WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Conversion of the West Hackberry geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry salt dome, in southwestern Louisiana, is one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the West Hackberry site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary layers, mapped faults, and a portion of the oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the West Hackberry site that can be used in support of future work.

Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.

2004-08-01

2

Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2009-05-01

3

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

4

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

5

West Hackberry Tertiary Project, Class I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries.

Haley, Kenneth A.; Gillham, Travis H.; Yannimaras, Demetrios

2002-03-04

6

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

7

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

8

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

9

Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

1978-11-01

10

West Hackberry tertiary project. Summary annual report, September 3, 1996--September 2, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are in the Oligocene Age sands located on the west and north flanks of West hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. By the end of the fourth year of Budget period 1, air injection has been under way at West Hackberry since November of 1994 on the west flank and since July of 1996 on the north flank. During the past year, the most noteworthy events were: (1) increased oil production in low pressure reservoirs on the north flank, (2) demonstrated economic viability of air injection in low pressure reservoirs, (3) increased west flank reservoir pressure as a result of air injection and (4) intensified program of technology transfer activities. This report includes a discussion of the areas of progress.

Gillham, T.H.

1997-09-21

11

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, September 3, 1993--December 3, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are the Camerina C- 1,2,3 Sands located on the west flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project win demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

Fassihi, M.R.; Gillham, T.H.

1993-11-30

12

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1995--September 2, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1997-05-01

13

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

Taylor, A

1980-02-29

14

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

N/A

2004-08-31

15

West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

1982-01-01

16

Creep and creep modeling of three domal salts: a comprehensive update. [West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw domes in Louisiana; Bryan Mound dome in Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress and temperature change tests are described to determine upper and lower bound of the rates of steady state creep for three domal salts. Results obtained are compared with published data for salt from the same sites and with two larger data sets for a bedded salt. The various data sets are then correlated in activation analyses and fitted by models for power-law creep, cross-slip, and dislocation glide to show that a cross-slip model yields the best and mechanistically most credible fit. This suggestion is consistent with limited substructure observations for one sample. No satisfactory fit was obtained for a two-mechanism model dislocation climb and cross-slip. Results described include stress drop measurements that demonstrate slow recovery. It remains to be proved if recovery of rock salt at low temperature will be complete, and if so, after how much strain. Although all creep data are described most satisfactorily in terms of cross-slip, power-law models continue to be good empirical approximations. Therefore, the further use of power-law creep equations to describe the steady state creep of rock salt in SPR design calculations is deemed justified. 58 references, 15 figures, 3 tables.

Wawersik, W.R.; Zeuch, D.H.

1984-05-01

17

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

1998-01-01

18

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

1999-01-01

19

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

2000-01-01

20

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2005-09-30

 
 
 
 
21

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

2005-01-01

22

Structural analysis of the West Hackbery No. 6 SPR storage cavern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four separate structural analyses of the West Hackberry No. 6 SPR storage cavern are presented. One analysis covers the creep response of the cavern beginning shortly before the time when an accidental fire occurred and proceeding through the cavern recertification pressure test. The second analysis models the surface uplife that is expected during the same pressure test. The third and fourth numerical studies investigate the structural response of West Hackberry No. 6 to slabbing and a rapid pressure drop. All analyses indicate that this cavern should be structurally stable for the conditions assumed.

Benzley, S.E.

1980-08-01

23

An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3H and 99Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

1991-01-01

24

Study of the occupation site for the ancient iron smelters at Samaru-west, Nigeria, using neutron activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed to investigate the relationship between three ancient occupation sites - Samaru-west, Pantaki and Tsauni in Kaduna State, Nigeria, based on the analysis of cultural deposits at the sites. Samaru-west was found to be related with Pantaki site but not so with the Tsauni site. Elemental profiles for the pottery excavated from each site have been established. (orig.).

Oladipo, M.O.A.; Adeleye, S.A. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Centre for Energy Research and Training); Rehman, F. (Victoria Univ., Manchester (OWENS) (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry)

1992-05-01

25

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2006-09-21

26

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2008-12-17

27

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2007-09-27

28

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment

2007-01-01

29

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment

2008-01-01

30

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs

2006-01-01

31

Remedial design services for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from radium-processing facilities which operated in the area during the early 1900's. The waste materials, containing radium and other radioactive isotopes were placed in three separate landfill sites. Major public health risks are indoor radon gas build-up and indoor/ outdoor gamma radiation. In 1989, the EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) which chose excavation and off-site disposal of material as the preferred alternative. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight key elements of the design process for the remedial action at Montclair. Those key elements are as follows: meeting community relations challenges; measuring radioactive contamination; developing plans and specifications; packaging of remedial action contacts; and continually improving both the process and the designs

1994-04-25

32

Geophysical survey for cone penetrometer site, CPT-4, 200 West area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a geophysical survey performed at the Hanford Reservation. The objective of the survey was to locate subsurface obstructions that may affect cone penetrometer work at site CPT-4, adjacent to and west of borehole 299-W18-252, Figure 1. Based upon the results of the survey, possible ''drill sites'' within the zone, with the least likelihood of encountering identified obstructions, were identified

1993-01-01

33

Site Ranking and Potential Assessment for Concentrating Solar Power in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access to electricity is poor in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP presents better opportunities for increasing access to electricity and for diversifying sources of energy in the ECOWAS region; however, to date, except for Burkina Faso, no site evaluation pertaining to the region has ever been performed for CSP. This study provides potential assessment and site ranking for large-scale CSP projects in the ECOWAS region. It computes the nominal potential power and gives the corresponding energy yield with many scenarios. By considering only 1% of the suitable land area with daily DNI greater or equal to 5 kWh/m2, a land slope less or equal to 5% and distance to transmission line not more than 100 km, the study showed, for example, that West Africa has a potential nominal capacity of 21.3 GW for parabolic trough technology.

Anselme Rungundu

2013-03-01

34

Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl4. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl4 distributions

1991-01-01

35

Case study: Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Radium Superfund sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Radium Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in three residential communities in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from a local radium processing facility which ceased operations in 1926. Houses were subsequently constructed on or near the radium waste disposal areas. The waste material was also used as backfill, which caused contamination to be spread randomly over the communities. There are 769 properties between four townships that comprise the Superfund sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an aerial survey in 1981 which identified the boundaries of the sites. In 1985, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) began a pilot study to examine the feasibility of excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated material as a permanent solution. The study was interrupted when the permit for the disposal site was revoked by the state of Nevada. Since 1990 field testing has been completed on over 725 properties and remediation and restoration has been completed on 75 properties

1993-12-02

36

Sampling and analysis plan for RCRA closure activities at 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides guidance for sampling and analysis activities associated with the proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) clean closure of the 200 West Ash Pit Demolition Site. Soil samples will be taken around the blasting pit, in order to verify that the concentrations of all detonation activity contaminants are below action levels. The borrow pit was used for demolition of discarded explosive chemicals, tumbleweed incineration, and as a source of soil for construction material. The demolition site was located apart from the others within the borrow pit

1994-01-01

37

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report

1997-01-01

38

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

2013-09-19

39

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

CH2M HILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

2012-09-27

40

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS Corporation

2010-09-17

 
 
 
 
41

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

2011-01-01

42

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

2010-01-01

43

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

2011-09-28

44

200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ash Pit Demolition Site had two known demolition events, the first occurred in November of 1984, and the second occurred in June of 1986. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the Ash Pit Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'', Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A, Form 3, Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 4) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A, Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the Ash,Pit Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the Ash Pit Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in the demolitions, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only''. Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from Ash Pit Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

1994-01-01

45

Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

1992-03-01

46

Initial site characterization approach and preliminary results; 200 west area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action, Hanford Site, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Expedited Response Action (ERA) is being proposed to remediate the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington. The ERA is based on the preliminary conceptual model that carbon tetrachloride vapors remaining in the unsaturated zone continue to provide a source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to the groundwater. The goal of the initial phase of site characterization was to refine this conceptual model, and to collect data in support of the selection and design of an initial remedial action, while meeting the accelerated schedule of the ERA. Using this approach, site characterization activities were designed to make optimum use of field screening-level data and existing boreholes. Field tasks included analysis of soil gas samples collected from the bottoms of boreholes or detected at the wellhead; a soil gas survey-, a pilot test of a vapor extraction system; and groundwater sampling and analysis. Results of this initial phase of site characterization suggest that carbon tetrachloride vapors are still contained within the unsaturated zone in concentrations sufficient to support an effective early removal action

1991-09-08

47

West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

1997-01-01

48

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

Science.gov (United States)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

Shama, Ayman A.

2011-03-01

49

Spectral Ratio Estimates for Site Effects on the Horst-Graben System in West Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Recordings of micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes have been used to quantify site effects in the central-west Turkey which contains one of the world's best examples of a rapid intra-continental extension with its high population and industrial potential. We analyzed 436 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging between 2.0 and 5.6 using three component digital recordings from 32 stations. Site functions were obtained using two different spectral ratio approaches (horizontal to vertical spectral ratio, HVSR, and standard spectral ratio, SSR). HVSR estimates of transverse and radial S-waves were compared with one another. Epicentral distance, magnitude and back-azimuth dependencies of site functions were also evaluated. In general, HVSR values from transverse and radial S-waves are similar within a factor of 2. The back-azimuth dependencies of transverse S-wave HVSR results are more significant than distance and magnitude dependencies. On the other hand, averaging of transverse and radial S-wave HVSR results eliminates systematic back-azimuth dependencies caused by source radiation effects. Distributions of HVSR estimates along ~N-S linear array, which traversed main grabens in the region with a station spacing of 3-4 km, reflect subsurface geological complexities in the region. The sites located near the basin edges are characterized by broader HVSR curves. Broad HVSR peaks could be attributed to the complexity of wave propagation related to significant 2D/3D velocity variations at the sediment-bedrock interface near the basin edges. The results also show that, even if the site is located on a horst, the presence of weathered zones along the surface could cause moderate frequency dependent site effects. Comparison of HVSR and SSR estimates for the stations on the graben sites showed that SSR estimates give larger values at lower frequencies which could be attributed to lateral variations in regional velocity and attenuation values caused by basin geometry and edge effects.

Akyol, N?hal; Kurtulmu?, Tevf?k Özgür; Çamyildiz, Murat; Güngör, Tal?p

2013-12-01

50

WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities

2003-01-01

51

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2009-09-24

52

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

2009-01-01

53

West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

1990-01-01

54

Remedial design process for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge radium sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites, located in Essex County, New Jersey, are contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials. The waste materials originated from radium processing facilities prevalent in the area during the early 1900's. The two sites consist of 769 residential and commercial properties having a combined land area of approximately 210 acres. Historically, radioactive waste materials were disposed as landfill material in what were once rural areas. As development flourished, homes and streets were constructed over the landfilled waste. In 1981 the EPA conducted an aerial gamma radiation survey of the area to determine the presence of radioactive materials. It was from this survey that subsequent ground studies where initiated, and elevated gamma radiation and radon levels were discovered. The paper will discuss the methods used to obtain data through field investigations; the relationship between the interpretation of data to define the vertical and lateral limits of contamination and the selection of remedial design methods used to develop excavation plans; the evolution of remediation methods and technologies relative to the remediation of structures by underpinning basements, on-grade structures, and chimneys; removal of contaminated material beneath footings without cribbing; and demolition of basement foundation walls (where contaminated) without use of traditional support methods. Finally, the paper will discuss remedial action execution of the work

1993-12-02

55

NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML team surveyed three sites in the Sierras with their terrestrial waveform lidar (DWEL) and collected Trac measurements of LAI, while UMB collected additional discrete ground-based lidar scans and additional forestry measures at San Joaquin and the Sierras; A team from the UWM collected leaf-level reflectance and transmission spectra and measured leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. This multifaceted collaboration, funded by the NSF NEON and NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Science programs, will support key scientific developments by combining the expertise from multiple sensing modalities. This experiment highlights the advantages of data and skills sharing in remote sensing applications. An overview of the larger effort and individual early science will be presented.

Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

2013-12-01

56

Nest-site selection and breeding biology of Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus in sandy beaches of the Portuguese west coast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: The nest-site selection and breeding biology of Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus were studied on sandy beaches of the Portuguese West coast. Methods: Nest-site characteristics were compared with those of random points and between successful and unsuccessful nests. Breeding parameters (timing of laying, nesting success and egg size) were examined on sandy beaches and these data combined with a literature review to provide a comparison of Kentish Plovers’ breeding p...

Norte, Ana C.; Ramos, Jaime A.

2004-01-01

57

Health assessment for Montclair/West Orange Radium Site, Montclair/West Orange, Essex County, New Jersey, Region 2. Cerclis No. NJD980785653. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Public Health Assessment analyzes the potential for adverse health effects as a result of contamination present at the Montclair/West Orange/Glen Ridge (MWG) radium contamination site. Two hundred thirty-six out of 747 homes which were screened in the three study areas are contaminated with radioactive material (i.e., radon 222, radium-226) resulting in above background levels of alpha and/or gamma radiation. Some homes in the Montclair site contain building materials contaminated with radium-226/thorium-230. The ATSDR and the NJDOH consider the MWG site to be a public health hazard in the past to residents of homes containing elevated radiation levels and to the residents of Glen Ridge who frequented Barrow`s Field, and an indeterminate public health hazard in the past and the present for the residents of homes in the study areas that have not yet been screened for elevated radiation levels.

NONE

1995-08-08

58

Public health assessment for West Site Hows Corners, Plymouth, Penobscot County, Maine, region 2. Cerclis No. MED985466168. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Site/Hows Corner National Priorities List site is a former waste oil storage and transfer facility. The site was identified in 1987, when nearby residential wells were found to be contaminated with chlorinated solvents. On-site soils were found to be contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The Hows Corner site is classified as a public health hazard based on past exposure of residents to contamination in their residential wells, and also past exposure to contaminated soils of workers and others who may have come onto the site. The site is also classified as a current indeterminant public health hazard, based upon the possibility that contaminants in the groundwater may volatilize and affect the ambient air above the ground surface and because of possible increased migration of contaminated groundwater off the site.

NONE

1996-10-18

59

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Leetown Pesticide Site, Jefferson County, West Virginia, March 1986. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Leetown Pesticide site is located in northeast West Virginia, approximately 8 miles south of Martinsburg, West Virginia. The site is actually composed of a number of areas affected by surface disposal of pesticides, agricultural use of pesticides, and landfilling. A total of eight specific areas of waste disposal or accumulation were identified during the initial RI study. Of these eight areas, two were the result of alleged disposal of pesticide-contaminated debris from a fire that occurred in 1975 at the Miller Chemical Company. These two areas include the former pesticide pile and the suspected pesticide landfarm areas. Four of the contaminated areas are associated with former use of the land for orchard production. The two remaining sites are active landfills.

1986-03-31

60

Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

Ehman, K D

2006-05-10

 
 
 
 
61

Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing Purolite{sup R} A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCg{sup TM}, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludg

Byrnes, Mark E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States); Simmons, Sally [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, Washington (United States); Morse, John [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington (United States)

2013-07-01

62

Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing PuroliteR A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCgTM, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludge is then disposed at

2013-02-24

63

Portrush West Strand ASSI  

...Portmuck ASSIPortrush West Strand ASSIProlusk ASSI...Heritage SitePortrush West Strand ASSILast updated...KeywordsEarth SciencePortrush West Strand is of Special Scientific Interest because of the...

64

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2003 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. During 2003, cleanup of radioactive waste from the former nuclear fuels reprocessing plant that shut down operations in the 1970s was continued at the WVDP. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Work activities at the WVDP during 2003 included: (1) maintaining canisters of vitrified high-level waste in a shielded facility; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste offsite for disposal; (3) shipping packaged spent nuclear fuel assemblies to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; (4) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely size-reduced and packaged for disposal; (5) decontaminating the fuel storage pool and the cask unloading pool; (6) decontaminating the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (7) cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (8) planning for decontamination and dismantlement of the vitrification facility; (9) continuing preparation of the Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Impact Statement; and (10) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises

2004-01-01

65

Climatology of aerosol composition (organic versus inorganic) at nonurban sites on a west-east transect across Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the framework of the European CARBOSOL project (Present and Retrospective State of Organic versus Inorganic Aerosol over Europe: Implications for Climate), atmospheric aerosol was continuously sampled for 2 years at six sites along a west-east transect extending from Azores, in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, to K-Puszta (Hungary), in central Europe. Aerosols were analyzed for ²¹°Pb, inorganic ions, elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), macromolecular type...

2007-01-01

66

New Seep Sites along the West-African Passive Margin Identified from Seismo-Acoustic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and ongoing venting activity is documented offshore West Africa by large pockmarks, as has been observed by previous marine expeditions along the continental margin (e.g. Meteor Cruises M47/3 and M56). In summer 2008, an interdisciplinary campaign was carried out in cooperation between the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences in Bremen and IFREMER, Brest. The main scientific goal of the cruise was to assess the influence of different geological settings on the nature of venting and related features. Multi-frequency seismo-acoustic tools including swath bathymetry, sediment echosounder, flare imagery, and high-resolution multichannel seismics were utilized within the scope of geophysical studies for investigating the distribution of seep structures and associated subsurface feeder systems. Observations confirm a widespread occurrence of pockmarks along the continental margins of Gabon, Congo and Angola in deep water. Spatial surveys have further shown that venting-related features are present on different scales, particularly with sizes of tens of meters in diameter and topographical expressions on the meter scale. While these structures seem to be related to relatively shallow gas reservoirs, larger ones reveal roots to gas reservoirs in several hundred meters below the seafloor. At some sites, gas flares of a few hundred to over a thousand meters height could be identified within the water column. Comparing target areas north and south of the Congo Canyon, it has become evident that different driving forces and sedimentary and tectonic boundary conditions may be responsible for fluid venting and its distribution. While in the north, a thick sediment cover restricts seepage to selected zones of weakness and higher permeability, salt diapirism in the south is massively fracturing overlying sediments, creating numerous promising morphological features at the seafloor. However, only a few active vents could be found in the area of salt diapirism. Future work will particularly focus on the details of seep systems, the comparison with site-specific information from coring and video surveys and the integrated interpretation of the acoustic and seismic data sets.

Fekete, N.; Spiess, V.; Caparachin, C.; Ding, F.; Gehrmann, R.; Riepshoff, H.; Trampe, A.; Foucher, J.-P.

2009-04-01

67

Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

1994-02-01

68

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. This analysis does not consider temporary construction items and, therefore, does not consider hazards associated with temporary construction items. This analysis will be reviewed and updated to reflect new East-West Drift design changes, construction modifications, and ''as built'' documentation of the East-West Drift when completed. A major difference between this analysis and previous ESF SSAs is the inclusion of hazards that arise as a result of non-accident events, (e.g., ''off-normal'' operations, adverse environmental conditions, or ''out-of-tolerance'' conditions). Non-accident events, that were not included in previous ESF SSAs, include environmental and/or toxic hazards such as leaking gases/fluids, off-gassing reactions, and excessive dust, particulates, exhaust fumes, noise, temperature, etc. which could have an adverse health effect on personnel

1999-01-01

69

Species composition and inversion polymorphism of the Anopheles gambiae complex in some sites of Ghana, west Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of Anopheles gambiae s.1. were collected from eight localities belonging to four of the five main ecological strata of Ghana. Analysis of ovarian polytene chromosomes revealed the presence of A. gambiae s.s. in all the sites studied, while A. arabiensis was detected only in the extreme northern locality of Navrongo and A. melas in some southern sites. Anopheles arabiensis showed a degree of inversion polymorphism comparable to the one observed in other West African countries. The analysis of the chromosomal polymorphism of A. gambiae s.s. showed the presence of the FOREST form in the rain forest localities and the SAVANNA form in the coastal savanna sites. The MOPTI form occurred sympatrically with the SAVANNA form in the northernmost locality. The possible influence of the presence of various taxa of the A. gambiae complex and of their intra-specific variants on malaria vectorial system is discussed. PMID:8203292

Appawu, M A; Baffoe-Wilmot, A; Afari, E A; Nkrumah, F K; Petrarca, V

1994-02-01

70

FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems

1996-01-01

71

Radiochemical measurements for evaluating air quality in the vicinity of low-level waste burial sites - the West Valley experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive wastes buried in the commercial low-level burial site at West Valley, New York, consist primarily of low-density, low-specific-activity wastes. Except for contaminated soil and building rubble the wastes were shipped and buried uncompacted in steel drums, wooden boxes, cardboard cartons, or concrete casks. The wet climate at West Valley led to decomposition of the containers and biodegradation of much of the organic material in the wastes. As anoxic conditions developed in the trenches, appreciable quantities of organic complexing agents formed in the trench water, and a variety of gaseous decomposition products formed in the void space within each trench. The escape of the gaseous decomposition products through the trench cover presents the most significant pathway for uncontrolled release of radioactivity from the trenches and the greatest impact on air quality at the now inoperative West Valley site. The radioactive gases HT, _8_5Kr, _1_4CH"4, _3HCH"3, _1_4CO, _1_4CO"2, _2_2_2Rn, and _1_4C- and _3H-hydrocarbons were identified in the voids beneath the trench covers. Studies were conducted to identify radionuclides and chemical species vented to the atmosphere, to evaluate the mechanisms of venting, and to quantify the leak rate of each radioactive gas. These studies required specialized techniques for sample collection, species separation, and radionuclide measurement. A close relationship exists between the experimental data obtained and the computer models which were developed to estimate gas production rates in a trench and the transport to and escape from the surface of a trench. As a result, field measurements and computer calculations are found to be as important for post-closure characterization of the site as are the radiochemical measurements

1982-12-01

72

Sediment deposition from Hurricane Rita on Hackberry Beach chenier in southwestern Louisiana: Chapter 6E in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

Hurricane Rita significantly impacted the chenier forests of southwestern Louisiana, an important habitat for Neotropical migratory birds. Sediment deposition was measured along transects at Hackberry Beach chenier, and Rita's effects on chenier structure and morphology were determined.

Faulkner, Stephen; Barrow, Wylie; Doyle, Thomas; Baldwin, Michael; Michot, Thomas; Wells, Christopher; Jeske, Clint

2007-01-01

73

Geologic investigation at the site of the post office building, Welch, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Statement of Problem: Cracking in the interior and exterior walls of the post office building at Welch, West Virginia, developed in the summer of 1947. This cracking appeared about two months after the patching of similar cracks that had developed in 1946. The Public Buildings Administration was requested to investigate the damage. They, in turn, requested the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines to furnish representatives to work with their engineer in determining the cause of the cracking. The press gave widespread publicity to the cracking of walls in the post office and other buildings in Welch. This report explains how the investigation was conducted, describes topographic, geologic, and mining conditions found during the field examination, and draws conclusions based on the facts observed.

Hawkins, Harold Horatio

1950-01-01

74

Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

2009-08-27

75

PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

2014-01-01

76

Environmental monitoring of the main nuclear sites of Piemonte (North-West Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper are described the monitoring activities of ARPA Piemonte, principally focused on one of the two major Italian nuclear sites located in Piemonte: Nuclear Site of Saluggia that, together with the Nuclear Power Plant of Trino Vercellese (272 MWe) are the most important nuclear installations of the Region. Both these sites are located in Po Plain and are quite close together (not more than 20 km). Moreover their discharges flow directly into the Po river (Nuclear Power Plant) or into the Dora Baltea, one of the most important Po affluent, a few kilometres prior to the confluence into Po river

2002-10-08

77

Geological and hydrological investigations at Sidi Kreir Site, west of Alexandria, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sidi-Kreir site lies along the Mediterranean Sea coast at km 30 to km 33 westwards from the center of the city of Alexandria. The studied site covers approximately 10 km"2 from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Mallehet (Lake) Maryut southward. This study includes the results of geological investigation of the site both structurally and stratigraphically, and the groundwater conditions, in relation to the erection of a nuclear power station in the site. The surface geology has been mapped using aerial photographs on scale of 1:20,000. Twenty-five drillholes were core-drilled in order to outline the subsurface geology and to observe the groundwater fluctuations. Selected core samples and soil samples were tested geologically in thin sections, physically and mechanically. Water samples were also collected and tested for total dissolved solids and specific weight. Groundwater level fluctuations were observed for a period of one year in 75 wells and drillholes. Furthermore three pumping tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the freshwater aquifer. These properties were also calculated using the core samples data

1978-01-01

78

Sergentomyia spp.: Breeding sites in vertisols and peri-domestic habitats in North West Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand flies belonging to the genus Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot, 1920, are hematophagous insects feeding mostly on reptiles and birds, but some species feed also on mammals including humans. Sergentomyia spp. frequently comprise the vast majority of sand flies trapped along with Phlebotomus spp., the vectors of mammalian leishmaniasis. Within the framework of a project on the ecology and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, putative breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies were studied. Large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) covered with sand fly-proof mesh were deployed over cracked vertisol and related habitats for up to 3 nights, and emerging sand flies were collected daily. Emergence traps (ETs) were also adapted to sample other putative breeding sites including tree trunks, termite mounds, rock piles and vertical river banks. Productive breeding sites were identified in the trunks and roots systems of trees, vertisol fields, cracks and burrows in vertisol dry river banks and termite mounds. Emerging flies were also collected form a stone wall and a rock pile situated inside a village. Significantly more Sergentomyia spp. were trapped in vertisols by ETs deployed over root system than in open fields. Similarly, more sand flies emerged from cracks in the vertisol in fallow Sorghum than in fallow sesame fields. Productive breeding sites were characterized by stable micro-climatic conditions. Species composition of emerging sand flies varied with habitat, season and geographical location. PMID:24841132

Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Belay, Shewaye; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

2014-09-01

79

Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast coal mines with As-contaminated water from an historic gold ore processing site near Reefton. Precipitates were collected from distinctly different settings, an active acid mine drainage treatment plant at Stockton mine and the neutralisation/oxidation zone of acid mine drainage discharge at the abandoned Blackball Coal Mine. The two mine sites produce precipitates with different compositions and mineralogy. Arsenic adsorption onto precipitates from each site was determined in batch and column tests under laboratory conditions. Batch experiments indicate As adsorption occurs rapidly during the first 5 h and reaches equilibrium after 24 h. At equilibrium, and for a dosing ratio of 50 g of precipitate per litre of water, As concentrations decreased from 99 mg/L to 0.0080 mg/L with precipitates from Stockton and to 0.0017 mg/L with precipitates from Blackball. Arsenic adsorption capacity is up to 12 mg/g on precipitates from Stockton sludge and 74 mg/g on precipitates from Blackball. The Blackball precipitate adsorbs more As than precipitates from Stockton which is probably due to the higher Fe oxide content but pH and surface structure could also play a role. The column experiment confirmed that adsorption of As from a continuous waste stream onto these precipitates is possible, and that passive remediation using this waste product mixed with gravel to enhance permeability could be a viable approach at As-contaminated mine sites. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

2010-01-01

80

Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures that showed staining (a possible indicator of past or present hydraulic activity) are rare, vertical to near-vertical, and occur mainly in, and adjacent to, mechanically stiff siltstone and sandstone interbeds. No interconnected fracture networks were observed. A series of pressurized air tests were conducted to evaluate fracture interconnectivity at and below the landfill facilities. Three pairs of vertical and three pairs of inclined boreholes were tested at depths ranging from 40 to 215 feet below ground surface. Borehole packers and volume-displacement tools were placed in each borehole to isolate the injection and observation horizons and minimize borehole storage effects, respectively. Injection pressures ranged from 1 to 5 psig. Pressures within the injection boreholes quickly stabilized and slowly decayed due to porous media flow, while no pressure changes occurred in the observation boreholes. These tests confirm the absence of hydrologically significant fracture networks in the subsurface at the WCS site.

Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Subsidence monitoring and evaluation plan for strategic petroleum reserve storage sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subsidence is occurring at all six Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. It results from a combination of cavern closure, Frasch-process sulphur extraction, fluid withdrawal, and from natural causes. Of these, cavern closure resulting from slat creep is the predominant source. A subsidence monitoring program is recommended that includes: (a) continuation of annual releveling; (b) quadrennial determination of horizontal drift; (c) triennial measurement of gravity values to determine elevation change and to validate releveling data; (d) 1/2400 air photos quadrennially; (e) coordination of other subsidence monitoring efforts, especially involving regional subsidence; (f) continuation of cavern creep modeling; (g) engineering evaluation of observed and predicted subsidence effects; (h) information dissemination in the form of an annual review and report. A priority sequence is suggested that considers observed subsidence and operational factors such as oil inventories and risk appraisal. First (highest) priority is assigned to Weeks Island and West Hackberry. Second (intermediate) priority is given to Bayou Choctaw and Bryan Mound. Third, (lowest) priority is assigned to Sulphur Mines and Big Hill. The priority strategy can be used as a management tool in allocating resources and in determining relative attention that is required at the six sites. 32 refs., 1 tab.

Neal, J.T.

1988-08-01

82

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

NONE

1995-05-31

83

Assessment of radiological situation in the Murzhik inhabited point area on the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research program on the radiological situation assessment around of the Murzhik inhabited point due to information about high mortality in this region, situated in the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site, was realized. In the framework of this study the radiological inspection was carried out. Radiation contamination of examined area around the Murzhik village is very heterogeneous. The region most part including the section on the test site area are characterizing by radiation contamination and external gamma-dose close to background one. However some areas (radioactive cloud traces, explosion craters, underground test boreholes) are demonstrating high contamination levels and radiation dose rate (up to 1 mSv·h-1). This conducts to very high external irradiation doses and its can have some radiation effects. The effects have been observed in different populations of animals used as biological indicators. Although the majority of morphological parameters does not confirm the harmful influence of contamination the genetic indexes have been demonstrated the statistical differences between irradiated and control populations of animals in chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequencies and high genome instability. The health status of the Murzhik village human population was compared with control group health. With help of statistical analysis the considerable difference between two populations does not found by a majority of indexes. With help of micronuclei test it is revealed that lymphocyte cytogenesis damages frequency in the Murzhik inhabitants in two times higher than this value in the control group. The most noticeable effect - it is very high considerable increase (in 7 times, p<0.007) the observed dicentric chromosomes frequency (concerned as reliable indicator of radiation effects)

2001-01-01

84

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

1995-01-01

85

Middle Pleistocene climate and hydrological environment at the Boxgrove hominin site (West Sussex, UK) from ostracod records  

Science.gov (United States)

The sediments of the Slindon Formation at the junction of the Chalk South Downs and the West Sussex Coastal Plain, as revealed and studied at Boxgrove, contain evidence for early Middle Pleistocene environments in southern England around half a million years ago. The archaeological importance of the deposits is attested to by the recovery of stone and organic tools, butchered fauna and fossil hominin remains. We combine palaeoecological and geochemical analyses of ostracods from the coastal plain deposits to reconstruct the climate and environment at one period of the hominin occupation. The stratigraphy of our study area is indicative of a terrestrial environment surrounding a small lake or pond. Ostracod assemblages from the sediments indicate that the ponds were shallow but permanent, and fed by groundwater and springwater. However, the species alone cannot confirm that these ponds were completely fresh. Application of Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) techniques shows that summer temperatures were similar to present-day values and winter temperatures were probably colder, whereas mean annual air temperature was similar to present or perhaps slightly cooler. Trace-element and strontium-isotope analyses of ostracods from the sediments support the conclusion that the ponds were fed largely by fresh groundwater derived from the chalk, although there may have been a minor seawater input. The carbon-isotope ratios of the ostracod shells are consistent with a groundwater source, although they also indicate that the dissolved inorganic carbon most likely did not reach equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, suggesting that the ponds had short residence time. The combination of palaeotemperature estimates with oxygen-isotope values from ostracod shells allowed us to reconstruct the oxygen-isotope ratio of the Pond water, which was close to the value of early Middle Pleistocene precipitation at this site. Values were similar to present day, suggesting that there may have been a change in seasonality or precipitation source, since the mean air temperatures might have been lower.

Holmes, Jonathan A.; Atkinson, Tim; Fiona Darbyshire, D. P.; Horne, David J.; Joordens, José; Roberts, Mark B.; Sinka, Katharine J.; Whittaker, John E.

2010-07-01

86

Design of an Electrical Network for the West Bank of Palestine with the Selection of Optimum Site of the Generating Power Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to design an electrical network for the West Bank of Palestine selecting the optimum site of the generating power plant. The required network should have the optimum configuration and realize the technical and economical requirements. It should provide the consumer with electric energy of high quality, reduce the cost of electric energy supplied to consumer and have the minimum possible total annual cost.

Khammash, Maher J.

2005-01-01

87

Program for the removal of the neutralized Purex high-level waste (HLW) stored at the West Valley site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is being made at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) on the development of a HLW sludge resuspension or mobilization system. The HLW is to be homogenized in-tank and transferred to the Slurry-Fed Ceramic Melter for vitrification. The current approach being taken to remove the sludge phase of the HLW is reflected in the WVDP Scale Model Development Program (SMDP). Sluicing equipment used at other DOE facilities is simulated at a reduced scale, and screened in a One-Sixth Scale Model of the West Valley HLW storage tank. The SMDP, as well as the development of a simulant sludge, and planned tank modification will be discussed

1984-01-01

88

The diel copulation periodicity of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) at indoor and outdoor sites in Trinidad, West Indies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diel copulation periodicity of domestic Aedes aegypti in the field in Trinidad, West Indies was monitored weekly at indoor and outdoor sites over a 16 month period. At indoor sites two significant (P<0.02) peaks in copulation occurred between 06.00 and 08.00 (25% of copulation events) and between 16.00 and 18.00 (24%): at outdoor sites the copulation periodicity was similar to that observed indoors with an early morning peak in copulation at 06.00-08.00 (30%) and a late evening peak at 16.00-18.00 h (25%). Laboratory studies showed similar copulation patterns to those observed at indoor and outdoor sites. Copulation occurred at two different locations: at outdoor sites copulation was primarily in close proximity to breeding sites while at indoor sites copulation was observed in close proximity to human bait or members of the household. The parity rate of copulating females collected indoors was 59% in contrast to only 15% collected outdoors, which suggests that females found indoors were older. The diel copulation periodicity, location where copulation occurs, parous rates and insemination rates are discussed in the context of sterile insect technique or genetic control modalities. PMID:23850504

Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

2014-04-01

89

Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

1995-01-01

90

Optical and SAR sensor synergies for forest and land cover mapping in a tropical site in West Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The classification of tropical fragmented landscapes and moist forested areas is a challenge due to the presence of a continuum of vegetation successional stages, persistent cloud cover and the presence of small patches of different land cover types. To classify one such study area in West Africa we integrated the optical sensors Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) with the Phased Arrayed L-band SAR (PALSAR) sensor, the latter tw...

Laurin, Gaia Vaglio; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Chen, Qi; Guerriero, Leila; Del Frate, Fabio; Bartolini, Antonio; Coomes, David; Wilebore, Beccy; Lindsell, Jeremy; Valentini, Riccardo

2013-01-01

91

Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

Pitt, William A., Jr.; Meyer, Frederick W.

1976-01-01

92

Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

1998-01-01

93

Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

1993-01-01

94

Variations of surface O3 in August at a rural site near Shanghai: influences from the West Pacific subtropical high and anthropogenic emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large day-to-day variability in O(3) and CO was observed at Chongming, a remote rural site east of Shanghai, in August 2010. High ozone periods (HOPs) that typically lasted for 3-5 days with daily maximum ozone exceeding 102 ppb were intermittent with low ozone periods (LOPs) with daily maximum ozone less than 20 ppb. The correlation analysis of ozone with meteorological factors suggests that the large variations of surface ozone are driven by meteorological conditions correlated with the changes in the location and intensity of the west Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) associated with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). When the center of WPSH with weaker intensity is to the southeast of Chongming site, the mixing ratios and variability of surface ozone are higher. When the center of WPSH with stronger intensity is to the northeast of Chongming site, the mixing ratios and variability of surface ozone are lower. Sensitivity simulations using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model indicate that meteorological condition associated with WPSH is the primary factor controlling surface ozone at Chongming in August, while local anthropogenic emissions make significant contributions to surface ozone concentrations only during HOP. PMID:22648346

He, Jingwei; Wang, Yuxuan; Hao, Jiming; Shen, Lulu; Wang, Long

2012-11-01

95

An Assessment of Groundwater Nitrate and Nitrite Levels in the Industrial Sites in the West of Tehran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nitrate compounds as the last part of oxidation of nitrogen compounds, which may causemethaemoglobinaemia in infants.Nitrosamines are derivatives of both nitrites and nitrates and are often used as indicatorsof water pollution, largely because of concerns about their carcinogenic potential.With regard to the role of industrial waste (containing nitrates and nitrites) in the pollutionof ground water, in winter 1998 one hundred sites were selected for sampling andmeasurements of Nitrite Nitrat...

Farshad, A. A.; Imandel, K.

2003-01-01

96

75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection...on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES:...

2010-06-14

97

Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: Implications for ozone uptake calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold. - Modelled and observed ozone concentrations and meteorology agreed well in daytime (poorer at night), leading to close agreement for estimates of plant ozone uptake

2008-09-01

98

Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: Implications for ozone uptake calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold. - Modelled and observed ozone concentrations and meteorology agreed well in daytime (poorer at night), leading to close agreement for estimates of plant ozone uptake.

Klingberg, Jenny [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 461, 405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: jenny.klingberg@dpes.gu.se; Danielsson, Helena [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 5302, 400 14 Goeteborg (Sweden); Simpson, David [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, 0313 Oslo (Norway); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Radio and Space Science, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Pleijel, Hakan [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 461, 405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2008-09-15

99

Phytosociological Study in Quercus libani Oliv.’s Site by Analyzing Environmental Factors in West Azerbaijan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, Quercus libani Oliv.’s site in Sardasht has been studied phytosociologically. The vegetation has been carefully studied in Braun-Blanquet method. The relationship between environmental factors including topography and some of the most current physicochemical features of soil and plant associations was researched by means of multiple discriminant analysis. Based on AFC and CAH methods, 8 associations and 1 sub-association were achieved including: Trifolio stellati-Quercetum brantii, Pistacio atlanticae-Quercetum brantii, Violo modestue-Quercetum brantii, Trifolio campestri-Quercetum brantii, Quercetum brantii, Thalictro sultanabadensi-Quercetum libani, Quercetum libani-acerotosum cinerascens, Quercos boissieri-Quercetum libani and Quercetum libani. These plant associations belong to Quercetea persicae class and Quercetalia persicae order. The effective environmental factors in division of plant associations based on multiple discriminant analysis include respectively: pH, landform index, Terrain shape index and aspect.

Raza Basiri

2010-01-01

100

Field screening of soil vapors at a subsurface gasoline contaminated site in West Liberty, Morgan County, Kentucky  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaking underground storage tanks containing petroleum products pose a serious threat to groundwater quality nationwide. Many releases constitute an emergency situation due to exposure to toxic/flammable vapors and contamination of potable water sources. These conditions require that data from the contaminated area be acquired quickly and cost-effectively. A complaint was lodged by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Department of Highways in August 1988, concerning the quality and odor of water from their well. Preliminary sampling by the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection revealed results which indicated gasoline contamination. Subsequent sampling showed contamination of five potable wells in the area. One operating service station with three underground storage tanks containing gasoline and several abandoned underground storage tanks are in the immediate area where contamination had been identified. The objectives of an investigation initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey, Louisville, and Kentucky Dept. for Environmental Protection were to determine the degree and extent of contamination from gasoline constituents, locate the sources of contamination, and assess the impact of contamination on the quality of soils, groundwater and surface water. Soil vapors were obtained with an Environmental instruments soil vapor sampling device. Results of soil vapor and groundwater analyses indicate the origin of contamination is the operating service station's underground storage tank system. Several problems were encountered with this soil vapor technique. Sampling under dissimilar meteorological conditions produced varying results. Extraction of soil vapors at a rate of one liter per minute did not produce optimum results. Advantages of this soil vapor technique include a cost-effective screening of samples, prompt results, safety and no disruption of site hydraulics

1991-04-24

 
 
 
 
101

DC resistivity studies for mapping groundwater contamination in and around ash-disposal site of Kolaghat Thermal Power Plant, West Bengal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion of coal generates huge amounts of wastes which are disposed off in nearby ponds. The ash generated from the coal combustion process contains a lot of toxic elements which are leached out by the percolating rain water and subsurface runoff from the ash ponds. DC resistivity studies are very helpful in determining the subsurface lithology and in delineating the zones of groundwater contamination. The present study was conducted in and around the ash disposal sites of Kolaghat Thermal Power Plant in West Bengal. Six Schlumberger soundings were conducted in the four ash ponds of the thermal power plant. The quantitative interpretation of the VES curves has been done by a very fast simulated annealing computer program developed for this purpose. The subsurface lithology as determined from the VES curves shows alternate layers of clay and sand up to a depth of 60m. All the sounding locations show a general thin top layer of ash of high resistivity mixed with coarse sand or clay followed by a 29-50m thick layer of wet clay of very low resistivity. The lowermost layer is sandy clay to clayey sand in all the cases. Groundwater samples have also been collected from the tube wells located near the ash ponds and analysed for pH, TDS and trace elements. Results of the chemical analysis show high values of TDS and high concentration of the toxics.

Mandal, A.; Sengupta, D.; Sharma, S.R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Geology

2007-02-15

102

General investigation of radionuclide retention in migration pathways at the West Valley, New York low-level burial site. Final report 1 Oct 78-14 Feb 80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report evaluates the containment capabilities of the low-level, solid radioactive waste burial ground at West Valley, New York. The investigation included a surface water study, a trench water study, geotechnical and radiochemical studies of soils, a geotechnical analysis of a research trench and analysis of subtrench core data. Tritium is the most abundant beta emitter in trench water while strontium-90 is the predominant beta emitter in surface water. Strontium-90 ranks as the second most abundant trench water radionuclide in 6 of the 11 trenches studied. Four radionuclides were found to have either definite or possible migration. Carbon-14 was found to migrate at a much slower rate than tritium, which migrated to a depth slightly greater than 3.2m below the trench flow. There is also inconclusive evidence for strontium-90 migration beneath the trenches. Plutonium-238 was detected immediately beneath all 3 trenches studied and in 4 of the 5 trench cores. Results predicted by testing performed in 1977 were confirmed by standard engineering tests on soils fron the site. Soil samples taken from the north burial area trench caps and analyzed for tritium showed approximate background levels at the surface and above background levels at depths of 20 to 50 centimeters

1980-01-01

103

Composting moves west  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The art and science of composting has been applied to handling municipally generated organic wastes (particularly leaves, brush, and grass) in the Eastern US for many years, but now municipal composting can be really said to have gone west. Using methods farmers have been perfecting almost since the dawn of agriculture, municipalities in the US operate more than 4,000 composting sites across the country. Although a few municipal composting facilities have operated in the Western US for more than 30 years, the combination of cheap, plentiful landfill space, low population density, and extreme climate has prevented composting in the West from growing as fast as it has in other parts of the US. But continued growth in the West, combined with ambitious recycling goals in some Western states, have allowed composting to establish a major foothold as a practical solid waste management alternative.

Cotton, M. [Integrated Waste Management Consulting, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1996-05-01

104

Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500 ?m and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500 ?m exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m(3) and 4.5 ?g/m(3), and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between -14.1 Wm(-2) and -35.6 Wm(-2), -6.7 Wm(-2) and -13.4 Wm(-2) and 5.5 Wm(-2) to 22.5 Wm(-2), respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. PMID:24012896

Menon, Harilal B; Shirodkar, Shilpa; Kedia, Sumita; S, Ramachandran; Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K Krishna

2014-01-15

105

Dynamics of sea surface temperature and organic burial off equatorial west Africa (ODP Site 959) across the Late Miocene/early Pliocene climate transition  

Science.gov (United States)

The late Miocene-early Pliocene (11 to 3.5 Ma) was a period of major transition in global climate and ocean circulation that had irreversible consequences for atmospheric and ocean circulation leading to global cooling, northern hemisphere glaciations and modern climate conditions. Long term cooling contributed to a change in global vegetation from C3 plants to C4 plants. Norris (1998) and Wagner (2000) proposed from bulk 18O foraminifera and TOC records covering the Miocene-Pliocene transition at ODP Site 959 off Ivory Coast/Ghana the initial onset of modern atmospheric circulation and linked continental upwelling off tropical West Africa in response to the emplacement of the ITCZ into its modern position at that time. In this project, we aim to investigate the nature of the observed TOC cycles and its relationships to continental climate, vegetation change and surface ocean dynamics at centennial time scale resolution. To infer variations in SST and supply of continental organic matter (OM) we have started to obtain bulk and molecular data including TOC, alkenone-derived SST and leaf wax n-alkanes. The results show TOC to be generally low, between 0.1 and 0.7 %, and highly variable at cm-scale ( 2.5-5 kyr) resolution. Alkenones (C37:2 and C37:3) were ubiquitously identified. U37K based SST estimates ranging from 25-28°C indicate fluctuations of about 3°C within the range of modern day conditions. Long chain odd numbered n-alkanes C27-33 were also identified, with leaf wax concentration peaking at C31 at 25?g/TOC. The evidence for leaf waxes in the sediments argues for wind driven deposition from terrestrial sources. The high amplitude record of the TOC confirms a distinct cycle pattern that is probably related to orbital precession. Time frequency analyses of the TOC records by depth support the existence of two domi-nant periods related to eccentricity and precessional cycles at approximately the 92cm, 52cm and 42cm corresponding to 100kyrs, 19kyrs and 23kyrs respectively. Elevated TOC tend to compare with elevated leaf wax n-alkanes but seems less clear when compared with the SST. Further molecular work on the ?D and ?13C of the n-alkanes is planned to reconstruct precipitation and vegetation change.

Eniola, Olunbunmi; Wagner, Thomas; McClymont, Erin

2010-05-01

106

Geothermal investigations in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

1982-11-01

107

SOUTH WEST  

…themselves for the risks of long term coastal climate change. The project is a partnership between Hampshire County Council, Kent County Council, Alterra (part of Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, the Netherlands), the Province of West Vlaanderen/ Coordination centre for ICZM (Belgium), the Agency…

108

Dorset Coast at West Bay  

West Bay Last updated 06:00 on 07/04/2014 Summary The level at West Bay is -0.05 m. This measurement was recorded at 06:00 on 07/04/2014. Highest astronomical tide level for this site is 3.51 m AOD. Current level: -0.05m Last 48 hours of available data Please be aware that times shown are in GMT. Disclaimer…

109

Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site  

Science.gov (United States)

Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

2012-12-01

110

Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the West Fork White River Basin, Indiana, 2001  

Science.gov (United States)

Data were gathered from July through September 2001 at 34 randomly selected sites in the West Fork White River Basin, Indiana for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (drainage area and land use) and biological-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related, using Spearman's rho, to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-characteristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score, which was most influenced by ash-free dry mass, was negatively related to one (percent closed canopy) of nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one fish-community attribute (percent tolerant). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one attribute (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index) and one metric score (EPT index metric score). The periphyton PC1 was not related to the five basin-characteristic or 12 nutrient variables examined. The seston PC1 site score, which was most influenced by particulate organic carbon, was negatively related to two of the 12 nutrient variables examined: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July) and total phosphorus (July). Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (EPT-to-total ratio). The seston PC1 was not related to the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. To understand how the choice of sampling sites might have affected the results, an analysis of the drainage area and land use was done. The 34 randomly selected sites in the West Fork White River Basin in 2001 were skewed to small streams. The dominant mean land use of the sites sampled was agriculture, followed by forest, and urban. The values for nutrients (nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) and chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) were compared to published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) values for Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions VI and IX and Level III Ecoregions 55 and 72. Several nutrient values were greater than the 25th percentile of the published USEPA values. Chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) values were either greater than the 25th percentile of published USEPA values or extended data ranges in the Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions and Level III Ecoregions. If the proposed values for the 25th percentile were adopted as nutrient water-quality criteria, many samples in the West Fork White River Basin would have exceeded the criteria.

Frey, Jeffrey W.; Caskey, Brian J.; Lowe, B. Scott

2007-01-01

111

Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, August 31-September 2, 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiological survey was conducted at the former locations of the West Stands, the New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. General radiochemistry and/or physics research for the MED/AEC program was performed at these sites during the 1940s. The buildings have since been razed. The survey was undertaken to determine the presence of any radionuclides remaining from the MED/AEC operations that could have been spilled or released from the former structures. Environmental soil samples (corings) were collected from the areas where the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory once stood. The soil corings were taken at what appeared to be undisturbed locations near the sites of the three former facilities. Analyses of the soil corings included determination of the concentrations of "1"3"7Cs, the "2"3"2Th decay chain, the "2"2"6Ra decay chain, and uranium in the soil. The levels of uranium and the "2"2"6Ra decay chain found in the samples indicated that no concentrations above natural background levels were present. Slightly elevated levels of "6"0Co were found in soil taken from the top 5 cm of the ground at two sampling sites, but this activity was presumed to have been traceable to induced activity from contaminated stainless steel that had been stored in the area during operations not related to MED/AEC activities. No increased radiation dose attributable to exposure to residual radioactivity from MED/AEC activities is expected

1982-01-01

112

Elemental characterization of metal artifacts recovered from archaeological sites Higueras 1sector west and sector B and Esquivilca south central coast of Lima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of 70 metal artifacts from the Archaeological Rescue Project Loop Costa have been analyzed using non-destructive methods of analysis by X-ray fluorescence, in order to characterize them and to determine the chemical elemental composition of these objects, finding that these pieces are copper alloys, material used to manufacture their distinct metal utensils in every place. In Esquivilca Sector B copper-tin alloys and copper were used and in Higueras 1 Southwest Sector, copper-antimony and arsenic allows. Also some parts have an adhered material which contains sulfur and mercury, which leads us to think that in Higueras 1 Sector South West, pigments of these minerals were used on metal parts. (orig.)

2013-01-01

113

Understanding West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. West Nile Virus Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding West Nile Virus The West Nile Virus first emerged ...

114

77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...million annually for water treatment at bond forfeiture sites. The tax is payable by all coal operators mining coal in West Virginia, regardless of size. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act Based upon the above analysis and...

2012-07-11

115

Intake of trace and major elements through drinking water pathway by the adult population of the six villages around the uranium deposit site of Domiasiat, West Khasi hills, Meghalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elements such as Fe, Zn, K, Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Se and U were analyzed to determine their concentrations in drinking water collected from six villages around the uranium ore deposit site in Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. The estimation of the concentration of these elements in the drinking water samples collected was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, except for Uranium, estimation was done using a Laser based Fluorimeter. The concentration of the elements vary from 0.2 ppb -1.7 ppm and it has been observed that all the elemental concentration fall well below the WHO prescribe guidelines. Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected was found out to be less than 0.5 ppb. (author)

2007-02-19

116

Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-11-14

117

Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

2013-02-24

118

Comparative chemical mass closure of fine and coarse aerosols at two sites in south and west Europe: Implications for EU air pollution policies  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns in South and West Europe (Barcelona, Spain, and Ghent, Belgium). The chemical composition of the PM10 aerosol was markedly different in the two regions, even at similar PM10 levels. The chemical composition of PM2.5 showed more similarities. The contribution of mineral matter was higher in Barcelona (on average 12% of the PM2.5 mass), whereas the contribution from sea salt was higher in Ghent (4% of PM2.5). Volatilisation of NH 4+ from the filters (negative artefact) was observed in both regions, although the extent of this artefact showed regional differences (0-4% and 22-38% of the NH 4+ mass in Ghent and Barcelona, respectively) and had no impact on the compliance with EU limit values. The number of exceedances of the PM10 limit value and an arbitrary PM2.5 limit of 25 ?g m -3 was calculated by subtracting the mineral fraction (natural or anthropogenic in origin) from the bulk PM load, and this resulted in the elimination of the PM10 exceedances in Barcelona, and a reduction of one out of three exceedances in Ghent. The subtraction of sea-salt aerosol had no effect in Barcelona, and it removed one exceedance in each size fraction in Ghent. Exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value in Ghent coincided with back-trajectories originating from Eastern and Southern European regions. The origin of the exceedances in Barcelona during the campaigns was mostly local.

Viana, M.; Maenhaut, W.; Chi, X.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

119

Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y. are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10-8 centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and(or) reduced soil in their walls extend 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975--76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 10-5 to 10-3 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes

1977-01-01

120

Phytosociological Study in Quercus libani Oliv.’s Site by Analyzing Environmental Factors in West Azerbaijan, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, Quercus libani Oliv.’s site in Sardasht has been studied phytosociologically. The vegetation has been carefully studied in Braun-Blanquet method. The relationship between environmental factors including topography and some of the most current physicochemical features of soil and plant associations was researched by means of multiple discriminant analysis. Based on AFC and CAH methods, 8 associations and 1 sub-association were achieved including: Trifolio stellati-Qu...

Raza Basiri

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Sensitivity of N-retention and export to temperature and nitrogen deposition forcing for a humid Pacific North West conifer site  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate change and anthropogenic activities both affect nitrogen cycling and its interaction with carbon and water in the ecosystem. Changes in the balance of carbon, nitrogen and water, particularly in forested environments, may be an important feedback to global climate system and affect ecosystem and human health. The goal of this study is to use a GIS-based regional hydro-ecological simulation system (RHESSys) to model interactions between climate and nitrogen cycling at a local/plot scale within the Pacific Northwest of the United States. This is also a pilot study/precursor to a regional modeling effort, BioEarth, which examines the interaction among carbon, nitrogen and water at a regional scale in the context of global climate change. We compare estimates for a relatively dry and a wet forested conifer focus sites in the Pacific Northwest. We seek to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of forest nitrogen cycling to increases in nitrogen deposition and temperature and to develop scaling relationships for integrating coupled climate-N cycling processes into regional scale models. At our focus sites, we use sensitivity analysis to derive the directionality, linearity, and thresholds in nitrogen-cycling responses to the changes in nitrogen deposition and temperature. We compare RHESSys estimates of annual nitrogen leaching, nitrification, denitrification, vegetation nitrogen uptake, and changes in soil and vegetation nitrogen pools under scenarios of increasing nitrogen deposition and temperature, over a 30 year record of inter-annual climate variability. Our results indicate that for the relatively wet site: 1. There is a substantial capacity for the HJA ecosystem to absorb increasing N-deposition inputs. Similarly, the adequate water supply at this site leads to increasing vegetation productivity with warming. 2. For both temperature and nitrogen deposition increase scenarios, responses are relatively linear and the thresholds, where the ecosystem behavior shows dramatic changes in the pattern of response, are not likely to be reached within the next decades. 3. More subtle changes, however, are likely - even with relatively modest temperature warming, our model estimates increases in soil decomposition and loss of soil organic matter, which may have important implications for regional carbon and nitrogen cycling if this type of patch is widely distributed. 4. Increases in vegetation growth for both temperature and nitrogen deposition increase scenarios lead to greater above-ground carbon storage as well as greater evapotranspiration losses, which has potential implications for climate feedbacks and streamflow. We compare these results with the drier site and use results to highlight where non-linearity in climate-N-deposition interactions might lead to significant errors in coarse-grained regional model applications.

Zhu, J.; Tague, C.; Garcia, E.; Choate, J.

2012-12-01

122

Analysis of echo sounding data North-Central Pacific (and west North Atlantic). Final technical report, September 1, 1976--March 31, 1978. [Site selection for marine disposal of high-level radioactive wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recognizing the need to consider several potentially suitable sites for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, a very preliminary search was made through available data for such sites in the North Pacific and West North Atlantic Oceans. The criteria used were: the site must be between high-productivity belts and outside of 200 mile limit; a minimum of 50 meters of sediment, preferably 100 to 150 meters; the sediment should be red clay with minimum or no biogenic components; the sediment should contain no unconformities; and no strong discontinuous internal reflectors; the area should have no tele-seismicity, be topographically subdued, have minimal bottom currents, have no or low economical potential (Mn nodules, etc.), and be large enough (1 to 2/sup 0/ on a side) to be feasible for disposal. Some of these criteria may need to be relaxed; others may need to be added. Seismic data were the basic information used to cull out potential areas, and there are very few areas that meet the criteria as interpreted seismically. Initial site specific data assessment reported included examination of all available geophysical/geological data in and around the MPG-1 area (approximately 29/sup 0/ to 31/sup 0/N; approximately 156/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/W); a topographic relief was described and the disposition of the thin (less than 100 m) sediment blanket and the acoustic character was mapped. A 15-day cruise was conducted in the MPG-1 area aboard the R/V VEMA and included detailed seismic measurements and heatflow/coring experiments to discern the variability of these parameters.

Hayes, D.E.

1978-05-01

123

POTENTIAL USE OF ACTIVATED CARBON TO RECOVER TC-99 FROM 200 WEST AREA GROUNDWATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO MORE EXPENSIVE RESINS HANFORD SITE RICHLAND WASNINGTON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO{sub 4}{sup -}) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO{sub 4}{sup -} selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (< 0.01 molarity). The column leaching studies confirmed a high adsorption capacity and selectivity of activated carbon for TCO{sub 4}{sup -}. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

BYRNES ME; ROSSI AJ; TORTOSO AC

2009-12-03

124

Potential Use Of Activated Carbon To Recover Tc-99 From 200 West Area Groundwater As An Alternative To More Expensive Resins Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite(regsign) A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO4-) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO4- selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (4-. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

2010-03-07

125

An historical record of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) deposition to a remote lake site in north-west Scotland, UK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Present day and historical background levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) deposition to a remote UK site have been investigated by looking at the temporal record of PCDDs and PCDFs held in lake sediments. Results showed that PCDD/F concentrations started to increase above pre-industrial background levels during the 1860s and 1870s, reaching a peak in the 1950s-1960s and then decreasing to the present day. Increases in PCDD/F concentrations since the late 1800s have been attributed to increased combustion of fossil fuels, and to the growth of the chemical industry in the 1930s and 1940s. The more recent decrease in PCDD/F concentrations may be due to increasing controls on the production and use of chlorinated chemicals, and to a decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and leaded petrol. The contribution of different homologue groups to total PCDD/F concentrations has remained broadly similar since the 1800s, with a dominance of OCDD being the main feature. Minor changes in the homologue profile over time suggest that changing PCDD/F sources are having some impact on deposition patterns, although atmospheric transport and deposition processes are likely to have mixed the inputs from different sources, producing a more uniform PCDD/F homologue profile once incorporated into remote lake sediments

Rose, C.L.; Fernandes, A. [National Environmental Technology Centre, AEA Technology plc, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rose, N.L.; Harlock, S. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

1997-04-01

126

West Nile: Virus Transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Facebook Reccomend Twitter Tweet Share Compartir ... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to humans ...

127

What's West Nile Virus?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Baseball Injuries Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & ... are most at risk for the infection. Continue West Nile Symptoms Most of the time, symptoms of ...

128

South West Livestock Pilot  

Feb 12, 2007 ... South West · Mixed economy model ... The pilot aimed to establish whether there \\was a farmers' business case for the capture of better quality livestock ... Phase \\Two: field trial based in the South West of England. The SWLP ...

129

West Midland - ARCHIVE: Defra  

Feb 25, 2010 ... Regional indicators pull together already published statistics to enable ..... West \\Midlands were classed as obese (England average 17 and 15 per .... EU funding \\for the West Midlands of England in 2013 will rise to £104.5 ...

130

West Nile Fever: A Medical Detective Story  

Science.gov (United States)

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at the West Nile virus. Tracking an Epidemic reports on how the link was made between sick crows and people during the summer of 1999 in New York City. West Nile Q&A answers more than 20 frequently asked questions. Taking on West Nile tracks the efforts of scientists and officials to study and combat the virus in the year following the New York City outbreak. Mosquito Hunting, with text, photos, and audio, shows the work of an entomologist and her team of students as they look for the potential vectors of the virus.

131

Estimated airborne release of radionuclides from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b building at the West Jefferson site as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential airborne releases of radionuclides (source terms) that could result from wind and earthquake dmage are estimated for the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site in Ohio. The estimated source terms are based on the damage to barriers containing the radionuclides, the inventory of radionuclides at risk, and the fraction of the inventory made airborne as a result of the loss of containment. In an attempt to provide a realistic range of potential source terms that include most of the normal operating conditions, a best estimate bounded by upper and lower limits is calculated by combining the upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound inventories-at-risk with an airborne release factor (upper-bound, best-estimate, and lower-bound if possible) for the situation. The factors used to evaluate the fractional airborne release of materials and the exchange rates between enclosed and exterior atmospheres are discussed. The postulated damage and source terms are discussed for wind and earthquake hazard scenarios in order of their increasing severity

1981-01-01

132

Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

Mathes, M. V.

1977-01-01

133

Dracaena in West Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus description, a key to the species in West Africa; 21 species are treated and illustrated, including 3 for the first time. Each species is fully described, typified and annotated pertinent to West Africa, wit...

Bos, J. J.

1984-01-01

134

West Greenlandic Eskimo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub-Arctic by not facing immediate endangerment, althoug the minority dialects (including East Greenlandic and Polar Eskimo) face increasing pressure from the standard Central West Greenlandic dialect.

Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

135

Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

Mathes, M. V.; Payne, D. D., Jr.; Shultz, R. A.; Kirby, J. R.

1982-01-01

136

RCRA experience at West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1966 to 1972, the only commercial facility to reprocess spent nuclear fuel in the United States operated near the town of West Valley in western New York. About 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste resulting from that operation is now stored at the site in underground tanks. The West Valley Demonstration Project Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-368) gave the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for solidifying this waste for final disposal. In 1983, the Department selected borosilicate glass as the waste form and the slurry-fed ceramic melter (BFCM) as the solidification process. The melter, installed in late 1984, and its auxiliary systems are being operated to verify technical soundness and to generate nonradioactive samples for testing. Once technical acceptability of the integrated system is confirmed, the shield walls will be installed in preparation for radioactive high-level wastes in 1992, finishing in 1994. In January 1988, EPA determined that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was the overriding applicable Federal statute for the West Valley Demonstration Project. At this time, EPA directed the Project to file RCRA Parts A and B with the New York Department of Environmental Conservation. In June 1988, DOE Draft Order 5480 directed the Project to comply with technical and administrative requirements of RCRA and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

1988-10-18

137

West Beck at Snakeholme Lock (26009)  

…Report * Station type EM * FEH site No * POT threshold 1.29 m 3/s * Status Permanent * Station description Electromagnetic station with a buried, magnetic coil underlying channel around 8m wide. Driffield Canal runs alongside (original course of West Beck) and is gauged by separate electromagnetic gauge…

138

West Beck at Snakeholme Lock (26009)  

…Station type EM * FEH site No * POT threshold 1.29 m 3/s * Status Permanent * Station description Electromagnetic station with a buried, magnetic coil underlying channel around 8m wide. Driffield Canal runs alongside (original course of West Beck) and is gauged by separate electromagnetic gauge (also…

139

DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

2010-03-24

140

West Nile Virus (WNV)  

Oct 26, 2009 ... West Nile Virus (WNV) is a viral infection of birds, horses and ... of other animal \\species, such as goats and sheep can be infected, ... The Department of Health (\\DH) has commissioned research to evaluate the population size, ...

 
 
 
 
141

West African malaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmodium falciparum malaria poses an increasing risk to travellers to West Africa. The development of chloroquine resistant in West Africa has further compounded the risk. Two cases of falciparum malaria from Sierra Leone are presented. One represents the classic missed case and the other a probable case of chloroquine resistant (RI vide infra) falciparum malaria. These cases highlight the danger of the missed or late diagnosis; the need for chemoprophylaxis, even in emigrants; the threat posed to the international traveller by malaria; and the problem of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum (CRPF) malaria from West Africa. The position of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in West Africa is reviewed along with the problem caused by chloroquine resistance. PMID:1744827

McKinlay, K P; Masterton, R G

1991-10-01

142

West Indian amblyopia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of 21 patients admitted to St Thomas' Hospital, Medical Ophthalmology Unit, with a diagnosis of West Indian or West African amblyopia is reported. Patients were investigated for haematological, biochemical, serological, and radiological abnormalities and particular attention was paid to dietary history. Patients admitted in recent years also underwent neurophysiological investigations. No definite correlation between visual loss and dietary or family history was found, and there was ...

Fasler, J. J.; Rose, F. C.

1980-01-01

143

Colne at West Drayton  

Colne at West Drayton Last updated 04:30 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at West Drayton is 0.50 metres. This measurement was recorded at 04:30 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.39 metres and 0.90 metres. The highest river level recorded at this location…

144

Why the West?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The tradit...

Marc Ferguson

2004-01-01

145

Foundation Report on Stonewall Jackson Dam, West Fork River Basin, Weston, West Virginia. Volume 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The geology of the Stonewall Jackson dam site and a discussion of how the engineered structures were adapted to the existing rock conditions is the purpose of this report. Stonewall Jackson dam is located in central West Virginia near the town of Weston. ...

D. Nugen

1987-01-01

146

West Nile Weather  

Science.gov (United States)

Last year, nearly twenty-five hundred human cases of West Nile virus were reported to the Centers For Disease Control. But in 2003, there were about four times as many. Now, scientists have found a way to predict how severe this year's outbreak might be.Hot summers mean a higher risk for West Nile virus epidemics. That's according to Ken Kunkel, an atmospheric scientist at the Illinois State Water Survey, and a team of entomologists and ecologists. In the northern United States, West Nile is spread to humans by a mosquito known as Culex pipiens. Its population depends on the number of spring and summer days above 81 degrees Fahrenheit. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-06-20

147

CFMP West Cornwall 6  

…area, with the main employment sectors being the manufacturing and service industries, and tourism. The traditional economic activities of agriculture, mining, and fishing have been in decline for some years, however they still contribute to the economy today. The West Cornwall catchment is environmentally…

148

Coal in West Greenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological investigations accomplished hitherto in West Greenland in Nugssuaq region have given basis for coal deposit evaluations. Very considerable coal reserves seem to be available, but calorific value of coal according to chemical analysis is under the usual power-plant fuel standards. Prospective mining requires further test borings wider investigations and eventually interest of coal-using industry.

Ellitsgaard-Rasmussen, K.; Frandsen, N.; Thomsen, E.

1981-01-01

149

West Virginia and SREB  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with West Virginia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

2009-01-01

150

West County Beef  

West Country Beef is the name applied to carcases, sides or cuts of beef derived \\... All livestock is reared in line with agreed, high standards of husbandry and ... \\voltage electrical stimulation or hip suspension, as these reduce the risk of cold \\..... gley and brown soils which support grass growth but are not ideally suited to.

151

Integration of remotely-sensed geobotanical and structural methods for hydrocarbon exploration in West-Central West Virginia. Quartery report, May 1, 1996--July 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on hydrocarbon exploration in West-Central West Virginia. In this period, the following tasks were carried out: a reconnaissance soil gas geochemical survey was performed at the Volcano test site and at the Lewis County test site; a geobotanical analysis of the September imagery was carried out in order to highlight spectral anomalies that appear to be associated with the historic volcano field and the Lewis County test site; and multi-temporal spectral reflectance measurements continued.

NONE

1997-06-01

152

Sarah West | Staff at SEI  

... Sarah West | Staff at SEI Sarah West | Staff at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM YORK OXFORD TALLINN US ASIA AFRICA Home ...SEI Staff Staff SEI staff Sarah West sarah.west@sei-international.org Twitter: @SarahWest_SEI Telephone: +44 1904 324577 Title: ...3MB) Sarah is a Research Associate at SEI York, mainly working on a large citizen science project called OPAL (Open Air Laboratories)... Sarah is particularly interested in the benefits people may gain from participating in such projects, including environmental attitude and behaviour change, ...

153

Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

2002-10-14

154

"East meets West".  

Science.gov (United States)

For most of the 70s and 80s, the East was considered to be the center of hospital rate regulation and the West the center for free-market competition. Managed care in the East was "home grown" and large, national public companies generally stayed away from these markets. But, in a fascinating shift amid a great deal of turbulence, the East is starting to look at lot like the West. Economics are driving reforms and the best move for lawmakers is to stay out of the way. The train has already left the station. Perhaps the most frightening thing about the most recent Group Health Association data is that the President comes from a state with less than 3% HMO penetration. Many of his trusted advisors come from that state, including physicians who report on the home front. PMID:10135576

1994-06-01

155

West Nile Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since its isolation in Uganda in 1937, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for thousands of cases of morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. Historically, epidemics were localized to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, and primarily caused a mild febrile illness in humans. However, in the late 1990’s, the virus became more virulent and expanded its geographical range to North America. In humans, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic (approxi...

Rossi, Shannan L.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Jared D.

2010-01-01

156

West Chestnut Ridge hydrologic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility included collection and analysis of data on stream flows, watershed areas, precipitation, water levels at piezometer sites, and physiochemical properties of surface water. Seven temporary water-flow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Chip-floating and regression techniques were used to estimate stream flows after some of the temporary structures were destroyed during high flows. Stream flow fluctuations were quantified using coefficients of variation and percent change in total flow between adjacent sampling dates. The difference between precipitation and observed flows (net loss) was calculated for all stations. Two headwater stations (4 and 6) exhibited lower flows per watershed area and channel length, and higher levels of fluctuation in flow than the other stations. These two stations were also similar in watershed area and flow magnitude. Two other headwater stations (5 and 7) with comparable flows had total drainage areas that were similar in size and smaller than those of the other stations. Stations 5 and 7 exhibited high flows per drainage area and section length, especially in the dry period of the year when flows were higher than at all other stations. Fluctuations in flows were lowest at these two stations. Data indicate that these two sections are fed by sources of dependable groundwater. 7 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

1985-01-01

157

Drought in West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

2007-01-01

158

The evaluation of several corrosion mitigation strategies for oil coolers used by the strategic petroleum reserve.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this study was to first establish the fitness for service of the carbon steel based oil coolers presently located at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry sites, and second, to compare quantitatively the performance of two proposed corrosion mitigation strategies. To address these goals, a series of flow loops were constructed to simulate the conditions present within the oil coolers allowing the performance of each corrosion mitigation strategy, as well as the baseline performance of the existing systems, to be assessed. As prior experimentation had indicated that the corrosion and fouling was relatively uniform within the oil coolers, the hot and cold side of the system were simulated, representing the extremes of temperature observed within a typical oil cooler. Upon completion of the experiment, the depth of localized attack observed on carbon steel was such that perforation of the tube walls would likely result within a 180 day drawdown procedure at West Hackberry. Furthermore, considering the average rate of wall recession (from LPR measurements), combined with the extensive localized attack (pitting) which occurred in both environments, the tubing wall thickness remaining after 180 days would be less than that required to contain the operating pressures of the oil coolers for both sites. Finally, the inhibitor package, while it did reduce the measured corrosion rate in the case of the West Hackberry solutions, did not provide a sufficient reduction in the observed attack to justify its use.

Hinkebein, Thomas E.; Levin, Bruce L.; Enos, David George

2004-10-01

159

NPR: Voodoo and West Africa's Spiritual Life  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the fine NPR radio program series, Radio Expeditions, reporter John Burnett recently travelled to West Africa to learn about the ancient religion of Vodun, or as it is called in the West, voodoo. Unfortunately, what most people in the United States think about this religion is based on sensational (and generally totally inaccurate) accounts that one finds in various Hollywood movies or in a tourist-designed version that is hawked in many New Orleans shops. Before listening to the three-part series online, visitors will want to peruse the selection of photographs taken by the radio documentary producers during their travel through Togo and Benin, then proceed to read the background essay as well. The site also includes several video clips of the Epe Ekpe stone festival in Glidji, Togo and Equnqun spirit dancers in Cove, Benin.

160

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

Science.gov (United States)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Study of the Vulnerability of Fractured Aquifers in the Context of an Implementation of a Modern Landfill: Application of Remote Sensing and the Geotechnical Method on the Site of Kossihouen (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The workshop of the interdepartmental committee responsible for managing household waste in Abidjan (Ivory Coast in 2007 showed that the landfill site should be chosen out of the coastal sedimentary basin to protect the groundwater of the Continental Terminal aquifer against pollution. Indeed, this aquifer provides the potable water to Abidjan populations and also assures uniformity of the price of water by the water company of the Ivory Coast. But, given the groundwater flow and the possibility of transfer of fluid between the discontinuous and continuous aquifers, is it possible that an activity taking place outside the coastal sedimentary basin of Côte d'Ivoire (such as a landfill site contributes to the pollution of the groundwater in Abidjan. To resolve this problem, the geotechnical surveys, the laboratory tests and in-situ tests were conducted to determine the types of the soil across the study site. The Landsat TM scenes 196-56 of 12/30/1990 were processed to study the fracturation of the site. The geotechnical tests carried out in situ on the study area and the laboratory test allowed knowing the nature of the formations and their differents permeabilities. Indeed, the formations are generally complex and formed of sandy clay of low to very low permeability ranging from 9.8. 10-7 to 1.1. 10-5 m/s in situ and 1.68.10-6 to 1.76. 10-5 m / s in the laboratory. Regarding remote sensing, the Landsat image processing revealed mega-fractures (NE-SW on the site of the modern landfill of Kossihouen.

Yao Blaise KOFFI

2013-04-01

162

Neither East Nor West, Is Mid-West Best?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a follow-up on the paper entitled “Code, Control, and Choice: Why East is East and West is West”, published in Legal Studies in 2005. The current article was first presented at the School of Law, University of Edinburgh, in February 2006.

Roger Brownsword

2006-03-01

163

78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's Redesignation Request for the Wheeling...Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia. The West Virginia Department of...

2013-09-30

164

78 FR 56168 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's Redesignation for the Parkersburg- Marietta...Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of West Virginia. The West Virginia Department of...

2013-09-12

165

Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

2013-01-11

166

Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

2013-02-24

167

Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

168

Raw material studies of West Central Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the ?a?ak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

Vera Bogosavljevi? Petrovi?

2014-03-01

169

Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW)  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its curious name, Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW) is a powerful, free "C subroutine library for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in one or more dimensions, of both real and complex data, and of arbitrary input size." Developed by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, FFTW purportedly has outstanding performance when compared with other DFT algorithms. This statement is supported by experimental results from extensive speed and accuracy benchmarks. FFTW can be downloaded directly from this site, along with substantial documentation and three research papers stemming from its development.

Frigo, Matteo; Johnson, Steven G.

170

Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

171

What is Happening to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?  

Science.gov (United States)

This site discusses the loss of ice from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which has been observed for the last thirty years. Topics include why, when, and how much ice was lost by the ice sheet since the last glacial maximum, and whether the ice sheet was ever smaller than it is today.

Bindschadler, Robert

172

Score One for Training at West Virginia University.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the human resources department at West Virginia University. Discusses the training needs assessment project, formation of an advisory committee, targets for training, budget restrictions, department faculty and staff, faculty attitudes about the program, training sites, use of video-based simulation, and how the program is currently…

Feuer, Dale

1985-01-01

173

Design preferences for a slurry-fed ceramic melter suitable for vitrifying West Valley wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results from the program at Savannah River in support of the DWPF project, the Commercial Waste Treatment Program at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and the vitrification work at ENICO at Idaho Falls have been reviewed. Information from West Germany's programs at Karlsruhe and Mol, Belgium and the Japanese program at Tokai were gained through DOE technical exchange agreements. The information assimilated from these sites, characteristics of the West Valley wastes, and the author's own experience were used to develop preferences for the design of the West Valley slurry-fed ceramic melter. Refractory design, electrode configuration, draining techniques, and general arrangement for the West Valley design are presented

1984-01-01

174

Stonewall Jackson Lake, West Fork River, West Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The project proposes to initiate land acquisition, for the construction of a multi-purpose reservoir consisting of a concrete dam and lake near Brownsville, Lewis County, West Virginia, for flood control, water quality control, water supply, recreation an...

1971-01-01

175

Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands : Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco) and Doñana National Park (South-West Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain). Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems ...

Elkiathi, Najat; Ramdani, Mohamed; Espinar, Jose? L.; Fahd, Khalid; Serrano, Laura

2013-01-01

176

Zooplankton of West Madagascar  

Science.gov (United States)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance Madagascar.

Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

2014-05-01

177

Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

1996-01-01

178

Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

1996-07-01

179

GeoPowering the West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

2007-02-01

180

North-West Region Monitoring  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Ecological Assessment of the Region, where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities.

 
 
 
 
181

North-West Region Monitoring  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Ecological Assessment of the Region, Where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities. Part 2

182

Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ? 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ? 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

1995-12-01

183

Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was {approximately} 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m{sup -2} while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m{sup -2}. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m{sup -2} for sulfate and 20 meq m{sup -2} for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only {approximately} 5 meq m{sup -2} anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Ginting, N.; Hopper, M.; Selleck, P.W.; Tapper, N. [CSIRO, Mordialloc, Vic. (Australia). Division of Atmospheric Research

1995-12-01

184

Russia between East and West  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The East and West have been symbols in Russian culture for centuries and have served as reference points for Russians in their search of cultural and geopolitical identity. They continue this role in contemporary Russia. Should Russia be part of the East or West? Russian politicians, scholars, writers and thinkers have been this question for several hundred years. While no agreement has yet been reached the discussion, far from purely academic, has had practical political consequences. The po...

Lukin Alexander

2003-01-01

185

Gilling Beck at Gilling West  

Gilling Beck at Gilling West Last updated 18:15 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Gilling West is 0.56 metres. This measurement was recorded at 18:15 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.28 metres and 1.90 metres. The highest river level recorded at this…

186

West Indian intellectuals in Britain:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things - new musics, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This lively, innovative book explores the intellectual ideas which the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that for more than a century West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. This is the first comprehensive discussion of the major Caribbean thinkers who came to live in twentieth-cen...

Schwarz, Bill

2003-01-01

187

West Syndrome: Response to Valproate  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. Objective: To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndrome. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general outpatient department (OPD) were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30?mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2?weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy. Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5%) showed a good response, but seven later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and three were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrhythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1%) had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and two were lost to follow up. Conclusion: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

Chandra, Surabhi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Kumar, Chandrakanta; Kumar, Rashmi

2012-01-01

188

How the West Was Warmed  

Science.gov (United States)

Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But warm conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western warming has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent warming of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to warm the West during the past century. We further show that a warming of the tropical oceanic warm pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the warming of the West since 1970.

Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.

2006-05-01

189

West syndrome associated with hyperlexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two patients are reported with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia. They had peculiar linguistic and psychosocial development and autistic behavior, yet began to read Japanese and Chinese characters, numbers, Roman alphabet letters, and trademark letters at 3 years of age. Neuropsychologic, electroencephalographic, and radiologic studies were performed at 11 years of age in Patient 1 and at 10 years of age in Patient 2. Although they were able to read fluently with correct intonation, their comprehension was significantly impaired. The neuropsychologic evaluation of both patients demonstrated selective, excellent ability in auditory memory in contrast to impairment of associational abilities, visual retention, and visual constructional abilities. These findings suggest that the functions in the nondominant hemisphere were also impaired. Although children with West syndrome frequently have associated mental retardation, patients with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia have never been reported. A neuropsychologic investigation of epileptic children with mental retardation is necessary for the detection of hyperlexia. PMID:2242178

Ichiba, N

1990-01-01

190

West Germany may easily become an unattractive site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost-oriented electricity rates were demanded by the Vereinigung Industrielle Kraftwirtschaft at its 1981 general meeting in Duesseldorf. Chairman of the Board Hanns Arndt Vogels declared that electricity rates should be based on the cost incurred for standard tariff customers as well as for special tariff customers. This market economy principle should not be abandoned in favour of equalisation.

Baumann, H.

1981-11-07

191

West Country Beef - ARCHIVE: Defra  

The exceptional eating quality of South West Beef is due to the defined \\production ... specification optimises eating quality. The scope of ...... colour \\retention in meat found by Arnold et al (1993) ie 3.0 – 3.5 µg/g. ... required for a \\long shelf life.

192

Upgrading of the West Area  

CERN Multimedia

The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

1983-01-01

193

Faculty Handbook. West Virginia University.  

Science.gov (United States)

Policies and procedures of West Virginia University are presented in the 1976 edition of the faculty handbook. Major sections deal with: university organization; conditions of employment; payment and benefits; graduate school; off-campus education; research; student relations; support services; and other university policies. Appendices consider…

West Virginia Univ., Morgantown.

194

Technical options for the future of West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Processing Plant reprocessed spent fuel from 1966 to 1972. It was shut down in 1972 for modifications, and in 1976 NFS decided not to renew the lease. This paper discusses the technical options for dealing with the financial responsibilities. The study shows that there is a range of options for both decommissioning and continued use of the plant with decommissioning involving either the immobilization or the off-site disposal of the wastes

1979-02-28

195

Microplastics in the coastal environment of West Iceland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microplastic particles in the marine environment and the effects on wildlife, human and ecosystem health are just beginning to be understood in a global setting. The presence of microplastics particle in West Iceland are evaluated to determine if there is a detectable gradient of decreasing plastic concentrations with increasing distance from the urban centres around Reykjavik. The study region includes sample sites within urban, semi-rural and rural coastal settings, with 4 si...

Dippo, Benjamin

2012-01-01

196

Mosquito Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Southeastern Wisconsin - 2002  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2001, West Nile virus (WNV) was identified among dead American crows and bluejays in five counties in southeastern Wisconsin. In response to the introduction of WNV, a pilot mosquito surveillance program was initiated in these five southeastern Wisconsin counties during the summer of 2002. Forty sites were selected for surveillance one night each week during a 17-week period. Mosquitoes were collected in carbon dioxide-baited light traps and gravid traps. During the study period 31,419 mos...

Meece, Jennifer K.; Henkel, James S.; Glaser, Linda; Reed, Kurt D.

2003-01-01

197

West Nile Virus in the Workplace  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks WEST NILE VIRUS On This Page Overview NIOSH Publications CDC Resources Other Resources Overview The West Nile virus (WNV) is most often spread to ...

198

West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy This sheet talks ... advice from your health care provider. What is West Nile Virus (WNV)? WNV is a virus that ...

199

[Chapel Hill waste site.pdf  

…capped and restored to agricultural grazing. The second part of the site, Phase 2, is immediately to the west and the current permit was issued in 2005. The site's planning permission runs to 2016. Phase 2 is divided into 15 phases or cells, 14 of which have been filled. The majority of these filled cells…

200

West Valley feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

Pirro, J.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

West Valley feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems

1981-01-01

202

Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This quarterly report is presented in five sections. The introduction and summary briefly discuss the SPR program background and major activities during the first quarter of 1984. Site development is described in Section II and oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Other program topics are discussed in Section IV. Section V contains information on the budget and cost of the Reserve. During the first quarter of 1984, the Department of Energy continued its progress in the development of the SPR underground storage facilities. The SPR continues to be developed in three phases. Phase I, consisting of the St. James marine terminal and approximately 260 million barrels of storage capacity at five sites, was completed in 1980. Phase II capacity development, which consists of the expansion of storage capacity at three Phase I sites by a total of 290 million barrels, is 71 percent complete. Phase III development consists of the construction of a new 140-million-barrel site at Big Hill, Texas, and further expansion of Bryan Mount, West Hackberry, and Bayou Choctaw by a total of 60 million barrels. Phase III development is proceeding on schedule. During this quarter, the total inventory of oil stored in the SPR reached 391,793,070 barrels. The average fill rate was approximately 139,607 barrels per day bringing the average fill rate thus far in FY 1984 to 168,285 barrels per day. The weighted average delivered price of crude oil during this quarter was $29.81 per barrel. A successful drawdown exercise was conducted at the West Hackberry site on February 28 and 29, 1984. A total of 1,053,080 barrels were pumped from West Hackberry to the Sun Terminal over a 24-hour period, exceeding a test design level of 1,000,000 barrels per day. 2 tables.

1984-05-15

203

Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to re...

Cataldo, M.; Evangelista, H.; Simo?es, J. C.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Simmonds, I.; Hollanda, M. H.; Wainer, I.; Aquino, F.; Grieken, R.

2013-01-01

204

Climatology of gravity wave activity during the West African Monsoon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gravity wave activity is analysed in the lower stratosphere using 6 year radiosonde data (2001–2006 above two meteorological stations in the West African tropical region such as Niamey (13.47° N; 2.16° E and Ouagadougou (12.35° N; 1.51° W. Monthly total energy density of gravity waves is computed with temperature and horizontal wind perturbations to highlight the West African Monsoon period from June to September. Comparison with monthly total energy density calculated with temperature only supports that observed small-scale temperature and wind perturbations are mostly associated with gravity waves in the lower stratosphere especially for large values during the wet season. Above the two sites, monthly evolution of gravity wave total energy density reveals a maximum intensity of gravity wave activity in July during the West African Monsoon period. Indicators of convective activity such as mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM rain rates reveal to be adequate monsoon proxies to be compared to gravity wave energy intensity during the West African Monsoon.

P. Kafando

2008-12-01

205

Chikungunya in west bengal, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fever of unknown origin broke out in several districts of West Bengal, from August 2007 to December 2007. The cases were suffering from high fever, severe joint pain lasting for several weeks after clinical cure and appearance of skin rashes. Patients' sera were collected at least five days after fever and were analyzed to detect specific IgM antibodies. A total of 800 patients were investigated and 321 (40.13%) were found to be reactive for Chikungunya antibodies. Of the patients, 66% were male. Predominant signs and symptoms observed in the sero-positive cases were fever (100%), arthralgia (96%) and diffuse erythematous skin rash (94%). Of the patients, 3% had haemorrhagic manifestations. Re-emerging Chikungunya virus spread in epidemic form in several districts of West Bengal after a gap of four decades. PMID:19211436

Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Pramanik, N; De, Rajyasree; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, H; Neogi, D K; Hati, A K

2009-01-01

206

West Syndrome: Response to valproate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5% showed a good response, but 7 later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and 3 were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1% had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and 2 were lost to follow up. Conclusions: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

RashmiKumar

2012-11-01

207

West Nile Virus Drug Discovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy....

Siew Pheng Lim; Pei-Yong Shi

2013-01-01

208

Structuring West Germany's energy objectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For this article a comprehensive and politically legitimate list of criteria to evaluate energy systems was constructed from interviews with leading representatives of a broad spectrum of West German society. In the interviews, we probed the fundamental values of nine political and social organizations, including the Catholic and Lutheran Churches, the Federation of German Labour Unions, the Association of German Industries and the German Nature Society. A hierarchical representation of value...

1987-01-01

209

Permafrost degradation in West Greenland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in ...

Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-nielsen, Thomas

2012-01-01

210

Potential seaways across West Antarctica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and c...

Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

2011-01-01

211

Minesoil development in central West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immediately after mining and regrading, minesoils usually have little or no horizon development. Over time, horizons begin to form and definite diagnostic properties develop. The purpose of this study was to document the genesis of a 13-year-old minesoil. The study site was a reclaimed surface mine in Upshur County, West Virginia. Transects were established in 1983 across the site immediately after mining and regrading but before revegetation. Soil pits were excavated to 100+ cm at nine points along those transects. Soil profiles were described at each point, and each minesoil horizon was sampled for analyses. In 1983, only C horizons were described because no structure had developed. In 1996, all nine profiles had developed A horizons ranging in thickness from 2 to 9 cm (mean 6.1 cm). Subsurface horizons (AC, Bw, or C/B), ranging in thickness from 7 to 17 cm (mean 11.8 cm), also had formed in each profile. The A horizons were identified by colors that were darker than the subsoil horizons and the presence of weak fine granular or subangular blocky structure. The AC, Bw and C/B horizons had weak fine to very coarse subangular blocky or weak medium to very thick platy structure. Chemical and physical properties of the minesoils supported the morphological properties indicating that definite pedogenic horizons have formed in 13 years

1998-05-17

212

Minesoil development in central West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Immediately after mining and regrading, minesoils usually have little or no horizon development. Over time, horizons begin to form and definite diagnostic properties develop. The purpose of this study was to document the genesis of a 13-year-old minesoil. The study site was a reclaimed surface mine in Upshur County, West Virginia. Transects were established in 1983 across the site immediately after mining and regrading but before revegetation. Soil pits were excavated to 100+ cm at nine points along those transects. Soil profiles were described at each point, and each minesoil horizon was sampled for analyses. In 1983, only C horizons were described because no structure had developed. In 1996, all nine profiles had developed A horizons ranging in thickness from 2 to 9 cm (mean 6.1 cm). Subsurface horizons (AC, Bw, or C/B), ranging in thickness from 7 to 17 cm (mean 11.8 cm), also had formed in each profile. The A horizons were identified by colors that were darker than the subsoil horizons and the presence of weak fine granular or subangular blocky structure. The AC, Bw and C/B horizons had weak fine to very coarse subangular blocky or weak medium to very thick platy structure. Chemical and physical properties of the minesoils supported the morphological properties indicating that definite pedogenic horizons have formed in 13 years.

Noll, W.J.; Sencindiver, J.C. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. of Plant and Soil Sciences

1998-12-31

213

[Differential diagnoses of West syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of epileptic spasms, and more especially those that occur during the first two years of life (infantile spasms). West syndrome has been clearly defined as the association between infantile spasms with an electroencephalographic pattern of hypsarrhythmia. Although intellectual deficit appears in almost all cases in which infantile spasms are not controlled with medication, this is a developmental aspect of the condition and not a manifestation that must necessarily be present in order to define the syndrome. The analysis of the interictal and ictal electroencephalogram readings, together with the clinical characteristics of the spasms and the neurological examination of patients, provides some orientation as regards the causations. Despite the spectrum that the title of this work focuses on, the study does not cover the treatment of early infants with West syndrome. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnoses of West syndrome with other epileptic syndromes that manifest in the first two years of life, and more especially with a series of abnormal non-epileptic motor phenomena that occur in early infants. All these last non-epileptic disorders are displayed in a table, but benign myoclonus of early infancy or Fejerman syndrome is given as a paradigmatic example for the differential diagnosis. The primordial aim is to prevent neurologically healthy early infants from receiving antiepileptic drugs and even adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticoids due to a mistaken diagnosis. PMID:23897139

Fejerman, Natalio

2013-09-01

214

Regional rainfall chemistry in Minnesota and west central Wisconsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rain samples were collected at seven sites in Minnesota and west central Wisconsin during the summer of 1981. At the sites in NE Minnesota (an area considered sensitive to acidic precipitation) concentrations of all major ions except hydrogen were generally lower than at the other sites. The higher rainwater acidity at the northern sites appeared to be a function of the lower concentrations of alkaline cations such as Ca(2+) and ammonium, however, overall the best single predictor of acidity was sulfate. Analysis of the relationships between pH and concentrations of the major ions indicated that clean rain may be slightly more acidic than pH 5.60. Air parcel back trajectories showed that rain in air masses arriving from the NW quadrant contained the lowest concentrations of sulfate and nitrate, while the majority of rainfall sulfate and nitrate arrived from the S quadrant. 35 references.

Pratt, G.C.; Krupa, S.V.

1984-01-01

215

Sedimentation and water quality in the West Branch Shade River basin, Ohio, 1983-85  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Loss of channel conveyance from deposition of sediment form abandoned surface mines in the West Branch Shade River basin has resulted in frequent flooding. In addition, water quality in the West Branch Shade River and some of its tributaries is typical of streams affected by acid mine drainage. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of abandoned surface mines and their reclamation on suspended-sediment load, channel cross-section profile, and water quality of West Branch Shade River. The quality of West Branch Shade River was characteristic of streams draining abandoned at improperly reclaimed surface mines in southeastern Ohio. Median alkalinity was less than 25 mg/L as CaCO3 at the three mined sites. Median sulfate concentration was 44 mg/L at the unmined sites compared to 128 mg/L at the mined sites. Both sulfate and manganese are indicators of the presence of acid mine drainage. The greatest change in water quality during the study period was observed in West Branch Shade River near Harrisonville, above which all abandoned mine lands were reclaimed. The pH at that site increased to neutral by the end of the study. In addition, alkalinity concentration increased, and acidity concentration decreased. 21 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Childress, C.J.O.; Jones, R.L.

1988-01-01

216

Regional flood-frequency relations for west-central Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents regional relations for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on streams in west-central Florida. Flood prediction equations derived cover 20, 5-, 25-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals. Annual floods for three geographic areas of west-central Florida were found to relate significantly to basin characteristics. Basin characteristics include drainage area, soils index, slope, and lake area. The average standard error of estimate for regional flood relations ranged from 38.4 to 52.1 percent with a mean of 43.5 percent. The average multiple correlation coefficient if 0.94. Regional relations apply to gaged and ungaged sites whose drainage areas are greater than 10 but less than 2,500 square miles. Tables of maximum known floods for 64 streamflow stations used in the analysis are included. Tables comparing station, weighted, and regional flood-peak discharges are also included. (Kosco-USGS)

Seijo, M. A.; Giovannelli, R. F.; Turner, J. F.

1979-01-01

217

Artesian mineral water od Raotintse site, Tetovo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of mineral springs occur on the west and east peripheral part of the Polog valley. Their appearance is connected with the Western Polog fault that stretches west to the brim of the valley NE–SW direction and east direction of Polog fault stretches in NW–SE. This paper presents the results of detailed hydrogeological investigations of mineral water at the site Raotintse Tetovo. Based on data obtained on two operational investigative boreholes at the site in Raotintse of the pleistocene limnic sediments at a depth of 38–67 m is founded artesian aquifer with low mineralized water. (Author)

2010-01-01

218

The Paradox of Open Space Ballot Initiatives in the American West: A New West-Old West Phenomenon?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Support for local open space ballot initiatives in the American West is surprising, given that federal land conservation legislation tends to be lightning rod issues. The central focus of this study is to explore the extent to which the New West-Old West concept explains varying levels of support for local land conservation initiatives. Principal component analysis is used to obtain orthogonal variables of regionally relevant data on population, housing, and occupation/industry. Weighted Least Squares Regression is used to regress the factor analysis variables and population migration variables onto percent voting ‘yes’ for open space initiative. All community variables are significant predictors of levels of support: affluent communities, Old West communities, commuter communities, communities with decennial population increases, communities with non-Western state in-migration, and communities with farm population losses. What explains varying levels of support is not the polarized New West-Old West concept but, rather, a nuanced conception of the changing American West. Keywords: New West-Old West; open space; land conservation; ballot initiatives; environmental concern

Elizabeth A. Shanahan

2010-06-01

219

Nitrogen compounds emission and deposition in West African ecosystems: comparison between wet and dry savanna  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface emission and deposition fluxes of nitrogen compounds have been studied in five sites of West Africa during the period 2002 to 2007. Measurements of N deposition fluxes have been performed in IDAF sites representative of main west and central African ecosystems, i.e., 3 stations in dry savanna ecosystems (from 15° N to 12° N), and 2 stations in wet savanna ecosystems (from 9° N to 6° N). Dry deposition fluxes are calculated from surface measurements of NO2<...

2011-01-01

220

Nuclear power (North-west)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main speaker looked forward to the start of operation at the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) in Cumbria, and noted its importance for jobs and the economy in the north-west. He also spoke of the environmental and economic benefits of nuclear power compared with coal and gas. The costs of reprocessing and the relative merits of coal, gas, and nuclear were debated. The risks from krypton 85 emissions from THORP and radiation emissions in general were discussed. There was general agreement on the need for a balanced energy policy. The debate lasted an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. (UK).

Mans, K.; O' Brien, W.; O' Neill, M. (House of Commons, London (United Kingdom)) (and others)

1992-12-14

 
 
 
 
221

Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands: Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco) and the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain). Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune syste...

Najat Elkhiati; Mohamed Ramdani; Espinar, Jose? L.; Khalid Fahd; Laura Serrano

2013-01-01

222

20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

2012-02-15

223

K West Basin canister survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

Pitner, A.L.

1998-08-26

224

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Skinner Landfill, West Chester, OH, June 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decision document presents the selected final remedial action for the Skinner Landfill site in West Chester, Ohio. The remedy is the second and final of two operable units for this site. The first operable unit addressed immediate site concerns, through the construction of a fence around the contaminated area, and by offering an alternate supply of drinking water to the potentially affected users of groundwater. This final operable unit addresses potential future migration of site contaminants into the groundwater and will limit the potential for direct exposure of site contaminants to humans through source control measures.

1993-06-04

225

Fishery and some biological aspects of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in West Greenland waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A review of available information is presented of recent investigations on the fishery and biology of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in West Greenland waters. Biological aspects are discussed mainly in relation to the recruitment to West Greenland area and the connection between the stocks in the West Greenland fjords and the stock complex in the Davis Strait. Larval drift is discussed relating the distribution of pelagic larvae and young demersal stages to the ocean current patterns in the area. Although the main drift pattern seems to be from the assumed spawning area in the Davis Strait to the West Greenland area, it also seems likely that larvae drift from the East Greenland/Iceland area to the southern part of West Greenland. Length frequencies at different places in the West Greenland area seem to indicate that as they grow they migrate deeper, both to the fjords and the continental slope in the Davis Strait. Recaptures from tagging experiments in the inshore area have all been near the tagging site, except for two examples of long distance migrations. A spawning migration from the fjords to the Davis Strait area have not been confirmed by tagging experiments. The recapture rates are shown to be independent of the length of fish. The sex ratios in the fjords at the West Greenland show the proportion of females as generally being the higher and that it is very similar to observed sex ratio on the continental slope of the Davis Strait. Observations on maturity show that a small proportion of the females and a larger proportion of the males in the West Greenland fjords are found in maturity stages just before or at spawning, suggesting that spawning, to some extent, takes place in the fjords. It is therefore proposed that Greenland halibut in the West Greenland fjords are mainly stationary and do not participate in the spawning in the deeper areas of the Davis Strait south of 67.degree.N.

Riget, F.; Boje, Jesper

1989-01-01

226

Analysis of the Mantle Transition Zone beneath West Antarctica using P-wave receiver functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Several exposed, sub-glacial, and submarine volcanoes exist throughout West Antarctica in the vicinity of the West Antarctic Rift System; prior work has suggested that a mantle plume beneath the region influences the observed rifting and volcanism. However the existence of a mantle plume has not been verified, because models from recent seismic tomography results are not well resolved at mantle transition zone depths. We use P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) from all Antarctic seismic stations installed at sites above less than 1 km of ice, including recent 2007-2012 Antarctic POLENET, permanent GSN, and the 2000-2003 TAMSEIS seismographs to explore the depth to and the thickness of the mantle transition zone beneath West Antarctica. We calculate PRFs for all earthquakes occurring at 30-90° with Mb>5.5 using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method filtered using a Gaussian-width factor of 0.5, corresponding to frequencies less than ~0.24 Hz. Using this method, we check stability of the deconvolution by convolving the vertical component with the final radial receiver function, rejecting all receiver functions that did not recover at least 80% of the original trace. Maps showing Ps pierce-points cover most of West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains, with particularly good coverage beneath Marie Byrd Land and the region around Ross Island. Preliminary results for P receiver functions stacked by station and migrated to depth using the ak135 1-d velocity model indicate a depressed 410' discontinuity beneath West Antarctica; beneath the Transantarctic and East Antarctic sites, the 410' is not depressed. However, no clear depth patterns are observed for the 660' discontinuity throughout West Antarctica; at several West Antarctic sites, the 660' may even be depressed slightly. Additional work using common conversion point (CCP) stacking will enable us to more clearly map the depth of the 410' and 660' and to identify spatial variations in mantle transition zone thickness.

Emry, E.; Nyblade, A.; Julia, J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Wiens, D. A.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

2013-12-01

227

Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

1998-08-01

228

Permafrost degradation in West Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple parameters. It is planned as decision and planning tool for town planners and engineers in local municipality governments and to consulting engineers and contractors in Greenland, which also may be used in other arctic regions. Risk is classified in four categories: Low, Limited, Medium and High based on environmental properties as surface conditions (rock or sedimentary basins), soil grain size classification (gravel, sand, silt and clay) and ice content in the ground. The model uses ground thermal conditions quantified as the Permafrost Thaw Potential, which is defined as the potential active layer increase due to climate warming and surface alterations. Using this methodology it is expected that mapping of vulnerability in towns and construction areas together with proposed adaption and mitigation technologies will be of practical use to technical institutions and public as well as a general tool for the scientific community. The presentation will focus on the application of the Risk Evaluation diagram used in the selected towns in different permafrost zones and is illustrated with present observations of permafrost detoriation in West Greenland.

Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

2012-01-01

229

Environmental History in the American West.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

Rothman, Hal K.

1994-01-01

230

West Beck at Snakeholme Lock (26009)  

…results West Beck at Snakeholme Lock in Ridings Area * Station name Snakeholme Lock * NRFA reference 26009 * Gauging authority North East * Gauging authority reference F3105 * Watercourse West Beck * Area Ridings * Hydrometric Area 26 - Hull Group * NGR TA 066555 * Catchment area and source of info 228 km…

231

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th ce...

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

2012-01-01

232

Anurans Collected in West Malaysia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on September 16-17, when they were spawning in shallow ditches, formed by the wheels of a truck. Amolops larutensis were day active and occurred in the shadow, among stones in a forest stream, particularly close to water falls and rapids. Several while foam nests with a diameter of 5-7 cm were deposited on the same stones just above the water surface on August 27. Other species observed were Bulo melanostictus, Bulo asper, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Kaloula pulchra, Limnonectes laticeps, Limflonectes macrodon, Rana erythraea, Rana glandulosa, Rana nicobarieflsis, and Rhacophorus prominanus.

Cedhagen, Tomas

1997-01-01

233

Diversity and characteristics of yeasts in water sources of the North West Province / by Deidré Alima Bregené van Wyk.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yeasts form an important part of many ecosystems and significantly contribute to biodiversity. However, yeast biodiversity in the North West Province remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and characteristics of yeasts from water sources in the North West Province, South Africa. Samples were collected over a two year period and included three rivers, a spruit and an inland lake. Temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured on site u...

2012-01-01

234

Spatial Analysis of Contaminants in 200 West Area Groundwater in Support of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Pre-Conceptual Remedy Design.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents a preliminary spatial and geostatistical analysis of the distribution of several contaminants of interest (COIs) in groundwater within the unconfined aquifer beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of in...

C. J. Murray Y. J. Bott

2008-01-01

235

Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

None

2004-12-01

236

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of West Virginia.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

237

Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic poles in the Taoudeni basin (West Africa)  

Science.gov (United States)

A palaeomagnetic study was carried out on Neoproterozoic samples from seven sites of the sub-basins of Gourma and Bobo Dioulasso, which include a Marinoan glaciogenic deposit. Magnetic mineralogy is represented essentially by magnetite and hematite. The mean directions of the sites are calculated on the high temperature component (500-670 °C). Two locations provide data constrained by statistical reversal and fold tests and determining Neoproterozoic virtual geomagnetic poles. The palaeolatitudes display very low values which place the West-African craton in the sub-equatorial position during the Marinoan glaciation. This result enhances the Snowball Earth hypothesis, which places most of the continental landmasses, and notably Africa, at low latitudes during the Neoproterozoic.

Boudzoumou, Florent; Vandamme, Didier; Affaton, Pascal; Gattacceca, Jérôme

2011-04-01

238

Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

Stewart, D. K.; Mathes, M. V.

1995-01-01

239

West Nile virus drug discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. PMID:24300672

Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong

2013-12-01

240

West Nile Virus Drug Discovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

Siew Pheng Lim

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): E.I. Dupont De Nemours (County Road X23), Lee County, West Point, IA. (First Remedial Action), May 1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

The E.I. DuPont De Nemours (County RD X23) site is a paint waste disposal site 3.5 miles south of West Point in Lee County, Iowa. The site is divided into two subsites, McCarl and Baier, which are three-fourths of a mile apart. Land in the area is agricul...

1991-01-01

242

West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

Johansson, Jorgen

2001-01-01

243

West Kazakhstan-Kumkol pipeline project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

West Kazakhstan - Kumkol pipeline project is being considered. Pipeline's putting into operation will maintain the stability of petroleum supply on Kazakstan refineries and would be profitable on entry to the international market. (author)

1997-04-15

244

A wind of change from the west  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Students looking for a new way of learning medicine are heading west—to Peninsula Medical School in southwest England. Geoff Watts spoke to its founder, John Tooke, who was knighted in the New Year's Day honours

Watts, Geoff

2007-01-01

245

West Sussex Fact Sheet Apr 10  

…north east around Horsham and Crawley. The rivers in West Sussex include the River Arun, and its main tributary the River Rother, the River Adur and the coastal streams including the Ems and Lavant. - 2 - \\

246

Regional rainfall chemistry in Minnesota and West Central Wisconsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rain samples were collected at seven sites in Minnesota and West Central Wisconsin during the summer of 1981. The sites were dispersed in the study area in order to sample within the three major types of ecosystems found in the region. At the sites in NE Minnesota (an area considered sensitive to acidic precipitation) concentrations of all major ions except hydrogen were generally lower than at the other sites. The higher rainwater acidity at the northern sites appeared to be a function of the lower concentrations of alkaline cations such as Ca/sup 2 +/ and ammonium, however, overall the best single predictor of acidity was sulfate. Analysis of the relationships between pH and concentrations of the major ions indicated that 'clean' rain may be slightly more acidic than pH 5.60. Air parcel back trajectories showed that rain in air masses arriving from the NW quadrant contained the lowest concentrations of sulfate and nitrate, while the majority of rainfall sulfate and nitrate arrived from the S quadrant.

Pratt, G.C. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul); Coscio, M.R.; Krupa, S.V.

1984-01-01

247

Images of the West in American Advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Before beginning my research on this topic, I had little knowledge about the process that led to the enormous popularity and presence of the West in American culture. I was well acquainted with the imagery of Western movies and cowboys even not being an American. It was somehow unclear how the West, one specific region of the United States, became this popular and widely used in American culture, so I tried to find the roots of this phenomenon.

To?th, Bence Ja?nos

2012-01-01

248

Barotropic instability in the West Spitsbergen Current  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Barotropic instability in the shoreward branch of the West Spitsbergen Current is investigated on the basis of data from an array of current meter moorings along 78.83°N, across the upper continental slope and shelf break west of Svalbard. The slowly varying background current profile is modeled as an along?slope, asymmetric jet anchored to the shelf break. Numerical linear stability analyses are performed on the idealized current profile and topography, revealing the characteristic period...

Teigen, Sigurd Henrik; Nilsen, Frank; Gjevik, Bjørn

2010-01-01

249

Structure of Immature West Nile Virus?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The structure of immature West Nile virus particles, propagated in the presence of ammonium chloride to block virus maturation in the low-pH environment of the trans-Golgi network, was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of these particles was similar to that of immature West Nile virus particles found as a minor component of mature virus samples (naturally occurring immature particles [NOIPs]). The structures of mature infectious flaviviruses are radically differe...

Zhang, Ying; Kaufmann, Ba?rbel; Chipman, Paul R.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

2007-01-01

250

Glossop Brook at High Street West  

Glossop Brook at High Street West Last updated 18:00 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at High Street West is 0.14 metres. This measurement was recorded at 18:00 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.05 metres and 0.60 metres. The highest river level recorded at this…

251

Survey of injuries among West End performers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To obtain more information about injuries of West End performers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 269 performers appearing in 20 West End productions (12 dramas and eight musicals). RESULTS: In current productions, 46% of all performers sustained at least one injury for an average of 0.87 injuries per performer. Lower extremity injuries were the most common for dancers (52.2% of injuries) and actors (43.2%) with neck and back injuries the second most common. Sprains and s...

Evans, R. W.; Evans, R. I.; Carvajal, S.

1998-01-01

252

Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos West syndrome: report of nine eases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nove casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos.West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therapeutic features.

Marina Aya Kamiyama

1993-09-01

253

Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos / West syndrome: report of nine eases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nov [...] e casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos. Abstract in english West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therape [...] utic features.

Marina Aya, Kamiyama; Lúcia, Yoshinaga; Edward R., Tonholo-Silva.

254

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population frequency (both in adults and subadults of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?. This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variationLas poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormente registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?. Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente

J. El Molto

2000-07-01

255

West Nile virus: North American experience  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

Hofmeister, Erik K.

2011-01-01

256

Political Islam and the West  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

At the dawn of the 21st century political Islam, or more commonly Islamic fundamentalism, remains a major presence in governments and oppositional politics from North Africa to Southeast Asia. New Islamic republics have emerged in Afghanistan, Iran, and Sudan. Islamists have been elected to parliaments, served in cabinets, and been presidents, prime ministers, and deputy prime ministers in nations as diverse as Algeria, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Yemen. At the same time, opposition movements and radical extremist groups have sought to destabilize regimes in Muslim countries and the West. Americans have witnessed attacks on their embassies from Kenya to Pakistan. Terrorism abroad has been accompanied by strikes on domestic targets such as the World Trade Center in New York. In recent years, Saudi millionaire Osama bin Laden has become emblematic of efforts to spread international violence. The phenomenon known as political Islam is rooted in a contemporary religious resurgence in private and public life. On one hand, many Muslims have become more observant with regard to the practice of their faith (prayer, fasting, dress, and family). On the other, Islam has reemerged as an alternative to the perceived failure of secular ideologies such as nationalism, capitalism, and socialism. Islamic symbols, rhetoric, actors, and organizations have become sources of legitimacy and mobilization, informing political and social activism. The governments of Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Malaysia, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan have made appeals to Islam to enhance their legitimacy and to mobilize popular support for programs and policies. Islamic movements span the religious and political spectrum from moderate to extremist. This article reviews the events that acted as catalysts for political Islam, the evolution of political Islam, Islam as a threat or clash of civilizations, democracy and Islam, and the Western response. 7

2000-01-01

257

The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland. The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site. Holocene terrestrial vegetational development was inferred at each site from analyses of pollen and microscopical charred particles. Chronologies were provided by numerous I4C dates. Stratigraphies of wet ground and terrestrial pollen and spore types were zooned by stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis. Based on the resultant site pollen asemblage zones (site PAZ), regional PAZ were proposed. Using modem analogues, Holocene floristic richness was estimated from pollen richness in the microfossil assemblages. The results support the hypothesis that disturbance is one of the most important mechanisms behind the maintenance of floristic richness. In particular, the response of estimated floristic richness to the intensity of vegetational fires followed the predictions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. A period of elevated palynological richness and inferred vegetational disturbance was identified at all sites between 6000 and 5200 BC (calendar years). Using correspondence analysis (CA), the major gradient in the terrestrial pollen sequences was identified as a light-shade gradient, and CA first axis sample scores were used as a supplement to standard AP/NAP pollen ratios as an indicator of the shade-tolerancellight-demand of Holocene terrestrial plant communities. In spite of different vegetational developments since 4000 BC, the timing of major changes towards more light-demanding vegetation types were broadly synchronous at the three sites. Using chord distance as a dissimilarity index, rates of palynological change suggest that the interval between 8OOO and 7500 BC (calendar years) was the period of most rapid vegetational change during the Holocene. both in terrestrial as well as lacustrine ecosystems. While climatic forcing of the rapid events around 8000 BC is hypothesised, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response, as reflected by pollen assemblages. Formulated at one site and tested at the two other sites, the model explains regional Culluna-heathland expansions as a result of vegetational burning. Similarly, declines in heathland cover are explained by lack of maintenance by fire. Regional vegetational development in northern West Jutland is reconstructed and special consideration is given to heathland history. The Holocene heathland development is interpreted as resulting from its importance for grazing. It is hypothesized that on poor soils, Calluna-dominated heathland was a better grazing resource than grass-dominated pasture, due to the winter-grazing offered by Calluna and the low palatibility of dominant grasses on poor soils. This hypothesis is relevant for the explanation of the variation in timing of heathland expansions on the different soil types represented by the study sites.

Odgaard, Bent Vad

1994-01-01

258

Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy) and wind intensity around Antarctica.

Cataldo, M.; Evangelista, H.; Simões, J. C.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Simmonds, I.; Hollanda, M. H.; Wainer, I.; Aquino, F.; Van Grieken, R.

2013-02-01

259

Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

M. Cataldo

2013-02-01

260

Macon-Tolar Grande site  

Science.gov (United States)

We show results of the characterization of the Tolar Grande-Macon Range site in the North-West of Argentina. This project is being developed by the IATE Group of Córdoba Observatory in collaboration with ESO in the framework of the E-ELT project. We present and discuss one year of image quality measurements with MASS and DIMM, three years of meteorological data and detailed studies of seismic activity and geo-technical aspects as well as diverse logistic issues. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; García Lambas, D.; Vrech, R.; Renzi, V.; Stasyszyn, F.

 
 
 
 
261

Blooming Seas West of Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries managers who monitor the health of marine natural resources like coral reefs and fish populations.

2007-01-01

262

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in Nitro, West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study described in this report assessed brownfield sites designated by the City of Nitro, West Virginia for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The study analyzed three different types of PV systems for eight sites. The report estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of thin film technology and crystalline silicon panels (both fixed-axis tracking and single-axis tracking systems). Potential job creation and electrical rate increases were also considered, and the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

2010-08-01

263

Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world. PMID:10724159

Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

2000-03-01

264

Site selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO_2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

1983-08-02

265

Coastal Sites  

...HeritageArchaeologyArchives - Photographic CollectionsArchives - Architectural...Photographic CollectionsArchives - Architectural DrawingsProtectionConservation...Coastal sites associated with economic activities and transport are plentiful around our shores. Ports and...

266

Site investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides technical information on site investigation and the selection of design soil parameters for offshore installations supported by the sea bed. It is based on guidance previously published in Section 14 of the 4th edition of 'Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design, Construction and Certification, which was withdrawn by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in 1998. The report considers: the planning, nature and areal extent of site investigation; field procedures for obtaining design data for foundations, borehole drilling, sampling, in-situ testing and remote sensing; the scope of field work in terms of sampling, testing and remote sensing; laboratory testing of soils including their classification and engineering properties; the interpretation of soil data; site investigations for jack-up installations and operational data for site investigations.

NONE

2002-07-01

267

Application of remote systems/robotics for decontamination at West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1980, Congress authorized DOE to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project. The former West Valley Nuclear Fuel Services Reprocessing Plant (NFS) was the site where this demonstration would take place. In 1981, Westinghouse was selected as the operating contractor for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In February 1982, Westinghouse took over the site and the West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNS) was established. Since that time, WVNS has been working an aggressive fast track schedule to decontaminate the larger radioactive contaminated cells to provide space for equipment to support the high level waste virtrification, liquid waste process equipment, and canister storage. Most of this decontamination work is done with the aid of remote systems, some of which were existing in the facility and many more designed and fabricated to fit the need. This paper describes the application of existing remote systems and the employment of new remote systems and robotics at West Valley in carrying out the decontamination of the facility. The use of remote systems for the new high level waste (HLW) processing systems is also described

1987-04-02

268

Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK).

Bridges, B.A.

1996-12-31

269

Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK)

1996-01-01

270

Determination of roughness coefficients for streams in west-central Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical and hydraulic characteristics are presented for 10 west-central Florida stream reaches. These may be used as reference reaches for estimating Manning's roughness coefficient, n, in similar rivers and channels. Discharge in these reaches ranged from 1.8 to 3,010 cubic feet per second and water-surface slope ranged from 0.00002 to 0.00476 foot per foot. Sites were selected at or near U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations at which the stage-discharge relations were relatively stable. Crest-stage gages were installed at appropriate locations in each study reach in order to obtain water-surface elevations. Water-surface profiles were collected over a range of discharges at each of the 10 sites and the roughness coefficient was computed for each discharge. For the 104 recorded streamflow events used in this report, the computed roughness coefficients ranged from 0.021 to 0.218 and the mean was 0.072 . The median n value was 0.060; 70 percent of the time the n value was greater than 0.047 and 80 percent of the time the computed n was greater than 0.043. Bed material is so uniform at sites throughout west-central Florida that there is negligible variation in roughness as a result of variation in bed material. Streambank vegetation appears to be the major contributor to variations in roughness values for streams in west-central Florida. Channel roughness can be estimated quantitatively by evaluating the interaction of all roughness factors. Photographs of sites where n values have been computed can be used for comparison to estimate values at similar sites. Using a base n value of 0.040 and increasing n for factors of vegetation, channel obstructions, and other factors provides the best determination of n values for streams in west-central Florida.

Gillen, D. F.

1996-01-01

271

Contaminated Sites and Site Reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regulatory requirements in Saskatchewan that determine the remediation standards for contaminated sites and their impact on the oil and gas industry were reviewed. Policy directions currently under review and development are identified and summarized. The two most significant pieces of legislation relevant to site remediation in Saskatchewan are the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA), and the Environmental Management and Protection Act (EMPA). Only the OGCA applies to the oil and gas industry for reclamation sites. OGCA requires that sites be restored to their original condition, which means the removal of equipment, the recontouring of the land and return of topsoil. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food (SAF) administers agricultural crown land in Saskatchewan, while the Environmental Assessment Act (EAA) administers forested crown land. The absence of a single requirement for reclamation of oil and gas production sites, the lack of standards and the confusion caused by various jurisdictions, guidelines and processes for approval of reclamation plans have been noted. Progress towards remedying this situation are being made, however slowly. For example, spill reclamation guidelines and physically affected sites reclamation guidelines are in final draft and are expected to be issued shortly. Chemically affected sites reclamation guidelines are expected to be finalized in 1998. A Contaminated Sites Liability Advisory Group (CSLAG), consisting of industry, government, and non-government agency representatives has been at work for some time to develop a white paper on contaminated sites to advise the Minister of Environment as to suitable policy. The white paper has been recently completed. Initial response from the government has been favourable, but a definitive response has not yet been finalized

1998-01-26

272

Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

1994-08-15

273

West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

Anthony d. Kauders

2010-04-01

274

Phytosociology and pedological characteristics of selected beats of Durgapur Forest Range, West Bengal, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to analyze phytosociological characteristics and diversity pattern of five selected beats of tropical dry deciduous forest of Durgapur Forest Range, Burdwan, West Bengal, India. The present investigation was carried out through quadrat method for analysis of phytosociological aspect of vegetation. The soil of the different study sites were analyzed by following standard methodology. The results reflect dominancy of dicotyledons over monocotyledons in the five studied sites. Basudha (61 and Shibpur (58 beats represents higher number of species among the five studied sites. Maximum IVI value was recorded by Shorea robusta followed by Madhuka longifolia among all the beats except Shibpur. The study represents overall dominance of Sal forest over the entire region. Therefore Basudha and Shibpur beat needs prior conservative measure for protection of bioresources in those two forest region. The soil characteristics of the four study sites revealed acidic nature of soil in all the studied sites of Durgapur Forest Division. The range of organic carbon % was found to be higher in amount in comparison to conventional soil samples reflecting higher soil fertility of the studied sites. Therefore, proper management and conservative measures needs to be implemented for conservation of bioresources in different sites of Durgapur Forest Division, West Bengal, India.

Tripti Bauri

2013-11-01

275

76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...Inc., Information Technology Help Desk Services, West Norriton, Pennsylvania...Inc., Information Technology Help Desk [[Page 2145

2011-01-12

276

Screening Terror on the West Wing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter situates a special stand-alone episode of The West Wing ‘Isaac and Ishmael’, within the broader context of the emerging ‘War on Terror’, arguing that the show played an important role in communicating terrorism for the American public and in narrowing the space for debate in the wake of 9/11. To make this argument, the episode is analysed through a discourse analysis as part of the evolving approach to the screening of terror adopted in The West Wing. It is argued that ...

Holland, J.

2011-01-01

277

THE WEST AND THE CAPE SEA ROUTE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changing perceptions and realities Western strategists and politicians have traditionally acknowledged the vital importance of the Cape Sea Route. Their South African counterparts, for their part, have in the past regarded the Cape Sea Route's importance to the West as almost axiomatic, and have frequently sought to use this fact as a bargaining point in their negotiations with the Western Powers.1 There are increasing signs, however, that are-assessment of the importance of the Cape Sea Route is taking place in the West.

W.A. Dorning

2012-02-01

278

National uranium resource evaluation, Charlottesville quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Charlottesville 1"0 x 2"0 quadrangle, Virginia and West Virginia, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. This was done using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance surveys were performed. Limited core drilling was carried out at one site to aid the evaluation. The results of this investigation indicate environments favorable for vein-type deposits in metamorphic rocks within highly sheared portions of the Precambrian Lovingston Formation. Cambrian metasediments along the margins of the Green Springs and Ellisville intrusives in the southeastern part of the area are favorable for allogenic uranium deposits. All other rock units examined are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits

1982-01-01

279

Role of ozone in forest damage in West Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new kind of forest damage has increased rapidly in range and severity in West Germany over the past ten years. There is considerable circumstatial evidence that ozone may be a contributing factor in this damage. Ozone concentrations in central Europe have increased over the past 30 years and the concentrations now recorded at rural mountain sited in Germany are similar to those recorded in areas of the United States, where ozone is known to cause forest damage, and above those which have been shown to damage sensitive tree species in fumigation experiments. However, there is, as yet, little direct experimental evidence relating to the species affected in Germany and until this is available it is impossible to assess the importance of the contribution of ozone in causing forest damage.

Ashmore, M.R.; Bell, J.N.B.; Rutter, A.J.

1985-01-01

280

Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The treatment of pumped minewater at Woolley Colliery, West Yorkshire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Woolley pumping station controls the level of underground minewater over about 100 km of abandoned coal workings in West Yorkshire. Pumping prevents the over-flow of potentially contaminated minewater from many old drainage adits. On-site treatment at the adits would be difficult because of land-ownership problems, topographical constraints, and lack of capacity in adjacent watercourses. The treatment facilities at Woolley were adequate for the volume of minewater during the operational life of the colliery; however, a predicted 500% increase in volume made it essential to extend the plant if the consent standard was to be attained. The paper describes the options which were adopted, i.e. (a) improvements to the settlement ponds and cascades, (b) the use of cloth filters, and (c) the construction of a large wetland. Further research into the use of wetlands for the reduction of ammonium nitrate is now being carried out. 3 figs.

Laine, D.M. [IMC Consulting Engineers Ltd., Sutton-in-Ashfied (United Kingdom)

1999-04-01

282

Seasonal variability as a source of uncertainty in the West Siberian regional CH4 flux upscaling  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares seasonal and spatial variations in methane fluxes as sources of uncertainty in regional CH4 flux upscaling from the wetlands of West Siberia. The study examined variability in summertime CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands, with a focus on two subtaiga fen sites in the southern part of West Siberia (Novosibirskaya oblast). We measured CH4 flux, water table depth, air and peat temperature, pH and electric conductivity of peat water during three field campaigns in summer 2011 (9–12 July, 26–28 July and 20–21 August). Fluxes were measured with static chambers at sites chosen to represent two of the most widespread types of wetlands for this climatic zone: soligenous poor fens and topogenous fens. In both sites the water table level acts as the primary control on fluxes. For the poor fen site with good drainage, water table controls CH4 fluxes on the seasonal scale but not on a local spatial scale; for the fen site with weak drainage and microtopographic relief, the water table controls fluxes on the local spatial scale, but does not drive seasonal variations in the flux magnitude. This difference in hydrology shows the necessity of including detailed wetland type classification schemes into large-scale modeling efforts. From these three measurement periods, we estimated the relative seasonal variation in CH4 emissions as 8% for the fen site and 26% for the poor fen site. These results were compared to estimates of other sources of uncertainty (such as interannual variation and spatial heterogeneity) to show that quantifying seasonal variability is less critical than these other variations for an improved estimate of regional CH4 fluxes. This research demonstrates and ranks the challenges in upscaling measured wetland CH4 fluxes across West Siberia and can guide future field campaigns.

Sabrekov, A. F.; Runkle, B. R. K.; Glagolev, M. V.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

2014-04-01

283

Birmingham and West Point 10 x 20 NTMS areas, Alabama: data report (abbreviated)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sediment samples were collected at 898 and 102 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Ground water samples were collected at 1178 and 189 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Stream water samples were collected at 534 and 69 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Neutron activation analyses results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water and stream water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented. Data from ground water and stream water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, V, and, when available, He). Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and measurements for ground water and stream water in the Birmingham quadrangle are included. Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements, and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and measurements for stream sediments in the Birmingham quadrangle are included on microfiche. Uranium concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.3 to 31.2 ppM with an average of 4.12 ppM. Uranium concentrations in ground water samples ranged from 0.006 to 16.66 ppB with an average of 0.143 ppB. Uranium concentrations in stream water samples ranged from 0.006 to 2.3 ppB with an average of 0.076 ppB

1981-01-01

284

Site Testing in the Northwest of Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results of the characterization of the Tolar Grande-Macon Range site in the North-West of Argentina. This project is being developed by the IATE in collaboration with ESO in the framework of the E-ELT project. We present and discuss one year of image quality measurements with MASS and DIMM, three years of meteorological data and detailed studies of seismic activity and geo-technical aspects as well as diverse logistic issues.

Recabarren, P.; García Lambas, D.; Muriel, H.; Stasyszyn, F.; Renzi, V.; Vrech, R.; Viramonte, J.; Sarazin, M.

2009-05-01

285

FINDING SOLUTIONS AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) faces a number of sizeable challenges as it begins to transform its mission from managing risk to reducing and eliminating risk throughout the DOE Complex. One of the greatest challenges being addressed by DOE-EM as this transformation takes place is accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning of thousands of facilities within the DOE Complex that were once used to support nuclear-related programs and projects. These facilities are now unused and aging. Finding solutions to complete the cleanup of these aging facilities more safely, efficiently, and effectively while reducing costs is critical to successfully meeting DOE-EM's cleanup challenge. The Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) of Hot Cells at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a near-term project funded through the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) for the specific purpose of identifying, evaluating, demonstrating, and deploying commercially available technologies that are capable of streamlining the cleanup of hot cells in unused facilities while improving worker safety. Two DOE project sites are participating in this LSDDP: the WVDP site in West Valley, New York and the Hanford River Corridor Project (RCP) site in Richland, Washington. The WVDP site serves as the host site for the project. Technologies considered for demonstration and potential deployment at both LSDDP sites are targeted for application in hot cells that require the use of remote and semi-remote techniques to conduct various cleanup-related activities because of high radiation or high contamination levels. These hot cells, the type of cleanup activities being conducted, and technologies selected for demonstration are the main topics discussed in this paper. The range of cleanup-related activities addressed include in-situ characterization, size-reduction, contamination control, decontamination, in-c ell viewing, and various types of handling, retrieval, and dismantlement tasks. The primary focus of the LSDDP of Hot Cells is on demonstrating technologies capable of reducing cost and schedule baselines for work scopes involving in-situ characterization (including nondestructive examination to access in-cell areas), size-reducing equipment and piping, contamination control, and decontaminating surfaces (including equipment surfaces). Demonstrations of technologies that can streamline these tasks are scheduled for the WVDP site. Demonstrations scheduled for the Hanford RCP site focus on work scope activities involving remote-inspection and viewing. Each demonstration conducted will be assessed using evaluation criteria established by the participating sites to determine if selected technologies represent a significant improvement over current baseline technologies being used to perform work. If proven to be effective, each of the commercially available technologies demonstrated has th e potential to be quickly deployed at other sites, resulting in improved worker safety, reduced cleanup costs, and accelerated schedule completion for many of the most challenging cleanup efforts now underway throughout the DOE Complex.

Drake, John L.; Gramling, James M.; Houston, Helene M.

2003-02-27

286

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

1991-01-01

287

Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West  

Science.gov (United States)

This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

Stations, University O.

288

Model Program: West Springfield High School, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

West Springfield High School sits on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., in Fairfax County, Virginia. WSHS is home to a thriving and growing technology education program. In recent years, the program has exploded from less than 175 students to well over 425. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. In 2002, the…

Alukonis, J. T.; Settar, Scott

2008-01-01

289

Enjoying water in the South West  

…recreation facilities. We are confident the new strategy will provide low cost, local opportunities so that everyone can experience a wide variety of water activities, leading to a healthier lifestyle and a healthier environment. * Download Enjoying Water, a strategy for water based recreation in the South West …

290

West Virginia U. Violated Procedures, Panel Says  

Science.gov (United States)

Administrators at West Virginia University violated procedures and displayed poor judgment in their "seriously flawed" response to an inquiry about a high-profile academic transcript, according to a report issued last week by an independent panel. The harshly worded report found that when the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" raised questions last October…

Fain, Paul

2008-01-01

291

An Interdisciplinary Project and the American West.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project began with a list of the kinds of topics that would be of most interest in a study of the old west. Some of the topics that were mentioned for the project included Lewis and Clark, Native American tribes and nations, early pioneers, the fur trade, Texas independence, the Pony Express, homesteaders, gunfighters, the Indian wars, and…

Beardsley, Donna A.

292

China. The long way to the West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chinese oil request increases rapidly but its production does not follow. To modify this inclination, the author proposes three possibilities: the collaboration with the western petroleum companies, the development of new resources in the west of the country, the acquisition of reserves abroad. (A.L.B.)

1998-01-01

293

West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

Ronald N. Harpelle

2012-12-01

294

Booker T. Washington: Rural West Virginia Teacher.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biographical sketch focuses on the early teaching career of Booker T. Washington at Tinkersville School in his hometown of Malden, West Virginia, from 1876-1878. Recollections of Washington's own education in Sunday school, the Tinkersville School, and Hampton Institute are included. (NEC)

King, Althea M.

1985-01-01

295

Country Highlights: West Bank and Gaza, 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank interviewed a representative sample of the private sector composed of 434 firms between June and September 2013 across the West Bank and Gaza. The Enterprise Survey covers several topics of the business environment as well as performance me...

2013-01-01

296

Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

2013-10-01

297

C-Scope in West-Flanders  

…exactly were stakeholders involved? Basic Analysis of Heist MMA (external consultant ARCADIS in collaboration with the T&F Group Knokke-Heist West): Description part (natural, morphological characteristics of the area, historical analysis, juridical and policy boundary conditions in-depth interviews were…

298

West Spitsbergen Current: Transport, Forcing, and Variability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Spitsbergen Current is commonly considered to be the northern extension of the Norwegian Atlantic Current, and it forms one of the branches of the circulation pattern of the Greenland-Norwegian sea system. It flows northward along the continental...

D. J. Hanzlick

1983-01-01

299

Russian gas in the west European market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

1996-08-29

300

West Nile Virus Detection in American Crows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dipstick immunochromatographic assay used for West Nile virus (WNV) detection in mosquitoes was investigated for application to testing of fecal, saliva, and tissue samples from dead American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Results suggest that VecTest may be an efficient method for WNV detection in field-collected, dead American Crows, although confirmation of results and further investigation are warranted.

Yaremych, Sarah A.; Warner, Richard E.; Wyngaerde, Marshall T.; Ringia, Adam M.; Lampman, Richard; Novak, Robert J.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compared the VecTest WNV antigen assay with standard methods of West Nile virus (WNV) detection in swabs from American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). The VecTest detected WNV more frequently than the plaque assay and was comparable to a TaqMan reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction.

Panella, Nicholas A.; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Schooley, Lynn M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Nasci, Roger S.; Komar, Nicholas

2005-01-01

302

West Glen at Easton Wood (31023)  

…Easton Wood in Northern Area * Station name Easton Wood * NRFA reference 31023 * Gauging authority Anglian * Gauging authority reference 031023 * Watercourse West Glen * Area Northern * Hydrometric Area 31 - Welland * NGR SK96602585 * Catchment area and source of info 4.4 km 2 NRFA * Station type FV *…

303

Melioidosis Imported from West Africa to Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the first case of imported melioidosis in Spain from a diabetic immigrant who visited West Africa during the rainy season. Because of the unusual presentation of this disease in Africa, clinical and microbiological diagnosis of imported melioidosis from this continent can be very elusive.

Cuadros, Juan; Gil, Horacio; Miguel, Julio; Marabe?, Graciela; Go?mez-herruz, Teresa Arroyo Pen?a; Lobo, Bruno; Marcos, Ruth; Anda, Pedro

2011-01-01

304

Satellite-Based actual evapotranspiration over drying semiarid terrain in West-Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple satellite-based algorithm for estimating actual evaporation based on Makkink¿s equation is applied to a seasonal cycle in 2002 at three test sites in Ghana, West Africa: at a location in the humid tropical southern region and two in the drier northern region. The required input for the algorithm is incoming solar radiation, air temperature at standard level, and the green-vegetation fraction. These data are obtained from Meteorological Satellite (Meteosat) and Moderate-Resolution Im...

Schuttemeyer, D.; Schillings, Ch; Moene, A. F.; Bruin, H. A. R.

2007-01-01

305

Biodiversity in a forest island: reptiles and amphibians of the West African Togo Hills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our recent surveys of the herpetological diversity of the West African Togo Hills documented a total of 65 reptile and amphibian species, making Kyabobo National Park one of the most diverse sites surveyed in Ghana. We provide accounts for all species recorded along with photographs to aid in identification. We recorded 26 amphibians, including six new records for Kyabobo N. P., one of which is a record for the Togo Hills. Our collection of reptile species (22 lizards, 16 snakes, and one croc...

2010-01-01

306

Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data are presented for termite assemblages across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West and Central Africa. Sampling was by standardised 100 mx2 m transects in: primary forest, several ages of regenerating forest, agroforestry plots, short fallows, mixed food crop fields, and mechanically cleared plots. Most sites were in southern Cameroon––two additional transects were conducted in primary forest in Congo (Brazzaville). Species richness was negatively cor...

Eggleton, P.; Bignell, D. E.; Hauser, S.; Dibog, L.; Norgrove, L.; Madong, B.

2002-01-01

307

Co-limitation of photosynthetic capacity by nitrogen and phosphorus in West Africa woodlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Photosynthetic leaf traits were determined for savanna and forest ecosystems in West Africa, spanning a large range in precipitation. Standardized major axis fits revealed important differences between our data and reported global relationships. Especially for sites in the drier areas, plants showed higher photosynthetic rates for a given N or P when compared with relationships from the global data set. The best multiple regression for the pooled data set estimated Vcmax and Jmax from NDW and...

Ferreira Domingues, T.; Meir, P.; Feldpausch, T.; Saiz, G.; Veenendaal, E. M.; Schrodt, F.; Bird, M.; Djagbletey, G.; Hien, F.; Compaore, H.; Diallo, A.; Lloyd, J.

2010-01-01

308

Siting and technology selection in Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created in 1981. Its sole purpose is to site, design, construct, operate, and decommission in a low-level radioactive waste disposal site for waste generated in Texas. Since 1982, the Authority has been actively seeking a disposal site and evaluating disposal technologies. This activity has progressively narrowed and is now focused on three sites located in far west Texas. Coincident with this effort, the Authority has selected three technologies for analysis. For each of the three technologies, a conceptual design was prepared. From this design, cost estimates were prepared and an economic analysis was performed. In addition to this, a preliminary performance assessment was performed assuming that the facility was located at a referenced site in far West Texas. Based on the results of the study, the cost of all of the disposal methods is similar and approximately twice what a conventional shallow land burial facility would cost. All of the technologies will perform satisfactorily, assuming that the concrete structure perform as predicted. This is obviously critical for the above ground vault since the concrete provides the only barrier to radionuclide migration. For those technologies in which the waste is disposed of below grade, the durability of concrete is not as significant since the reference site would perform acceptably with conventional shallow land burial

1987-02-01

309

Yoga Big on West Coast, Chiropractors Popular in Midwest  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Yoga Big on West Coast, Chiropractors Popular in Midwest ... on the West Coast are faithful followers of yoga and meditation. Midwesterners turn to chiropractors or osteopathic ...

310

West Indian species of Beameromyia Martin (Diptera: Asilidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The West Indian species of Beameromyia Martin are reviewed. Four new species are described, and Beameromyia insulara Martin and B. cubensis (Bigot) are redescribed. Illustrations of the genitalia and a key to the known West Indian species are included.

Scarbrough, Aubrey G.

2011-01-01

311

Site Restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

2001-04-01

312

Site Restoration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

2001-04-01

313

76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...100223162-1268-01] RIN 0648-XA551 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications...Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 5 Through 26 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

2011-11-04

314

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-08-19

315

The crustal thickness of West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

2014-01-01

316

Harmonious Development in West China Based on Constructive Postmodernism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West China represents 71% of the total land in mainland China. But believe it or not, due to being desert, among the soil of Western China, only 4.2% of it is arable. Given the limited arable land in West China, post-modernistic view on West China Development, in particular its stress on sustainability, I suggest that postmodernism, what I’ve been proposing, be our possible way out. Key words: harmonious development; West China; constructive postmodernism

Yong-yue YU

2009-10-01

317

Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

2000-01-01

318

Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance.

RW Allen

2000-04-11

319

Site Diversity Gain Estimated from Rain Rate Records  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The site diversity is used to mitigate the rain attenuation onsatellite links. The attenuation is estimated through the rainrate-rain attenuation conversion based on the Assis-Einloft physicalmodel in this study. Through the comparison of instantaneousattenuations at two receiving sites the site diversity gain isestimated. Examples of rain rate measurements in the Czech Republicfollowed by the site diversity gain estimation are added. This gain isgreater on west-east situation of receiving sites achieving 10 dB on0.01% exceedance level/100 km.

O. Fiser

2003-04-01

320

[Selenium level in the sera of dogs and cats in West Pomerania and WestUkraine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Main function of the trace element selenium is the protection of the body against free radicals by means of the selenium-containing enzyme glutathione peroxidase acting as an intracytoplasmatic antioxydant. This study determined serum selenium concentration in dogs and cats from West Pomerania, Poland, and West Ukraine (Lviv region). Material and methods: Serum samples were obtained from 74 dogs and 42 cats. 49 dogs and 20 cats were from West Pomerania, and 25 dogs and 22 cats from West Ukraine. Selenium concentrations were determined with a spectrofluorometric method according to Watkinson (1966), modified by Grzebula et al. (1977). Results: The mean selenium concentrations in dog and cat serum in animals from West Pomerania were 2.927 and 6.169?mol/l, respectively and exceeded the serum selenium concentration in dogs and cats from West Ukraine by 0.687 and 2.053?mol/l, respectively. Statistically significant differences in selenium concentration were observed between healthy animals (3.842?mol/l) and those with symptoms of allergy (3.240?mol/l) or dogs with neoplasias (1.749?mol/l). No statistical differences in serum selenium concentration were related to age and to sex. Conclusion: This research shows that in dogs with neoplasias, serum selenium concentration was about 45% lower than in healthy dogs. Clinical relevance: In patients with selenium deficiency supplementation of selenium might have a positive impact on the course of diseases like neoplasia, heart insufficiency, liver necrosis, myopathy, and pancreatitis. PMID:22212750

Pilarczyk, B; Balicka-Ramisz, A; Ramisz, A; Vovk, S; Vantukh, A; Bakowska, M; Holowacz, J; Templin, E

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

76 FR 18245 - West Tavaputs Plateau Road Restriction Order, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

...LLUT020000-10-L13110000-EJ0000-24-1A] West Tavaputs Plateau Road Restriction Order, Utah AGENCY...Cedar Ridge Roads on the West Tavaputs Plateau in Carbon County, Utah, unless specifically...areas are located on the West Tavaputs Plateau approximately 30 miles...

2011-04-01

322

Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.)

1995-09-01

323

Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.).

Hamano, Shinichiro; Nara, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masaki; Arita, Jiro; Sakamoto, Masafumi; Eda, Naruyuki; Ogawara, Yoshikazu [Saitama Children`s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan); Maekawa, Kihei

1995-09-01

324

Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

Ben Guirat, S.; Ben Aissa, N.; Mhiri, A.

2009-07-01

325

"Coincidentia oppositorum" and "hankan gõitso" : aesthetic philosophies in the West and Japan - their similarities as expressed in architecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concepts "coincidentia oppositorum" and "hankan gõitso" were respectively formulated in the West and the Far East (Japan). The essence of both is that harmony is created when opposites coincide in a structural unity. The creation of a unified harmony of nature, human beings and divinities in works of architecture can be recognised at Delphi, a classical Greek site, and at the Shinto shrines at Ise, Japan. Even though the layout of these sites are vastly different, Delphi and Ise merit co...

Mare, Estelle Alma

2010-01-01

326

Mapping and Assessment of the Seaweed Resources (Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria spp.) off the West Coast of Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The seaweed biomass survey was designed to gather important information on those seaweed resources that are extensively harvested at present (mainly Ascophyllum nodosum) and those that offer a significant potential for future development (Laminariaceae). The first major objective of the project was to measure the intertidal biomass of Ascophyllum nodosum at selected sites along the Irish west coast. A total of 258 survey sites of varying size were selected by the survey team. They were consid...

Hession, C.; Guiry, M. D.; Mcgarvey, S.; Joyce, D.

1998-01-01

327

Orientation study in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, West-Central Florida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An orientation study was conducted in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, west-central Florida, in preparation for a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. The study was conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). A total of 60 surface sites and 294 ground water sites were sampled. The study includes field data and neutron activation analyses for uranium and supplemental elements, as well as determination of helium by mass spectroscopy. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program

1982-01-01

328

Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at 8 sites along a transect over an altitude range of 390–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10?3 m w.e. m?1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower 3 sites within 10 km of the margin ex...

Wal, R. S. W.; Boot, W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Snellen, H.; Den Broeke, M. R.; Oerlemans, J.

2012-01-01

329

FISHING AS LIVELIHOOD IN WEST BENGAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fishing is one of the oldest means of livelihood of mankind and fisheries sectors play an important role in the national economy and in the socio-economic development of in India. West Bengal is one of the leading fish producing states in the country and the largest producer of fish seeds in the country. Fishery-related livelihoods are complex, dynamic and adaptive. A livelihood comprises the assets (natural, physical, human, financial and social capital, the activities and the access to these (mediated by institutions and social relations that together determine the living gained by the individual or households. This paper is an attempt to focus on fisheries livelihoods in West Bengal. This study is based on secondary sources of data. The results show that fisheries livelihoods are more popular in southern districts in the state and it is less popular in the northern part of the states.

NASRIN BANU

2013-03-01

330

Outburst management plans - The West Cliff experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An Outburst Management Plan is a set of procedures and practices adopted to introduce a balance between safety and production in the development workings of underground mines which are prone to outburst. The introduction of rigorous scientific principles has moved the focus from predicting outbursts to preventing outbursts. It is no longer acceptable to have an outburst, let alone a fatality as a result of an outburst. This paper discusses the evolution of the Outburst Management Plan at West Cliff, prior to 1997 when it was owned by Kembla Coal and Coke (CRA now Rio Tinto). West Cliff is a deep underground mine in the Bulli Seam, a seam traditionally prone to outburst. 10 refs.

Walsh, R. [BHP Coal (Australia). West Cliff Colliery

1997-12-31

331

Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos in 2001–2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community.During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals.PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p?-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p?-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p?-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p?-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study group from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of Cd when controlling for age and gender and the study group from Usinsk had higher concentrations of Se than the others. Compared to the results from Nelmin-Nos in 2001–2003, a clear decrease in p,p?-DDE concentrations for both women and men was observed.The current study indicates a significant reduction of several PTSs in human blood samples from North West Russia over the past 10 years.

Charlotta Rylander

2011-10-01

332

Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the University of Hamburg, Germany. One of the responsibilities of TEPO is to provide assistance to students taking part in scientific research (undergraduate and post-graduate practical work and organization of summer schools and seminars). In 2005 a joint summer student field excursion with the Moscow State University Department of Cryolithology and Glaciology took place at TEPO headquarters. The teaching courses consist of the following main topics: 1. Environment and Permafrost of northern West Siberia; 2. Paleocryogenic Formation of Alluvial Terraces; 3. Hydrology and Hydrogeological Conditions of the Territory; 4. Geotechnical Monitoring of Gas Fields; 5. Geotechnical Dangers in the Cryolithozone. The workshop "Stability of Pipelines in the Cryolithozone" held in Nadym at August, 29-31 with participation of "Nadymgasprom", TSOGU and Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan) included a field excursion. TEPO is expected to be the basis for scientific and educational exchange with national and foreign universities and research institutes and part of the global international monitoring in the northern regions.

Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

2005-12-01

333

Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

Will Kymlicka

2002-10-01

334

SPS beam to the West Hall  

CERN Multimedia

One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

1976-01-01

335

FISHING AS LIVELIHOOD IN WEST BENGAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fishing is one of the oldest means of livelihood of mankind and fisheries sectors play an important role in the national economy and in the socio-economic development of in India. West Bengal is one of the leading fish producing states in the country and the largest producer of fish seeds in the country. Fishery-related livelihoods are complex, dynamic and adaptive. A livelihood comprises the assets (natural, physical, human, financial and social capital), the activities and the access to the...

2013-01-01

336

West Nile Virus: Immunity and Pathogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic, arthropod-borne flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but can also infect and cause disease in horses and humans. WNV is endemic in parts of Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, and since 1999 has spread to North America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean. WNV infects the central nervous system (CNS) and can cause severe disease in a small minority of infected humans, mostly immunocompromised or th...

Lim, Stephanie M.; Penelope Koraka; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Martina, Byron E. E.

2011-01-01

337

Health Perceptions - where the East meets West  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

2012-01-01

338

West Nile viral infection of equids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted between certain species of birds and mosquito vectors. Tangential infections of equids and subsequent equine epizootics have occurred historically. Although the attack rate has been estimated to be below 10%, mortality rates can approach 50% in horses that present clinical disease. Symptoms are most commonly presenting in the form of encephalitis with ataxia as well as limb weakness, recumbency and muscle fasciculation. The most effective stra...

2013-01-01

339

Rother (West Sussex) at IPING MILL  

Rother (West Sussex) at IPING MILL Last updated 22:15 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at IPING MILL is 0.61 metres. This measurement was recorded at 22:15 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.28 metres and 1.10 metres. The highest river level recorded at…

340

Territorial Competition in China and the West  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Territorial economic competition first emerged in North America, appeared in Europe during the 1980s, and recently in many LDC/transition economies chasing FDI. In China the process is key to economic development, but operates without the electoral competition and private land markets which are central in the West. We relate developments in each to a general model whereby local circumstances shape selective coalitions of economic agents, and hence policy mixes, differing in their wastefulness...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Undergraduate robot design at West Virginia University  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the options for students in mechanical engineering at West Virginia University is to participate in a 'robot design' course for their capstone design experience. For the past two years, the project has involved the construction of an autonomous mobile robot for entry in an international competition. This paper describes the design of the 1994-5 robot, reports on its status and offers observations on both the design and some of the pedagogical aspects of the class.

Banta, Larry E.

1995-12-01

342

Electronic Dissertations at West Virginia University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Implementation of the West Virginia University Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD) program has proven to be one of our most effective marketing tools to promote the graduate research of our students, faculty and programs. A multimedia demo will be presented which highlights notable multimedia submissions of actual WVU ETDs, including video clips, still shots, and informational slides accompanied by musical background themes. The merits of adopting ETD and other digital document publica...

Hagen, John

2003-01-01

343

Federalism and party democracy in West Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to Gerhard Lehmbruch, there is a growing inconsistency in West Germany between the principles of a federal polity and party democracy, primarily because the former relies on bargaining, and the latter relies on majority rule as a mechanism of conflict regulation. However, comparative analyses have shown that federalism and party competition are not incompatible. Generally, federal structures are neither detrimental nor conducive to the recruitment function of parties. Competence and...

Gabriel, Oscar W.

1989-01-01

344

Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which European and other Western powers have played a role. Occidentalisms are additionally found to be influenced by the ideological background from which the images are crafted. This is shown by a ...

Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

2009-01-01

345

Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heterogeneity in host populations and communities can have large effects on the transmission and control of a pathogen. In extreme cases, a few individuals give rise to the majority of secondary infections, which have been termed super spreading events. Here, we show that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in highly inflated reproductive ratios. A single relatively uncommon avian species, American robin (Turdus migrator...

Marm Kilpatrick, A.; Daszak, Peter; Jones, Matthew J.; Marra, Peter P.; Kramer, Laura D.

2006-01-01

346

West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

Golding Nick

2012-02-01

347

West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

Ashley, Paul R.

2008-02-01

348

Epidemiological studies on bluetongue virus infection in West Java, Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In monitoring of sentinel cattle in West Java, seroconversions to orbiviruses occurred mostly at the end of the wet season. A low altitude site gave more reactors than did a high altitude site. Due to perceived inefficiencies of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) was applied and the results compared with the AGID test results. C-ELISA detected antibodies at an earlier stage of infection than did the AGID test. Not all sera reacting in the AGID test reacted in C-ELISA, suggesting that the C-ELISA is more specific in detecting bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies than the AGID. However, as the infection status of most field sera was not known, this could not be confirmed conclusively from the available data. A comparison of isolation methods indicated that isolates were obtained more frequently if samples were passaged in embryonated eggs before blind passage in A edes albopictus cells followed by passage in BHK-21 cells. Six BTV serotypes, 1,7,9,12,20,21 and 23 were identified and confirmed from apparently healthy sentinel cattle blood at low altitudes; BTV serotype 21 was also isolated from a pool of the Avaritia sub-genus of the Culicoides spp which contained 227 C. fulvus and 20 C. orientalis. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

1994-02-01

349

Competition between West Indian anoles and birds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wright (1981) noted an inverse correlation between anole and insectivorous bird biomass in sclerophyll scrub habitats on seven West Indian islands. Anole biomass decreased and insectivorous bird biomass increased with increasing island size. He proposed the following explanation for this pattern: Anoles and insectivorous birds compete directly for arthropod prey, and anoles experience ecological release upon the extinction of an avian competitor. Bird populations are in greater danger of extinction on small rather than large islands in the West Indies, while anole populations seldom become extinct. Hence, anoles should experience ecological release and the resulting increase in abundance more often on small islands, while avian competitors of anoles should be relatively more abundant on large islands. Wright further states that in the process of expanding population size and taking a greater proportion of available anthropod prey after the extinction of an avian competitor, anoles may inhibit recolonization by insectivorous birds on small islands in the West Indes. Here we taken exception to Wright's argument for the following reasons: (1) An alternative hypothesis, that differences in predation account for the observed pattern, is at least as likely as the extinction-mediated competition hypothesis. Wright's superficial treatment of predation ignores the substantial and well-documented impact of introduced mammals and other predators on both lizards and birds. (2) Evidence of significant dietary overlap between birds and anoles is weak, at best. (3) Patterns observed in sclerophyll scrub cannot be generalized to other island habitats.

Waide, R.B.; Reagan, D.P.

1983-01-01

350

The energy future of West Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect on the West German energy policy of environmentalists, politicians and trade unions is discussed. It is felt that without a growing nuclear power programme, possibly based in the longer term on fast breeder or high temperature thorium cycle systems, the only way in which West Germany can maintain its economic growth through the next two decades would be to rely on imported oil and coal. It is difficult to assess the precise effects of the hold-back of the nuclear programme by anti-nuclear pressure groups. Some of them could be wholly admirable if they lead to more efficient end use of energy and make the world a safer place to live in; at the same time too rapid a change could lead to extremely undesirable tensions and political problems. Some compromise is essential, and there is still time to achieve a proper balance; but the way ahead must be clarified before the beginning of 1980 if West Germany is to achieve a satisfactory and adequate energy supply by 1990, and thereafter. (U.K.)

1977-01-01

351

Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of the temporal and spatial compartmentalization of West Nile virus subtypes within North America.

Mores Christopher N

2009-07-01

352

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

2011-02-23

353

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations

1978-01-01

354

Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to determine: i the importance of selection pressure exerted by both agricultural and public health use of pyrethroid insecticides, ii the phenotypic effects, particularly when the two mutations co-occur; and iii the epidemiological importance of kdr for both pyrethroid- and DDT-based malaria control operations, particularly if/when the two insecticides are to be used in concert.

Caccone Adalgisa

2008-04-01

355

Site Restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

2002-04-01

356

Site Restoration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

2002-04-01

357

Mochovce site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme of safety upgrading. Development of safety measures and their incorporation into the power plant design is being performed

1997-01-01

358

75 FR 65515 - NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,347] NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt Consulting, West Columbia, SC; Notice of...

2010-10-25

359

Mineralogical Characterization of West Chestnut Ridge Soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the ...

S. Y. Lee O. C. Kopp D. A. Lietzke

1984-01-01

360

Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

Aguila, Rayner Núñez

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The Distribution Characteristics of Salt Contaminants in West Coast Region with the Distance from Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the result of a study on the distribution characteristics of salt contaminants in the west coast region, from Inchon to Yearsoo, of South Korea. To evaluate the distribution characteristics of salt contaminants, we had measured the equivalent salt deposit density(ESDD) with brush wiping method for thirteen month(from May 1999 to Jun 2000). Under the consideration on the measuring interval and method, normalization method was applied for the ESDD data. Besides the measurement, the chemical analysis (chromatography) was carried to investigate the relationship, between the electrical property and the amount of specific ingredient, such as sodium, magnesium and chloride. From the result, we could get the representative value of contamination for each site and distribution characteristics of salt contaminants with the distance from sea in the west coast. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Choi, N. H.; Han, S. O. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

2001-06-01

362

Environmental monitoring program interaction between the West Valley Demonstration Project and New York State agencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the 1982 initiation of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) and the takeover of most of the facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) by the US Department of Energy, the working relationship between the site operator and state regulatory agencies changed significantly. An upgrading of the environmental monitoring program by the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor West Valley Nuclear Services Company was concurrent with a change in New York State departmental responsibility for monitoring of the site environs. An agreement was reached between DOE and New York State which allowed more efficient use of available manpower for collection of samples, such as game animals and other biological media, as well as routine air and water samples potentially affected by site effluents. Additionally, the State has contributed significantly to WVDP wildlife and land-use surveys. These surveys produced valuable data for use in preparing safety analysis reports and dose assessments for the annual environmental monitoring summaries. During the past year, there were two occurrences which had the potential of raising public concerns about release of radioactivity to uncontrolled areas. In both cases there was excellent cooperation between Project personnel and state agencies in conducting a rapid investigation. Site interaction with state agencies regulating nonradiological effluents under the State Pollution Discharge Elimination System (SPDES) also has been characterized by effective communication and cooperation

1985-04-01

363

Hybrid pine for tough sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

1994-04-24

364

Significant impact of the East Asia monsoon on ozone seasonal behavior in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004–2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacific region. The basic common features of O3 seasonal behaviors over all the m...

He, Y. J.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z. F.; Pochanart, P.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.

2008-01-01

365

The West Asia Rinderpest Eradication Campaign  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Asia Rinderpest Eradication Campaign (WAREC), a regional UNDP/FAO project (RAB/86/024), was implemented in 11 countries of West Asia, from March 1989 to December 1993. At the time, the total bovine population of these countries was 8,446,000 head: 6,000 in Bahrain; 4,520,000 in Egypt; 1,745,000 in Iraq; 29,000 in Jordan; 26,000 in Kuwait, 52,000 in Lebanon; 136,000 in Oman; 8,000 in Qatar; 724,000 in the Syrian Arab Republic; 50,000 in the United Arab Emirates; and 1,150,000 in Yemen. In WAREC countries, bovines were mostly cattle, except for 2.3 million buffaloes in Egypt, 111,000 in Iraq, and 1,000 in the Syrian Arab Republic. Rinderpest is known as al-taun al-baqr in Arabic, meaning plague of cattle. The earliest records of rinderpest in the West Asian region are from 1827, in Egypt, where a veterinary training centre was established by two French veterinarians, Hamoon and Bruneo, to combat the disease. Since then, rinderpest followed a cycle of approximately 20 years in Egypt, with reappearances in 1842/1843, 1863, 1880 to 1882, 1903/1904, 1912 to 1925, 1945 to 1947, 1950 to 1953, 1958, and 1961 to 1963. In Iraq rinderpest was first noticed during the post-First World War period (1918 to 1923), when the United Kingdom army brought cattle and buffaloes from India for food purposes. Thereafter, the country enjoyed freedom from the disease for six decades. The first epizootic in the Syrian Arab Republic is traceable to the 1920s, and the disease was eradicated by 1934 through quarantine, slaughter and the inoculation of cattle. In Saudi Arabia and Yemen, rinderpest was reported in 1965.

2011-01-01

366

Evolution of the West Siberian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The west Siberian basin results form a Paleozoic rifting in its north-northeastern segment (the Yamal-Taz depression) and from a Triassic rifting in its central-western segment (in the Ob Arch). Its Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover has a maximum thickness of 8 km in the Yamal-Taz depression and 4 km in the Ob-Arch. Deep basins (with a water depth of 600 m) were not compensated by clay and siliceous sedimentation during the post-rift evolution of the area. Local extension still occurred during the Callovian, Tithonian, early Albian, Turonian and Eocene. The main axes of the Mesozoic and Paleogene deep-water basins were located in the west along the Urals and Paikhoy Ranges. Shortening affected the deep-water zones, whereas sedimentation increased in shelf regions, with the accumulation of marine pro-gradational lobes. Later on, shallow marine sedimentation and continental formations filled up the basin, reflecting the late stage compressional history of the west Siberian platform. The Neocomian stages of extension and compression were the most important for oil generation. The Malm and Neocomian horizons constitute five regional oil-and gas-bearing complexes. In each complex, the argilites are the source rocks, whereas pro-gradational lobes are the conducts for an eastward-directed hydrocarbon migration but also comprise good reservoirs. The shallow-water undaform zones are the main zones of hydrocarbon accumulation in the structural traps. Various lithologies occur, whereas the successive geochemical catagenesis zones affect progressively deeper horizons. Biogenic gas and immature oil occur at a depth of 0.6-1.7 km, whereas oil, gas and condensate occur at a depth of 1.7-4.0 km. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Rudkevich, M.Y. [Tyumenskij Industrial`nyj Inst., Tyumen (Russian Federation)

1996-12-01

367

Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas en ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas.The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environments of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

Víctor Durán

2012-11-01

368

Underground lighting in West German coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors recall West German regulations on lighting equipment for use in mines and then proceed to give the criteria for lighting quality, studying in particular the level of illumination, the distribution of brightness, the limitation of dazzle, the direction of light and shade, the luminous colour and colour reproduction. They describe various types of lighting systems used at shaft access points, in roadways, underground workshops and drivages and on the face. Conclude with a brief summary of the results expected from the investigations being conducted. (In French)

Schuetz, R.; Voss, K.H.

1982-01-01

369

Introduction : Storying the West in Postfrontier Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No place is a place until things that have happened in it are remembered in history, ballads, yarns, legends, or monuments.Wallace Stegner, “The Sense of Place”The contributions to this special issue of the European Journal of American Studies (EJAS examine the different ways in which literary interpreters of the American West, in particular since the 1960s, have contributed to a broadening of our conception of the region. The current interest in the region is evidenced not only in western l...

Øyunn Hestetun

2011-09-01

370

Once upon a Time in the... West  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article a pour objectif d’observer la manière avec laquelle les films américains sur la Révolution mexicaine ont donné un sens –en perpétuant ou en mettant en doute le mythe national de l’Ouest Nord-Américain– à quelques convictions politiques des Etats-Unis tout au long du XXe siècle. À la fin du XIXe siècle, la vie au Far West est soumise à un processus accéléré de modernisation et l’ère du frontier arrive à son terme. Ironiquement, c’est à ce moment précis que le mythe national de l’Ouest prend de l’ampleur suite à la prolifération d’un vaste corpus culturel qui inclut l’essai historique « The Significance of the Frontier in American History » (1893 de Fredrick Jackson Turner. Dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle, les films de l’Ouest documentent et consolident le mythe du caractère américain décrit par Turner. Ces films ont éveillé chez le citadin nord-américain du XXe siècle de la nostalgie envers son légendaire ascendant de l’Ouest. Cependant, à partir des années cinquante, cette nostalgie a acquis un sens critique et s’est politisée, curieusement, dans des films traitant de la Révolution mexicaine. En recréant la Révolution mexicaine comme une frontière renouvelée pleine de promesses utopiques et de souvenirs nostalgiques du Far West, ces films américains rappellent les tensions politiques de certaines périodes dans l’histoire américaine, comme le maccarthysme et la guerre du Viêtnam.This article investigates the manner in which American motion pictures on the Mexican Revolution provided significance –in either perpetuating or questioning America’s foundational myth of the frontier– to particular ideologies and political beliefs in the United States throughout the twentieth century. At the end of the nineteenth century, the life of the American frontier came to an end due to an accelerated process of modernization. Ironically it was during these years that the myth of the frontier was also made up by means of historical discourses such as “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893 by Fredrick Jackson Turner. During the first decades of the twentieth century, the film genre of the Western documented and consolidated this myth. These movies promoted a nostalgic view of the Wild West. However, this nostalgic view became politicized in those Westerns dealing with the Mexican Revolution. Through recasting the Mexican Revolution as a renewed frontier full of utopian promises and nostalgic recollections of America’s Wild West, these American films recall the political tensions of certain periods in American history, such as McCarthyism, and the Vietnam years.

Adela Pineda Franco

2010-02-01

371

Hydrocarbons from west Siberian crude oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The petroleum used in this study was a mixture of West Siberian oils, which in composition is similar to Samotlor petroleum. This petroleum contains, 1.28% sulfur, 0.15% nitrogen, 1.24% asphalthenes, 11.5% resinous substances and 6.6% paraffins. Distillation gave a 350/sup 0/-540/sup 0/C cut (vacuum gas oil) 30.4 wt.% on crude oil, which was examined. This distillate had a density of p/sub 4//sup 20/ 0.9164 and average MW 391 with sulfur content 2.2% and nitrogen 0.17%. Particular attention was paid to the naphthalene (cyclane) content of this distillate.

Musaev, I.A.; Kurashova, E.K.; Simanyuk, R.N.; Polyakova, A.A.; Ermakova, L.S.; Smirnov, M.B.; Sanin, P.I.

1985-01-01

372

The New Otter Centre in West Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The decision of the forest department of Lower Saxony to close the Oderhaus Otter Research Enclosure in December 31st, 1987 made it necessary to find a new organisational base for the German AKTION FISCHOTTERSCHUTZ. Since July 1987 the organisation has built a new otter centre in Hankensbüttel (50 km north of Braunschweig, 15 km west of the border to the GDR . The otter centre will be opened at the end of April 1986. This report describes the organisation and function of the new centre.

Reuther C.

1988-02-01

373

Niobium content of soils from West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

Grimaldi, F. S.; Berger, I. A.

1961-01-01

374

West of Shetlands FPSO or TLP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most promising and active areas, in terms of exploration, for hydrocarbon production offshore Europe is located West of the Shetland Islands and lies in water depths ranging from 350 m to 900 m subject to an extremely harsh environment. Three different field-proven concepts from the Doris Engineering's point of view must be considered for this deep water area: a floating Production Storage and Off-loading (FPSO) unit, a production Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and a mini TLP designed to support wellheads and work aver facility. (author). 1 fig

1995-09-01

375

POVERTY STATUS OF JALPAIGURI DISTRICTS WEST BENGAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jalpaiguri is one of the most backward districts of west Bengal where poverty is a barrier to development. Generally poverty is measured by BPL Indices in rural areas. Below poverty line is an economic bench mark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human need such as clean water, nutrition care, clothing and shelter. This paper is attempted to study the poverty status with some remedial measures.

Sunanada Das

376

Permissive Residents: West Papuan refugees living in Papua New Guinea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book offers another frame through which to view the event of the outrigger landing of 43 West Papuans in Australia in 2006. West Papuans have crossed boundaries to seek asylum since 1962, usually eastward into Papua New Guinea (PNG), and occasionally southward to Australia. Between 1984–86, around 11,000 people crossed into PNG seeking asylum. After the Government of PNG acceded to the United Nations Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, West Papuans were relocate...

2008-01-01

377

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

1999-01-01

378

77 FR 70204 - West Virginia; Disaster Number WV-00029  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Injury Loans): Boone, Cabell, Clay, Greenbrier, Jackson, Lincoln, Mason, Mcdowell, Mercer, Mingo, Monroe, Pocahontas, Roane, Tyler, Webster, Wood Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): West Virginia: Calhoun,...

2012-11-23

379

75 FR 17177 - West Virginia Disaster #WV-00016  

Science.gov (United States)

...Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): West Virginia: Boone, Clay, Jackson, Lincoln, Mcdowell, Monroe, Nicholas, Pocahontas, Putnam, Roane, Summers, Webster, Wyoming. Virginia: Alleghany, Bath, Bland, Giles, Tazewell. The Interest...

2010-04-05

380

Kiviõlis kõlavad "West Side Story" laulud / Inna Grünfeldt  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Tallinna Georg Otsa nim. Muusikakooli viiepäevasest treeninglaagrist Kiviõli Keemiatööstuse hoones ja kontserdist muusikali "West Side Story" lauludega 27. aug. (ettevalmistus 4. sept. Tallinnas esietenduvale muusikalile, projektijuht Eerika Kurm)

Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24

382

Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental History of the Upper West Amarillo Creek Valley at Archaeological Site 41PT185/C, Texas, USA / Historia paleoambiental del Holoceno tardío en el valle Amarillo Creek superior occidental en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C, Texas, EUA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En combinación, los microinvertebrados, algas calcáreas (Charophyta), e isótopos estables de ostrácodos y girogonitos (los restos calcáreos de carófitas) constituyen una herramienta muy poderosa para reconstruir paleoclimas. Este estudio compara las firmas paleoambientales de moluscos terrestres y a [...] cuáticos, ostrácodos, y carófitas con los valores de los isótopos estables (?18O and ?13C) obtenidos de Cypridopsis sp. (un ostrácodo) y los girogonitos de Chara globularis y Nitella flexilis. Cada una de ellas contribuye con su propia evidencia sobre el cambio ambiental ocurrido entre 1890 ± 40 A.P. y después de 750 ± 40 A.P. en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C en el norte de Texas, Estados Unidos de América. La combinación interpretativa de los datos permite una reconstrucción detallada de la variabilidad paleoclimática durante la transición de la Anomalía Climática Medieval a la Pequeña Edad del Hielo, que permite inferir el impacto que dicho cambio tuvo sobre las poblaciones humanas en esta parte del Sudoeste de los Estados Unidos. Abstract in english In combination, microinvertebrates, calcareous algae (Charophyta), and the stable isotopes from ostracodes and gyrogonites (the calcareous remains of charophytes) are a powerful tool for reconstructing paleoclimates. This study compares the paleoenvironmental signatures of land and aquatic mollusks, [...] ostracodes, and charophytes with stable-isotope (?18O and ?13C) values for Cypridopsis sp. (an ostracode) and the gyrogonites of Chara globularis and Nitella flexilis. Each individual signature contributes its own evidence of environmental change between 1890 ± 40 years B.P. and post-750 ± 40 years B.P. at archaeological site 41PT185/C in northern Texas, United States of America. The interpretation of the combined data permits a detailed reconstruction of paleoclimatic variability at the transition from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, allowing inferences about the impact of such environmental change on human populations in this part of the U.S. Southwest.

Palacios-Fest, Manuel R.

383

Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

1993-01-01

384

78 FR 4382 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-Northwest Iowa; Under Alternative Site Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

...proposed zone would include one ``magnet'' site: Proposed Site 1 (417.4 acres)--City of Le Mars Industrial Park in the southwest corner of Le Mars bounded by the CN rail line to the west, Industrial Road/Lynx Road to the east and County...

2013-01-22

385

Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

Randy Schroeder

2014-05-01

386

Glaciological investigations at Qamanarssup sermia, West Greenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a programme for the regional mapping of the hydroelectric potential of West Greenland, glaciological investigations were started at the Qamanarssup sermia in 1979. The glacier is situated at the innermost part of Godthaabsfjord (Kangersuneq) and is an outlet glacier from the Inland Ice proper, running west down to about 60 m above sea level. From the snout up to the 1500 m contour line the area has been measured to be 146 km/sup 2/. In 1979 and 1980 the work has concentrated on establishing a network of ablation stakes on the glacier. The net balance on the lower 1000 m of the glacier has been calculated to be -215 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of water equivalent for the period 8 September 1979 to 21 September 1980. The corresponding elevation of the firn line was just above 1300 m above sea level. Short term ablation measurements show that temperature is the principal controlling factor, while wind, rainfall and duration of sunshine, in decreasing order, only have minor influence.

Olesen, O.B.

1981-01-01

387

Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa, with a specific aim at the dissemination of knowledge in field of interaction design both in an academic context, as well as among practitioners. More specifically the paper discusses how interaction design knowledge can be disseminated in West Africa, particularly in Higher Education.

Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

388

Crustal Thickness across West Antarctica from Polenet  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent data and methodological advances in deep seismic imaging have yielded invaluable information about the crust and mantle of continental and regional scales. Receiver function analysis, pioneered nearly 40 years ago, continues to be widely used to study abrupt velocity transitions at depth and to recover key information such as crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio, mantle transition zone thicknesses, and Moho topography. We examine P-to-S receiver functions, S-to-P receiver functions, and surface wave kernels to study crustal thicknesses and mantle transition zone depths across a wide extent of West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) as part of the POLENET project. The presence of thick ice sheets and, in some areas, underlying sedimentary basins, create complications in identifying key (e.g., Moho) conversions that are normally readily visible in continental settings. We have successfully applied several approaches to the entirety of available POLENET and other Antarctic stations to optimally circumvent these issues, including deconvolution, forward modeling, FK-filtering, and regularized Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion methods. We report on the most recently obtained crustal thickness and other results in the context of Antarctic tectonics and the crustal structure of the WAIS, TAM and Marie Byrd Land (MBL) regions. Moho depths for West Antarctica vary from ~23-30 km towards MBL, with thinning on the coast of MBL.

Chaput, J. A.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.; Sun, X.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.; Hansen, S. E.; Anandakrishnan, S.

2012-12-01

389

Autistic spectrum in West syndrome - Original Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: There is a close association between early-onset and severe epilepsies. The aim was to examine autistic features using Autism Behaviour Checklist (ABC in West syndrome.Material and Method: Details of 267 infants with WS were recorded and 90 cases were followed with ABC. Data were analyzed by SPSS 12.0 for Windows program. All data were signified as median ± standard deviation, standard error and %. Student's t-distribution was used for constant variables and chi-square was used for qualitative variants in analyzing data. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Istanbul Univercity (number: 2007/1289.Results: Mean age of 90 cases were 56.2±38 months, onset of seizure was before the age of 6 months in 80% cases. The rate of mortality was 16.1% and mental retardation 86%. Seventeen cases (18.9% who had total score of 67 or above from ABC was considered to indicate ‘high probability’. If 14 cases who had 54-67 score were added, ratio would be found 34.5%. Symptomatic group ratio was 94.1%. Conclusions: We suggested that West syndrome is frequently associated with autistic features. So cases with WS must be checked for autistic disorders at every visits. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 68-74

Selda Hançerli

2011-03-01

390

Cell-mediated and humoral immunity in west syndrome Imunidade celular e humoral na sindrome de West  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The immunological status of five children with West syndrome consequent to previous cerebral lesions was investigated. Three children had West syndrome and two were in transition from West to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. All of them showed cellular immunological deficiencies in the following tests: sensitization to DNCB, intracutaneous reaction to PHA, inhibition of leucocyte migration, blastic transformation of lymphocytes, T and B lymphocytes in peripheric blood and levels of serum immunoglobul...

1981-01-01

391

Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

1985-04-01

392

Alteration of microstructure of West Valley glass by heat treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of West Valley reference glass WVCM-59 were subjected to isothermal heat treatment according to a systematic schedule of time-temperature combinations. Phases crystallizing during heat treatment were analyzed and quantified using an SEM equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray detector and image processing and analyzing capabilities. Only small amounts of noble metals (e.g. Rh, Pd) and RuO2 were present in the as-melted glass, but these frequently serve as nucleation sites during heat treatment. Iron-group spinels containing Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn in variable proportions were the most common phases observed, appearing in quantities up to 3.5 vol% in heat treated glass. The formation of a thoria-ceria phase occurred at temperatures of 900C and below. Acmites formed at temperatures of 800C and below. A lithium phosphate phase with a particularly interesting morphology developed after prolonged heat treatment at temperatures between 600-750C. The same phase appeared in a range of glass compositions. However, canister cooling curves preclude such a phase in production glass. Furthermore, no such phase was found in actual canister-cooled glass

1989-12-02

393

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

1998-07-01

394

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

1998-02-23

395

WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

Oriel, Steven, S.; Benham, John, R.

1984-01-01

396

Mud flat frac. [North Sea coastline of West Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a region of shallow water, sandbars, and tidal flats off the far northwest coast of W. Germany, Halliburton Co. Germany took unusual steps to successfully perform a large fracturing treatment in June, 1980. The job required pumping for 7 hr at pressures expected to exceed 11,000 psi, using 200,000 gal of gelled water and 300,000 lb of super prop proppant. The wellhead, without any working area around it, no platform or such, was in the North Sea near the coast west of the town of Norden where the sea comes in to meet the Ems River. To do the job, Halliburton would need 16 ht-400 skid units, 4 ht-1000 intensifiers, two 50-bbl blenders, a 25-bbl blender, four 20,000-gal horizontal tanks, a 10,000-gal horizontal tank, eight 16,000-gal vertical tanks, and 2 bulk sand silos. Nearly 1-1/4 acres of pontoon barge were used by Halliburton Germany to assemble equipment at the site of the shallow-water North Sea well.

1981-02-01

397

Inter-Site SNF Shipment Preparation Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Inter-Site SNF Shipment Preparation Plan provides the information on the activities, times, description, schedule, and cost of a generic inter-site SNF shipment preparation and shipment campaign that can be used for the development of a specific inter- site SNF shipment campaign. It provides the basis and method for estimating site-specific activities, times, description, schedule, and costs. The schedule that is provided shows the interaction of the activities and with the provided set of blank inter-site SNF shipment preparation tables provides for the development of a specific SNF shipment case. The sum of these features provides the reader and user with a tool by which an inter-site SNF shipment campaign can be setup and successfully completed. The generic cost estimate and times were derived primarily from INEL experiences and detailed cost estimates for shipments and receipts, in particular from Russ Cottam, as well as the experiences, cost estimates and reviews from the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge, and West Valley. Electronic versions of the tables and schedules are available by disk or E-mail to interested users.

Houck, E.D.; Jefimoff, J.

1996-09-01

398

Texas site selection and licensing status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

Avant, R.V. Jr.

1989-11-01

399

Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd"3) (2.1 million cubic meters [m"3]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m"3) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd"3(420,000 m"3). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd"3 (2.58 million m"3)

1996-01-01

400

Life-cycle cost analysis 200-West Weather Enclosure: Multi-function Waste Tank Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF)will provide environmentally safe and acceptable storage capacity for handling wastes resulting from the remediation of existing single-shell and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site. The MWTF will construct two tank farm facilities at two separate locations. A four-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site; a two-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-West Area. This report documents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) for the Weather Enclosure proposed to be constructed over the 200-West tanks. Currently, all tank farm operations on the Hanford Site are conducted in an open environment, with weather often affecting tank farm maintenance activities. The Weather Enclosure is being proposed to allow year-round tank farm operation and maintenance activities unconstrained by weather conditions. Elimination of weather-related delays at the MWTF and associated facilities will reduce operational costs. The life-cycle cost analysis contained in this report analyzes potential cost savings based on historical weather information, operational and maintenance costs, construction cost estimates, and other various assumptions.

Umphrey, M.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-16

 
 
 
 
401

West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

2012-11-01

402

Optical performance of fixed east-west aligned CPCs used in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, a mathematical procedure is developed to estimate the annual collectible radiation captured by fixed compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, in short) oriented in east-west direction based on the monthly horizontal radiation. Results show that for fixed east-west aligned symmetric CPCs used over the atmosphere, the optimal acceptance half-angle for maximizing its annual energy collection was 25.97 , the yearly optimal tilt-angle of apertures relative to the horizon was equal to the site latitude, and the maximum annual average optical concentration ratio was uniquely related to the site latitude. For CPCs used in China, the optimal acceptance half-angle were in between 25.3 and 26 , the yearly optimal tilt-angle approached the site latitude with a deviation less than 1 , and the maximum annual average optical concentration ratios ranged from 1.45 to 1.74. Results also indicated that CPCs were more favorable to be used in the areas with higher latitude and abundant solar resources. Effects of tilt-angle and azimuth angle of CPCs on its annual solar gain were also presented. (author)

Tang, Runsheng; Wu, Maogang; Yu, Yamei; Li, Ming [Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

2010-08-15

403

A tale of two economies. [East and West Kootenays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares the economies of the East and West Kootenays. The difficulties experienced by the forestry and mining industries have hurt the West, although some development projects are still underway. The economy of the East Kootenays has been boosted by the coal mining industry. This report includes figures for population growth and residential construction starts.

Morgan, P.

1982-05-01

404

History for West Allen at Hindley Wrae (23013)  

History for West Allen at Hindley Wrae (23013) Back to station Datum Start Date Datum End Date Datum (mAOD) Control Details Other Comments 11/05/1971 155.117 Open channel control Datum from station file Related Searches: west allen

405

The spurdog Squalus acanthias (L) fishery in south west Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spurdog landings are made on all parts of the Irish coastline but most heavily concentrated on the west of the country. The fishery expanded to a maximum catch of just under 8,000 tonnes in 1985. The species had been pursued most intensively in the north west but effort is shifting southwards.

1988-01-01

406

Oligochaeta, Naididae of the West Indies and adjacent regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A very large collection of Naididae of the West Indies (153 localities), Suriname (15), Venezuela (2) and Florida (1) is studied. Five new species Nais barua, Dero scalariformis, D. tuna, Aulophorus kalina, A. barbatus are described. Dero magna, D. trifida, Aulophorus tridentatus, Allonais japonica, Pristina sima are redescribed. The 46 Naididae species of the West Indies are discussed by their taxonomy, distribution and habitat.

Gilberto Righi; Viviane Hamoui

2002-01-01

407

West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

1975-01-01

408

Fostering E-Mail Security Awareness: The West Point Carronade  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point had a problem with some cadets clicking on suspicious attachments and embedded links, significantly affecting network performance and resource availability. West Point information technology leadership needed a way to increase e-mail security awareness in hopes of maintaining a strong…

Ferguson, Aaron J.

2005-01-01

409

Market Study - Hotel and Restaurant Equipment in West Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in West Germany for hotel and restaurant equipment; to examine growth trends in the West German end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific ...

1975-01-01

410

Statistical study of the East-West asymmetry of sunspots  

Science.gov (United States)

The East-West asymmetry of sunspot areas has been analyzed on the basis of the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD). This material provides the opportunity to scrutinize the fine details in the distributions of the East-West differences depending on spot size and central meridional distance during the ascending and the descending phase of 22th cycle.

Mezö, G.; Baranyi, T.; Muraközy, J.; Györi, L.

411

Hanford's West Lake and the Biota Dose Assessment Committee's screening methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radionuclide data collected at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation's West Lake (a small seepage pond) was used to test the utility of the U.S. Department of Energy's Biota Dose Assessment Screening Methodology for protection of plants and animals from ionizing radiation. The Hanford Site environmental surveillance database was queried for all 1999 data on radionuclides in surface water, soil and sediment. Maximum and mean radionuclide concentrations were determined for each combination of radionuclide + media. These data were entered into the Biota Dose Assessment Committee's 'Biota Concentration Guide Calculator', a semi-automated tool used to determine compliance with proposed biota dose limits for shorebirds (riparian animals with a proposed dose limit of 0.1 rad/day). Concentrations in the aquatic environment did not pass the screen. Further review of the data indicated that a water sample taken from the lake exceeded the limiting water concentration for uranium. As a consequence of the assessment, a limited biota monitoring effort was established to determine the potential exposure of wildlife at West Lake. The effort involved determining residence time of breeding shorebirds and actual tissue burdens of radionuclides in the birds. In the final analysis, West Lake was determined to be in compliance with proposed radiological dose limits. The application of this methodology has helped to identify a potential exposure problem and provide direction for the sampling program. (author)

2003-05-01

412

Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java (S.A. Siradz : Red soilis a common name used to identify any soil showing yellowish to reddish colour, these soils mainly occur in tropicaland subtropical regions. The term is frequently used to convey an image of red, infertile, acid soils in the tropics andis associated with tropical and subtropical climates which are characterized by high temperature and humidity. Majorsoil constraints to crop production may include low pH, low available P and high P fixation capacity, toxicity due toAl and sometimes Mn and Fe, deficiencies of N, Ca, Mg, K, and micronutrients e.g. Mo, Zn and Cu, low CEC and lowbase saturation, and very low content of weatherable minerals. The aim of this study was to determine the phosphorussorption characteristics of red soils from Lampung, West Java and Central Java. Soils were sampled at depth of 0-20cm from minimally disturbed sites after discarding the uppermost few cm consisting of an accumulation of litter. Thesamples were air-dried, crushed using a ceramic mortar and pestle and then passed through a 0.5 mm stainless steelsieve. Measurements of P sorption were conducted by equilibrating 200 mg of air dry soil ( West Java and Central Java. Values of pH(NaF, Ald, and exchangeable Ca were most predictive of Psorption in these soils.

Syamsul Arifin Siradz

2009-01-01

413

Regional Flood Frequency Analysis Based on L-Moment Approach (Case Study West Azarbayjan Basins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flood estimation with certain frequency is one of the fundamental factors for design ofHydraulic structures, Flood plain, River coastal stabling, Basin management, etc. Accurate estimation offlood frequency discharge increases safety of the structures. L-moment approach was used for floodfrequency analysis in west Azarbayjan province basins. For identifying homogeneous regions, the Wardhierarchical cluster method was used. Site data were used for independent testing of the cluster of the stationfor homogeneity. The west Azarbayjan province divided to four regions. In these regions parameters of theregional frequency distribution were evaluated by L-moment ratios. The L-moment diagram, goodness of fittest, and plotting position methods were used for the selection of appropriate distributions. In westAzarbayjan, Generalized Pareto distribution for region A, Generalized extreme value, Pearson type III andLognormal distributions for region B, Pearson type III, Lognormal, Generalized extreme value distributionsfor region C and Lognormal and Generalized extreme value distribution were appropriate for region D. Therelative Root Mean Square Error (rRMSE between observed and estimated data in all stations is small.Regional model evaluated for determination of flood discharge magnitude in different frequency by linerand multiple regression method.

Ramin Rostami

2013-05-01

414

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

None,

1980-05-01

415

Safety survey report EBR-II safety survey, ANL-west health protection, industrial safety and fire protection survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A safety survey covering the disciplines of Reactor Safety, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection was conducted at the ANL-West EBR-II FEF Complex during the period January 10-18, 1972. In addition, the entire ANL-West site was surveyed for Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection. The survey was conducted by members of the AEC Chicago Operations Office, a member of RDT-HQ and a member of the RDT-ID site office. Eighteen recommendations resulted from the survey, eleven in the area of Industrial Safety and Fire Protection, five in the area of Reactor Safety and two in the area of Nuclear Criticality Safety.

Dunbar, K.A.

1972-01-10

416

Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

1994-07-01

417

Increasing ozone in marine boundary layer inflow at the west coasts of North America and Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An effective method is presented for determining the ozone (O3) mixing ratio in the onshore flow of marine air at the North American west coast. By combining the data available from all marine boundary layer (MBL) sites with simultaneous wind data, decadal temporal trends of MBL O3 in all seasons are established with high precision. The average springtime temporal trend over the past two decades is 0.46 ppbv/yr with a 95% confidence limit of 0.13 ...

Parrish, D. D.; Millet, D. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

2009-01-01

418

Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site

1994-01-01

419

U.S. Activist Battles West Virginia Coal Industry | Worldwatch Institute  

... During rains, the infilled valleys can accelerate storm runoff, leading floodwaters toward homes such as Gunnoe's. The mine sites often use holding ponds to store the runoff from washing the coal - water that contains high concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, ...' Gunnoe, who worked as a medical technician and waitress before turning her attention to West Virginia's coal industry, joined OVEC in 2004 after polluted floodwaters contaminated her property and drinking water. She trained her community on how to read mining permits, write letters to local newspapers,...

420

Controls on the movement and composition of firn air at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We sampled interstitial air from the perennial snowpack (firn) at a site near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS-D) and analyzed the air samples for a wide variety of gas species and their isotopes. We find limited convective influence (1.4–5.2 m, depending on detection method) in the shallow firn, gravitational enrichment of heavy species throughout the diffusive column in general agreement with theoretical expectations, a ~10 m thick lock-in zone beginning at ~67 m, and a total fir...

Battle, M. O.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Sofen, E. D.; Plotkin, D.; Orsi, A. J.; Aydin, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Sowers, T.; Tans, P. P.

2011-01-01

&nbs