particularly with sizes of tens of meters in diameter and topographical expressions on the meter scale. While these structures seem to be related to relatively shallow gas reservoirs, larger ones reveal roots to gas reservoirs in several hundred meters below the seafloor. At some sites, gas flares of a few hundred to over a thousand meters height could be identified within the water column. Comparing target areas north and south of the Congo Canyon, it has become evident that different driving forces and sedimentary and tectonic boundary conditions may be responsible for fluid venting and its distribution. While in the north, a thick sediment cover restricts seepage to selected zones of weakness and higher permeability, salt diapirism in the south is massively fracturing overlying sediments, creating numerous promising morphological features at the seafloor. However, only a few active vents could be found in the area of salt diapirism. Future work will particularly focus on the details of seep systems, the comparison with site-specific information from coring and video surveys and the integrated interpretation of the acoustic and seismic data sets.

Fekete, N.; Spiess, V.; Caparachin, C.; Ding, F.; Gehrmann, R.; Riepshoff, H.; Trampe, A.; Foucher, J.-P.

2009-04-01

72

Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

1994-02-01

73

FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems

74

Study of the ancient iron-smelting sites at Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west, Nigeria, using neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis was used to obtain concentrations of some elements in samples of potsherds and furnaces obtained from Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west ancient iron-smelting sites. Using WARD method, cluster analysis of the elements was carried out to establish the relationship between the archaeological samples in term of similarity in elemental concentrations. It was found that there is some level of similarity among the potsherd samples from the three sites. Also, most of furnace samples display some similarity. It was established that there was cultural linkage between the iron-smelters at the different sites. The similarity between the samples lead to a conclusion that pot makers and furnace makers could have existed, who obtained clays from common sources, made and sold the products to users in different communities.

75

Radiochemical measurements for evaluating air quality in the vicinity of low-level waste burial sites - the West Valley experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive wastes buried in the commercial low-level burial site at West Valley, New York, consist primarily of low-density, low-specific-activity wastes. Except for contaminated soil and building rubble the wastes were shipped and buried uncompacted in steel drums, wooden boxes, cardboard cartons, or concrete casks. The wet climate at West Valley led to decomposition of the containers and biodegradation of much of the organic material in the wastes. As anoxic conditions developed in the trenches, appreciable quantities of organic complexing agents formed in the trench water, and a variety of gaseous decomposition products formed in the void space within each trench. The escape of the gaseous decomposition products through the trench cover presents the most significant pathway for uncontrolled release of radioactivity from the trenches and the greatest impact on air quality at the now inoperative West Valley site. The radioactive gases HT, 85Kr, 14CH4, 3HCH3, 14CO, 14CO2, 222Rn, and 14C- and 3H-hydrocarbons were identified in the voids beneath the trench covers. Studies were conducted to identify radionuclides and chemical species vented to the atmosphere, to evaluate the mechanisms of venting, and to quantify the leak rate of each radioactive gas. These studies required specialized techniques for sample collection, species separation, and radionuclide measurement. A close relationship exists between the experimental data obtained and the computer models which were developed to estimate gas production rates in a trench and the transport to and escape from the surface of a trench. As a result, field measurements and computer calculations are found to be as important for post-closure characterization of the site as are the radiochemical measurements

76

Mercury (Hg)-Resistant Bacteria in Hg-Polluted Gold Mine Sites of Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, ten mercury-resistant heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from mercurycontaminated gold mine sites in Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia. The bacteria (designated strains SKCSH1- SKCSH10) were capable of growing well at ~200 ppm of HgCl except for strain SKCSH8, which was able to grow at 550 ppm HgCl . The bacteria were mesophylic and grew optimally at 1% NaCl at neutral pH with the optimal growth temperature of 25-37 ºC. Phenotypic characterization and ph...

SITI KHODIJAH CHAERUN; SAKINAH HASNI; EDY SANWANI; MAELITA RAMDANI MOEIS

2012-01-01

77

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. This analysis does not consider temporary construction items and, therefore, does not consider hazards associated with temporary construction items. This analysis will be reviewed and updated to reflect new East-West Drift design changes, construction modifications, and ''as built'' documentation of the East-West Drift when completed. A major difference between this analysis and previous ESF SSAs is the inclusion of hazards that arise as a result of non-accident events, (e.g., ''off-normal'' operations, adverse environmental conditions, or ''out-of-tolerance'' conditions). Non-accident events, that were not included in previous ESF SSAs, include environmental and/or toxic hazards such as leaking gases/fluids, off-gassing reactions, and excessive dust, particulates, exhaust fumes, noise, temperature, etc. which could have an adverse health effect on personnel.

NA

1999-06-08

78

Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Amon...

Proorocu, M.; Dinut?a?, A.; Hat?egan, Raluca; Popovici, Antoanela; Beldean, P.; Pauliuc, Si?nziana

2009-01-01

79

Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

Arlen F. Chase

2014-09-01

80

Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Among these, a goodexample is the hexachlorocyclohexane soil pollution from Turda Area. The soil quality from this region is also affected by otheractivities like: waste disposal, oil and natural gases extraction.

PROOROCU M.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980's, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site

82

Deterioration of groundwater quality in the vicinity of an active open-tipping site in West Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need for characterization of leachate arising from waste disposal to ensure a corresponding effective leachate management policy. Field and laboratory studies have been carried out to investigate the impact of municipal landfill leachate on the underlying groundwater at a site in West Malaysia. The solid waste was disposed of directly onto an unprotected natural soil formation. This situation was made worse by the shallow water table. The hydrochemical composition of groundwater in the vicinity of the site (background) is a dilute mixed cation, bicarbonate water. The high ionic balance error of ~13.5% reveals that the groundwater body underneath the site was a highly contaminated leachate rather than contaminated groundwater. Elevated concentration of chloride (355.48 mg/L), nitrate (10.40 mg/L as NO3), nitrite (14.59 mg/L), ammoniacal-N (11.61 mg/L), sodium (227.56 mg/L), iron (0.97 mg/L), and lead (0.32 mg/L) measured downgradient indicate that the contamination plume has migrated further away from the site. In most cases, the concentration of these contamination indicators, together with the ranges of sodium percentage (66.3-89.9%) and sodium adsorption ratio (10.1-19.7%), were found to be considerably higher than the limit values of safe water for both domestic and irrigation purposes, respectively.

Rahim, Bahaa-Eldin E. A.; Yusoff, I.; Samsudin, A. R.; Yaacob, W. Z. W.; Rafek, A. G. M.

2010-06-01

83

PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

2014-01-01

84

PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

2014-01-01

85

PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

86

Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

2009-08-27

87

Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

N/A

2004-08-31

88

Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

89

Sergentomyia spp.: breeding sites in vertisols and peri-domestic habitats in North West Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand flies belonging to the genus Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot, 1920, are hematophagous insects feeding mostly on reptiles and birds, but some species feed also on mammals including humans. Sergentomyia spp. frequently comprise the vast majority of sand flies trapped along with Phlebotomus spp., the vectors of mammalian leishmaniasis. Within the framework of a project on the ecology and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, putative breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies were studied. Large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) covered with sand fly-proof mesh were deployed over cracked vertisol and related habitats for up to 3 nights, and emerging sand flies were collected daily. Emergence traps (ETs) were also adapted to sample other putative breeding sites including tree trunks, termite mounds, rock piles and vertical river banks. Productive breeding sites were identified in the trunks and roots systems of trees, vertisol fields, cracks and burrows in vertisol dry river banks and termite mounds. Emerging flies were also collected form a stone wall and a rock pile situated inside a village. Significantly more Sergentomyia spp. were trapped in vertisols by ETs deployed over root system than in open fields. Similarly, more sand flies emerged from cracks in the vertisol in fallow Sorghum than in fallow sesame fields. Productive breeding sites were characterized by stable micro-climatic conditions. Species composition of emerging sand flies varied with habitat, season and geographical location. PMID:24841132

Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Belay, Shewaye; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

2014-09-01

90

Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus sp. strain NBRIEAG-8 from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arsenic contaminated rhizospheric soils of West Bengal, India were sampled for arsenic resistant bacteria that could transform different arsenic forms. Staphylococcus sp. NBRIEAG-8 was identified by16S rDNA ribotyping, which was capable of growing at 30,000 mg l{sup -1} arsenate [As(V)] and 1,500 mg l{sup -1} arsenite [As(III)]. This bacterial strain was also characterized for arsenical resistance (ars) genes which may be associated with the high-level resistance in the ecosystems of As-contaminated areas. A comparative proteome analysis was conducted with this strain treated with 1,000 mg l{sup -1} As(V) to identify changes in their protein expression profiles. A 2D gel analysis showed a significant difference in the proteome of arsenic treated and untreated bacterial culture. The change in pH of cultivating growth medium, bacterial growth pattern (kinetics), and uptake of arsenic were also evaluated. After 72 h of incubation, the strain was capable of removing arsenic from the culture medium amended with arsenate and arsenite [12% from As(V) and 9% from As(III)]. The rate of biovolatilization of As(V) was 23% while As(III) was 26%, which was determined indirectly by estimating the sum of arsenic content in bacterial biomass and medium. This study demonstrates that the isolated strain, Staphylococcus sp., is capable for uptake and volatilization of arsenic by expressing ars genes and 8 new upregulated proteins which may have played an important role in reducing arsenic toxicity in bacterial cells and can be used in arsenic bioremediation. (orig.)

Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Namrata; Singh, Nandita [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Eco-auditing Lab.; Verma, Praveen C.; Singh, Ankit; Mishra, Manisha [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering; Sharma, Neeta [Lucknow Univ., UP (India). Plant Pathology Lab.

2012-09-15

91

Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast coal mines with As-contaminated water from an historic gold ore processing site near Reefton. Precipitates were collected from distinctly different settings, an active acid mine drainage treatment plant at Stockton mine and the neutralisation/oxidation zone of acid mine drainage discharge at the abandoned Blackball Coal Mine. The two mine sites produce precipitates with different compositions and mineralogy. Arsenic adsorption onto precipitates from each site was determined in batch and column tests under laboratory conditions. Batch experiments indicate As adsorption occurs rapidly during the first 5 h and reaches equilibrium after 24 h. At equilibrium, and for a dosing ratio of 50 g of precipitate per litre of water, As concentrations decreased from 99 mg/L to 0.0080 mg/L with precipitates from Stockton and to 0.0017 mg/L with precipitates from Blackball. Arsenic adsorption capacity is up to 12 mg/g on precipitates from Stockton sludge and 74 mg/g on precipitates from Blackball. The Blackball precipitate adsorbs more As than precipitates from Stockton which is probably due to the higher Fe oxide content but pH and surface structure could also play a role. The column experiment confirmed that adsorption of As from a continuous waste stream onto these precipitates is possible, and that passive remediation using this waste product mixed with gravel to enhance permeability could be a viable approach at As-contaminated mine sites. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

92

Geohydrology of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground, 200-West Area, Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction a disposal facility for solid, mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State (Figure 1) is planned. A site-specific performance assessment for each new disposal facility to ensure that wastes will be isolated from the environment is required. To demonstrate the adequacy of the facility for isolating the wastes, computer codes are used to simulate the physical processes that could cause the waste to migrate to underground water supplies or to the land's surface. The purpose of this report is provide a compilation and interpretation of geologic and hydrologic data available use in the performance assessment modeling. A variety of data are needed to model flow and transport from a solid-waste burial trench. These data include soil water content, soil moisture potential, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and phase mineralogy of the soils and sediments within the vadose zone. The hydrologic data that are critical for quantifying the water storage and transport properties for unsaturated soils require a characterization of the heterogeneities of various soil layers and the moisture characteristic curves for these layers. Hydraulic properties and mineralogic data for the saturated sediments are also important for modelling the flow and transport of wastes in the unconfined aquifer. This report begins with a discussion of the procedures and methods used to gather data both in the field and in the laboratory. This is followed by a summary of the geology, including the stratigraphic framework, lithofacies, and mineralogic/geochemical characteristics of the suprabasalt sediments. The hydrology of the region of the site is discussed next. In this discussion, the characteristics of the uppermost aquifer(s), unsaturated zone, and the various hydrogeologic units are presented. 54 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

Bjornstad, B.N.

1990-05-01

93

Statement of Basis/Proposal Plan for West of Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Georgia Fields Site (631-19G) Operable Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP) is to describe the preferred remedial alternative(s) for the West of Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Georgia Fields Site (631-19G) Operable Unit (GFS) and to provide for public involvement in the decision-making process

94

Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures that showed staining (a possible indicator of past or present hydraulic activity) are rare, vertical to near-vertical, and occur mainly in, and adjacent to, mechanically stiff siltstone and sandstone interbeds. No interconnected fracture networks were observed. A series of pressurized air tests were conducted to evaluate fracture interconnectivity at and below the landfill facilities. Three pairs of vertical and three pairs of inclined boreholes were tested at depths ranging from 40 to 215 feet below ground surface. Borehole packers and volume-displacement tools were placed in each borehole to isolate the injection and observation horizons and minimize borehole storage effects, respectively. Injection pressures ranged from 1 to 5 psig. Pressures within the injection boreholes quickly stabilized and slowly decayed due to porous media flow, while no pressure changes occurred in the observation boreholes. These tests confirm the absence of hydrologically significant fracture networks in the subsurface at the WCS site.

Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

2011-12-01

95

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01

96

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-10-01

97

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-08-01

98

Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of IODP Site U1396 and compiled chronology offshore of south and south west Montserrat, Lesser Antilles  

Science.gov (United States)

sediments around volcanic islands contain an archive of volcaniclastic deposits, which can be used to reconstruct the volcanic history of an area. Such records hold many advantages over often incomplete terrestrial data sets. This includes the potential for precise and continuous dating of intervening sediment packages, which allow a correlatable and temporally constrained stratigraphic framework to be constructed across multiple marine sediment cores. Here we discuss a marine record of eruptive and mass-wasting events spanning ˜250 ka offshore of Montserrat, using new data from IODP Expedition 340, as well as previously collected cores. By using a combination of high-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy, AMS radiocarbon dating, biostratigraphy of foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils, and clast componentry, we identify five major events at Soufriere Hills volcano since 250 ka. Lateral correlations of these events across sediment cores collected offshore of the south and south west of Montserrat have improved our understanding of the timing, extent and associations between events in this area. Correlations reveal that powerful and potentially erosive density-currents traveled at least 33 km offshore and demonstrate that marine deposits, produced by eruption-fed and mass-wasting events on volcanic islands, are heterogeneous in their spatial distribution. Thus, multiple drilling/coring sites are needed to reconstruct the full chronostratigraphy of volcanic islands. This multidisciplinary study will be vital to interpreting the chaotic records of submarine landslides at other sites drilled during Expedition 340 and provides a framework that can be applied to the stratigraphic analysis of sediments surrounding other volcanic islands.

Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Coussens, Maya; Talling, Peter J.; Jutzeler, Martin; Cassidy, Michael; Marchant, Isabelle; Palmer, Martin R.; Watt, Sebastian F. L.; Smart, Christopher W.; Fisher, Jodie K.; Hart, Malcolm B.; Fraass, Andrew; Trofimovs, Jessica; Le Friant, Anne; Ishizuka, Osamu; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Endo, Daisuke; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Hornbach, Matthew J.; Kataoka, Kyoko; Lafuerza, Sara; Maeno, Fukashi; Manga, Michael; Martinez-Colon, Michael; McCanta, Molly; Morgan, Sally; Saito, Takeshi; Slagle, Angela L.; Stinton, Adam J.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Villemant, Benoit; Wang, Fei

2014-07-01

99

Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west cross drift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestone SP33ABM4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model

100

Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west crossdrift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestoneSP33ABM4.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model.

Ritcey, A.C.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; Wu, Y.S.; Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson,G.S.

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

NONE

1995-05-31

102

Strategic petroleum reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1995. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of 3 the weeks Island facility, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 4.5 million m{sup 3} (30 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Transfer of Weeks Island oil began in November, 1995 with 2.0 million m{sup 3} (12.5 million barrels) transferred by December 31, 1995. Degasifying the crude oil is a major pollution prevention initiative because it will reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements by three or more orders of magnitude. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. There were only two reportable oil and three reportable brine spills during 1995, down from a total of 10 reportable spills in 1994. Total volume of oil spilled in 1995 was 56.3 m{sup 3} (354 barrels), and the total volume of brine spilled was 131.1 m{sup 3} (825 barrels). The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to five in 1995. All of the spills were reported to appropriate agencies and immediately cleaned up, with no long term impacts observed.

NONE

1996-05-31

103

Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 ± 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

2011-06-01

104

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

105

Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

Myers, J.A.

1995-06-05

106

Relationships between climate, soil moisture and phenology of the woody cover in two sites located along the West African latitudinal gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThe study quantifies the relationships at local scale between phenology and determinants of climate and soil water resources at two sites located along the latitudinal gradient of West Africa, one in the central Sahel (Mali), the other in the Sudanian bioclimatic zone (Benin). The aim is to improve our knowledge on possible vegetation response to possible climate change. Within the Sudanian site, average annual rainfall is 1200 mm, extending from April to October, while, in the Sahelian site, it is 370 mm, occurring from June to September. Physical data were collected from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis research programme. The phenology of the dominant species was monitored in four types of vegetation cover at the wetter site, and in three types of vegetation cover at the drier site. For each sampled plant, leafing, flowering and fruiting were recorded as binary variables in terms of the presence/absence of phenophases. A small proportion of the variability of each phenophase occurrence is explained by the logit models. However, rainfall rise is significantly linked to leafing probability increase in the Sahelian site but not in the Sudanian site. Day length extension and temperature decrease are significantly correlated with an increase in leafing in the Sudanian site, but not in the Sahelian. On both sites, the increase in cumulative rainfall is not found to be linked to an increased probability of reproductive phenophases (negative or non-significant relationships). Air temperature is positively correlated with flowering rate in the Sudanian site, but, all other factors being constant, no climate factors are found to be highly significant of flowering occurrence in the Sahel. Fruiting probability is positively correlated mainly with temperature within the Sahelian site. Leafing occurrence is positively correlated with soil moisture in the 0-1 m layer for the Sudanian site, but not for the Sahelian site. Significant relationships between fruiting occurrence and soil moisture may reflect a prior selection of plants on fruiting period that maximizes seed dispersion and germination differently at the two sites. While vegetative and reproduction schedules may be determined by specific genetic factors, the physical environment controls the possibility of their expression. Reduction of the rainfall amount and intensity may increase reproduction rates in wet areas. Although this factor should decrease leafing rate, it does not influence reproduction at dry sites, except through the decrease in air humidity. In wetter areas, increasing temperature may reduce leafing, but may increase reproduction rates. Cover reduction may have an impact on local physical factors and, consequently, probably also affects vegetation phenology.

Seghieri, Josiane; Vescovo, Aude; Padel, Karine; Soubie, Remy; Arjounin, Marc; Boulain, Nicolas; de Rosnay, Patricia; Galle, Sylvie; Gosset, Marielle; Mouctar, Abakar H.; Peugeot, Christophe; Timouk, Franck

2009-08-01

107

Regulatory examination of the radiation-hygienic situation at Sites of Temporary Storage in North-West Russia prior to the beginning of major spent fuel removal works  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes a regulatory project carried out, under a collaborative agreement between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation (FMBA) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), by the Institute of Biophysics (Technical Support Organisation to FMBA) and western specialists. The project is one several addressing aspects of the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste at Sites of Temporary Storage (STSs) operated by Federal Enterprise SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha on the Kola Peninsula in North-West Russia, and the decommissioning of the sites. Industrial and regulatory projects are addressing options for removing spent submarine fuel currently stored in poor conditions at the sites and moving it to more appropriate storage facilities. The work described in this paper was to review and collate independent data on the current radiation situation and radiation control in the areas at and around the sites. The project has the ultimate objectives to develop norms and standards and supporting regulatory guidance for application during and upon completion of rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and Gremikha, and this work provides a 'baseline' of radiation conditions, before operations begin to remove the spent fuel. The examination identified and prioritised areas of contamination on and around the sites in terms of their current significance for the safety and health of workers and the public and their possible future significance for the environment and potential future users of the sites. Some areas on the sites had high dose rates - up to about 140 ?Sv/h in Andreeva Bay and 8500 ?Sv/h in Gremikha - due to contamination from past spent fuel storage practices. Although there do not appear currently to be areas of severe contamination outside the sites, some of the contamination on-site is in forms that will migrate with time, for example in streams and marine sediments. (author)

108

Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

Pitt, William A., Jr.; Meyer, Frederick W.

1976-01-01

109

Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive. PMID:20437062

Ziegler, Ute; Seidowski, Diana; Globig, Anja; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

2010-06-01

110

CDC: West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

111

Three-dimensional representations of salt-dome margins at four active strategic petroleum reserve sites.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing paper-based site characterization models of salt domes at the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been converted to digital format and visualized using modern computer software. The four sites are the Bayou Choctaw dome in Iberville Parish, Louisiana; the Big Hill dome in Jefferson County, Texas; the Bryan Mound dome in Brazoria County, Texas; and the West Hackberry dome in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A new modeling algorithm has been developed to overcome limitations of many standard geological modeling software packages in order to deal with structurally overhanging salt margins that are typical of many salt domes. This algorithm, and the implementing computer program, make use of the existing interpretive modeling conducted manually using professional geological judgement and presented in two dimensions in the original site characterization reports as structure contour maps on the top of salt. The algorithm makes use of concepts of finite-element meshes of general engineering usage. Although the specific implementation of the algorithm described in this report and the resulting output files are tailored to the modeling and visualization software used to construct the figures contained herein, the algorithm itself is generic and other implementations and output formats are possible. The graphical visualizations of the salt domes at the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites are believed to be major improvements over the previously available two-dimensional representations of the domes via conventional geologic drawings (cross sections and contour maps). Additionally, the numerical mesh files produced by this modeling activity are available for import into and display by other software routines. The mesh data are not explicitly tabulated in this report; however an electronic version in simple ASCII format is included on a PC-based compact disk.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Stein, Joshua S.

2003-01-01

112

Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

113

Variations of surface O3 in August at a rural site near Shanghai: influences from the West Pacific subtropical high and anthropogenic emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large day-to-day variability in O(3) and CO was observed at Chongming, a remote rural site east of Shanghai, in August 2010. High ozone periods (HOPs) that typically lasted for 3-5 days with daily maximum ozone exceeding 102 ppb were intermittent with low ozone periods (LOPs) with daily maximum ozone less than 20 ppb. The correlation analysis of ozone with meteorological factors suggests that the large variations of surface ozone are driven by meteorological conditions correlated with the changes in the location and intensity of the west Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) associated with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). When the center of WPSH with weaker intensity is to the southeast of Chongming site, the mixing ratios and variability of surface ozone are higher. When the center of WPSH with stronger intensity is to the northeast of Chongming site, the mixing ratios and variability of surface ozone are lower. Sensitivity simulations using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model indicate that meteorological condition associated with WPSH is the primary factor controlling surface ozone at Chongming in August, while local anthropogenic emissions make significant contributions to surface ozone concentrations only during HOP. PMID:22648346

He, Jingwei; Wang, Yuxuan; Hao, Jiming; Shen, Lulu; Wang, Long

2012-11-01

114

Radionuclide migration at sites of temporary storage of SNF and RW in North-West Russia - Contribution to regulatory development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest in the 1960s at Andreeva in the Kola Bay and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further stored material was received after 1985. These technical bases have since been re-categorised as sites of temporary storage. It is necessary to note that, during the storage of RW and SNF, certain conditions arose which resulted in failure of the storage barrier system, resulting in release of radionuclides. Remediation activities at the site focus on reduction of major risks associated with most hazardous radioactive source terms. In addition, the long term management of the sites includes consideration of how to remediate contaminated areas, not only because they affect continuing work at the site, but also because this work will influence final radiological status of the sites. The optimum approach to remediation will be affected by how quickly radionuclides could move, both during the remediation works and, so far as any residual activity is concerned, after the works are completed. Present investigations reported here are directed to determination of sorption-desorption parameters of radionuclides in the studied areas, which will affect their underground migration, with the purpose of accounting for regional peculiarities in optimization process of the STSs remediation. mization process of the STSs remediation. The work is being carried out by the TSO State Research Centre - Institute of Biophysics, of Russian Federation, with assistance from western experts. The work forms part of a regulatory collaboration programme on-going between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency which is designed to support the development of norms and standards to be applied in the remediation of these sites of temporary storage. (author)

115

SOILS IN RELATION TO ARCHEOLOGY AT THE TELL SITE OF UIVAR IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An understanding of soils and how they develop is crucial for explaining why the archeological deposits are located in particular places. This is because the interaction of many soil-forming factors, including climate, topography, vegetation, and parental materials werealso important consideration to humans in deciding where habitation and other site types were established. Soil chemistry is being utilized for paleo-environmental reconstruction. Elements commonly enriched in soil due to human activity include carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and calcium, potassium and to a lesser degree sulfur, copper and zinc. The geomorphologic survey revealed significant changes of the alluvial landscape around the Late Neolithic/Early Copper Age, tell site of Uivar. Neolithic tell evolution started assoon as fluvial aggradation ceased ~ 6.5 Ka ago at the beginning of the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Basal parts of the colluvium of the tell site date at earliest 4-3.5 ka. The youngest colluvium in foot-slope position may date to the medieval period ~ 1 ka ago.The study showed that the mound is from bottom to the top made up by antrophogenic sediments. The tell site buries a fossil calcaric Fluvisols and at surface an Urbic –Humic – Anthropic –Regosol with an excessive content of mobile phosphorus (650 ppm and mobilepotasium (840 ppm.

Gheorghe Rogobete

2011-12-01

116

Diversity of symbioses between chemosynthetic bacteria and metazoans at the Guiness cold seep site (Gulf of Guinea, West Africa).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fauna from deep-sea cold seeps worldwide is dominated by chemosymbiotic metazoans. Recently, investigation of new sites in the Gulf of Guinea yielded numerous new species for which symbiosis was strongly suspected. In this study, symbioses are characterized in five seep-specialist metazoans recently collected from the Guiness site located at ? 600 m depth. Four bivalve and one annelid species belonging to families previously documented to harbor chemosynthetic bacteria were investigated using bacterial marker gene sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and stable isotope analyses. Results support that all five species display chemosynthetic, sulfur-oxidizing ?-proteobacteria. Bacteria are abundant in the gills of bivalves, and in the trophosome of the siboglinid annelid. As observed for their relatives occurring at deeper sites, chemoautotrophy is a major source of carbon for animal nutrition. Although symbionts found in each host species are related to symbionts found in other metazoans from the same families, several incongruencies are observed among phylogenetic trees obtained from the different bacterial genes, suggesting a certain level of heterogeneity in symbiont strains present. Results provide new insights into the diversity, biogeography, and role of symbiotic bacteria in metazoans from the Gulf of Guinea, at a site located at an intermediate depth between the continental shelf and the deep sea. PMID:23233246

Duperron, Sébastien; Rodrigues, Clara F; Léger, Nelly; Szafranski, Kamil; Decker, Carole; Olu, Karine; Gaudron, Sylvie M

2012-12-01

117

Field screening of soil vapors at a subsurface gasoline contaminated site in West Liberty, Morgan County, Kentucky  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ation is the operating service station's underground storage tank system. Several problems were encountered with this soil vapor technique. Sampling under dissimilar meteorological conditions produced varying results. Extraction of soil vapors at a rate of one liter per minute did not produce optimum results. Advantages of this soil vapor technique include a cost-effective screening of samples, prompt results, safety and no disruption of site hydraulics

118

Using mass reconstruction along a four-site transect as a method to interpret PM10 in west-central Scotland, United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concurrent 24-hr samples of particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) were collected over a 10-day period in August 2000 at four sites along a transect in west-central Scotland, UK (passing from the coast through the city of Glasgow) in line with the prevailing southwesterly wind. Each sample was analyzed for chloride (Cl(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), iron (Fe), and organic hydrocarbon material (OHM). The contribution from elemental carbon (EC) was estimated. Sampling days were categorized according to local wind direction, synoptic flow, and air mass back trajectories. Chemical mass balance (CMB) reconstruction of the following PM10 components was derived for each wind direction group and at each transect location: ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4), OHM, EC, soil/surface dusts, and particle-bound water. The results showed that PM10 at the coastal site was dominated by the marine background (NaCl) compared with the urban sites, which were dominated by local primary (EC and soil/resuspension) and secondary sources (NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and OHM). There was evidence of Cl(-) depletion as NaCl aerosol passes over urban areas. There was also evidence of long-range transport of primary PM10 (EC and OHM); for example, at the coastal site from transport from Ireland. The work demonstrates how the general approach of combining mass reconstruction along a transect with other information such as wind/air-mass direction generates insight into the sources contributing to PM10 over a more extended spatial scale than at a single receptor. PMID:20066908

Gibson, Mark D; Heal, Mathew R; Bache, David H; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Beverland, Iain J; Craig, Susanne E; Clark, Colin F; Jackson, Mike H; Guernsey, Judith R; Jones, Chris

2009-12-01

119

Evaluation of geophysical logs and video surveys in boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

Between February 1998 and April 1998, geophysical logs were collected in nine boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pa. Video surveys were conducted on four of the nine boreholes. The boreholes range in depth from 320 to 508 feet below land surface, are completed open holes, have ambient vertical flow of water, and penetrate a series of interbedded siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate units. The purpose of collecting geophysical-log data was to help determine horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources and to aid in the placement of permanent borehole packers. The primary contaminants were derived from paint waste that included pigment sludges and wash solvents. The chlorinated volatile organic compounds probably originated from the wash solvents. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-resistivity and fluid-temperature logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's logs, permanent multiple-packer systems were installed in each borehole to obtain depth specific water samples from one or more water-bearing fractures in each borehole.

Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

1998-01-01

120

General investigation of radionuclide retention in migration pathways at the West Valley, New York low-level burial site. Final report 1 Oct 78-14 Feb 80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report evaluates the containment capabilities of the low-level, solid radioactive waste burial ground at West Valley, New York. The investigation included a surface water study, a trench water study, geotechnical and radiochemical studies of soils, a geotechnical analysis of a research trench and analysis of subtrench core data. Tritium is the most abundant beta emitter in trench water while strontium-90 is the predominant beta emitter in surface water. Strontium-90 ranks as the second most abundant trench water radionuclide in 6 of the 11 trenches studied. Four radionuclides were found to have either definite or possible migration. Carbon-14 was found to migrate at a much slower rate than tritium, which migrated to a depth slightly greater than 3.2m below the trench flow. There is also inconclusive evidence for strontium-90 migration beneath the trenches. Plutonium-238 was detected immediately beneath all 3 trenches studied and in 4 of the 5 trench cores. Results predicted by testing performed in 1977 were confirmed by standard engineering tests on soils fron the site. Soil samples taken from the north burial area trench caps and analyzed for tritium showed approximate background levels at the surface and above background levels at depths of 20 to 50 centimeters

 
 
 
 
121

West Nile Virus Map  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the increased concern over contagious diseases and viruses spread by various host animals and insects (such as the West Nile virus), these maps provided by the USGS are both helpful in their pragmatic applications, and for those studying the spatial distribution of the West Nile virus. The Web site begins with a brief background essay on the history of the virus, how the virus is transmitted, and the symptoms that may be evident by those who have become infected. The maps track which states have tested various carriers (such as birds, humans, and mosquitoes) for West Nile virus, and where these tests have turned up positive results. The Web site is updated frequently, and where available, also contains links to state and county public health agencies. [KMG

2003-01-01

122

West Coast Poverty Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

123

South West  

Distribution of eel in the South West RBD (2001-05 survey data .... to 1990 was \\analysed as a part of an Environment Agency R&D project (Knights et. al., ..... \\except for the Archimedean screw turbine on the River Dart in Cornwall, where.

124

Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site  

Science.gov (United States)

Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

2012-12-01

125

Elemental characterization of metal artifacts recovered from archaeological sites Higueras 1sector west and sector B and Esquivilca south central coast of Lima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of 70 metal artifacts from the Archaeological Rescue Project Loop Costa have been analyzed using non-destructive methods of analysis by X-ray fluorescence, in order to characterize them and to determine the chemical elemental composition of these objects, finding that these pieces are copper alloys, material used to manufacture their distinct metal utensils in every place. In Esquivilca Sector B copper-tin alloys and copper were used and in Higueras 1 Southwest Sector, copper-antimony and arsenic allows. Also some parts have an adhered material which contains sulfur and mercury, which leads us to think that in Higueras 1 Sector South West, pigments of these minerals were used on metal parts. (orig.)

126

West Nile Virus Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

127

What's West Nile Virus?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > ... are most at risk for the infection. Continue West Nile Symptoms Most of the time, symptoms of West ...

128

Intake of trace and major elements through drinking water pathway by the adult population of the six villages around the uranium deposit site of Domiasiat, West Khasi hills, Meghalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elements such as Fe, Zn, K, Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Se and U were analyzed to determine their concentrations in drinking water collected from six villages around the uranium ore deposit site in Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. The estimation of the concentration of these elements in the drinking water samples collected was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, except for Uranium, estimation was done using a Laser based Fluorimeter. The concentration of the elements vary from 0.2 ppb -1.7 ppm and it has been observed that all the elemental concentration fall well below the WHO prescribe guidelines. Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected was found out to be less than 0.5 ppb. (author)

129

Using environmental isotopes to characterize hydrologic processes of the Nelson Tunnel acid mine drainage site, West Willow Creek watershed, Creede, CO  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid mine drainage continues to be a pressing ecological issue across the Mountain West. Traditional remediation strategies usually involve the installation of an expensive and unsightly “end-of-pipe” water treatment plant without a full understanding of the overall hydrology of the system. In this study we show how applying water chemistry techniques to investigate water sources, ages, flow paths and residence times in a watershed affected by acid mine drainage can lead to alternative, less expensive methods of reclamation. We use both radiogenic (3H and 14C) and stable (18O and D) environmental isotopes to age waters and characterize the level of surface and groundwater interaction. Tritium content for waters collected in the tunnel was largely found to be 0-3 TU, indicating an age of greater than 50 years. This was supported by 14C values of DIC in tunnel samples that indicated ages and a hydraulic residence time on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Stable isotopes 18O and D plotted closely to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Combined with the heavy faulting and dominant welded volcanic tuffs of the region, this all indicates a system with very little surface-ground water interaction and a long, deep, likely channelized flow path. A future up-gradient pumping test would help confirm these findings and further elucidate the location and mechanism of the system’s primary recharge to the mine workings.

Krupicka, A.; Williams, M. W.

2010-12-01

130

Inversion of resistivity soundings in the archaeological site of Mahilaka (North-West of Madagascar) using the generalized linear inverse method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the generalized inverse method which is used for the inversion of resistivity sounding. The technique has been applied to a resistivity soundings survey whose stations are selected in the zones of resistivity anomalies over an archaeological site. The site covers an area of 0.75 square kilometer in the north-western part of Madagascar, bordering the east Mozambic Channel. The one-dimensional (1-D) model fits well the observed data and the generalized linear inverse method appears to be a powerful scheme with which to interpret resistivity sounding data. (author). 29 refs, 6 figs

131

USE OF NARROW-DIAMETER DIRECT-PUSH WELLS TO CHARACTERIZE AND REMEDIATE CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN THE 200 WEST AREA HANFORD SITE, WASHINGTON  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This single page graphic shows several figures. The Hydraulic Hammer Rig (HHR) direct-push technology has been successfully used to characterize carbon tetrachloride in the vadose zone. Based on their favorable performance and radius of influence, HHR SVE wells have potential for future use in both monitoring and targeted SVE to achieve VOC cleanup goals at the carbon tetrachloride waste sites

132

Study of the spectral ratios derived from seismic refraction data for evaluation of the local seismic effects in six sites between south of Mizil and west of Giurgiu  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of spectral ratios derived from seismic records along the seismic refraction line Vrancea 99 is performed for six sites located south of Mizil. Records generated by four big shots (300 - 900 Kg charge) are analyzed in each size and 24 curves of spectral ratios are obtained. A first sight shows that the spectral ratios depend not only on the local geological and physical conditions but also on epicentral distance from source to the site as well as the magnitude of the released energy by the seismic source. Nevertheless it is noticed that the frequency windows with the high spectral ratios are about the same regardless of the position and magnitude of the source which suggests the influence of the local conditions. Generally, the sites from the north of Bucharest city, namely Parepa Rusani, Gradistea and Pantelimon show low spectral ratios while the southern sites, Singureni, Stanesti and Gaujani present higher spectral ratios in the frequency window from 0.1 - 10 Hz. The northern group of sites presents a diminution of the spectral ratios from about 2 Hz (0.5 s) to 7 - 8 Hz ( 0.14 - 0.12 s). The southern group has the peaks of spectral ratios within a better individualized frequency window, 3-6 Hz (0.33 - 0.16 s). A secondary peak is around 12 - 13 Hz (? 0.08 s). Such quite high resonance frequencies are generated by the shallow layers with thicknesses from a few tens meters (0.08 s corresponds to 32 m thickness) to one - two hundred meters (0.16/0.33/0.5 s ? 60, 120, 190 m thickness). (author)

133

Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York  

Science.gov (United States)

Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y., are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and (or) reduced soil in their walls extend to 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975-76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 0.00001 to 0.001 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes. (Woodard-USGS)

Prudic, David E.; Randall, Allan D.

1977-01-01

134

Modelling of variable-density groundwater flow with respect to planned radioactive waste disposal sites in West Germany - validation activities and first results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At planned disposal sites for radioactive waste, the fresh water in the aquifer system is frequently underlain by highly saline water. This has a large impact on the flow system. Verification and validation of groundwater models that take into account the variable water density are essential steps for site specific modelling. Previous model results from an INTRAVAL test case prove that parts of these models could be invalid in special situations. On the other hand, calculations of the groundwater movement in deep, layered aquifer systems demonstrate the general suitability of these models, as shown by the relatively good accordance with measured data. They suggest diffusion-dominated salt transport in such systems and indicate changes in flow velocities and pattern, which are important for a long-term safety assessment. Computer codes used: the 2-D finite-element model SUTRA and the 3-D finite difference model HS3D. 8 figs., 3 refs

135

Analysis of echo sounding data North-Central Pacific (and west North Atlantic). Final technical report, September 1, 1976--March 31, 1978. [Site selection for marine disposal of high-level radioactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recognizing the need to consider several potentially suitable sites for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, a very preliminary search was made through available data for such sites in the North Pacific and West North Atlantic Oceans. The criteria used were: the site must be between high-productivity belts and outside of 200 mile limit; a minimum of 50 meters of sediment, preferably 100 to 150 meters; the sediment should be red clay with minimum or no biogenic components; the sediment should contain no unconformities; and no strong discontinuous internal reflectors; the area should have no tele-seismicity, be topographically subdued, have minimal bottom currents, have no or low economical potential (Mn nodules, etc.), and be large enough (1 to 2/sup 0/ on a side) to be feasible for disposal. Some of these criteria may need to be relaxed; others may need to be added. Seismic data were the basic information used to cull out potential areas, and there are very few areas that meet the criteria as interpreted seismically. Initial site specific data assessment reported included examination of all available geophysical/geological data in and around the MPG-1 area (approximately 29/sup 0/ to 31/sup 0/N; approximately 156/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/W); a topographic relief was described and the disposition of the thin (less than 100 m) sediment blanket and the acoustic character was mapped. A 15-day cruise was conducted in the MPG-1 area aboard the R/V VEMA and included detailed seismic measurements and heatflow/coring experiments to discern the variability of these parameters.

Hayes, D.E.

1978-05-01

136

Environmental consequences of postulated radionuclide releases from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site as a result of severe natural phenomena  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated radionuclide releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum radioactive material deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum radioactive material deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the events are well below the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. The likely maximum residual contamination from beta and gamma emitters are far below the background produced by fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere.

Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

1982-02-01

137

Potential Use Of Activated Carbon To Recover Tc-99 From 200 West Area Groundwater As An Alternative To More Expensive Resins Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite(regsign) A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO4-) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO4- selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (4-. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

138

East-West Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Started in 1960 by the U.S. Congress, the East-West Center's primary purpose is "to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States." To accomplish this purpose, the Center serves as a functional hub for education, cooperative research, and scholarly dialogue. On their homepage, visitors can look over the latest news from scholars at the Center, look over a list of upcoming events sponsored by the Center, and also learn about some of their most recent publications. Academics visiting the site may wish to click on over to the "Research" area. Here they will find information on their primary areas of interest, which include population and health, environmental change, and politics and governance. Finally, visitors should look at their "Publications" area, as it includes free downloads, abstracts, and access to ordering information.

139

High on 'West Spur'  

Science.gov (United States)

A rock outcrop with a view of the surrounding landscape beckons NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 203 (July 29, 2004) of its journey of exploration on the red planet. This view is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position labeled as Site 80, near the top of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.' Directly ahead are rock outcrops that scientists will examine for clues that might indicate the presence of water in the past. In the upper right-hand corner is the so-called 'sea of basalt,' consisting of lava flows that lapped onto the flanks of the hills. The view is toward the south. The field of view is approximately 170 degrees from right to left and is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometrical seam correction.

2004-01-01

140

The aerosol forcing efficiency in the UV region and the estimation of single scattering albedo at a typical West European site  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurements of aerosol optical depth, total ozone and UV irradiance from a Brewer spectrophotometer located at Uccle, Belgium, were used to estimate, for the first time at a typical site in Western Europe, the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (the forcing performed per unit of aerosol optical depth). The study was performed at selected solar zenith angles during the period July 2006-May 2010. In the 300-360 nm spectral region, the highest values were revealed at 30° (-6.9 ± 0.9 W m-2), while at 60° the RFE was almost 2.5 times lower (-2.7 ± 0.1 W m-2). In the UV-B region (300-315 nm), the RFE value at 60° (-0.069 ± 0.005 W m-2) was 5 times lower than the corresponding value at 30° (-0.35 ± 0.04 W m-2). Extending previous studies for the estimation of aerosol single scattering albedo in UV-A wavelengths down to 340 nm, an attempt was made, taking advantage of the Brewer measurements, to provide estimates at low UV-A wavelengths and in the UV-B region. The estimated monthly averages of the Brewer single scattering albedo at 320 nm are in very close agreement (within ±0.01) with measurements at 440 nm from a collocated CIMEL sunphotometer. Due to increased measurement uncertainties and the effect of ozone absorption, large differences between the two instruments were found at 306.5 nm. For the rest of wavelengths, average differences up to 0.03 were revealed.

Nikitidou, E.; Kazantzidis, A.; De Bock, V.; De Backer, H.

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Modeling Shallow Groundwater Geochemistry and Carbon Isotopes: Test of Methodology for CO2 Storage Evaluation at an EOR Site, West Texas, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Geochemical mixing, reaction, and isotopic models are being used to study the Dockum aquifer above the SACROC oilfield in Scurry County, Texas, the longest running (>35 years) engineered CO2 injection on record. Geochemical data used in the modeling are from fresh to slightly saline groundwater (200 to 500 ft depth Triassic-age Dockum Fm. and Permian-age evaporite horizons), and brine from the deeper (6,000 to 7,000 ft) injection/production zone. The goals of this study are to: 1) assess the degree of interaction between shallow groundwater and CO2 injectate, and 2) develop low-cost methods for monitoring shallow groundwater at CO2 sequestration sites. Injectate CO2 is not evident in freshwater above SACROC. Geochemical parameters in groundwater samples do not differ significantly from regional trends and partial pressures (PCO2) of dissolved CO2 are within normal ranges (10-1.6 to 10-3.0). PHREEQC model results show that cation exchange and mixing of Dockum groundwater with Ca-SO4 water from underlying Permian evaporite deposits (< 22%) and Na-Cl produced brines (< 0.8%) drives dedolomitization [Ca2+ + CaMg(CO3)2 = Mg2+ + 2CaCO2] of aquifer carbonate. This is in contrast to calcite dissolution [CO2 + H2O + CaCO2 = Ca2+ + 2HCO3-], which is a common effect of CO2 gas in freshwater aquifers. Modeling of carbon isotopes (after Appelo and Postma, 2005) indicates the d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Dockum (-3.6 to -13.2 per mil) is dominated by dissolution of dolomite (-2.5 to -7.7 per mil) with initial DIC conditions (-15 to -20 per mil) in equilibrium with a microbial CO2 source (-23 to -28 per mil). Because CO2 gas is not a reactant (carbonate for calcite precipitation originates from dolomite dissolution), input of injectate CO2 has little or no impact on isotopes for normal ranges of PCO2. Therefore carbon isotope ratios may not be useful parameters for monitoring groundwater impacts from CO2 injection in areas where mixing and dedolomitization dominate groundwater chemistry. This research is funded by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) as part of the Phase 2 Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SWP).

Romanak, K. D.; Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Hovorka, S. D.

2009-05-01

142

West Nile Fever: A Medical Detective Story  

Science.gov (United States)

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at the West Nile virus. Tracking an Epidemic reports on how the link was made between sick crows and people during the summer of 1999 in New York City. West Nile Q&A answers more than 20 frequently asked questions. Taking on West Nile tracks the efforts of scientists and officials to study and combat the virus in the year following the New York City outbreak. Mosquito Hunting, with text, photos, and audio, shows the work of an entomologist and her team of students as they look for the potential vectors of the virus.

143

West Nile Virus Maps - 2002  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

144

Zooplankton of West Madagascar  

Science.gov (United States)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

2014-05-01

145

West Midlands - ARCHIVE: Defra  

A, B, C. 1, Metadata associated with workbook, IW_1053. 2, Title, Document Title \\...... 760, West Midlands, 340, Shrewsbury and Atcham, 2000, biology, 49.3, 25.7 \\... 780, West Midlands, 340, Shrewsbury and Atcham, 2005, phosphate, 0.0, 0.0 ...

146

48 - West Lough Neagh Shores  

...Valley47 - Loughgall Orchard Belt48 - West Lough Neagh ShoresWest Lough Neagh Shores Landscape...DatasetsStrategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)48 - West Lough Neagh ShoresLast updated: 9 February 2007...

147

DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

2010-03-24

148

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

... precautions should be followed when caring for a horse suspected to have this or any viral infection. ... borne pathogens, always follow procedures for fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West ...

149

West Coast Shipwrecks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this data activity, learners will explore shipwrecks from four National Marine Sanctuaries on the West Coast of the United States. Learners will practice map skills while exploring historical and modern ocean navigation technology.

Rose, Laura

2013-01-04

150

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... Share Compartir FAQ: General Questions About West Nile Virus What is West Nile virus? How do people ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

151

West Nile Weather  

Science.gov (United States)

Last year, nearly twenty-five hundred human cases of West Nile virus were reported to the Centers For Disease Control. But in 2003, there were about four times as many. Now, scientists have found a way to predict how severe this year's outbreak might be.Hot summers mean a higher risk for West Nile virus epidemics. That's according to Ken Kunkel, an atmospheric scientist at the Illinois State Water Survey, and a team of entomologists and ecologists. In the northern United States, West Nile is spread to humans by a mosquito known as Culex pipiens. Its population depends on the number of spring and summer days above 81 degrees Fahrenheit. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-06-20

152

East vs. West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of the methods of handling coal at East Coast and West Coast ports was presented. In general, West Coast ports are more efficient in terms of throughput on the basis of the amount of ground storage provided. Also, a dicussion of the Rio Grande Railroad single track rail system was included. Most western U.S. railroads have had little upgrading since the early 1900's. The Rio Grande Railroad was feasibly upgraded, including heavier rails with welded joints and new ties.

Bennewitz, G.A. Jr.

1983-02-01

153

West Virginia Department of Commerce  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Virginia Department of Commerce works to promote the state as a destination for travel, business, and other commercial activities. This website provides access to information about the DepartmentâÂÂs ten separate agencies (such as energy and forestry) along with in-house publications, and thematic areas that cover natural resources, tax incentive programs, and more. The Business and Work Force area has great information on available industrial parks and business locations across the state, complete with an interactive map. Additionally, visitors can learn about transportation options in the state, including railroads, freeways, and barges. Visitors to this well-designed site should also not miss the Recent Publications, which include a state parks brochure, information about the Main Street program, and the DepartmentâÂÂs business magazine, Edge. Finally, perusing the Latest News area is a great way to stay abreast of important programs and initiatives throughout the state.

154

West Country Lamb  

the link between the qualities of the product and its origin. Operators ... \\consumers and retailers with confidence about product safety”. The farms .... \\optimised. This strengthens the effect of the organoleptic and other qualities .... \\perception in Britain that the South West of England produces high quality lamb \\because of its ...

155

West County Beef  

applicable to West Country Beef to ensure the link between the qualities of the \\product and its ... standards and the link to origin required by this specification. \\The farms ... prominent academics and professionals representing consumers, \\the food ..... This produces a characteristic effect on meat quality and the \

156

Wildfires Out West  

Science.gov (United States)

This video from ClimateCentral looks at the way climate conditions can affect vegetation in the West, and what influence this has on wildfires. Drought and rainfall can have very different wildfire outcomes, depending on vegetation type, extent, and location.

Central, Climate

157

West Virginia and SREB  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with West Virginia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

2009-01-01

158

Integration of remotely-sensed geobotanical and structural methods for hydrocarbon exploration in West-Central West Virginia. Quartery report, May 1, 1996--July 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on hydrocarbon exploration in West-Central West Virginia. In this period, the following tasks were carried out: a reconnaissance soil gas geochemical survey was performed at the Volcano test site and at the Lewis County test site; a geobotanical analysis of the September imagery was carried out in order to highlight spectral anomalies that appear to be associated with the historic volcano field and the Lewis County test site; and multi-temporal spectral reflectance measurements continued.

NONE

1997-06-01

159

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

160

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected ... local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile virus is transmitted to birds ...

 
 
 
 
161

Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

162

Sarah West | Staff at SEI  

... Sarah West | Staff at SEI Sarah West | Staff at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM YORK OXFORD TALLINN US ASIA AFRICA Home ...SEI Staff Staff SEI staff Sarah West sarah.west@sei-international.org Twitter: @SarahWest_SEI Telephone: +44 1904 324577 Title: ...3MB) Sarah is a Research Associate at SEI York, mainly working on a large citizen science project called OPAL (Open Air Laboratories)... Sarah is particularly interested in the benefits people may gain from participating in such projects, including environmental attitude and behaviour change, ...

163

Mountain West Digital Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

164

West Kowloon Expressway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of West Kowloon Expressway. In October 1989 the Hong Kong Government announced the decision to build a new airport at Chek Lap Kok on the northern shore of Lantau Island. The decision was subsequently sanctioned by the Sino-British Governments, to provide access to the new airport which was scheduled to be substantially completed by mid 1997. A series of roadwo...

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

165

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

166

Drought in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

2007-01-01

167

Strategies for Public Involvement at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project Act (WVDP Act) of 1980 authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to lead a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in West Valley, New York. The site is owned by the State of New York, through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and its predecessor company, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), have been the prime contractors at the site since the beginning of the Project. One of the primary missions of the Act, demonstrating techniques for solidifying high-level liquid waste, was completed in 2002, a crowning achievement in technical innovation. Since that time, wide-scale decontamination and dismantlement work has continued at the demonstration project, moving the site closer to final cleanup decisions. Since the Act was passed, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) personnel have worked hard to establish trust with the local community through a variety of public education, participation, and involvement activities. These efforts have been varied, and have collectively contributed to the WVDP's success. As the cleanup moves forward, the WVDP partners continue to utilize public involvement strategies to increase trust in a safe and secure future for the community. This paper reviews the various public involvement activities that have, and continue to be, employed at the WVDP. (authors)

168

West Side Story: Birth of a Classic  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on "Romeo and Juliet", the musical "West Side Story" reinvigorated Broadway by speaking (and singing) frankly about violence, adolescent gangs, and racial prejudice. The show's collaborators included Leonard Bernstein, Stephen Sondheim, and Jerome Robbins, and since its initial performance in 1957, it has become an iconic musical. While the in situ exhibit at the Library of Congress is no longer available for viewing, visitors can take in some of the artifacts related to the show's production on this site. The exhibit is a real treasure trove for musical lovers, and even those who've only heard "I Feel Pretty" once may be won over. The documents are divided into sections that include "Birth of A Musical" and "The Legacy of West Side Story". Along with interpretative introductions, visitors can look at rehearsal photographs from the original productions, posters, opening night telegrams, and choreographic notes.

169

Study of the Vulnerability of Fractured Aquifers in the Context of an Implementation of a Modern Landfill: Application of Remote Sensing and the Geotechnical Method on the Site of Kossihouen (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The workshop of the interdepartmental committee responsible for managing household waste in Abidjan (Ivory Coast in 2007 showed that the landfill site should be chosen out of the coastal sedimentary basin to protect the groundwater of the Continental Terminal aquifer against pollution. Indeed, this aquifer provides the potable water to Abidjan populations and also assures uniformity of the price of water by the water company of the Ivory Coast. But, given the groundwater flow and the possibility of transfer of fluid between the discontinuous and continuous aquifers, is it possible that an activity taking place outside the coastal sedimentary basin of Côte d'Ivoire (such as a landfill site contributes to the pollution of the groundwater in Abidjan. To resolve this problem, the geotechnical surveys, the laboratory tests and in-situ tests were conducted to determine the types of the soil across the study site. The Landsat TM scenes 196-56 of 12/30/1990 were processed to study the fracturation of the site. The geotechnical tests carried out in situ on the study area and the laboratory test allowed knowing the nature of the formations and their differents permeabilities. Indeed, the formations are generally complex and formed of sandy clay of low to very low permeability ranging from 9.8. 10-7 to 1.1. 10-5 m/s in situ and 1.68.10-6 to 1.76. 10-5 m / s in the laboratory. Regarding remote sensing, the Landsat image processing revealed mega-fractures (NE-SW on the site of the modern landfill of Kossihouen.

Yao Blaise KOFFI

2013-04-01

170

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

Science.gov (United States)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

171

Study of the Vulnerability of Fractured Aquifers in the Context of an Implementation of a Modern Landfill: Application of Remote Sensing and the Geotechnical Method on the Site of Kossihouen (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The workshop of the interdepartmental committee responsible for managing household waste in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) in 2007 showed that the landfill site should be chosen out of the coastal sedimentary basin to protect the groundwater of the Continental Terminal aquifer against pollution. Indeed, this aquifer provides the potable water to Abidjan populations and also assures uniformity of the price of water by the water company of the Ivory Coast. But, given the groundwater flow and the possibi...

Koffi, Yao Blaise; Ahoussi, Kouassi Ernest; Kouadio, Konan Emmanuel; Amani Michel Kouassi; Kouassi, Ouattara; Kpangui, Loukou Christophe; Jean Biemi

2013-01-01

172

Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

173

Neither East Nor West, Is Mid-West Best?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a follow-up on the paper entitled “Code, Control, and Choice: Why East is East and West is West”, published in Legal Studies in 2005. The current article was first presented at the School of Law, University of Edinburgh, in February 2006.

Roger Brownsword

2006-03-01

174

Raw material studies of West Central Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the ?a?ak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

Vera Bogosavljevi? Petrovi?

2014-03-01

175

Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 5: Argonne National Laboratory-West site assessment team report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The facilities addressed in this study include the Analytical Laboratory (AL), the Experimental Fuels Laboratory (EFL), the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF), the Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) Laboratory, the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility, and the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Vault and Workroom. The Site Assessment Team found no ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the AL, EFL, NDA Laboratory, or TREAT. For those facilities, any potentially adverse conditions or potentially adverse conditions or potentially hazardous events were found to be of little or no consequence due to compensatory and mitigative measures existing in the facilities or within the ANL-W operations

176

Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW)  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its curious name, Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW) is a powerful, free "C subroutine library for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in one or more dimensions, of both real and complex data, and of arbitrary input size." Developed by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, FFTW purportedly has outstanding performance when compared with other DFT algorithms. This statement is supported by experimental results from extensive speed and accuracy benchmarks. FFTW can be downloaded directly from this site, along with substantial documentation and three research papers stemming from its development.

Frigo, Matteo; Johnson, Steven G.

177

Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305  

Science.gov (United States)

This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

2005-01-01

178

Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

179

Cleaning up West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cleanup at the West Valley plant involves the conversion of tanked high-level radioactive wastes into a stable waste form in shielded canisters, as well as the decontamination of already completed of a large vertical chamber. The challenge of decontaminating a reprocessing plant that has been unused for 13 years is complicated, but the operation is not considered a health hazard. There is a possibility of reopening the facility as part of an interstate compact operation. The author describes the background and progress to date in the cleanup program and the need to decontaminate other aging plants. The author speculates on the public relations aspects in the effort Westinghouse made to restore public confidence. 2 figures

180

50 CFR 32.68 - West Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false West Virginia. 32.68 Section 32.68...Hunting and Fishing § 32.68 West Virginia. The following refuge units...Phillis Island, Georgetown Island; West Virginia: Captina Island,...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Site Selection: Analysis and Modeling Scenerios  

Science.gov (United States)

Gary Coutu, West Chester University/Department of Geography and Planning Summary Three assignments explore the basics of GIS analysis, using a site selection activity. These assignments introduce the use of ...

Coutu, Gary

182

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

183

Antibody Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Birds, Illinois, 2002  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antibodies to West Nile virus were detected in 94 of 1,784 Illinois birds during 2002. Captive and urban birds had higher seropositivity than did birds from natural areas, and northern and central Illinois birds’ seropositivity was greater than that from birds from the southern sites. Adult and hatch-year exposure rates did not differ significantly.

Ringia, Adam M.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Koo, Hyun-young; Wyngaerde, Marshall; Brawn, Jeff D.; Novak, Robert J.

2004-01-01

184

West Midlands - ARCHIVE: Defra  

Public awareness monitoring at the four key sites in the form of face-to-face \\interview surveys .... The following monitoring was undertaken during the trial: • \\Recycling tonnage data ... The BBC's public service ethos, and their keen interest \\in.

185

Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands : Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco) and Doñana National Park (South-West Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain). Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems ...

Elkiathi, Najat; Ramdani, Mohamed; Espinar, Jose? L.; Fahd, Khalid; Serrano, Laura

2013-01-01

186

The evaluation of several corrosion mitigation strategies for oil coolers used by the strategic petroleum reserve.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this study was to first establish the fitness for service of the carbon steel based oil coolers presently located at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry sites, and second, to compare quantitatively the performance of two proposed corrosion mitigation strategies. To address these goals, a series of flow loops were constructed to simulate the conditions present within the oil coolers allowing the performance of each corrosion mitigation strategy, as well as the baseline performance of the existing systems, to be assessed. As prior experimentation had indicated that the corrosion and fouling was relatively uniform within the oil coolers, the hot and cold side of the system were simulated, representing the extremes of temperature observed within a typical oil cooler. Upon completion of the experiment, the depth of localized attack observed on carbon steel was such that perforation of the tube walls would likely result within a 180 day drawdown procedure at West Hackberry. Furthermore, considering the average rate of wall recession (from LPR measurements), combined with the extensive localized attack (pitting) which occurred in both environments, the tubing wall thickness remaining after 180 days would be less than that required to contain the operating pressures of the oil coolers for both sites. Finally, the inhibitor package, while it did reduce the measured corrosion rate in the case of the West Hackberry solutions, did not provide a sufficient reduction in the observed attack to justify its use.

Hinkebein, Thomas E.; Levin, Bruce L.; Enos, David George

2004-10-01

187

Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ? 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ? 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

188

Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

189

Tourist events in the area of West Morava  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current tourist offer, tourism of events presents a kind of tourism that could contribute to extending the tourist demand, especially towards natural and anthropogenic values of a tourist site or region. West Morava's area is the southernmost Panonian-subregion in Serbia, and is related to the valley of the West Morava River. This region is also one of the most visited tourist destinations in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to establish the correlation between the formal events and spa resorts, rural, cultural, and gastronomic tourism in the area which also presents a significant transitive tourist destination.

Bjeljac Željko

2007-01-01

190

West Nile virus in Europe  

Sep 14, 2010 ... Veterinary Science Team. Global Animal Health – International Disease \\Monitoring. Reference: VITT/1200 WNV in ... associated with infection in Africa, \\West Europe and North America, while lineage 2 was mainly associated ...

191

GeoPowering the West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

2007-02-01

192

North-West Region Monitoring  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Ecological Assessment of the Region, where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities.

193

IUCN - West and Central Africa  

... BIOPAMA will establish a regional Observatory for Biodiversity and Protected Areas in the West and Central Africa that will be hosted for a pilot phase within the Observatory for Central African Forests (OFAC as French acronym for Observatoire des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale). To this end, BIOPAMA is seeking organisations in the region that have an interest in contributing to the BIOPAMA Observatory and that share the vision of BIOPAMA for West and Central Africa. hellip; 18 Feb 2014 | News story ...

194

Safer than sleeping with your spouse - The West Valley experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste burial site are reviewed in terms of the following issues: entry of water into burial trenches, transport of radionuclides out of the trenches, ultimate fate of the radionuclides, regulatory and health implications, dose levels from West Valley, and additional measures to reduce effluents. Despite burial of unacceptable waste forms and poor management of the site, annual doses from shallow-land burial at the West Valley site are well within existing and forthcoming standards. Even the maximum annual health risks, less than two in one billion for a public water supply customer and less than four in one billion for a fisherman result in lifetime risks for each which are more than 100-fold below one in a million, a value commonly considered acceptable. Decomposition of buried biodegradable wastes will result in the production of large volumes of gas which in turn will create problems with management of a disposal site. Since tritium and 14C will escape to the atmosphere regardless of whether or not the wastes are incinerated, management of any disposal site may be improved by incineration prior to burial. It appears that worker and public doses will increase if incineration is used, however

195

Genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, revealed by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, we studied ancient DNA from bone remains excavated from two archeological sites in West Siberia: Saigatinsky 6 (eighth to eleventh centuries) and Zeleny Yar (thirteenth century). Polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) succeeded for 9 of 67 specimens examined, and the sequences were assigned to mtDNA haplogroups B4, C4, G2, H and U. This distribution pattern of mtDNA haplogroups in medieval West Siberian people was similar to those previously reported in modern populations living in West Siberia, such as the Mansi, Ket and Nganasan. Exact tests of population differentiation showed no significant differences between the medieval people and modern populations in West Siberia. The findings suggest that some medieval West Siberian people analyzed in the present study are included in direct ancestral lineages of modern populations native to West Siberia. PMID:21753768

Sato, Takehiro; Razhev, Dmitry; Amano, Tetsuya; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-08-01

196

Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments

197

How the West Was Warmed  

Science.gov (United States)

Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But warm conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western warming has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent warming of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to warm the West during the past century. We further show that a warming of the tropical oceanic warm pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the warming of the West since 1970.

Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.

2006-05-01

198

Russia between East and West  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The East and West have been symbols in Russian culture for centuries and have served as reference points for Russians in their search of cultural and geopolitical identity. They continue this role in contemporary Russia. Should Russia be part of the East or West? Russian politicians, scholars, writers and thinkers have been this question for several hundred years. While no agreement has yet been reached the discussion, far from purely academic, has had practical political consequences. The political position and practical policy agenda of a contemporary Russian politician or any other member of the educated elite still depends largely on where he or she places Russia on the East-West axis of the geopolitical compass and where he or she wants to see the needle point in the future.

Lukin Alexander

2003-01-01

199

West syndrome associated with hyperlexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two patients are reported with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia. They had peculiar linguistic and psychosocial development and autistic behavior, yet began to read Japanese and Chinese characters, numbers, Roman alphabet letters, and trademark letters at 3 years of age. Neuropsychologic, electroencephalographic, and radiologic studies were performed at 11 years of age in Patient 1 and at 10 years of age in Patient 2. Although they were able to read fluently with correct intonation, their comprehension was significantly impaired. The neuropsychologic evaluation of both patients demonstrated selective, excellent ability in auditory memory in contrast to impairment of associational abilities, visual retention, and visual constructional abilities. These findings suggest that the functions in the nondominant hemisphere were also impaired. Although children with West syndrome frequently have associated mental retardation, patients with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia have never been reported. A neuropsychologic investigation of epileptic children with mental retardation is necessary for the detection of hyperlexia. PMID:2242178

Ichiba, N

1990-01-01

200

Geohydrologic study of the West Lake Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this investigation was to (1) collect and interpret geochemical data on the surface, unconfined, and confined waters of the West Lake Basin, and (2) evaluate the potential for radiochemical contamination of the uppermost confined aquifers. The report assesses the suitability of Gable Mountain Pond for receiving waste water from 200 East Area operations and applies a predictive digital computer model to assess the impacts to the groundwater regime of maintaining, increasing, or decreasing water discharge into Gable Mountain Pond. East of the 200 East Area lies a natural depression which has been dammed and used as a liquid waste disposal site (B Pond). B Pond waste waters directly recharge the underlying unconfined aquifer. This report will examine the suitability of using B Pond for receiving additional waste waters which would otherwise be discharged to Gable Mountain Pond. A predictive digital computer model will be used for assessments involving various discharges into B Pond.

Gephart, R.E.; Eddy, P.A.; Arnett, R.C.; Robinson, G.A.

1976-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Technical options for the future of West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Processing Plant reprocessed spent fuel from 1966 to 1972. It was shut down in 1972 for modifications, and in 1976 NFS decided not to renew the lease. This paper discusses the technical options for dealing with the financial responsibilities. The study shows that there is a range of options for both decommissioning and continued use of the plant with decommissioning involving either the immobilization or the off-site disposal of the wastes

202

Microplastics in the coastal environment of West Iceland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microplastic particles in the marine environment and the effects on wildlife, human and ecosystem health are just beginning to be understood in a global setting. The presence of microplastics particle in West Iceland are evaluated to determine if there is a detectable gradient of decreasing plastic concentrations with increasing distance from the urban centres around Reykjavik. The study region includes sample sites within urban, semi-rural and rural coastal settings, with 4 si...

Dippo, Benjamin

2012-01-01

203

Articulating Success in West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

2008-01-01

204

West Europe without Nuclear Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

205

Briefing note for the South West  

Bills for South West Water Company customers are significantly higher. (average \\... But at the time of privatisation South West Water had the lowest regulatory ... \\with medical conditions could benefit by about £280 a year if the changes to.

206

West Valley feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

Pirro, J.

1981-01-01

207

Data report: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. National uranium resource evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Stream sediment samples were collected at 234 sites in Delaware, 1322 sites in Maryland, 5667 sites in Virginia, and 2965 sites in West Virginia. Ground water samples were collected at 284 sites in Delaware, 1188 sites in Maryland, 4834 sites in Virginia, and 4060 sites in West Virginia. Stream water samples were collected at 837 sites in Maryland, 2598 sites in Virginia, and 2910 sites in West Virginia. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 2730 sediment samples from Virginia. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 1765 ground water sites. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site

208

RESTORATIVE PRACTICES IN ACTION: Tallaght West Childhood Development Initiatives’ Restorative Practices Programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article describes CDI’s Restorative Practices (RP) programme in Tallaght West by discussing the origins, implementation and independent evaluation of the programme. A definition and explanation of RP based on existing literature and research is offered and the findings of the evaluation of CDI’s RP programme are presented along with testimonies from users of RP in Tallaght West. CDI was one of three Prevention and Early Intervention Programme sites and is now funded under the Governm...

Casey, Claire

2014-01-01

209

Recent developments: West Germany and Namibia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in the nuclear power industry in West Germany and Namibia are reviewed. The basic structure of the West German nuclear fuel industry following the Nukem ownership changes is discussed. The nationalization of the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) is described

210

EMAP - WEST COMMUNICATIONS, INDICES OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the key elements of EMAP-West is to develop biological indicators of condition of the streams and rivers of the West. The development and use of Indicators of Biological Integrity (IBI) are described for the 12 western State in EMAP-West. A key addition to the early work...

211

Climatology of gravity wave activity during the West African Monsoon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gravity wave activity is analysed in the lower stratosphere using 6 year radiosonde data (2001–2006 above two meteorological stations in the West African tropical region such as Niamey (13.47° N; 2.16° E and Ouagadougou (12.35° N; 1.51° W. Monthly total energy density of gravity waves is computed with temperature and horizontal wind perturbations to highlight the West African Monsoon period from June to September. Comparison with monthly total energy density calculated with temperature only supports that observed small-scale temperature and wind perturbations are mostly associated with gravity waves in the lower stratosphere especially for large values during the wet season. Above the two sites, monthly evolution of gravity wave total energy density reveals a maximum intensity of gravity wave activity in July during the West African Monsoon period. Indicators of convective activity such as mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM rain rates reveal to be adequate monsoon proxies to be compared to gravity wave energy intensity during the West African Monsoon.

P. Kafando

2008-12-01

212

West Nile virus in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in California during July 2003 from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV transmission then increased and spread in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August and from Baja, Mexico, in mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed. PMID:15496236

Reisen, William; Lothrop, Hugh; Chiles, Robert; Madon, Minoo; Cossen, Cynthia; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki; Edman, John

2004-08-01

213

West Syndrome: Response to valproate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5% showed a good response, but 7 later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and 3 were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1% had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and 2 were lost to follow up. Conclusions: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

RashmiKumar

2012-11-01

214

Australia's North West Shelf Venture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

215

ASMET: Flooding in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The rainy season in Sahelian West Africa extends from June to September and is tied to the position of the intertropical front. During this period, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) often produce significant rainfall that can lead to flooding. This module examines an extreme flooding event that occurred in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from 31 August to 1 September 2009. Learners assume the role of forecaster, assessing meteorological conditions to see if an MCS will develop that can lead to heavy rain and flooding. They follow a forecast process that emphasizes the use of satellite data, standard surface and upper-air charts, and model output. The forecast process is tied to a conceptual model of the key features that drive convective activities in West Africa.

Comet

2012-01-10

216

Minesoil development in central West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immediately after mining and regrading, minesoils usually have little or no horizon development. Over time, horizons begin to form and definite diagnostic properties develop. The purpose of this study was to document the genesis of a 13-year-old minesoil. The study site was a reclaimed surface mine in Upshur County, West Virginia. Transects were established in 1983 across the site immediately after mining and regrading but before revegetation. Soil pits were excavated to 100+ cm at nine points along those transects. Soil profiles were described at each point, and each minesoil horizon was sampled for analyses. In 1983, only C horizons were described because no structure had developed. In 1996, all nine profiles had developed A horizons ranging in thickness from 2 to 9 cm (mean 6.1 cm). Subsurface horizons (AC, Bw, or C/B), ranging in thickness from 7 to 17 cm (mean 11.8 cm), also had formed in each profile. The A horizons were identified by colors that were darker than the subsoil horizons and the presence of weak fine granular or subangular blocky structure. The AC, Bw and C/B horizons had weak fine to very coarse subangular blocky or weak medium to very thick platy structure. Chemical and physical properties of the minesoils supported the morphological properties indicating that definite pedogenic horizons have formed in 13 years

217

Holocene Salnia sediments of West Caicos, British West Indies: stratigraphy, mineralogy, and pore-water geochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of east Salina on West Caicos, British West Indies, has shown it to be the site of active gypsum and dolomite formation. East salina, 3 km long and 0.25 km wide, is situated in an elongate depression between Holocene oolitic dunes to the east and eolianite ridges of Pleistocene age to the west. The thickness of the Holocene sediment package in the salina ranges from 3 m in the center to less than 0.5 m at the edges. The salina sediments exhibit an overall restrictive-upward sequence which grades from open-marine packstone and grainstone at the base through algally laminated mud and into a gypsum mush in the uppermost part of the section. A thin algal mat encrusted with gypsum and ephemeral halite covers the salina surface. This sequence is virtually identical in scale and appearance to prograding sabkha sequences reported from the Persian Gulf. Carbonate phases present in these sediments include aragonite, high- and low-magnesium calcite, and protodolomite. Protodolomite is found as an alteration product in the open-marine sediments and within a thin, lithified Holocene basal layer that overlies laminated calichecrust on the underlying Pleistocene bed rock. Analyses of pore waters reveal that they approach normal marine salinity at the base of the salina sequence and become hypersaline upward. Mineralogical changes in the salina sequence are reflected in the ionic character of the pore waters. Field observations indicate that interstitial water within the sequence is under hydraulic head and rises and falls with the tides.

Rosoff, D.B.; Dwyer, G.S.; Leaver, J.; Perkins, R.D.; Lloyd, R.M.

1989-03-01

218

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

219

Permafrost degradation in West Greenland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in ...

Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-nielsen, Thomas

2012-01-01

220

West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

Ünsal Y?lmaz

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Potential East-West Migration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Examines the migration potential in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, & Slovakia, using 1996 survey data from 4,392 persons. Results indicate that all scenarios that predict an imminent exodus of people from East & Central Europe are exaggerating the real dimension of East-West migration. The migration potential in the four countries investigated here is between 700,000 & (potentially) 4 million persons, higher than the numbers foreseen by the law for annual immigration to Austria & the Fe...

Hintermann, Christiane; Fassmann, Heinz

1998-01-01

222

Artesian mineral water od Raotintse site, Tetovo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of mineral springs occur on the west and east peripheral part of the Polog valley. Their appearance is connected with the Western Polog fault that stretches west to the brim of the valley NE–SW direction and east direction of Polog fault stretches in NW–SE. This paper presents the results of detailed hydrogeological investigations of mineral water at the site Raotintse Tetovo. Based on data obtained on two operational investigative boreholes at the site in Raotintse of the pleistocene limnic sediments at a depth of 38–67 m is founded artesian aquifer with low mineralized water. (Author)

223

Public attitudes near a nuclear waste site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses results from the 1987 survey taken at the West Valley Demonstration Project where a large nuclear waste cleanup is in progress. Over 1200 people were polled on priorities they give to radioactive waste cleanup, their attitudes toward nuclear energy, and their opinions on the issues of high and low level waste siting. Responses are compared with earlier West Valley data to establish trends in public attitudes on nuclear issues. A demographic analysis describes the population surveyed. The bottom line of the study is to gauge public perception of radioactive waste cleanup, nuclear energy, and waste siting. A comprehensive effort is made to statistically correlate demographic variables with nuclear attitudes

224

Submarine volcanic features west of Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual observations of submarine volcanic vents were made from the submersible vehicle DSV "Sea Cliff" in water depths between 1310 and 690 m, west of Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii. Glass-rich, shelly submarine lavas surround circular 1- to 3-m-diameter volcanic vents between 1050 and 690 m depth in an area west-northwest of the southernpoint (Keei Pt.) of Kealakekua Bay. Eye-witness accounts indicate that this area was the site of a submarine eruption on February 24, 1877. Chemical analyses of lavas from these possible seafloor vent areas indicate that the eruptive products are very similar in composition to volcanic rocks produced by historic eruptions of Mauna Loa volcano.

Fornari, Daniel J.; Lockwood, John P.; Lipman, Peter W.; Rawson, Michael; Malahoff, Alexander

1980-05-01

225

West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

226

Alternating current for the West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

227

Early British Kingdoms Web Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Created and maintained by David Nash Ford, this site offers an excellent introduction to the Celtic Kingdoms that existed in Britain and Brittany from the time the Romans left until well into the eleventh century. The site is essentially composed of two portions, the first of which provides overviews of the kingdoms by region (West Country, Midland and South Britain, Wales, Northern Britain, North of Hadrian's Wall, and Brittany). The second portion offers information on several related topics such as King Arthur, Celtic Saints, Celtic Ancestor Gods, and Pre-Roman Celtic Tribes and Kingdoms. Additional resources include a list of related links, a bibliography, and a What's New page.

2001-01-01

228

20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

2012-02-15

229

76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...110223162-1295-02] RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction...Border.'' The area listed as ``Horse Mt. to US-Mexico Border'' is corrected to read...

2011-06-07

230

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Science.gov (United States)

...130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC738 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions...Commercial fisheries from the US/Canada Border to Cape...

2013-08-19

231

78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...navigable waters of the United States during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. The race will be held on the waters of the...

2013-04-15

232

78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...States during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. C. Discussion of Proposed Rule On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. The races will be held on the waters of the...

2013-01-15

233

West Nile Virus Problem Space  

Science.gov (United States)

As an emerging disease in the public eye, WNV continues to generate scientific interest as well. Researchers are exploring questions about its origin, evolution, transmission by multiple vectors and host tissues, replication in multiple hosts, viremic period, viral loads, seroconversion and antibody production, detection, vaccine potential, etc. Central to these investigations are the use of molecular data including nucleic acid sequences and the use of bioinformatics. There are multiple ways this data can be used in courses. Other instructors have used West Nile Virus to: * Help students become familiar with Biology Workbench, including the use of Nucleic Acid Tools such as ClustalW and SixFrame as well as Alignment Tools such as DrawGram, BoxShade, and MView, etc. * Locate and download sequence data on line using Biology WorkBench, NCBI, and more. Edit the sequences for comparing sequence data obtained from multiple sources and/or for making shorter labels. * Learn more about the West Nile Virus, including structure of the virus, transmission cycle, replication cycle, viremia, blood titers and the disease in reservoir and incidental hosts, vectors for virus, natural history in the US and around the world, and testing for WNV.

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College;); Stacey Kiser (Lane Community College;Biology)

2005-12-13

234

Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

2005-01-01

235

Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

236

76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic...Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series...provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during...PART 100--SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS 0...Regulations; Key West World Championship,...

2011-11-04

237

Cd and Pb exposure of earthworms in cultivated soil close to an industrial area in West Berlin. Die Cadmium- und Bleibelastung von Regenwuermern in industrienahen, kultivierten Boeden in Berlin (West)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heavy metal content (Cd, Pb) of earthworms was investigated in relationship of different soil variables on a site close by an industrial area and on an unpolluted site in Berlin-West. The accumulation of heavy metals is much higher on the unpolluted site than on the polluted site, which present plain parts of organic matter. A correlation between heavy metal content and the age of the worms does not exist for all species. (orig.).

Weisenfeld, P. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Tierphysiologie und Angewandte Zoologie)

1989-01-01

238

200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

239

Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of ?-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

240

Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)  

Science.gov (United States)

This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)  

Science.gov (United States)

This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

2005-01-01

242

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th ce...

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

2012-01-01

243

USDA: West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

From the USDA Animal Welfare Information Center, this online Bibliography features an extensive array of scientific literature relating to West Nile virus published between 1965 and 2004. The literature "deals with the virus, its effects on animals, how the mosquito harbors and maintains the virus, how the virus is maintained over the seasons and how disease spreads. The major topics include: techniques of viral isolation and purification, viral genetics and strain differentiation, mosquito vector biology and behavior, transmission factors, animal species susceptible to the disease, animals as disease sentinels, disease reservoirs, surveillance programs, vector control programs, etc." Site visitors may view the Bibliography in separate sections, or as one entire document. [NL

244

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, (14)C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J; Curtis, Jason H; Kenney, William F; Kolata, Alan L; Peterson, Larry C

2012-01-24

245

West country lamb - protected designation of origin  

West Country Lamb is the name applied to carcases, sides or cuts of lamb ... \\conditioning between slaughter and sale to the final consumer, or one of the \\maturation processes .... This strengthens the effect of the organoleptic and other \\qualities .... perception in Britain that the West Country of England produces high \\quality.

246

Obtaining Financial Parity in West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

On March 28, 2008 West Virginia's governor signed into law House Bill 4117 that provides salary stipends to school psychologists and school nurses who are nationally certified. This accomplishment was largely due to 2 years of work undertaken by three dedicated persons in West Virginia: school psychologists Sarah Kendall and Terry Thorn and school…

Bohmann, Joan

2008-01-01

247

40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment...Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2010-07-01

248

West Indian Immigrants: Those Arrogant Bastards.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influx of Caribbean West Indian immigrants into the United States has evoked mixed responses from the Afro American black community. The West Indians' high degree of literacy, sense of community, and high self esteem have developed black leaders who have earned the respect of enlightened Afro Americans through their achievements in education,…

Walter, John C.

1981-01-01

249

West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

Gale, Steven H.

250

Anurans Collected in West Malaysia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on September 16-17, when they were spawning in shallow ditches, formed by the wheels of a truck. Amolops larutensis were day active and occurred in the shadow, among stones in a forest stream, particularly close to water falls and rapids. Several while foam nests with a diameter of 5-7 cm were deposited on the same stones just above the water surface on August 27. Other species observed were Bulo melanostictus, Bulo asper, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Kaloula pulchra, Limnonectes laticeps, Limflonectes macrodon, Rana erythraea, Rana glandulosa, Rana nicobarieflsis, and Rhacophorus prominanus.

Cedhagen, Tomas

1997-01-01

251

Travel medicine for West Virginians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparation for overseas travel often involves a prolonged search for expertise and necessary vaccinations that can be a formidable challenge to patients and physicians alike. Many primary care providers find themselves ill-equipped to provide up-to-date information for travel to undeveloped countries where there may be risks of diarrhea, malaria and other exotic diseases. However, basic travel advice can easily be incorporated into most practices with the help of regularly updated reference materials such as the CDC's Health Information for International Travel. More advanced assistance along with the necessary vaccinations is available throughout West Virginia at a number of travel clinics which are discussed in this article. Through greater awareness of travel issues and timely referral, physicians may expedite their patients' travel plans while safeguarding their health abroad. PMID:8053166

Juckett, G

1994-05-01

252

21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents...

2010-04-01

253

76 FR 55541 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia: Kentucky; Ohio...  

Science.gov (United States)

...County (Graham Tax District) in West...potential 2007-2009 design values for the LCH site...The annual design value for 2007-2009...54-011-0006). The annual design value for 2008-2010...801 et seq., as added by the...

2011-09-07

254

76 FR 65155 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits  

Science.gov (United States)

...harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna longline (DSLL) fishery...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http://www.pcouncil.org...shallow sets. Longline vessels that make deep sets with longline (DSLL) are...

2011-10-20

255

B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Employer Training Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide, which was developed during the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project, includes materials for use in training and providing on-site consultations to contractors, managers, supervisors, office/technical staff, and others in two areas: diversity in the workplace and sexual harassment in the workplace. Part 1, which…

Portland Community Coll., OR.

256

Structural Preconditions of West Bohemia Earthquake Swarms  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Bohemia and adjacent Vogtland are well known for quasi-periodical earthquake swarms persisting for centuries. The seismogenic area near Nový Kostel involved about 90 % of overall earthquake activity clustered here in space and time. The latest major earthquake swarm took place in August-September 2011. In 1994 and 1997, two minor earthquake swarms appeared in another location, near Lazy. Recently, the depth-recursive tomography yielded a velocity image with an improved resolution along the CEL09 refraction profile passing between these swarm areas. The resolution, achieved in the velocity image and its agreement with the inverse gravity modeling along the collateral 9HR reflection profile, enabled us to reveal the key structural background of these West Bohemia earthquake swarms. The CEL09 velocity image detected two deeply rooted high-velocity bodies adjacent to the Nový Kostel and Lazy focal zones. They correspond to two Variscan mafic intrusions influenced by the SE inclined slab of Saxothuringian crust that subducted beneath the Teplá-Barrandian terrane in the Devonian era. In their uppermost SE inclined parts, they roof both focal zones. The high P-wave velocities of 6,100-6,200 m/s, detected in both roofing caps, indicate their relative compactness and impermeability. The focal domains themselves are located in the almost gradient-free zones with the swarm foci spread near the axial planes of profound velocity depressions. The lower velocities of 5,950-6,050 m/s, observed in the upper parts of focal zones, are indicative of less compact rock complexes corrugated and tectonically disturbed by the SE bordering magma ascents. The high-velocity/high-density caps obviously seal the swarm focal domains because almost no magmatic fluids of mantle origin occur in the Nový Kostel and Lazy seismogenic areas of the West Bohemia/Vogtland territory, otherwise rich in the mantle-derived fluids. This supports the hypothesis of the fluid triggering of earthquake swarms. The sealed focal domains retain ascending magmatic fluids until their critical pressure and volumes accumulated cause rock micro-fractures perceived as single earthquake bursts. During a swarm period, the focal depths of these sequential events become shallower while their magnitudes grow. We assume that coalescence of the induced micro-fractures forms temporary permeability zones in the final swarm phase and the accumulated fluids release into the overburden via the adjacent fault systems. The fluid release usually occurs after the shallowest events with the strongest magnitudes ML > 3. The seasonal summer declines of hydrostatic pressure in the Cheb Basin aquifer system seem to facilitate and trigger the fluid escape as happened for the 2000, 2008, and 2011 earthquake swarms. The temporary fluid release, known as the valve-fault action, influences the surface aquifer systems in various manners. In particular, we found three quantities, the strain, mantle-derived 3He content in CO2 surface sources and ground water levels, which display a 3-5 months decline before and then a similar restoration after each peak earthquake during the swarm activities. The revealed structure features are particularly important since the main Nový Kostel earthquake swarm area is proposed as a site for the ICDP project, `Eger Rift Drilling'.

Novotný, M.; Špi?ák, A.; Weinlich, F. H.

2013-07-01

257

Estrategia de evaluación genética en el Síndrome West A strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La epilepsia ocupa el segundo lugar entre las enfermedades neurológicas de la infancia y produce afectaciones en las esferas afectiva, cognitiva y social de quienes la padecen, así como en su contexto familiar. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para la evaluación genética del Síndrome West. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome West atendidos en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Pinar del Río desde el primero de enero del 2010 al 31 de Agosto del 2011. Resultados: predominó el Síndrome West en el sexo masculino, con debut de los síntomas entre 4 y 6 meses. Se obtuvo una alta correspondencia entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la identificación de antecedentes prenatales positivos. La amenaza de aborto, el parto pretérmino y la hipoxia neonatal fueron las causas perinatales más atribuidas al desarrollo de la enfermedad. El examen físico dismorfológico fue positivo en la mayoría de los pacientes y aportó elementos que ofrecieron el diagnóstico en casos sin etiología definida. Las pruebas metabólicas y cromosómicas, resultaron útiles en la identificación etiológica del Síndrome West. Se diseñó una estrategia de evaluación genética para los pacientes con Síndrome West. Conclusiones: la caracterización del Síndrome West según los protocolos de estudio, facilitó el manejo de forma integral, permitió identificar las causas responsables del trastorno y se diseñó la estrategia para la evaluación genética de los niños con esta enfermedad.Introduction: epilepsy occupies the second place among neurological diseases in childhood and it provokes affectations in the emotional, cognitive and social spheres of epilepsy sufferers, as well as in their familial context. Objective: to design a strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients suffering from West’s syndrome attended at Provincial Medical Genetics Center in Pinar del Rio from January 1, 2010 - August 31, 2011. Results: West’s syndrome prevailed in male sex and the onset of symptoms by 4 and 6 months. A high correspondence was found between diagnosis of the disease and the identification of positive prenatal history. Threatened abortion, preterm labor and neonatal hypoxia were the perinatal causes ascribed to the development of the disease. Dysmorphological physical examination was positive in the majority of patients and it provided elements that helped with diagnosis of cases without presenting a definite etiology. Metabolic and chromosomal tests were valuable to perform the etiological identification of West’s syndrome. A strategy to carry out the genetic assessment for West’s syndrome patients was designed. Conclusions: West’s syndrome characterization following the protocols of study eased a comprehensive management which allowed the identification of causes and the design of a strategy to complete the genetic assessment of children suffering from this disease.

Deysi Licourt Otero

2013-02-01

258

Site organization and site arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW)

259

Pathway for agricultural science impact in West Africa: lessons from the Convergence of Sciences programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of agricultural research on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers in West Africa has been disappointing. This article reports on research on agricultural research that sought to identify an alternative pathway of science that would lead to greater impact. It is based on the analysis of the work at eight pilot learning sites in the Convergence of Sciences (CoS) programme. Each site featured research for development with resource-poor farmers and other stakeholders. On the basis o...

Nederlof, S.; Ro?ling, N.; Huis, A.

2007-01-01

260

Estrategia de evaluación genética en el Síndrome West / A strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La epilepsia ocupa el segundo lugar entre las enfermedades neurológicas de la infancia y produce afectaciones en las esferas afectiva, cognitiva y social de quienes la padecen, así como en su contexto familiar. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para la evaluación genética del Síndrome W [...] est. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome West atendidos en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Pinar del Río desde el primero de enero del 2010 al 31 de Agosto del 2011. Resultados: predominó el Síndrome West en el sexo masculino, con debut de los síntomas entre 4 y 6 meses. Se obtuvo una alta correspondencia entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la identificación de antecedentes prenatales positivos. La amenaza de aborto, el parto pretérmino y la hipoxia neonatal fueron las causas perinatales más atribuidas al desarrollo de la enfermedad. El examen físico dismorfológico fue positivo en la mayoría de los pacientes y aportó elementos que ofrecieron el diagnóstico en casos sin etiología definida. Las pruebas metabólicas y cromosómicas, resultaron útiles en la identificación etiológica del Síndrome West. Se diseñó una estrategia de evaluación genética para los pacientes con Síndrome West. Conclusiones: la caracterización del Síndrome West según los protocolos de estudio, facilitó el manejo de forma integral, permitió identificar las causas responsables del trastorno y se diseñó la estrategia para la evaluación genética de los niños con esta enfermedad. Abstract in english Introduction: epilepsy occupies the second place among neurological diseases in childhood and it provokes affectations in the emotional, cognitive and social spheres of epilepsy sufferers, as well as in their familial context. Objective: to design a strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome. [...] Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients suffering from West’s syndrome attended at Provincial Medical Genetics Center in Pinar del Rio from January 1, 2010 - August 31, 2011. Results: West’s syndrome prevailed in male sex and the onset of symptoms by 4 and 6 months. A high correspondence was found between diagnosis of the disease and the identification of positive prenatal history. Threatened abortion, preterm labor and neonatal hypoxia were the perinatal causes ascribed to the development of the disease. Dysmorphological physical examination was positive in the majority of patients and it provided elements that helped with diagnosis of cases without presenting a definite etiology. Metabolic and chromosomal tests were valuable to perform the etiological identification of West’s syndrome. A strategy to carry out the genetic assessment for West’s syndrome patients was designed. Conclusions: West’s syndrome characterization following the protocols of study eased a comprehensive management which allowed the identification of causes and the design of a strategy to complete the genetic assessment of children suffering from this disease.

Deysi, Licourt Otero; Anitery, Travieso Téllez.

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Estrategia de evaluación genética en el Síndrome West / A strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La epilepsia ocupa el segundo lugar entre las enfermedades neurológicas de la infancia y produce afectaciones en las esferas afectiva, cognitiva y social de quienes la padecen, así como en su contexto familiar. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para la evaluación genética del Síndrome W [...] est. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome West atendidos en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Pinar del Río desde el primero de enero del 2010 al 31 de Agosto del 2011. Resultados: predominó el Síndrome West en el sexo masculino, con debut de los síntomas entre 4 y 6 meses. Se obtuvo una alta correspondencia entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la identificación de antecedentes prenatales positivos. La amenaza de aborto, el parto pretérmino y la hipoxia neonatal fueron las causas perinatales más atribuidas al desarrollo de la enfermedad. El examen físico dismorfológico fue positivo en la mayoría de los pacientes y aportó elementos que ofrecieron el diagnóstico en casos sin etiología definida. Las pruebas metabólicas y cromosómicas, resultaron útiles en la identificación etiológica del Síndrome West. Se diseñó una estrategia de evaluación genética para los pacientes con Síndrome West. Conclusiones: la caracterización del Síndrome West según los protocolos de estudio, facilitó el manejo de forma integral, permitió identificar las causas responsables del trastorno y se diseñó la estrategia para la evaluación genética de los niños con esta enfermedad. Abstract in english Introduction: epilepsy occupies the second place among neurological diseases in childhood and it provokes affectations in the emotional, cognitive and social spheres of epilepsy sufferers, as well as in their familial context. Objective: to design a strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome. [...] Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients suffering from West’s syndrome attended at Provincial Medical Genetics Center in Pinar del Rio from January 1, 2010 - August 31, 2011. Results: West’s syndrome prevailed in male sex and the onset of symptoms by 4 and 6 months. A high correspondence was found between diagnosis of the disease and the identification of positive prenatal history. Threatened abortion, preterm labor and neonatal hypoxia were the perinatal causes ascribed to the development of the disease. Dysmorphological physical examination was positive in the majority of patients and it provided elements that helped with diagnosis of cases without presenting a definite etiology. Metabolic and chromosomal tests were valuable to perform the etiological identification of West’s syndrome. A strategy to carry out the genetic assessment for West’s syndrome patients was designed. Conclusions: West’s syndrome characterization following the protocols of study eased a comprehensive management which allowed the identification of causes and the design of a strategy to complete the genetic assessment of children suffering from this disease.

Deysi, Licourt Otero; Anitery, Travieso Téllez.

262

Nos sites  

... Pour connaître les activités de CDC Biodiversité, visitez leur site internet. http://www.cdc-biodiversite.fr/ Novethic Filiale à 100%...Mis en place par la Caisse des Dépôts, Localtis est un site internet d'informations professionnelles dédié aux collectivités locales. Pour découvrir l'ensemble des ...cadres territoriaux et l'ensemble des professionnels de l'action locale, accédez au site internet Localtis ! http://www.localtis.info Mairie-conseils Dans ... Pour trouver des réponses aux préoccupations communales, découvrez le site internet http://www.mairieconseils.net Services bancaires Consignations Les consignations proposent ...

263

Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994.

Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

1994-12-31

264

Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

265

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Myer, Larry

2006-04-30

266

Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

None

2004-12-01

267

Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports.

A. ArturoLeis

2012-03-01

268

Studies on West Nile virus infection in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine prevalence and incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Egypt. Cohorts were established in Upper (UE), Middle (ME), and Lower (LE) Egypt. Additionally, a cross-sectional serosurvey was performed in the North (NS) and South (SS) Sinai. Cohorts were bled initially and 1 year later. Sera were tested for WNV-IgG by ELISA and positive sera were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Sentinel chicken flocks placed in the above sites were bled monthly for virus isolation and serology. Mosquitoes were collected monthly from the above sites and tested for WNV. Human seroprevalence rates were 35%, 27%, 14%, 1% and 7% in UE, ME, LE, NS and SS, respectively. Seroconversion rates were 18%, 17% and 7% in UE, ME and LE, respectively; 49% of the seroconverters reported undiagnosed febrile illness. Sentinel chickens showed seroconversion in all study sites. WNV was isolated from both sentinel chickens and mosquitoes in cohort sites. This study demonstrates that WNV was actively circulating during the study period in different areas in Egypt and causing febrile illness in a considerable proportion of individuals in the study sites. PMID:20701892

Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Salman, Diaa; Saad, Magdi; Salama, Sameh; Fayez, Caroline; Hanafi, Hanafi; Medhat, Iman; Labib, Emad; Rakha, Magda; El-Sayed, Nasr; Yingst, Samuel; Tjaden, Jeffrey; Earhart, Kenneth

2010-01-01

269

Long term management plan: West Valley disposal area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Energy Authority and its contractor utilized a systematic approach in selecting a long-term management plan for the West Valley LLRW disposal area. Existing site data were compiled, site problems crucial to site stabilization identified, technologies to correct these problems were identified and assessed, and seven viable long-term management plans were developed and evaluated. Technical evaluation narrowed the field of viable plans to the Precast Concrete Barrel Vault (highest score) and Active Maintenance/Natural Stabilization (next highest score). When considering these two plans, the policy question that most influenced final plan selection was the uncertainty of NRC/DOE requirements for the ultimate transfer of custodial responsibility of the LLRW disposal area to DOE (should the State decide to take this action). Implementing an elaborate stabilization technique such as the Precast Concrete Barrel Vault, which may or may not meet the NRC/DOE requirements, would not be a prudent action at this time. Therefore, it was important to selection a plan that provided maximum flexibility, not only for possible site transfer but for implementing an emerging trench stabilization technology should one be judged desirable. lastly, it is important to maintain the flexibility to meet unanticipated site needs or problems. For these reasons, Active Maintenance/Natural Stabilization appears to be the prudent choice at this time. 5 tablesles

270

Design, installation, testing and startup of a material handling system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

West Valley Nuclear Services Company and the U.S. Department of Energy decided to install a Cement Solidification System (CSS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project to handle certain lower level radioactive wastes. In August 1984, design was initiated on a 55 gallon Material Handling System (MHS) which would interface with and support the operation of the CSS. This paper describes and discusses the design and fabrication of equipment, installation of the system at the site, and startup and performance testing of the system

271

Childhood and Education in the West  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes and explains the differences between schools in North America (USA and Canada) and Western Europe (France and West Germany) in terms of their contrasting notions of childhood and childrearing. (SDH)

Magnuson, Roger

1975-01-01

272

Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

... Publications Ebola virus disease in West Africa Ebola virus disease Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever) ... 2014 An update by the Regional Director Ebola virus disease - Senegal Ebola virus disease outbreak - DRC - update 10 September 2014 ...

273

WEST GARFORTH INTEGRATED URBAN DRAINAGE PILOT STUDY  

Jun 16, 2008 ... The West Garforth Drainage Area has a long history of flooding ..... Services \\statutory sewer map data was supplied in MapInfo format. ..... the form of letters, \\phone calls, digital photos, videos taken by mobile phones, and ...

274

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

275

West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

Johansson, Jorgen

2001-01-01

276

NIAID's Role in Addressing West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... is most commonly found in Africa, West Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. In 1999, it was ... 220 compounds were tested in vitro (in cell culture). Promising compounds will be further analyzed for safety ...

277

40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...magisterial district in Hancock County X Piedmont magisterial district in Mineral County X Remainder of State X West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area...Unclassifiable/Attainment Barbour County Berkeley County Boone...

2010-07-01

278

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population frequency (both in adults and subadults of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?. This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variationLas poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormente registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?. Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente

J. El Molto

2000-07-01

279

West Eberhard and the notion of plasticity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biologist Mary Jane West-Eberhard publishes, in 2003, a book, entitled Developmental Plasticity and Evolution, in which a new synthetic approach, integrating development with evolution, is offered. For this reason, the book is seen as a piece of work in the field of Evolutionary developmental biology, commonly known as Evo Devo, whose aim is to synthesize data from both development and evolution. However, West-Eberhard's ambition is much higher in this book because she does not only focus...

Nicoglou, Antonine

2013-01-01

280

Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos / West syndrome: report of nine eases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nov [...] e casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos. Abstract in english West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therape [...] utic features.

Marina Aya, Kamiyama; Lúcia, Yoshinaga; Edward R., Tonholo-Silva.

1993-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos West syndrome: report of nine eases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nove casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos.West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therapeutic features.

Marina Aya Kamiyama

1993-09-01

282

West European magnetic confinement fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

283

Potential seaways across West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

2011-10-01

284

Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

M. Cataldo

2013-02-01

285

Site development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW)

286

The West Coast Picket Fence Experiment during STORM-FEST.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesoscale weather systems that develop in the central United States are often forced by environmental features that have formed far upstream over the conventional data-sparse Pacific Ocean. Although remotely sensed observations, such as satellite retrievals, are becoming more numerous and accurate, they still may not have the resolution necessary to enhance global model-based analyses and forecasts over this region. These global model products are the primary source of lateral boundary conditions that have been found to have large impacts on the downstream forecast skill of regional mesoscale models over the United States. in addition, the temporal and spatial resolution of the current rawinsonde network along the West Coast may not be sufficient to detect and measure mososcale flow features as they move inland. During the STORM-FEST experiment in February-March 1992, a "Picket Fence" of seven special rawinsonde stations were interspersed among the seven regular rawinsonde sites from Port Hardy, British Columbia, to Sap Diego, California. All sites obtained observations every 3 h rather than the normal 12 h. The objective of the Picket Fence was to examine the feasibility of using extra observations in time and space to improve upstream boundary conditions for forecasts of mesoscale weather events in the central United States. As a first step in examining the potential boundary condition impact of the Picket Fence, fluxes of mass, beat, momentum, potential energy, kinetic energy, and moisture across the West Coast resolved with various spatial and temporal combinations of Picket Fence data are compared with the 12-h regular upper-air sites as the standard. When a wave system crossed the middle of the Picket Fence, significantly different fluxes were calculated with the full spatial and 3-h Picket Fence observations. For other systems that crossed near the margins of the Picket Fence, only small changes were detected by the additional observations.

Hirschberg, Paul A.; Lind, Richard J.; Bolduc, Steven J.; Eisberry, Russell L.

1995-10-01

287

Contaminated Sites and Site Reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regulatory requirements in Saskatchewan that determine the remediation standards for contaminated sites and their impact on the oil and gas industry were reviewed. Policy directions currently under review and development are identified and summarized. The two most significant pieces of legislation relevant to site remediation in Saskatchewan are the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA), and the Environmental Management and Protection Act (EMPA). Only the OGCA applies to the oil and gas industry for reclamation sites. OGCA requires that sites be restored to their original condition, which means the removal of equipment, the recontouring of the land and return of topsoil. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food (SAF) administers agricultural crown land in Saskatchewan, while the Environmental Assessment Act (EAA) administers forested crown land. The absence of a single requirement for reclamation of oil and gas production sites, the lack of standards and the confusion caused by various jurisdictions, guidelines and processes for approval of reclamation plans have been noted. Progress towards remedying this situation are being made, however slowly. For example, spill reclamation guidelines and physically affected sites reclamation guidelines are in final draft and are expected to be issued shortly. Chemically affected sites reclamation guidelines are expected to be finalized in 1998. A Contaminated Sites Liability Advisory Group (CSLAG), consisting of industry, government, and non-government agency representatives has been at work for some time to develop a white paper on contaminated sites to advise the Minister of Environment as to suitable policy. The white paper has been recently completed. Initial response from the government has been favourable, but a definitive response has not yet been finalized

288

Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

1996-12-01

289

Evolution of the West Siberian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)

2006-01-01

290

Blooming Seas West of Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries managers who monitor the health of marine natural resources like coral reefs and fish populations.

2007-01-01

291

Radiological survey of the former Aeroprojects Facility, West Chester, Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The former Aeroprojects, Incorporated, Facility is located at 200-T East Rosedale Avenue, West Chester, Pennsylvania. The facility was under contract to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) beginning in 1951 to investigate the use of ultrasonic energy in a variety of manufacturing procedures. An unknown quantity of alloys and compounds of aluminum, beryllium, mercury, thorium, and uranium were used on the site. In the mid-1960s, work for the AEC tapered off and Aeroprojects began doing R ampersand D under other government contracts. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Therefore, at the request of DOE, a radiological survey of this site was conducted in May 1988. The survey included a gamma scan of the interior of the building that had been used during the contract work and the area outdoors immediately adjacent to the building. The survey results show that all gamma exposure rates approximated typical background levels found in the southeastern Pennsylvania area and, furthermore, were well within the DOE guideline. However, recently discovered information suggests that small amounts of radioactive residuals may have been buried on site. The areas where these suspected burials would have occurred are included in areas planned to be remediated by the current owners. 5 refs., 1 fig

292

Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Methods Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Results Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26 in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90 in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. Conclusion Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed.

Rahmat Agus

2009-01-01

293

Hydrographic data report, west coast of Puerto Rico, 1973--1974  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrographic data included in this report were collected as part of a site selection survey to provide basic oceanographic data to assist the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority in determining the best locations for additional electrical power generating facilities on the island, both nuclear and fossil fuel. Classical oceanographic methods were used in sampling and analyzing sea water at depths from 10 to 300 meters. This report includes data from two sites: the Punta Higuero site, PHI, is the site of the former ''BONUS'' nuclear power plant and the Cabo Rojo Platform, CRP, is a possible site for offshore power generating plants. The two west coast sites are centered about 30 kilometers apart. (CH)

294

Site development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

295

Site characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter is intended to:(1) identify criteria important to the siting of the LLW waste disposal facility, (2) justify the importance of geologic and hydrologic criteria with regard to the site performance period of intended waste isolation, and (3) suggest geologic and hydrologic guidelines and restrictions for siting a LLW disposal facility. The geologic and hydrologic criteria discussed are: Geologic Considerations: Sedimentology/stratigraphy, Material weathering, Homogeneity/isotropy, Structural features, Engineering properties. Groundwater Considerations: Groundwater flow systems, Flow/transport characteristics, Vadose zone, Depth to uppermost aquifer, Aquifer characteristics, Groundwater use. Surface Water Considerations: Flood hazard areas, Proximity to surface water body. Landform Stability: Mass movement susceptibility, Geomorphic landform stability; Seismic Risk; Mineral Resources; Mined Areas

296

75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 138-Columbus, OH Area; Site Renumbering Notice  

Science.gov (United States)

...to include certain acreage within the Rickenbacker International Airport and Air Industrial Park, Alum Creek East Industrial Park, Alum Creek West Industrial Park, and Groveport Commerce Center; Site 2 (136 acres)--Gateway Business...

2010-05-27

297

Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

2011-07-15

298

Species Distribution Modelling of Family Sapindaceae in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Members of the family Sapindaceae provides various benefits in combating increasing malnutrition and poverty in West Africa. Due to their multiple uses, their high nutritional and medicinal value, members of Sapindaceae have been identified as one of the most important forest species to be conserved and valued in Africa. Therefore, it is important to study the potential future distribution of this species and determine strategies for conservation. In order to achieve these, suitability of sites in Africa was evaluated for potential conservation using spatial environmental data in MAXENT modelling framework. A total of 153 geo-referenced records of Sapindaceae were assembled from herbarium records and fieldwork and climatic data were acquired from the Worldclim Database. The main variables that contributed towards predicting the species distribution were annual precipitation and temperature seasonality. Results suggest that the distribution model was excellent with training AUC value of 0.974 and test AUC value of 0.960 confirming the wide distribution of Sapindaceae in West Africa. Also, the environmental variables that affected the model the most are minimum temperature of the coldest month (35.4%, precipitation of the coldest quarter (16.9% and precipitation of wettest month (14.9%. Recommendations for different conservation strategies include in situ conservation in Protected Areas; ex situ conservation in seed banks and conservation through ‘sustainable utilization’.

J.D. Olowokudejo

2012-01-01

299

Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

2014-01-01

300

Phytosociology and pedological characteristics of selected beats of Durgapur Forest Range, West Bengal, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to analyze phytosociological characteristics and diversity pattern of five selected beats of tropical dry deciduous forest of Durgapur Forest Range, Burdwan, West Bengal, India. The present investigation was carried out through quadrat method for analysis of phytosociological aspect of vegetation. The soil of the different study sites were analyzed by following standard methodology. The results reflect dominancy of dicotyledons over monocotyledons in the five studied sites. Basudha (61 and Shibpur (58 beats represents higher number of species among the five studied sites. Maximum IVI value was recorded by Shorea robusta followed by Madhuka longifolia among all the beats except Shibpur. The study represents overall dominance of Sal forest over the entire region. Therefore Basudha and Shibpur beat needs prior conservative measure for protection of bioresources in those two forest region. The soil characteristics of the four study sites revealed acidic nature of soil in all the studied sites of Durgapur Forest Division. The range of organic carbon % was found to be higher in amount in comparison to conventional soil samples reflecting higher soil fertility of the studied sites. Therefore, proper management and conservative measures needs to be implemented for conservation of bioresources in different sites of Durgapur Forest Division, West Bengal, India.

Tripti Bauri

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

302

Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

2002-12-01

303

Electricity sector integration in West Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional and global integration initiatives push for more electricity sector integration everywhere in the world, including West Africa. The creation of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) in 2000 and important investments under this new structure in 2006 are concrete actions that will result in a more integrated West African electricity sector. But will this integrated sector be more functional than the previous ones? Will the identified electricity sector problems be solved with the new power pool? This paper analyzes how power sector integration is presented by international institutions (the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Energy Council and World Bank) and identifies three problematic issues with the current integration approach: lack of African ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes

304

Site Restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

305

Site Restoration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

2001-04-01

306

Holocene palaeoceanographic evolution off West Greenland.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from a core southwest of Disko Bugt provide a Holocene perspective (last ~7 ka BP) on ice-sheet/ocean interactions between the West Greenland Current (WGC) and the West Greenland ice sheet. Changes in the fauna reveal significant variations in the water mass properties (temperature and salinity) of the WGC through time. From 7.3 to 6.2 ka BP, a relatively warm/strong WGC influences ice-sheet melt in Disko Bugt and causes enhanced meltwater production, resulti...

Perner, K.; Moros, M.; Jennings, A.; Lloyd, J. M.; Knudsen, K. L.

2013-01-01

307

THE WEST AND THE CAPE SEA ROUTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changing perceptions and realities Western strategists and politicians have traditionally acknowledged the vital importance of the Cape Sea Route. Their South African counterparts, for their part, have in the past regarded the Cape Sea Route's importance to the West as almost axiomatic, and have frequently sought to use this fact as a bargaining point in their negotiations with the Western Powers.1 There are increasing signs, however, that are-assessment of the importance of the Cape Sea Route is taking place in the West.

W.A. Dorning

2012-02-01

308

West Antarctic Rift System: Extension and Collapse of a West Antarctic Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent thermochronologic data along the Byrd Glacier Outlet of the Transantarctic Mountains are consistent with the hypothesis that the West Antarctic Rift System developed during the extension and collapse of a West Antarctic Plateau. Apatite fission track ages of samples collected along the length of the outlet vary from Early Cretaceous (~112 Ma) to Oligocene (~32 Ma). The ages vary in a systematic fashion: older ages are found at higher elevations and/or towards the East Antarctic Craton, while younger samples are located at lower elevations and/or towards the Ross Sea end of the outlet. This systematic variation in ages is consistent with a Cretaceous stage of incision by rivers flowing from West Antarctica towards the craton, followed by Tertiary incision by rivers flowing in the reverse direction, with a final, Oligocene, stage of incision by glacial erosion. This cooling evolution and proposed switch in drainage direction is consistent with other evidence suggesting the presence and collapse of a West Antarctic Plateau including: 1) geodynamic models of extension and thinning of the West Antarctic Rift System, and 2) geomorphic evidence of major paleo-drainage systems flowing through the TAM from West Antarctic into East Antarctica. Although no one piece of evidence is conclusive in and of itself, taken in toto, the evidence is best explained by the presence and subsequent collapse of a West Antarctic Plateau.

Huerta, A. D.; Blythe, A. E.

2010-12-01

309

Moessbauer study of iron redox in West Valley glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-level nuclear wastes at West Valley are high in iron which results in a target glass composition for the vitrification process that contains about 12 wt% Fe2O3. We have developed a series of high-iron glass formulations (up to 21 wt% Fe2O3) in order to accommodate all reasonable waste stream variability. An additional process control variable is the glass redox ratio, Fe2+/(Fe2++Fe3+), since this affects the resultant glass properties including durability, crystallization, glass transition temperature, and melt viscosity. In this study, a range of redox states was obtained by bubbling CO/CO2 mixtures through the melts. The redox state was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and correlations between redox state and CO/CO2 ratio, flow rate, and time were obtained. Analysis of the spectroscopic data provides additional information on changes in the occupation of tetrahedral and octahedral sites with redox state

310

[Tuberculosis control in the North-West of Russia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The basic epidemiological parameters (prevalence, incidence, mortality due to tuberculosis) and inadequate efficiency of treatment of patients suggest that tuberculosis remains to be a serious problem in the North-West of Russia. There is differentiation in the prevalence of tuberculous infection that reaches the critical values in the Kaliningrad Region. For successful tuberculosis control in the North-Western Region, it is necessary to solve personnel problems, to improve methods for early detection of tuberculosis, to enhance the quality of therapeutic measures by actively introducing the developed technologies for treating drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and for adequately applying surgical treatments for tuberculosis at different sites, to set up a tuberculosis monitoring system with proper financing all implemented antituberculous measures. PMID:14669619

Levashev, Iu N

2003-01-01

311

West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 20  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supplement 20 is comprised of changed pages for the SAR which reflect: (1) the change in design basis fuel fed to the process from a minimum of 180 days after reactor discharge to a minimum of 210 days and an effective 24 months after reactor discharge; (2) the design objective of NFS that the concentrations of radionuclides, other than tritium, will not exceed the concentration limits of 10 CFR 20, Appendix B, Table II, column 2, when measured at the discharge from NFS' lagoon system to the on-site waterway; (3) incorporation of modifications to fuel receiving and storage area; (4) an updating of the general information presented in Chapter 1.0; and (5) additional data from the new meteorological tower at West Valley and recent changes in demographic projections

312

National uranium resource evaluation, Charlottesville quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Charlottesville 10 x 20 quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. This was done using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys were performed. Limited core drilling was carried out at one site to aid the evaluation. The results of this investigation indicate environments favorable for vein-type deposits in metamorphic rocks within highly sheared portions of the Precambrian Lovingston Formation. Cambrian metasediments along the margins of the Green Springs and Ellisville intrusives in the southeastern part of the area are favorable for allogenic uranium deposits. All other rock units examined are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits

313

U.S. West: Photographs, Manuscripts, and Imprints  

Science.gov (United States)

This marvelous digital collection draws on materials held in the collection of Southern Methodist University's DeGolyer Library. The Library holds over 500,000 images that document the American West, borderlands, exploration, and the development of the Western railroads. This particular collection brings together over 540 digitized items, including Alexander Gardner's 1867 portfolio, "Across the Continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad (Route of the 35th Parallel)". Also part of the collections here are postcards of cowgirls, Native Americans in Oklahoma, and lantern slides of Mexico and California. Visitors should not miss the "Stereographs of the Dakota Territory", which include late 19th century images of Deadwood and Crook City. The site is rounded out by a photographic study by William Henry Jackson titled "Les geysers d'Amerique".

314

Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

315

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

316

The Eco-Village Concept in a Model Experiment in South-West Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the methods to face the challenges of the worldwide ecological crisis is the implementation of sustainable development principles at the rural development level. In South-West Hungary, the sparsely populated small village region of Zselic is the location of a small-scale sustainable settlement development project at the abandoned former village site of Gy?r?f?. Over the past twenty years, ecological design principles such as permaculture have guided the re-settlement of the area. Sp...

Borsos, Bela

2013-01-01

317

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?...

Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

2011-01-01

318

The intertidal fish fauna of the west coast of South Africa - species, community and biogeographic patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the first quantitative survey of intertidal fish from the South African west coast 62 intertidal rock pools were sampled at two sites, using the ichthyocide rotenone. A total of 2 022 fish representing 14 species belonging to only two families - the Clinidae (88-98% by number) and the Gobiesocidae (12-2%) - were caught. Clinus superciliosus, C. heterodon and the gobiesocid Chorisochismus dentex were the most abundant species in terms of both numbers an...

Griffiths, C. L.; Prochazka, K.

2012-01-01

319

Regional Flood Frequency Analysis Based on L-Moment Approach (Case Study West Azarbayjan Basins)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flood estimation with certain frequency is one of the fundamental factors for design ofHydraulic structures, Flood plain, River coastal stabling, Basin management, etc. Accurate estimation offlood frequency discharge increases safety of the structures. L-moment approach was used for floodfrequency analysis in west Azarbayjan province basins. For identifying homogeneous regions, the Wardhierarchical cluster method was used. Site data were used for independent testing of the cluster of the stat...

Ramin Rostami

2013-01-01

320

Revitalization of a community site-specific art and art festivals : a case of art site Naoshima  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates public art and art festivals in the West, and a large scale art project in Japan, Benesse Art Site Naoshima, which is yet to be defined its place in the academic world. Through the case study of Benesse Art Site Naoshima, public art, site-specific art, art festivals, and a role of art museums are discussed. There are two parts to the thesis: (1) a brief survey of public art and site-specific art (of which has roots in Land art) and, (2) the case study of Art Site ...

Kondo, Junko

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

Frederic Tangy

2013-09-01

322

West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

Ronald N. Harpelle

2012-12-01

323

Career Orientation for West German Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a four-hour career orientation program provided by employment center counselors for all West German students in grade eight. Program provides: career information; an opportunity to discuss career needs and career decision making; and an overview of employment services available. Includes a career-orientation questionnaire. (RC)

Schulz, William E.

1982-01-01

324

Model Program: West Springfield High School, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

West Springfield High School sits on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., in Fairfax County, Virginia. WSHS is home to a thriving and growing technology education program. In recent years, the program has exploded from less than 175 students to well over 425. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. In 2002, the…

Alukonis, J. T.; Settar, Scott

2008-01-01

325

Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

2014-01-01

326

The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are…

Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M.; Chapman, Don

2005-01-01

327

State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This West Virginia edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher…

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

2009-01-01

328

West Virginia U. Violated Procedures, Panel Says  

Science.gov (United States)

Administrators at West Virginia University violated procedures and displayed poor judgment in their "seriously flawed" response to an inquiry about a high-profile academic transcript, according to a report issued last week by an independent panel. The harshly worded report found that when the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" raised questions last October…

Fain, Paul

2008-01-01

329

DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN WEST VIRGINIA LAKES  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a data report presenting the species and abundance of phytoplankton in 4 lakes sampled by the National Eutrophication Survey in the state of West Virginia. Results from the calculation of several water quality indices are also included (Nygaard's Trophic State Index, Palm...

330

76 FR 41411 - West Virginia Regulatory Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...submitted by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP). The interim rule...amended its Code of State Regulations (CSR) to provide for the establishment of...bonding rate of $10,000 per increment at CSR 38-2-11.4.a.2. Because...

2011-07-14

331

Melioidosis Imported from West Africa to Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the first case of imported melioidosis in Spain from a diabetic immigrant who visited West Africa during the rainy season. Because of the unusual presentation of this disease in Africa, clinical and microbiological diagnosis of imported melioidosis from this continent can be very elusive.

Cuadros, Juan; Gil, Horacio; Miguel, Julio; Marabe?, Graciela; Go?mez-herruz, Teresa Arroyo Pen?a; Lobo, Bruno; Marcos, Ruth; Anda, Pedro

2011-01-01

332

Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West  

Science.gov (United States)

This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

Stations, University O.

333

Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

1999-01-01

334

WEST-3 wind turbine simulator development  

Science.gov (United States)

The software developed for WEST-3, a new, all digital, and fully programmable wind turbine simulator is given. The process of wind turbine simulation on WEST-3 is described in detail. The major steps are, the processing of the mathematical models, the preparation of the constant data, and the use of system software generated executable code for running on WEST-3. The mechanics of reformulation, normalization, and scaling of the mathematical models is discussed in detail, in particulr, the significance of reformulation which leads to accurate simulations. Descriptions for the preprocessor computer programs which are used to prepare the constant data needed in the simulation are given. These programs, in addition to scaling and normalizing all the constants, relieve the user from having to generate a large number of constants used in the simulation. Also given are brief descriptions of the components of the WEST-3 system software: Translator, Assembler, Linker, and Loader. Also included are: details of the aeroelastic rotor analysis, which is the center of a wind turbine simulation model, analysis of the gimbal subsystem; and listings of the variables, constants, and equations used in the simulation.

Hoffman, J. A.; Sridhar, S.

1985-01-01

335

Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

2013-10-01

336

Technological and West capitals needs of CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the decline of petroleum production in the former USSR and the needs of technology transfer and financing by West capitals. Statistical data connected with natural gas and crude oil production, refined petroleum products, and exports are also given. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

337

Radiocaesium and circulation patterns west of Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patterns of circulation to the west of Scotland can be traced with the aid of radiocaesium isotopes of Sellafield origin contained in the coastal current water. A survey in July 1981 has provided data of flow rates and dilution for comparison with two previous surveys and, in extending the area of interest to the entire shelf region between the North Channel and Cape Wrath, has allowed assessments to be made firstly of the volume transport to the east and west of the Outer Hebrides and secondly of the Atlantic water input to the coastal system. Transport through the Minches was about 4.5 times the volume of the coastal flow west of the Hebrides. The North Channel outflow of approx. 4.7 x 104 m3 s-1 of Irsih Sea/Clyde water had been supplemented in the coastal current by approx. 6.5 x 104 m3 s-1 of Atlantic water when the east and west branches reached 580N. (author)

338

Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

339

DEVELOPMENT OF A FISH INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY TO ASSESS THE CONDITION OF WEST VIRGINIA STREAMS: TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the development of a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) for wadeable streams in West Virginia and to determine the applicability of the IBI in streams with different thermal regimes. The IBI will be developed using fish data collected at EMAP sites from 1...

340

Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns suche input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

 
 
 
 
341

The crustal thickness of West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

2014-01-01

342

Harmonious Development in West China Based on Constructive Postmodernism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West China represents 71% of the total land in mainland China. But believe it or not, due to being desert, among the soil of Western China, only 4.2% of it is arable. Given the limited arable land in West China, post-modernistic view on West China Development, in particular its stress on sustainability, I suggest that postmodernism, what I’ve been proposing, be our possible way out. Key words: harmonious development; West China; constructive postmodernism

Yong-yue YU

2009-10-01

343

State Education Finance and Governance Profile: West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of West Virginia. West Virginia is the 41st largest state in the United States, with an area of 24,231 square miles. The total population of West Virginia in 2008 was 1,814,468, making it the 37th most populous state in the United States. Current expenditures per pupil are…

Orkodashvili, Mariam

2010-01-01

344

Effects of highway construction on sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates in two tributaries of the lost river, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

During a three-year study of two tributaries being crossed by a four-lane highway under construction in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia, we found little difference in the amount of fine sediment collected at upstream and downstream sites. The downstream site on one tributary collected significantly greater amounts of sediment in 2003, prior to installation of sediment fencing. Despite several episodic flow events that caused changes in the streambed, benthic macroinvertebrate metrics did not differ significantly annually or seasonally between sites or between streams. On-site controls effectively checked new sedimentation, and benthic macroinvertebrates were not significantly impacted.

Hedrick, L. B.; Welsh, S. A.; Anderson, J. T.

2007-01-01

345

The distribution of transuranic elements in sediment profiles from an intertidal area in West Cumbria, UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intertidal areas in West Cumbria have received anthropogenic inputs of the actinide elements via pipeline disposal of low level waste from the Sellafield reprocessing plant on the Cumbrian coast. The paper describes a sediment profile taken from an intertidal site containing radioactivity from the Sellafield reprocessing site. The profile mirrors the discharge history for plutonium isotopes, but shows a marked difference to the discharge patterns anticipated for 237Np. The 237Np profile is explained in terms of remobilization within the soil core. (orig.)

346

An assessment of the present and future implications of radioactive contamination of west Cumbria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sellafield nuclear fuels reprocessing plant operated by BNFL on the Cumbrian coast in the UK has been discharging radionuclides to the marine and atmospheric environments since the early 1950s. In recent years the site has been the subject of a series of radiological impact assessments carried out by the NRPB. The paper summarises and presents the results of one particular study: an assessment of the average individual doses in west Cumbria over the next two centuries from past and projected future discharges from the site. In all cases doses were below the dose limit for the general public. (Author)

347

REVIEW: Social and Environmental Issues of Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP is a cluster of lakes located in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan Province with the total area of 132,000 ha. From 1981 to January 1999 this site was recognized as Suaka Margasatwa Danau Sentarum (Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve. Since 1994 this site had been declared as Ramsar site. DSNP is a “monumental site”, since the only undisturbed peat swamp forest was found in this site. Peat swamp forest in the national park stores the oldest tropical peat in the world. The lakes and the peat swamp forest in DSNP that always flood is the biggest water reservoir for West Kalimantan Province. Peat swamp forest in the national park served as water reservoir in the national park, which was able to keep 300 – 400 % of moisture content from dry weight basis. Based on our investigation, the decreasing income of fisherman and natural resources destruction affected other community to do illegal logging supported by investors from neighboring country in which they can get cash money easily. Using special approaches in law enforcement, technological, socio-economical, socio cultural and ecological aspects should solve social problems faced by DSNP. Eco-tourism might be one alternative solution for DSNP as one of tourism object.

TSUYOSHI KATO

2005-07-01

348

Site Restoration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

2002-04-01

349

Site Restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

350

Mochovce site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme of safety upgrading. Development of safety measures and their incorporation into the power plant design is being performed

351

[West syndrome associated with epileptic negative myoclonus].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 10-month-old girl who had brief epileptic negative myoclonus during the course of West syndrome. She began to have epileptic spasms in series at the age of 8 months. Video-electroencephalograph (EEG) monitoring revealed that she also had brief epileptic negative myoclonus when she was 10 months old. Brief atonia of limbs occurred in isolation or in a cluster during drowsiness or sleep. The ictal EEG exhibited diffuse polyspikes and waves or diffuse high-voltage slow waves that were overlapped by low-voltage fast waves. 3 to 4 hundred milliseconds of silent periods were observed in the bilateral deltoid electromyograms, which correspond to the EEG patterns. The occurrence of other types of seizures, partial seizures in particular, accompanied by epileptic spasms has been fully investigated. This is the first case report of a patient with West syndrome whose coexisting epileptic negative myoclonus was confirmed by a silent electromyogram pattern. PMID:25403066

Shibata, Takashi; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Oka, Makio; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

2014-09-01

352

Aerial view of the West Area complex  

CERN Multimedia

The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

1976-01-01

353

General review of West-Siberian mires  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intensive formation and accumulation of the enormous peat resources in West Siberia is determined by a whole complex of historical and physico-geographical conditions. In this region, peatlands cover a vast area (over 760 000 km{sup 2}) and contain resources of some 113 Gt. A number of mire zones occur from north to south and are differentiated by various degrees of paludification and peat formation. The rate of peat accumulation is about 1-2 mm Al or some 10 Mt per annum overall. Oligotrophic peat is predominant. Peat classification is based on botanic-genetic principles. The peat resources of West Siberia are characterised by a great diversity of physical and chemical properties, thus permitting a wide range of utilisation. However, at present, drainage and peat extraction have practically ceased. (orig.) (4 refs.)

Markov, V.D.; Ospennikova, L.A.; Skobeyeva, Y.I. [Association Peat Geology (Russian Federation); Matukhina, V.G. [Siberian Research Inst. of Geology and Mineral Raw Materials (Russian Federation); Inysheva, L.I. [Siberian Research Inst. of Peat (Russian Federation); Lapshina, Y.D. [Tomsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Mikhantyeva, L.S. [Association Novosibirsk Geology (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

354

West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

Ashley, Paul R.

2008-02-01

355

Replication Cycle and Molecular Biology of the West Nile Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and modify the host cell environment. Although much has been learned about virion structure and virion-endosomal membrane fusion, the cell receptor(s used have not been definitively identified and little is known about the early stages of the virus replication cycle. Members of the genus Flavivirus differ from members of the two other genera of the family by the lack of a genomic internal ribosomal entry sequence and the creation of invaginations in the ER membrane rather than double-membrane vesicles that are used as the sites of exponential genome synthesis. The WNV genome 3' and 5' sequences that form the long distance RNA-RNA interaction required for minus strand initiation have been identified and contact sites on the 5' RNA stem loop for NS5 have been mapped. Structures obtained for many of the viral proteins have provided information relevant to their functions. Viral nonstructural protein interactions are complex and some may occur only in infected cells. Although interactions between many cellular proteins and virus components have been identified, the functions of most of these interactions have not been delineated.

Margo A. Brinton

2013-12-01

356

Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

1999-08-10

357

Epidemiological studies on bluetongue virus infection in West Java, Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In monitoring of sentinel cattle in West Java, seroconversions to orbiviruses occurred mostly at the end of the wet season. A low altitude site gave more reactors than did a high altitude site. Due to perceived inefficiencies of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) was applied and the results compared with the AGID test results. C-ELISA detected antibodies at an earlier stage of infection than did the AGID test. Not all sera reacting in the AGID test reacted in C-ELISA, suggesting that the C-ELISA is more specific in detecting bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies than the AGID. However, as the infection status of most field sera was not known, this could not be confirmed conclusively from the available data. A comparison of isolation methods indicated that isolates were obtained more frequently if samples were passaged in embryonated eggs before blind passage in A edes albopictus cells followed by passage in BHK-21 cells. Six BTV serotypes, 1,7,9,12,20,21 and 23 were identified and confirmed from apparently healthy sentinel cattle blood at low altitudes; BTV serotype 21 was also isolated from a pool of the Avaritia sub-genus of the Culicoides spp which contained 227 C. fulvus and 20 C. orientalis. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

358

West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

Golding Nick

2012-02-01

359

Kosovo West: work in progress on radiological environmental assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last war in the Balkan area, spring-summer 1999, NATO forces admitted the use in Kosovo of 30 mm bullets fired by A-10 anti-tank aircraft and, in July 2000, provided the United Nations with a detailed map indicating sites where DU bullets had been used. CISAM, Joint Centre of Military Studies and Application, performed eight environmental check campaigns (October '99, April, August, November '00, January, May, October '01 and June '02). The CISAM scientific expert Team, assisted by a Company of the 7. NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) Regiment Cremona, during the first and the second mission discovered some places within the area assigned to the Multi National Brigade West (MNBW) where the DU bullets had been used. Up to day the Team performed approximately 600 field measurements; the 7. Rgt. NBC surveyed 700 locations and the CISAM Laboratory analysed more than 350 samples. The poster presents the summarized results of the campaigns focused to measure the depleted uranium and other radionuclides concentrations in environmental matrix and, in particular, gives the data concerning the site NATO 28, Djakovica Army Garrison and the air sample campaigns

360

SPS beam to the West Hall  

CERN Multimedia

One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

West Nile Virus, Texas, USA, 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

During the 2012 West Nile virus outbreak in Texas, USA, 1,868 cases were reported. Male patients, persons >65 years of age, and minorities were at highest risk for neuroinvasive disease. Fifty-three percent of counties reported a case; 48% of case-patients resided in 4 counties around Dallas/Fort Worth. The economic cost was >$47.6 million. PMID:24210089

Ruktanonchai, Duke; Hesalroad, Dawn; Fonken, Eric; Nolan, Melissa S.

2013-01-01

362

Rod consolidation experience at West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four fuel assemblies were consolidated in December, 1985, at West Valley, New York. The equipment used was Nuclear Assurance Corporation's fuel disassembly elevator, which performed well and produced even rod pulling forces so that no fuel rods were broken. One rod with a collapsed section of cladding cracked at the damaged section and released a small quantity of Krypton-85 gas. No Health Physics effects were observed from this release. Nine additional assemblies will be consolidated in February and March of 1986

363

Health Perceptions - where the East meets West  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

2012-01-01

364

Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented

365

West Africa LP gas market development study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jointly sponsored with the World Bank, this essential study explores the opportunity for greatly expanded LP Gas use in the West Africa region. LP Gas supply in the area is increasing rapidly, This offers the opportunity for bringing modern energy to millions without current access, protects forests the only current source of energy for many, and encourages governments to adopt proactive policies that will reap benefits of the increasing availability of LP Gas. (author)

366

Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

Will Kymlicka

2002-10-01

367

Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of the temporal and spatial compartmentalization of West Nile virus subtypes within North America.

Mores Christopher N

2009-07-01

368

Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-Palestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 ?W cm(-2), from TV broadcasting was 0.007 ?W cm(-2) and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 ?W cm(-2). The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 ?W cm(-2). The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ~62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 ?W cm(-2). PMID:21835841

Lahham, Adnan; Hammash, Alaa

2012-05-01

369

Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-palestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 ?W cm-2, from TV broadcasting was 0.007 ?W cm-2 and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 ?W cm-2. The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 ?W cm-2. The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ?62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average totphone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 ?W cm-2. (authors)

370

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations

371

Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to determine: i the importance of selection pressure exerted by both agricultural and public health use of pyrethroid insecticides, ii the phenotypic effects, particularly when the two mutations co-occur; and iii the epidemiological importance of kdr for both pyrethroid- and DDT-based malaria control operations, particularly if/when the two insecticides are to be used in concert.

Caccone Adalgisa

2008-04-01

372

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 1. Executive summary. Preliminary feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of a preliminary study, of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the West Valley, New York site. In the hydraulic fracturing and injection process the liquid waste would be diluted, and mixed with cement, clay and other additives to form a stable solid matrix after injection. The waste could be injected into the shale beds, 800 to 1,500 feet below the existing site in zones suitable for horizontal fracturing and to provide satisfactory long term isolation. Hydraulic fracturing has been in use for the disposal of radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Tennessee since the mid 1960's. To date, over 1.8 million gallons of grout containing radioactive waste have been successfully injected at that site. In this study the West Valley site has been assessed in terms of the requirements for satisfactory disposal of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing on the basis of currently available information. A program of research and development, required to confirm or reject this means of disposal at the West Valley site, has been outlined

373

West Valley demonstration project high level, transuranic, and greater than class C wastes - 59048  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Located in the scenic hills of Western New York, 35 miles south of Buffalo, the 68 hectare West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a unique and challenging environmental cleanup project that currently manages High Level, Transuranic, and Greater than Class C wastes. Before the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility of cleaning up the site, the site was the location of the only commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing facility to operate in the United States. Operated by Nuclear Fuels Services from 1966-72, the site was owned by the State of New York and licensed by the Atomic Energy Commission. During operations, the plant reprocessed approximately 640 metric tons of commercial and defense nuclear fuel. When commercial operations were discontinued and the facilities were returned to New York State, there were nearly 2, 271, 247 liters (nearly 600, 000 gallons) of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground storage tank, there were approximately 750 unprocessed fuel assemblies, and there was a highly contaminated Main Plant Process Building (MPPB). The West Valley Demonstration Project Act of 1980 (the Act) authorized DOE to conduct a cleanup of the site, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the State agency responsible for managing the property. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license was placed in abeyance and DOE arrived on site in 1981. Since that time, several significant cleanup milestones have been completed, including vitrification (solidification in a glass matrix) of the high level liquid waste, containing approximately 15 million curies, into 275 high level waste canisters and the disposition of more than 19, 000 subsequent drums of low-level radioactive waste (LLW); the shipment of the remaining 125 SNF assemblies that were in storage on site; and the shipment of more than 304, 800 cubic meters (1, 000, 000 cubic feet) of LLW for offsite disposal. More recent accomplishments at West Valley have included deactivation and decontamination of the still-very-contaminated MPPB, management of the underground high level waste tanks (4) and their associated vaults (3), and processing and packaging of both legacy waste and waste generated as a result of decommissioning activities. This paper focuses on the high level, greater than Class C, and Transuranic waste challenges at West Valley and the options to address those challenges. (authors)

374

Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas en ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas.The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environments of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

Víctor Durán

2012-11-01

375

Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF) / Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas e [...] n ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas. Abstract in english The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environm [...] ents of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

Víctor, Durán; Anna Maria, De Francesco; Valeria, Cortegoso; Gustavo, Neme; Luis, Cornejo; Marco, Bocci.

376

Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF) / Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas e [...] n ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas. Abstract in english The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environm [...] ents of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

Víctor, Durán; Anna Maria, De Francesco; Valeria, Cortegoso; Gustavo, Neme; Luis, Cornejo; Marco, Bocci.

2012-11-01

377

Implementing comprehensive de-licensing process for the West Jefferson North Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Implementation of the comprehensive de-licensing process for the West Jefferson North (WJN) facility was documented through the Final Certification of Completion. The Final Certification of Completion summarizes the performance and results of the final status surveys of the affected and unaffected areas of the West Jefferson North (WJN) site as part of the completion of the Columbus Closure Project (CCP). Final status survey processes adhered to the requirements of the 'Radiological Characterization and Final Status Plan for Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project, West Jefferson Site' DD-97-02, Rev. 0 (hereinafter DD-97-02), as reflecting the requirements of draft NUREG 5849. Surveys were performed throughout the decommissioning and remediation activities performed at the WJN and documented in Final Status Survey Reports (FSSR). Throughout the project, the CCP activity engaged the oversight of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), and the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). The ESSAP of the ORISE fulfilled the Independent Verification Contractor (IVC) role for the CCP under contract to the Oak Ridge Office of the DOE. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also performed independent review of the in-process final status surveys. The FSSR, in conjunction with the IVCeys. The FSSR, in conjunction with the IVC Letter Reports and the NRC inspection reports, document that the endpoint criteria objectives of the NRC-approved Decommissioning Plan have been met for WJN site as covered by the CCP. (author)

378

Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility, West Jefferson, Ohio, date of survey: May 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility located in West Jefferson, Ohio. Gamma ray data were collected over a 5.5 km2 area centered on the facility by flying east-west lines spaced 61 m apart. Processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was primarily due to radionuclides currently being processed due to the hot lab operations. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be due to naturally occurring background radiation consistent with variations due to geologic base terrain and land use of similar areas

379

West African Holocene climate variability: trends and centennial scale features  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-resolution (~20 yr/cm) climate record has been generated using core materials recovered from the Gulf of Guinea, eastern equatorial Atlantic. Under modern conditions, fresh water discharge of Niger and Sanaga rivers profoundly affects the seawater chemistry above the core site. Therefore, significant past changes in the precipitation over the drainage basins, which integrate a large part of West African monsoon (WAM) area, would be manifested in the trace element compositions of sea surface water which is archived in tests of shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifers that accumulate in marine sediment. We analyzed down core changes in Ba/Ca in shells of Globigerinoides ruber pink as proxies for changes in riverine discharge and sea surface temperature, respectively1,2. Ba/Ca is very high during the early and mid Holocene, suggesting wet conditions in WAM areas and high riverine discharges into the Gulf of Guinea. Gradual decline of Holocene monsoon precipitation started approximately 5.5 kyr before present (BP) and reaches its lowest level at the late Holocene, as suggested by the Ba/Ca record. Orbital scale WAM Holocene climate trend follows gradual changes in solar insolation over the WAM area and is consistent with the patterns of Arabian and East Asian monsoon records3,4. At centennial time scales, the Ba/Ca record suggests that the early and mid Holocene was punctuated by several rapid declines in WAM precipitation. The most-prominent drops in Ba/Ca occurred at 11,000 - 10,780, 9,450 - 9,150, and 8,430 - 8,140 yr BP, suggesting an abrupt decline of riverine runoff and precipitation over the monsoon areas at these times. Considering age model uncertainties, the timing of these declines in WAM rainfall correlate well with those of air temperature drops over Greenland5 and fresh water discharges into the North Atlantic6. The West African monsoon system, therefore, appears to be very sensitive to fresh water perturbation and ice shield instabilities in the northern high latitude. References: 1) Weldeab, S. et al. (2007): 155,000 years of West African monsoon and ocean thermal evolution. Science 316(5829): 1303-1307. 2) Weldeab, S. et al. (2007): Centennial scale climate instabilities in a wet early Holocene West African monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34. 3) Fleitmann, D. et al. (2003): Holocene Forcing of the Indian Ocean Monsoon record in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science 300: 1737-1740. 4) Wang, L. et al. (2001): A High-Resolution Absolute-Date Late pleistocene Monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294: 2345-2348. 5) Clark, P. et al. (2001). Freshwater Forcing of Abrupt Climate Change During the last glaciation. Science 293: 283-287. 6) NGRIP members (2004): High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature 431: 147-151.

Weldeab, S.

2009-12-01

380

Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental History of the Upper West Amarillo Creek Valley at Archaeological Site 41PT185/C, Texas, USA / Historia paleoambiental del Holoceno tardío en el valle Amarillo Creek superior occidental en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C, Texas, EUA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En combinación, los microinvertebrados, algas calcáreas (Charophyta), e isótopos estables de ostrácodos y girogonitos (los restos calcáreos de carófitas) constituyen una herramienta muy poderosa para reconstruir paleoclimas. Este estudio compara las firmas paleoambientales de moluscos terrestres y a [...] cuáticos, ostrácodos, y carófitas con los valores de los isótopos estables (?18O and ?13C) obtenidos de Cypridopsis sp. (un ostrácodo) y los girogonitos de Chara globularis y Nitella flexilis. Cada una de ellas contribuye con su propia evidencia sobre el cambio ambiental ocurrido entre 1890 ± 40 A.P. y después de 750 ± 40 A.P. en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C en el norte de Texas, Estados Unidos de América. La combinación interpretativa de los datos permite una reconstrucción detallada de la variabilidad paleoclimática durante la transición de la Anomalía Climática Medieval a la Pequeña Edad del Hielo, que permite inferir el impacto que dicho cambio tuvo sobre las poblaciones humanas en esta parte del Sudoeste de los Estados Unidos. Abstract in english In combination, microinvertebrates, calcareous algae (Charophyta), and the stable isotopes from ostracodes and gyrogonites (the calcareous remains of charophytes) are a powerful tool for reconstructing paleoclimates. This study compares the paleoenvironmental signatures of land and aquatic mollusks, [...] ostracodes, and charophytes with stable-isotope (?18O and ?13C) values for Cypridopsis sp. (an ostracode) and the gyrogonites of Chara globularis and Nitella flexilis. Each individual signature contributes its own evidence of environmental change between 1890 ± 40 years B.P. and post-750 ± 40 years B.P. at archaeological site 41PT185/C in northern Texas, United States of America. The interpretation of the combined data permits a detailed reconstruction of paleoclimatic variability at the transition from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, allowing inferences about the impact of such environmental change on human populations in this part of the U.S. Southwest.

Manuel R, Palacios-Fest.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental History of the Upper West Amarillo Creek Valley at Archaeological Site 41PT185/C, Texas, USA / Historia paleoambiental del Holoceno tardío en el valle Amarillo Creek superior occidental en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C, Texas, EUA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En combinación, los microinvertebrados, algas calcáreas (Charophyta), e isótopos estables de ostrácodos y girogonitos (los restos calcáreos de carófitas) constituyen una herramienta muy poderosa para reconstruir paleoclimas. Este estudio compara las firmas paleoambientales de moluscos terrestres y a [...] cuáticos, ostrácodos, y carófitas con los valores de los isótopos estables (?18O and ?13C) obtenidos de Cypridopsis sp. (un ostrácodo) y los girogonitos de Chara globularis y Nitella flexilis. Cada una de ellas contribuye con su propia evidencia sobre el cambio ambiental ocurrido entre 1890 ± 40 A.P. y después de 750 ± 40 A.P. en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C en el norte de Texas, Estados Unidos de América. La combinación interpretativa de los datos permite una reconstrucción detallada de la variabilidad paleoclimática durante la transición de la Anomalía Climática Medieval a la Pequeña Edad del Hielo, que permite inferir el impacto que dicho cambio tuvo sobre las poblaciones humanas en esta parte del Sudoeste de los Estados Unidos. Abstract in english In combination, microinvertebrates, calcareous algae (Charophyta), and the stable isotopes from ostracodes and gyrogonites (the calcareous remains of charophytes) are a powerful tool for reconstructing paleoclimates. This study compares the paleoenvironmental signatures of land and aquatic mollusks, [...] ostracodes, and charophytes with stable-isotope (?18O and ?13C) values for Cypridopsis sp. (an ostracode) and the gyrogonites of Chara globularis and Nitella flexilis. Each individual signature contributes its own evidence of environmental change between 1890 ± 40 years B.P. and post-750 ± 40 years B.P. at archaeological site 41PT185/C in northern Texas, United States of America. The interpretation of the combined data permits a detailed reconstruction of paleoclimatic variability at the transition from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, allowing inferences about the impact of such environmental change on human populations in this part of the U.S. Southwest.

Manuel R, Palacios-Fest.

382

Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

383

Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

384

Profiles Junior high School West Java in Education Learning Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Descriptive studies have been conducted on the existing junior high profile in West Java on Education Learning Environment. The study was conducted by purposive sampling and descriptive done to get an idea about the profile of SMP in West Java implementation of the learning environment. in junior high school in West Java. Research conducted by distributing questionnaires, and observations based on the indicators developed. Based on this research, it is known that, PLH learning in junior high school in West Java has been in force since 2007 after the enactment of the Governor of West Java on environmental education for junior high school students in West Java. Learning that lasts generally implemented in conventional teacher, and it is without any innovations. It has made learning the essential condition runs well, but has not lasted optimally.

NFN Nahadi

2014-02-01

385

On a discrete West Nile epidemic model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A West Nile epidemic model in discrete-time is proposed. The model consists of two interacting populations, the vector and the avian populations. The avian population is classified into susceptible, infective, and recovered classes while an individual vector is either susceptible or infective. The transmission of the disease is assumed only by mosquitoes bites and vertical transmission in the vector population. The model behavior depends on a lumpedparameter R0. The disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 1. Consequently, the disease can persist in the populations if R0 > 1.

Sophia R.-J. Jang

2007-01-01

386

On a discrete West Nile epidemic model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A West Nile epidemic model in discrete-time is proposed. The model consists of two interacting populations, the vector and the avian populations. The avian population is classified into susceptible, infective, and recovered classes while an individual vector is either susceptible or infective. The t [...] ransmission of the disease is assumed only by mosquitoes bites and vertical transmission in the vector population. The model behavior depends on a lumpedparameter R0. The disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 1. Consequently, the disease can persist in the populations if R0 > 1.

Sophia R.-J., Jang.

387

West Nile Virus Outbreak in NYC  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment adapted from Rx for Survival follows Tracey McNamara, lead pathologist at the Bronx Zoo, and her work to explain why crows in New York City were literally falling dead from the sky during one summer. McNamara traced the cause of the mystery illness to a mosquito-borne virus, and then suggested a possible link between the animal illness and an ongoing outbreak of human illness. In the end, McNamara was proven correct: it turned out that the same virusâWest Nile virusâwas infecting both birds and humans. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

388

Once upon a Time in the... West  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article a pour objectif d’observer la manière avec laquelle les films américains sur la Révolution mexicaine ont donné un sens –en perpétuant ou en mettant en doute le mythe national de l’Ouest Nord-Américain– à quelques convictions politiques des Etats-Unis tout au long du XXe siècle. À la fin du XIXe siècle, la vie au Far West est soumise à un processus accéléré de modernisation et l’ère du frontier arrive à son terme. Ironiquement, c’est à ce moment précis que le mythe national de l’Ouest prend de l’ampleur suite à la prolifération d’un vaste corpus culturel qui inclut l’essai historique « The Significance of the Frontier in American History » (1893 de Fredrick Jackson Turner. Dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle, les films de l’Ouest documentent et consolident le mythe du caractère américain décrit par Turner. Ces films ont éveillé chez le citadin nord-américain du XXe siècle de la nostalgie envers son légendaire ascendant de l’Ouest. Cependant, à partir des années cinquante, cette nostalgie a acquis un sens critique et s’est politisée, curieusement, dans des films traitant de la Révolution mexicaine. En recréant la Révolution mexicaine comme une frontière renouvelée pleine de promesses utopiques et de souvenirs nostalgiques du Far West, ces films américains rappellent les tensions politiques de certaines périodes dans l’histoire américaine, comme le maccarthysme et la guerre du Viêtnam.This article investigates the manner in which American motion pictures on the Mexican Revolution provided significance –in either perpetuating or questioning America’s foundational myth of the frontier– to particular ideologies and political beliefs in the United States throughout the twentieth century. At the end of the nineteenth century, the life of the American frontier came to an end due to an accelerated process of modernization. Ironically it was during these years that the myth of the frontier was also made up by means of historical discourses such as “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893 by Fredrick Jackson Turner. During the first decades of the twentieth century, the film genre of the Western documented and consolidated this myth. These movies promoted a nostalgic view of the Wild West. However, this nostalgic view became politicized in those Westerns dealing with the Mexican Revolution. Through recasting the Mexican Revolution as a renewed frontier full of utopian promises and nostalgic recollections of America’s Wild West, these American films recall the political tensions of certain periods in American history, such as McCarthyism, and the Vietnam years.

Adela Pineda Franco

2010-02-01

389

Planning CCS development in the West Mediterranean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport and storage of CO2 are the elements in the CCS chain with the lowest cost, but they may well prove to be the elements defining the timeline for CCS development. The EU FP7 COMET project aimed to pave the road towards CCS development in the West Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Morocco). This paper provides the main highlights of the work conducted within COMET. The project addressed the temporal and spatial aspects of the development of the energy sector and other industrial activ...

Boavida, Dulce; Carneiro, Ju?lio; Martinez, Roberto; Den Broek, Machteld; Ramirez, Andrea; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Tosato, Giancarlo; Gastine, Marie

2013-01-01

390

POVERTY STATUS OF JALPAIGURI DISTRICTS WEST BENGAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jalpaiguri is one of the most backward districts of west Bengal where poverty is a barrier to development. Generally poverty is measured by BPL Indices in rural areas. Below poverty line is an economic bench mark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human need such as clean water, nutrition care, clothing and shelter. This paper is attempted to study the poverty status with some remedial measures.

Sunanada Das

391

The New Otter Centre in West Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The decision of the forest department of Lower Saxony to close the Oderhaus Otter Research Enclosure in December 31st, 1987 made it necessary to find a new organisational base for the German AKTION FISCHOTTERSCHUTZ. Since July 1987 the organisation has built a new otter centre in Hankensbüttel (50 km north of Braunschweig, 15 km west of the border to the GDR . The otter centre will be opened at the end of April 1986. This report describes the organisation and function of the new centre.

Reuther C.

1988-02-01

392

West of Shetlands FPSO or TLP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most promising and active areas, in terms of exploration, for hydrocarbon production offshore Europe is located West of the Shetland Islands and lies in water depths ranging from 350 m to 900 m subject to an extremely harsh environment. Three different field-proven concepts from the Doris Engineering's point of view must be considered for this deep water area: a floating Production Storage and Off-loading (FPSO) unit, a production Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and a mini TLP designed to support wellheads and work aver facility. (author). 1 fig

393

Introduction : Storying the West in Postfrontier Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No place is a place until things that have happened in it are remembered in history, ballads, yarns, legends, or monuments.Wallace Stegner, “The Sense of Place”The contributions to this special issue of the European Journal of American Studies (EJAS examine the different ways in which literary interpreters of the American West, in particular since the 1960s, have contributed to a broadening of our conception of the region. The current interest in the region is evidenced not only in western l...

Øyunn Hestetun

2011-09-01

394

Inter-Site SNF Shipment Preparation Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Inter-Site SNF Shipment Preparation Plan provides the information on the activities, times, description, schedule, and cost of a generic inter-site SNF shipment preparation and shipment campaign that can be used for the development of a specific inter- site SNF shipment campaign. It provides the basis and method for estimating site-specific activities, times, description, schedule, and costs. The schedule that is provided shows the interaction of the activities and with the provided set of blank inter-site SNF shipment preparation tables provides for the development of a specific SNF shipment case. The sum of these features provides the reader and user with a tool by which an inter-site SNF shipment campaign can be setup and successfully completed. The generic cost estimate and times were derived primarily from INEL experiences and detailed cost estimates for shipments and receipts, in particular from Russ Cottam, as well as the experiences, cost estimates and reviews from the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge, and West Valley. Electronic versions of the tables and schedules are available by disk or E-mail to interested users.

Houck, E.D.; Jefimoff, J.

1996-09-01

395

Texas site selection and licensing status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

Avant, R.V. Jr.

1989-11-01

396

Evolution of the Equatorial Pacific during the Pliocene: an East-West record  

Science.gov (United States)

The Equatorial Pacific (EP) was affected by two major events during the Pliocene: the closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) and the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). The EP evolves from an open area to an East-West system, characterized by a strong asymmetry of the thermocline depth, productivity and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Changes in the equatorial Pacific during the Pliocene are here illustrated by using samples from the IODP Site 1338 in the Eastern Equatorial pacific (EEP), and from the ODP Site 806 in the Western Equatorial pacific (WEP). In order to compare the evolution of the East-West transect, we present on both sites oxygen stable isotopes record of bulk carbonate (?18Obulk), calcareous nannofossils dominated fractions (?18ONoelaerhabdaceae) which are assumed to live in the photic zone, and of the planktonic foraminifera Globoratalia menardii (?18OG. menardii), thermocline dweller. Results are combined with alkenone-derived SST for the site 1338 (Rousselle et al., EPSL, 2012) and 806 (Pagani et al., Nature Geosciences, 2010). A decoupling in ?18Obulk and ?18OG. menardii evolution records can be observed from 4.5 Ma between both sites. This segregation in the thermocline layer between the East and the West is more clearly identifiable from ˜ 3.8 Ma in ?18OG. menardii and show a cooling in the East and a warming of the thermocline waters in the West. This suggest the setting of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), and thereby the Equatorial asymmetric pattern. This is in agreement with an establishment of the Eastern Equatorial Cold Tongue (EECT) between 4.4 and 3.6 Ma accompanying a cooling of the SSTs. The divergence between the ?18Obulk and ?18OG. menardii records become stronger from 2.7 Ma, and may suggest the beginnings of a La Niña time period. However, as the ?18O records in the EEP (bulk, G. menardii, Noelaerhabdaceae) show heavy values and a progressive cooling of 3°C, the WEP experienced warm temperature (˜ 28°C) and more negative ?18O values. The Warm Pool is a priori installed in the WEP, with a stronger local influence than the global cooling linked to the NHG intensification, yet which affect the EEP and increase the cooling related to the thermocline shoaling.

Rousselle, Gabrielle; Beltran, Catherine; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; De Rafélis, Marc

2013-04-01

397

77 FR 70204 - West Virginia; Disaster Number WV-00029  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Injury Loans): Boone, Cabell, Clay, Greenbrier, Jackson, Lincoln, Mason, Mcdowell, Mercer, Mingo, Monroe, Pocahontas, Roane, Tyler, Webster, Wood Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): West Virginia: Calhoun,...

2012-11-23

398

75 FR 17177 - West Virginia Disaster #WV-00016  

Science.gov (United States)

...Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): West Virginia: Boone, Clay, Jackson, Lincoln, Mcdowell, Monroe, Nicholas, Pocahontas, Putnam, Roane, Summers, Webster, Wyoming. Virginia: Alleghany, Bath, Bland, Giles, Tazewell. The Interest...

2010-04-05

399

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

400

Kiviõlis kõlavad "West Side Story" laulud / Inna Grünfeldt  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna Georg Otsa nim. Muusikakooli viiepäevasest treeninglaagrist Kiviõli Keemiatööstuse hoones ja kontserdist muusikali "West Side Story" lauludega 27. aug. (ettevalmistus 4. sept. Tallinnas esietenduvale muusikalile, projektijuht Eerika Kurm)

Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24

402

Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa, with a specific aim at the dissemination of knowledge in field of interaction design both in an academic context, as well as among practitioners. More specifically the paper discusses how interaction design knowledge can be disseminated in West Africa, particularly in Higher Education.

SØrensen, Jannick Kirk

403

Multi seam mining in the west  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy West Mining Company operates two mines in central Utah that supply coal for the PacifiCorp thermal power plants in Carbon and Emery Counties. During the past 25 years, mining has consisted of multiple seam operations utilizing room and pillar, and longwall mining methods. Early multiple seam mining took place at the Deseret, Beehive and Little Dove mines utilizing room and pillar methods. In the late 70`s and early 80`s longwall mining was introduced at the Deer Creek and Wilberg-Cottonwood Mines and multiple seam mining, using this technique, has continued to the present time. The multiple seam mining in the Cottonwood Mine, in the Hiawatha (lower) seam, is projected to be completed by the late 1995. Extraction of the lower seam is not scheduled to begin in the Deer Creek Mine until after the year 2000. The present Energy West operation consists of 2 longwalls and 5 continuous miner sections producing 7.5 million to 8.0 million tons annually. Current mining utilizes continuous miners for development of mains, bleeder and gate road entries in preparation for longwall extraction. The high overburden thickness, massive sandstone formations and strong coal results in adverse ground conditions. The mining system that has been developed to operate in this environment is a two entry gate road system with yield pillars. The mains are developed with multiple entries utilizing rigid pillars and large barrier pillars to protect the entries from mining induced stress.

Moon, M.R. [Energy West Mining Company, Huntington, UT (United States)

1995-12-31

404

Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

1993-09-01

405

Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd3) (2.1 million cubic meters [m3]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m3) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd3(420,000 m3). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd3 (2.58 million m3)

406

Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

1997-04-01

407

Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

2011-12-01