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  1. Analysis of subsidence data for the West Hackberry site, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, S.J. [ed.

    1997-08-01

    The elevation change data measured at the West Hackberry SPR site over the last 14+ years has been studied and a model utilized to project elevation changes into the future. The subsidence rate has decreased with time due to instituting maintenance of higher operating pressures for caverns (since about 1990) and the normal decrease in creep closure rate of caverns with time. However, the subsidence at the site is projected to continue. As a result, low lying regions exist and the extents of these regions are projected to increase with time. These low lying regions are susceptible to inundation with water from Black Lake and/or hurricane storm surges. This work may assist DOE in planning the construction and location of mitigative measures for flood control.

  2. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

  3. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  4. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  5. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  6. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

  7. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  8. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  9. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  10. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  11. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  12. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, September 3, 1993--December 3, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassihi, M.R.; Gillham, T.H.

    1993-11-30

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are the Camerina C- 1,2,3 Sands located on the west flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project win demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  13. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, March 3, 1993--June 3, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This reservoir has been unitized and is designated as the WH Cam C RI SU. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic.

  14. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  15. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-10-14

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are the Camerina sands located on the west and north flanks of west Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. During the third quarter of 1996, air injection continued on the west flank and was initiated on the north flank. In addition, the first oil production from air injection occurred and the air injection flowline to the north flank neared completion. The following topics are discussed herein: (1) summary of west flank activities; (2) first oil production occurs on the north flank; (3) operation and maintenance of air injection system; (4) installation of equipment for north flank air injection; and (5) plans for the upcoming quarter.

  16. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  18. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  19. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  20. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  9. 78 FR 12358 - Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On- Site Leased...of Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, including on-site leased...of Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West to be considered...

  10. A new glacier monitoring site in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abermann, J.; van As, D.; Petersen, D.; Nauta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Greenland's mountain glaciers and ice caps have recently been shown to significantly contribute to current and future sea-level rise. Despite their importance in this respect they are heavily undersampled with only about 5 currently monitored glaciers out of more than 20000 distributed over complexly varying climatic regions. In 2012, Asiaq, Greenland Survey initiated therefore a glacier mass balance program at Qassinnguit glacier (64°9'N, 51°17'W), approx. 18 km East of Nuuk, Greenland's capital. The glacier is a representative example for mountain glaciers in South-West Greenland both in terms of size (ca 1 km2) and orientation (N). A dense stake network gives the basis for the determination of the surface mass balance with the glaciological method as well as flow velocity measurements and the first two complete years are presented. An automated camera is used to monitor ablation patterns and the evolution of the snow line. In early 2014, a ground-penetrating radar campaign was performed to determine the glacier volume. Ice thicknesses up to 50 m were measured with a 100 MHz antenna and the glacier was found to be largely cold-based with some minor temperate parts. In addition to direct glaciological measurements at the site, the monitoring program complements a 7 year long time series of runoff, which allows for quantifying Qassinnguit glacier's cryospheric contribution to the total catchment. In summer 2014 an on-glacier automated weather station was installed that measures parameters to determine the surface energy balance. Preliminary results will be presented and put into a larger spatial context by relating them to measurements with the same setup at an outlet glacier of the Greenland ice sheet approximately 100 km further East. Climate between these sites differs considerably with a marked negative West - East precipitation gradient.

  11. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3H and 99Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Remedial design services for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from radium-processing facilities which operated in the area during the early 1900's. The waste materials, containing radium and other radioactive isotopes were placed in three separate landfill sites. Major public health risks are indoor radon gas build-up and indoor/ outdoor gamma radiation. In 1989, the EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) which chose excavation and off-site disposal of material as the preferred alternative. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight key elements of the design process for the remedial action at Montclair. Those key elements are as follows: meeting community relations challenges; measuring radioactive contamination; developing plans and specifications; packaging of remedial action contacts; and continually improving both the process and the designs

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs

  15. Qajaa Excavations 1981 and 1982 : A West Greenland Saqqaq site with preserved wood and bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Jensen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This report is an account of excavations conducted in 1981 and 1982 by Jørgen Meldgaard (1927-2007) The National Museum of Denmark at the Qajaa site in West Greenland. A total of 388 wooden objects, 255 bone artefacts, 696 lithic tools and more than 4000 flakes have been excavated and are presented here in their archaeological context

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2007-09-27

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2006-09-21

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  19. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment

  1. Geophysical survey for cone penetrometer site, CPT-4, 200 West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a geophysical survey performed at the Hanford Reservation. The objective of the survey was to locate subsurface obstructions that may affect cone penetrometer work at site CPT-4, adjacent to and west of borehole 299-W18-252, Figure 1. Based upon the results of the survey, possible ''drill sites'' within the zone, with the least likelihood of encountering identified obstructions, were identified

  2. Construction of hexahedral elements mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw SPR site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The three-dimensional finite element mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw site has been constructed using the sonar and seismic survey data obtained from the field. The mesh is consisting of hexahedral elements because the salt constitutive model is coded using hexahedral elements. Various ideas and techniques to construct finite element mesh capturing artificially and naturally formed geometries are provided. The techniques to reduce the number of elements as much as possible to save on computer run time with maintaining the computational accuracy is also introduced. The steps and methodologies could be applied to construct the meshes of Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry strategic petroleum reserve sites. The methodology could be applied to the complicated shape masses for not only various civil and geological structures but also biological applications such as artificial limbs.

  3. Case study: Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Radium Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Radium Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in three residential communities in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from a local radium processing facility which ceased operations in 1926. Houses were subsequently constructed on or near the radium waste disposal areas. The waste material was also used as backfill, which caused contamination to be spread randomly over the communities. There are 769 properties between four townships that comprise the Superfund sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an aerial survey in 1981 which identified the boundaries of the sites. In 1985, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) began a pilot study to examine the feasibility of excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated material as a permanent solution. The study was interrupted when the permit for the disposal site was revoked by the state of Nevada. Since 1990 field testing has been completed on over 725 properties and remediation and restoration has been completed on 75 properties

  4. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

  7. 1982 environmental-monitoring program report for the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared and submitted in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1 and presents environmental monitoring program data collected at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) site from February 26, 1982, through December 31, 1982. The WVDP objective is to solidify approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level liquid radioactive waste stored at the former Nuclear Fuel Services reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. Nuclear Fuel Services conducted an environmental monitoring program in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements which were appropriate for shutdown maintenance operations conducted at the site. That program was embraced by West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNS) at the time of transition (February 26, 1982) and will be modified to provide a comprehensive monitoring program in preparation for waste solidification operations scheduled for startup in June 1988. As such, the data presented in this report is considered preoperational in nature in accordance with DOE Order 5484.1, Chapter III, Paragraph 1. The environmental monitoring program planned for the operating phase of the project will be fully implemented by fiscal year 1985 and will provide at least two years of preoperational data prior to startup

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS Corporation

    2010-09-17

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning at the West Valley Site progress and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D/D) at the West Valley Site includes all of the radioactive cleanup and dismantling operations associated with a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant that has been in operation for several years. The existing building and plant facilities at West Valley will be used to the greatest extent possible to accommodate the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) processing and vitrification system and equipment, which are described in other reports. Therefore, the objective of the initial or previtrification D/D Operations is to make the various shielded cells and other plant facilities suitable for installation and operation of the HLW processing and vitrification systems. This will also include establishing facilities for supporting the D/D Operations and the other required services. After all of the HLW processing and vitrification operations are completed, there will be a final D/D to be jointly defined by DOE, NRC, EPA, and NYSERDA

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-09-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Biedermann, Charles A. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, II, Robert E. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Fox, James R. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Hoch, Jerald J. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Werchowski, Rebecca L. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States)

    2015-09-15

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2014. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2014 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2013-09-19

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendall, John D. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2014-09-16

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2013. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2013. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2013 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  17. Analysis of Flow and Deformations at West Pearl Queen Pilot Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G. S.; Siriwardane, H.; Wilson, T. H.; Smith, D. H.

    2006-12-01

    A pilot sequestration experiment has recently been performed in a depleted oil reservoir near Hobbes, NM where nearly two thousand tons of CO2 were injected into the West Pearl Queen reservoir. The site has been characterized geologically by 3-D seismic methods and through information from well logs. Sonic (DT shear and compressional) and density logs from a key well along with a geological model of the site derived from logs in surrounding wells were used to define the material properties used in the analysis. Based on this geologic data, a geomechanical model was constructed for the site. The geomechanical model has been used to determine the coupled flow and deformations in the reservoir and surrounding rock strata. A coupled deformation-flow analysis was carried out using the finite element method. Results from the coupled deformation-fluid flow analysis of the pilot CO2 injection at the West Pearl Queen depleted oil reservoir site are presented. While the magnitude of the computed ground deformations in this pilot test are very small, the results show the possibility ground heave depending upon the amount of fluid injected. It also shows that ground deformations and surface slopes, which may be measured by tiltmeters, could be used as an indirect method for monitoring of the CO2 plume propagation. Field monitoring of surface deformations and slopes together with underground measurements such as the pore pressure could be used to fine-tune the computational models.

  18. Sorption measurements performed under site-specific conditions - Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption coefficients have been determined using site-specific sediments and trench waters, collected from the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Experimental apparatus and procedures are described to preserve the anoxic character of the liquid phases during experiments. Experiments using anoxic and oxidized trench waters were performed as functions of solution pH, soil/solution ratio, water and soil composition. The lowest sorption was observed with the combination of anoxic waters and untreated soil - the combination most closely resembling the immediate trench environment. For best results in predictive applications, sorption data should be determined under conditions which simulate those in the field as closely as possible. The total radionuclide retention capacity of reducing geochemical environments is the sum of sorption processes on solid phases, as well as precicipation, and coprecipitation reactions involving iron mineral phases

  19. 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ash Pit Demolition Site had two known demolition events, the first occurred in November of 1984, and the second occurred in June of 1986. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the Ash Pit Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'', Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A, Form 3, Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 4) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A, Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the Ash,Pit Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the Ash Pit Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in the demolitions, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only''. Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from Ash Pit Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

  20. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  1. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex

  2. Construction of temporary mobile office complex in the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental assessment provides the necessary information so that a decision can be made concerning the proposed action on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact should be issued or an environmental impact statement should be prepared. The proposed action is the construction and operation of a temporary mobile office and changeroom complex in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Therefore, this environmental assessment evaluates the proposed action and alternatives, including a no action alternative, in keeping with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1500

  3. Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources

  4. Long-term site management plan: West Valley LLRW disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal area at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley (30 miles south of Buffalo) is a former commercial LLRW disposal facility. Disposal operations at the facility stopped in March 1975, shortly after contaminated trench leachate was reported to be seeping through two trench covers. Recently, the Energy Authority and the US Dept. of Energy selected, Envirosphere Company to develop a long-term site management plan for the disposal area. This project supports a series of technical studies required to develop an integrated site management plan ultimately aimed at bringing the disposal areas to the eventual point where passive custoidal care and monitoring activities will be sufficient to protect public health and safety and the environment. The primary objectives of this project are: (1) to formulate and evaluate alternative technical strategies for improved management and eventual stabilization of the disposal area. (2) To design a project to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the site management plan selected by the Energy Authority for the site. (3) To develop an interim site management plan for use until the long-term site strategy is implemented

  5. West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

  6. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-12

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities.

  7. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities

  8. Geophysical interpretations west of and within the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauch, V.J.; Sawyer, D.A.; Fridrich, C.J.; Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    This report focuses on interpretation of gravity and new magnetic data west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and within the northwestern part of NTS. The interpretations integrate the gravity and magnetic data with other geophysical, geological, and rock property data to put constraints on tectonic and magmatic features not exposed at the surface. West of NTS, where drill hole information is absent, these geophysical data provide the best available information on the subsurface. Interpreted subsurface features include calderas, intrusions, basalt flows and volcanoes, Tertiary basins, structurally high pre-Tertiary rocks, and fault zones. New features revealed by this study include (1) a north-south buried tectonic fault east of Oasis Mountain, which the authors call the Hogback fault; (2) an east striking fault or accommodation zone along the south side of Oasis Valley basin, which they call the Hot Springs fault; (3) a NNE striking structural zone coinciding with the western margins of the caldera complexes; (4) regional magnetic highs that probably represent a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks; and (5) two probable buried calderas that may be related to the tuffs of Tolicha Peak and of Sleeping Butte, respectively.

  9. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.40N, Long. 2.30E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2009-09-24

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  12. Directional changes of the geomagnetic field in West Africa: Insights from the metallurgical site of Korsimoro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Kapper, Lisa; El Kateb, Akram

    2015-11-01

    This work shows the first archeomagnetic directions from Western Africa measured on 32 iron smelting kilns dated between 650 and 1800 AD. The archeological excavation of the vast metallurgical site of Korsimoro established the existence of four distinct iron-smelting techniques. The time-frame of each technique could be clearly determined with radiocarbon dating. Many of the kilns investigated in this study could also be dated individually with residual charcoals found in their inside. The results indicate that the inclination of the field changed gradually from shallow normal to shallow reversed during 800 to 1300 AD, and then went back to shallow normal around 1600-1700 AD. The declination was instead stable around 10°E between 800 and 1400 AD, thereafter it started changing towards North. This trend correlates well with available secular variation curves from the Balkan and from Spain, and indicates that the field variation in West Africa was similar to the one in Europe.

  13. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  14. Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Mark E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States); Simmons, Sally [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, Washington (United States); Morse, John [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing Purolite{sup R} A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCg{sup TM}, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludge is then disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The final treated water is then pumped to the injection well field. The 200 West P and T is a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) gold-certified facility that has an expected 70% energy cost savings over the lifetime of the plant. Fifty percent of the steel used in construction was recycled, 420 tons of recycled concrete were used, and over 75% of construction waste was diverted from landfills. The plant is only staffed one shift per day, and it uses a call-out system if the plant goes down during off-shift hours. Initial sampling results have shown that the 200 West P and T is successfully reducing contaminant levels well below the cleanup levels specified in the Record of Decision, Hanford 200 Area 200-ZP-1 Superfund Site, Benton County, Washington [1]. CHPRC and the U.S. Department of Energy are continuing to look for ways to reduce operational costs, such as testing alternative resins for removing radionuclides and finding less expensive carbon substrate sources. The benefit to others is a LEED gold-certified, 2,500 gpm P and T system that may be used as a model for other complex sites. (authors)

  15. Site effects in Avcilar, West of Istanbul, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, O.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 1000 people were killed in the collapse of buildings in Istanbul, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 I??zmit earthquake, whose epicenter was roughly 90 km east of the city. Most of the fatalities and damage occurred in the suburb of Avcilar that is 20 km further west of the epicenter than the city proper. To investigate this pattern of damage, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), deployed portable digital seismographs at seven free-field sites in western Istanbul, to record aftershocks during the period from 24 August to 2 September. The primary objective of this deployment was to study the site effects by comparing the aftershock ground motions recorded at sites inside and outside the damaged area, and to correlate site effects with the distribution of the damaged buildings. In addition to using weak-motion data, mainshock and aftershock acceleration records from the KOERI permanent strong-motion array were also used in estimating the site effects. Site effects were estimated using S waves from both types of records. For the weak-motion data set, 22 events were selected according to the criteria of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the number of stations recording the same event. The magnitudes of these events ranged from 3.0 to 5.2. The acceleration data set consisted of 12 events with magnitudes ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 and included two mainshock events. Results show that the amplifying frequency band is, in general, less than 4 Hz, and the physical properties of the geologic materials are capable of amplifying the motions by a factor of 5-10. In this frequency band, there is a good agreement among the spectral ratios obtained from the two mainshocks and their aftershocks. The damage pattern for the 17 August I??zmit earthquake is determined by several factors. However, our study suggests that the site effects in Avcilar played an important role in contributing to the damage.

  16. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Remedial design process for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge radium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites, located in Essex County, New Jersey, are contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials. The waste materials originated from radium processing facilities prevalent in the area during the early 1900's. The two sites consist of 769 residential and commercial properties having a combined land area of approximately 210 acres. Historically, radioactive waste materials were disposed as landfill material in what were once rural areas. As development flourished, homes and streets were constructed over the landfilled waste. In 1981 the EPA conducted an aerial gamma radiation survey of the area to determine the presence of radioactive materials. It was from this survey that subsequent ground studies where initiated, and elevated gamma radiation and radon levels were discovered. The paper will discuss the methods used to obtain data through field investigations; the relationship between the interpretation of data to define the vertical and lateral limits of contamination and the selection of remedial design methods used to develop excavation plans; the evolution of remediation methods and technologies relative to the remediation of structures by underpinning basements, on-grade structures, and chimneys; removal of contaminated material beneath footings without cribbing; and demolition of basement foundation walls (where contaminated) without use of traditional support methods. Finally, the paper will discuss remedial action execution of the work

  18. Precipitation pathways for five new ice core sites in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.

    2015-04-01

    Ice cores provide a wealth of information about past climate and atmospheric circulation however a good understanding of the precipitation patterns, potential source regions and transport pathways is essential in their interpretation. Here we investigate the precipitation pathways for a transect of five new ice cores drilled in the southern Antarctic Peninsula and Ellsworth Land. We utilize in situ observations from automatic weather stations to confirm that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data adequately captures annual and sub-annual variability, with evidence of a slight cold bias in the 2 m temperatures. Back trajectory analysis, from the British Atmospheric Data Centre trajectory service, reveals that warm and snowy years are associated with air masses that originate (5 days before reaching the site) from the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea, while cold and dry years are associated with air masses from the Antarctic continent. There is a clear seasonal migration in the trajectories at each site, reflecting the east to west migration of the Amundsen Sea Low, known to have a strong influence on climate in this region.

  19. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML team surveyed three sites in the Sierras with their terrestrial waveform lidar (DWEL) and collected Trac measurements of LAI, while UMB collected additional discrete ground-based lidar scans and additional forestry measures at San Joaquin and the Sierras; A team from the UWM collected leaf-level reflectance and transmission spectra and measured leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. This multifaceted collaboration, funded by the NSF NEON and NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Science programs, will support key scientific developments by combining the expertise from multiple sensing modalities. This experiment highlights the advantages of data and skills sharing in remote sensing applications. An overview of the larger effort and individual early science will be presented.

  20. The Hydrogeologic Conditions in the Upper Dockum Group at the Waste Control Specialists Site, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. M.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Pickens, J. F.; Powers, D. W.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site in Andrews County, west Texas has licenses from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous material. Four landfills are constructed on the WCS site, including a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. All landfills are constructed below grade and within the low-permeability Triassic Dockum Group mudrocks (Cooper Canyon Formation). The Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. The Dockum would be generally classified as an aquitard. At the WCS site, the vertical effective hydraulic conductivity of the Dockum is 1.2×10-9 cm/s, and its horizontal effective conductivity is 2.9×10-7 cm/s. Core samples reveal that at least the upper 300+ feet of the Dockum is in the unsaturated zone. The average capillary pressure in Dockum core samples is -2.84 MPa, with an average saturation of 0.87. High saturation values are not surprising, as Dockum air-entry pressures range from 0.016 to 9.8 MPa, with a mean of 1.0 MPa. Heat dissipation sensors, thermocouple psychrometers, and advanced tensiometers installed in Dockum borehole arrays generally show capillary pressures one order of magnitude less than those measured on core samples. These differences with core data are attributed to the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase within Dockum materials. In the vicinity of an instrumented borehole, the gas phase pressure equilibrates with atmospheric pressure, lowering the capillary pressure. Little fluid has circulated vertically through the Dockum. Measurements of the electrical conductivity of a saturated paste consisting of water and crushed core sample (a metric for pore-water salinity) show strong vertical variations. A chloride bulge in the sediments above the Dockum indicates that the Dockum has received very little recharge in the past.

  1. Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing PuroliteR A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCgTM, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludge is then disposed at

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2003 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. During 2003, cleanup of radioactive waste from the former nuclear fuels reprocessing plant that shut down operations in the 1970s was continued at the WVDP. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Work activities at the WVDP during 2003 included: (1) maintaining canisters of vitrified high-level waste in a shielded facility; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste offsite for disposal; (3) shipping packaged spent nuclear fuel assemblies to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; (4) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely size-reduced and packaged for disposal; (5) decontaminating the fuel storage pool and the cask unloading pool; (6) decontaminating the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (7) cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (8) planning for decontamination and dismantlement of the vitrification facility; (9) continuing preparation of the Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Impact Statement; and (10) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises

  3. STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROL ON CCL4 AND CHCL3 CONCENTRATIONS IN THE 200 WEST AREA, HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsor, K.; Last, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in eastern Washington. Remediation requires a high-resolution understanding of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these lithofacies have on CCl4 migration through the unconfi ned aquifer. To increase the level of detail of our current understanding, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater fl ow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were standardized and used to create a cross section displaying the depth and continuity of lithofacies. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and that other fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. The infl uence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

  4. Terrestrial environments during MIS 11: evidence from the Palaeolithic site at West Stow, Suffolk, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, R. C.; Parfitt, S. A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Lewis, S. G.; Rowe, P. J.; Atkinson, T. C.; Candy, I.; Debenham, N. C.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Rhodes, E. J.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Griffiths, H. I.; Whittaker, J. E.; Gleed-Owen, C.

    2007-05-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the sequence at Beeches Pit, West Stow (Suffolk, UK), have a direct bearing the age of the Hoxnian Interglacial and its correlation with the continental Holsteinian and with the global marine record. At this site, glacial deposits (till and outwash gravels) referable to the Anglian Lowestoft Formation fill a subglacial channel cut in Chalk bedrock. Above these glacial deposits a series of interglacial sediments occurs, consisting of limnic, tufaceous and colluvial silts, lacking pollen but rich in shells, ostracods and vertebrates. Lower Palaeolithic flint artefacts of Acheulian character have also been recovered, including refitting examples. Charred material is abundant at certain horizons and many of the bones have been burned. Several discrete areas of burnt sediment are interpreted as hearths. The molluscan fauna comprises some 78 taxa and includes species of considerable zoogeographical and biostratigraphical importance. The land snail assemblage from the tufa consists of woodland taxa with no modern analogue, including species that are either extinct (e.g. Zonitoides sepultus) or which no longer live in Britain (e.g. Platyla polita, P. similis, Neniatlanta pauli). This is also the type locality of Retinella ( Lyrodiscus) skertchlyi, which belongs to a subgenus of zonitid land snail now living only on the Canary Islands. There are indications from this fauna ('the Lyrodiscus biome') that the climate was wetter and perhaps warmer than the present day. The vertebrate fauna is also noteworthy with species of open habitats, such as rabbit ( Oryctolagus cf . cuniculus), and of closed forest, such as squirrel ( Sciurus sp.) and garden dormouse ( Eliomys quercinus) present at different times. The occurrence of southern thermophiles, such as Aesculapian snake ( Zamenis longissimus), indicates temperatures warmer than those of eastern England today. The upper levels include much material reworked from the interglacial sediments, although there is clear faunal evidence for climatic deterioration. Both the molluscan and vertebrate faunas suggest correlation of the interglacial sediments with the Hoxnian. Uranium series dates from the tufa (˜455 ka BP), TL dates from burnt flints (414±30 ka BP) and a range of amino acid racemization data all support correlation of this interglacial with MIS 11. However, four OSL dates from sand beneath the interglacial sequence yield a mean age of 261±31 ka BP, far younger than all other age determinations and far younger than implied by the biostratigraphy. Archaeologically the site is unusual in showing prolonged human occupation within closed deciduous forest and evidence for controlled use of fire in a Lower Palaeolithic context. Biostratigraphical correlations with other Lower Palaeolithic sites support the suggestion that Acheulian and Clactonian industries both occurred in southern Britain during the same substage of the Hoxnian, although not necessarily at precisely the same time. The characteristics of the MIS 11 interglacial in Britain are discussed in the light of evidence from Beeches Pit and elsewhere.

  5. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. This analysis does not consider temporary construction items and, therefore, does not consider hazards associated with temporary construction items. This analysis will be reviewed and updated to reflect new East-West Drift design changes, construction modifications, and ''as built'' documentation of the East-West Drift when completed. A major difference between this analysis and previous ESF SSAs is the inclusion of hazards that arise as a result of non-accident events, (e.g., ''off-normal'' operations, adverse environmental conditions, or ''out-of-tolerance'' conditions). Non-accident events, that were not included in previous ESF SSAs, include environmental and/or toxic hazards such as leaking gases/fluids, off-gassing reactions, and excessive dust, particulates, exhaust fumes, noise, temperature, etc. which could have an adverse health effect on personnel

  7. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... permits. Pursuant to its voluntary NEPA policy, published at 63 FR 58045 (October 29, 1998), EPA typically... designation through a rulemaking proposal published in the Federal Register (FR), as here. Formal designation... to adversely affect the West Indian manatee, pallid sturgeon, or the piping plover or its...

  8. Study of the ancient iron-smelting sites at Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west, Nigeria, using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis was used to obtain concentrations of some elements in samples of potsherds and furnaces obtained from Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west ancient iron-smelting sites. Using WARD method, cluster analysis of the elements was carried out to establish the relationship between the archaeological samples in term of similarity in elemental concentrations. It was found that there is some level of similarity among the potsherd samples from the three sites. Also, most of furnace samples display some similarity. It was established that there was cultural linkage between the iron-smelters at the different sites. The similarity between the samples lead to a conclusion that pot makers and furnace makers could have existed, who obtained clays from common sources, made and sold the products to users in different communities.

  9. Mercury (Hg)-Resistant Bacteria in Hg-Polluted Gold Mine Sites of Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SITI KHODIJAH CHAERUN; SAKINAH HASNI; EDY SANWANI; MAELITA RAMDANI MOEIS

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, ten mercury-resistant heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from mercurycontaminated gold mine sites in Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia. The bacteria (designated strains SKCSH1- SKCSH10) were capable of growing well at ~200 ppm of HgCl except for strain SKCSH8, which was able to grow at 550 ppm HgCl . The bacteria were mesophylic and grew optimally at 1% NaCl at neutral pH with the optimal growth temperature of 25-37 ºC. Phenotypic characterization and phy...

  10. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. This analysis does not consider temporary construction items and, therefore, does not consider hazards associated with temporary construction items. This analysis will be reviewed and updated to reflect new East-West Drift design changes, construction modifications, and ''as built'' documentation of the East-West Drift when completed. A major difference between this analysis and previous ESF SSAs is the inclusion of hazards that arise as a result of non-accident events, (e.g., ''off-normal'' operations, adverse environmental conditions, or ''out-of-tolerance'' conditions). Non-accident events, that were not included in previous ESF SSAs, include environmental and/or toxic hazards such as leaking gases/fluids, off-gassing reactions, and excessive dust, particulates, exhaust fumes, noise, temperature, etc. which could have an adverse health effect on personnel.

  11. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    OpenAIRE

    M. PROOROCU; A. DINUŢĂ; Raluca HAŢEGAN; Antoanela POPOVICI; P. BELDEAN; Sînziana PAULIUC

    2009-01-01

    Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Amon...

  12. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  13. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  14. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  15. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    During the maritime archaeological explorations a few sites of protohistoric in nature have been noticed along the saurashtra coast. the trial excavations of a few sites namely Bet Dwarka and Bhokhira on the western saurashtra coast yielded...

  16. Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlen F. Chase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

  17. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROOROCU M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Among these, a goodexample is the hexachlorocyclohexane soil pollution from Turda Area. The soil quality from this region is also affected by otheractivities like: waste disposal, oil and natural gases extraction.

  18. The Strontium Isotope Composition of Fossil Hackberry Seed Carbonate and Tooth Enamel as a Potential Record of Soil Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. J.; Stern, L. A.; Banner, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    The Edwards Plateau in central Texas has experienced significant soil erosion since the Last Glacial Maximum. In contrast to the thin soils that mantle the Cretaceous limestone bedrock of the modern Edwards Plateau, Quaternary fossils of burrowing mammals contained within several central Texas cave deposits suggest soil cover was much thicker in the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. As the landscape is denuded, the Cretaceous limestone bedrock is exhumed and becomes a more important source of exchangeable Sr to the soils. Therefore, the Sr isotope composition of the soil and organisms deriving nutrients from the soil, such as plants and herbivores, should become more like the Sr isotope composition of the bedrock as erosion continues. Because the marine limestone bedrock has a lower 87Sr/86Sr value than the soil, the exchangeable soil Sr should evolve to lower 87Sr/86Sr values through time resulting in a decrease in the 87Sr/86Sr of plants and animals deriving nutrients from the soil. In order to test this hypothesis, terrestrial fossils from an extensively dated Quaternary deposit within Hall's Cave, Kerr County, Texas were analyzed by TIMS for 87Sr/86Sr. The materials analyzed include aragonitic fossil hackberry seeds and rodent tooth enamel. Results indicate an overall decrease in the 87Sr/86Sr of fossil hackberry seed aragonite and rodent tooth enamel over the last 16,000 years, with the highest rate of decrease in the 87Sr/86Sr of fossil hackberry seeds (0.70982 to 0.70841) occurring between approximately 16,000 and 10,000 Y.B.P. This decrease in the 87Sr/86Sr is interpreted as evidence for an increase in the proportion of bedrock-derived Sr to the soils, corresponding to a general decrease in soil thickness. An increase in aridity or an increase in the seasonality of precipitation during this time could account for the post-glacial soil erosion in central Texas. This study suggests that the 87Sr/86Sr of fossils may be a useful proxy for paleo soil depth. Additionally, when applied to central Texas cave fossils, this technique may be able to provide a better understanding of the geomorphic and environmental history of the Edwards Plateau.

  19. Data collected from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at twenty-three sites in West Hawaii, 1999 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0002767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at 23 sites in West Hawaii. Survey sites are 8 to 14 m deep and are all located on reef shelfs with moderate...

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-31

    The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

  1. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-08-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

  2. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980's, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site

  3. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  4. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  5. Subglacial Lake CECs: Discovery and in situ survey of a privileged research site in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Andrés.; Uribe, José; Zamora, Rodrigo; Oberreuter, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery and on-the-ground radar mapping of a subglacial lake in Antarctica, that we have named Lake CECs (Centro de Estudios Científicos) in honor of the institute we belong to. It is located in the central part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, right underneath the Institute Ice Stream and Minnesota Glacier ice divide, and has not experienced surface elevation changes during the last 10 years. The ratio between the area of the subglacial lake and that of its feeding basin is larger than those for either subglacial lakes Ellsworth or Whillans, and it has a depth comparable to that of Ellsworth and greater than that of Whillans. Its ice thickness is ˜600 m less than that over Ellsworth. The lake is very likely a system with long water residence time. The recent finding of microbial life in Lake Whillans emphasizes the potential of Subglacial Lake CECs for biological exploration.

  6. Environmental monitoring of the main nuclear sites of Piemonte (North-West Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper are described the monitoring activities of ARPA Piemonte, principally focused on one of the two major Italian nuclear sites located in Piemonte: Nuclear Site of Saluggia that, together with the Nuclear Power Plant of Trino Vercellese (272 MWe) are the most important nuclear installations of the Region. Both these sites are located in Po Plain and are quite close together (not more than 20 km). Moreover their discharges flow directly into the Po river (Nuclear Power Plant) or into the Dora Baltea, one of the most important Po affluent, a few kilometres prior to the confluence into Po river

  7. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...describing available or potential aquatic and non-aquatic (i.e., land- based) alternatives and the consequences...chemical, and bioassay/bioaccumulation tests prescribed by national...disposal site designation is based on EPA's general...

  8. Oceanographic studies off Beypore Port, west coast of India to locate a dredge dumping site

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Srinivas, K.; Thottam, T.J.

    weather port. Based on the results of movement of disposed material obtained from a 2 dimensional coastal circulation model and considering the possibility of having a navigational channel later on in line with the port, a dumping site is recommended...

  9. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  10. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, A coastal site on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.S.

    variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (23), 2115. Smirnov, A., Holben, B.N., Dubovik, O., O’Neill, N.T., Eck, T.F., Westphal, D.L., Goroch, A.K., Pietras, C., Slutsker, I...

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

  12. Strategic petroleum reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-31

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1995. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of 3 the weeks Island facility, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 4.5 million m{sup 3} (30 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Transfer of Weeks Island oil began in November, 1995 with 2.0 million m{sup 3} (12.5 million barrels) transferred by December 31, 1995. Degasifying the crude oil is a major pollution prevention initiative because it will reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements by three or more orders of magnitude. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. There were only two reportable oil and three reportable brine spills during 1995, down from a total of 10 reportable spills in 1994. Total volume of oil spilled in 1995 was 56.3 m{sup 3} (354 barrels), and the total volume of brine spilled was 131.1 m{sup 3} (825 barrels). The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to five in 1995. All of the spills were reported to appropriate agencies and immediately cleaned up, with no long term impacts observed.

  13. Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast coal mines with As-contaminated water from an historic gold ore processing site near Reefton. Precipitates were collected from distinctly different settings, an active acid mine drainage treatment plant at Stockton mine and the neutralisation/oxidation zone of acid mine drainage discharge at the abandoned Blackball Coal Mine. The two mine sites produce precipitates with different compositions and mineralogy. Arsenic adsorption onto precipitates from each site was determined in batch and column tests under laboratory conditions. Batch experiments indicate As adsorption occurs rapidly during the first 5 h and reaches equilibrium after 24 h. At equilibrium, and for a dosing ratio of 50 g of precipitate per litre of water, As concentrations decreased from 99 mg/L to 0.0080 mg/L with precipitates from Stockton and to 0.0017 mg/L with precipitates from Blackball. Arsenic adsorption capacity is up to 12 mg/g on precipitates from Stockton sludge and 74 mg/g on precipitates from Blackball. The Blackball precipitate adsorbs more As than precipitates from Stockton which is probably due to the higher Fe oxide content but pH and surface structure could also play a role. The column experiment confirmed that adsorption of As from a continuous waste stream onto these precipitates is possible, and that passive remediation using this waste product mixed with gravel to enhance permeability could be a viable approach at As-contaminated mine sites. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joanne; Etherington, George; Pellow, Peter [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of the skin by a 'beta-rich' object. This is an object for which the content of the beta/gamma-emitting radionuclide caesium-137 exceeds the content of americium-241. It has been shown that it is extremely unlikely that deterministic effects could occur from encountering any of the beta-rich objects found on West Cumbrian beaches. The likelihood of members of the public ingesting a radioactive particle from the consumption of seafood and the associated health risks have also been estimated using a conservative scoping approach in consultation with the Food Standards Agency. The risks to local consumers of seafood have again been found to be very low. The assessment approach and findings of the studies undertaken will be described. (authors)

  15. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of the skin by a 'beta-rich' object. This is an object for which the content of the beta/gamma-emitting radionuclide caesium-137 exceeds the content of americium-241. It has been shown that it is extremely unlikely that deterministic effects could occur from encountering any of the beta-rich objects found on West Cumbrian beaches. The likelihood of members of the public ingesting a radioactive particle from the consumption of seafood and the associated health risks have also been estimated using a conservative scoping approach in consultation with the Food Standards Agency. The risks to local consumers of seafood have again been found to be very low. The assessment approach and findings of the studies undertaken will be described. (authors)

  16. Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures that showed staining (a possible indicator of past or present hydraulic activity) are rare, vertical to near-vertical, and occur mainly in, and adjacent to, mechanically stiff siltstone and sandstone interbeds. No interconnected fracture networks were observed. A series of pressurized air tests were conducted to evaluate fracture interconnectivity at and below the landfill facilities. Three pairs of vertical and three pairs of inclined boreholes were tested at depths ranging from 40 to 215 feet below ground surface. Borehole packers and volume-displacement tools were placed in each borehole to isolate the injection and observation horizons and minimize borehole storage effects, respectively. Injection pressures ranged from 1 to 5 psig. Pressures within the injection boreholes quickly stabilized and slowly decayed due to porous media flow, while no pressure changes occurred in the observation boreholes. These tests confirm the absence of hydrologically significant fracture networks in the subsurface at the WCS site.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

  18. Mercury (Hg-Resistant Bacteria in Hg-Polluted Gold Mine Sites of Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI KHODIJAH CHAERUN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ten mercury-resistant heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from mercurycontaminated gold mine sites in Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia. The bacteria (designated strains SKCSH1- SKCSH10 were capable of growing well at ~200 ppm of HgCl except for strain SKCSH8, which was able to grow at 550 ppm HgCl . The bacteria were mesophylic and grew optimally at 1% NaCl at neutral pH with the optimal growth temperature of 25-37 ºC. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolates were closely related to the family Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae and they were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and Aeromonas sp. Eight bacterial strains were shown to belong to the Pseudomonas branch, one strain to the Stenotrophomonas branch and one strain to the Aeromonas branch of the ã-Proteobacteria. Phylogeny based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that four of the isolates (SKCSH1, SKCSH4, SKCSH7, SKCSH9 could be classified as representatives of four novel species in the genus Pseudomonas that were allocated to P. moraviensis (96.96% similarity and P. plecogossicida (94.53, 96.61, and 96.73% similarity. Four other isolates could be allocated to P. plecogossicida (97.57 and 98.66% similarity and P. hibiscicola (99.97% similarity, one isolate to Stenotrophomonas africana (99.69% similarity, and one other isolate to Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae (99.43% similarity. The findings of this study provide the first information of the phylogenetically-diverse Hg-resistant bacteria in the Hg-polluted sites of Indonesia that may be highly useful for developing in situ bioremediation or detoxification of Hg-contaminated sites in Indonesia.

  19. Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), Division of Lands and Natural Resources (DLNR) of the State of Hawaii Fish Surveys from 23 West Hawaii Aquarium Project Sites during 1999-2005 (NODC Accession 0002767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at 23 sites in West Hawaii. Survey sites are 8 to 14 m deep and are all located on reef shelves with moderate...

  20. Aerosol optical properties over a coastal site in Goa, along the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirodkar, Shilpa; Menon, Harilal B.

    2015-08-01

    Spectral characteristics of the Aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured over a coastal site in Goa (15.46°N and 73.83°E), from a plateau ~50 m above mean sea level, for the period 2008-2010, are analyzed to understand the inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal variability and to delineate different aerosol sources. A Microtops-II sunphotometer having five different wavelengths centered at 0.380, 0.440, 0.500, 0.675 and 0.870 ?m was used to estimate AODs in different seasons classified as: winter monsoon season from December to March (WMS), spring inter-monsoon season from April to May (SIMS), summer monsoon season from June to September (SMS) and fall inter-monsoon season from October to November (FIMS). The number of data (AODs) generated in each season is 569 in WMS, 131 in SIMS, 38 in SMS and 256 in FIMS. The highest AOD at 500 nm (AOD500) was recorded in SIMS (0.43±0.18) while the lowest value was observed in SMS (0.32±0.10). The seasonal mean values of Ångström ? computed from the least-square method in the wavelength range 0.440-0.870 ?m showed higher values (1.23±0.20) in FIMS than those in SMS (0.75±0.34). The highest Ångström ? values were noticed in SIMS (0.25±0.10) and lowest in FIMS (0.17±0.06). To make a source appropriation and thus to resolve the complexity of aerosols in the study area, ? was computed in different wavelength ranges, viz: short wavelengths (0.440-0.500 ?m) and long wavelengths (0.675-0.870 ?m), which revealed differing ? values for different ranges of wavelengths. To account for the curvature, a second order polynomial fit is introduced. Subsequently, the second-order Ångström exponent (?) and the coefficient of the second-order polynomial fit are analyzed to understand the dominant aerosol type.

  1. 76 FR 40617 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Near Hackberry, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Maintenance Engineer, at Lake Charles. The closure is necessary to perform electrical component upgrades and repair work on the bridge that allows the bridge to be raised. This maintenance is essential for the... or copying at the Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West...

  2. Surface energy balance measurements at a tropical site in West Africa during the transition from dry to wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauder, M.; Jegede, O. O.; Okogbue, E. C.; Wimmer, F.; Foken, T.

    2007-07-01

    In one of the first micrometeorological experiments at a tropical site in West Africa, direct measurements of all surface energy balance components were carried out. The experiment NIMEX-1 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria (7°33' N, 4°33' E), was conducted from February 19, 2004 to March 9, 2004, during the transition from the dry to the wet season. Three typical weather situations could be observed: firstly, monsoonal winds from the southwest blew over desiccated soils. Almost 100% of the available energy at the surface was transformed into sensible heat flux. Secondly, after several thundershowers, monsoonal winds swept over soils of increased water content, which led to a partitioning of the available energy corresponding to Bowen ratios between 0.3 and 0.5. Thirdly, harmattan winds advected dry dusty air from northern directions, which reduced the incoming shortwave radiation. Again, Bowen ratios range from 0.3 to 0.5 during daytime, whereas latent heat fluxes are still high during the night due to the advection of very dry air. No systematic non-closure of the surface energy balance could be found for the NIMEX-1 dataset. Unlike other experiments in Europe, most of the ogives for the sensible and latent heat flux were found to be convergent during NIMEX-1 in Ile-Ife. This can be attributed to the homogeneity of the surrounding bush, which lacks the defined borders found in agriculturally cultivated landscapes.

  3. Assessment of radiological situation in the Murzhik inhabited point area on the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program on the radiological situation assessment around of the Murzhik inhabited point due to information about high mortality in this region, situated in the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site, was realized. In the framework of this study the radiological inspection was carried out. Radiation contamination of examined area around the Murzhik village is very heterogeneous. The region most part including the section on the test site area are characterizing by radiation contamination and external gamma-dose close to background one. However some areas (radioactive cloud traces, explosion craters, underground test boreholes) are demonstrating high contamination levels and radiation dose rate (up to 1 mSv·h-1). This conducts to very high external irradiation doses and its can have some radiation effects. The effects have been observed in different populations of animals used as biological indicators. Although the majority of morphological parameters does not confirm the harmful influence of contamination the genetic indexes have been demonstrated the statistical differences between irradiated and control populations of animals in chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequencies and high genome instability. The health status of the Murzhik village human population was compared with control group health. With help of statistical analysis the considerable difference between two populations does not found by a majority of indexes. With help of micronuclei test it is revealed that lymphocyte cytogenesis damages frequency in the Murzhik inhabitants in two times higher than this value in the control group. The most noticeable effect - it is very high considerable increase (in 7 times, p<0.007) the observed dicentric chromosomes frequency (concerned as reliable indicator of radiation effects)

  4. Design of an Electrical Network for the West Bank of Palestine with the Selection of Optimum Site of the Generating Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher J. Khammash

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design an electrical network for the West Bank of Palestine selecting the optimum site of the generating power plant. The required network should have the optimum configuration and realize the technical and economical requirements. It should provide the consumer with electric energy of high quality, reduce the cost of electric energy supplied to consumer and have the minimum possible total annual cost.

  5. Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west cross drift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestone SP33ABM4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model

  6. Increasing Role of Roof Gutters as Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Breeding Sites in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and Consequences on Dengue Transmission and Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustave, Joël; Fouque, Florence; Cassadou, Sylvie; Leon, Lucie; Anicet, Gabriel; Ramdini, Cédric; Sonor, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    During the past ten years, the islands of Guadeloupe (French West Indies) are facing dengue epidemics with increasing numbers of cases and fatal occurrences. The vector Aedes aegypti is submitted to intensive control, with little effect on mosquito populations. The hypothesis that important Ae. aegypti breeding sites are not controlled is investigated herein. For that purpose, the roof gutters of 123 houses were systematically investigated, and the percentage of gutters positive for Ae. aegypti varied from 17.2% to 37.5%, from humid to dry locations. In the dryer location, most of houses had no other breeding sites. The results show that roof gutters are becoming the most important Ae. aegypti breeding sites in some locations in Guadeloupe, with consequences on dengue transmission and vector control. PMID:22548085

  7. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

  8. Regulatory examination of the radiation-hygienic situation at Sites of Temporary Storage in North-West Russia prior to the beginning of major spent fuel removal works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a regulatory project carried out, under a collaborative agreement between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation (FMBA) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), by the Institute of Biophysics (Technical Support Organisation to FMBA) and western specialists. The project is one several addressing aspects of the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste at Sites of Temporary Storage (STSs) operated by Federal Enterprise SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha on the Kola Peninsula in North-West Russia, and the decommissioning of the sites. Industrial and regulatory projects are addressing options for removing spent submarine fuel currently stored in poor conditions at the sites and moving it to more appropriate storage facilities. The work described in this paper was to review and collate independent data on the current radiation situation and radiation control in the areas at and around the sites. The project has the ultimate objectives to develop norms and standards and supporting regulatory guidance for application during and upon completion of rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and Gremikha, and this work provides a 'baseline' of radiation conditions, before operations begin to remove the spent fuel. The examination identified and prioritised areas of contamination on and around the sites in terms of their current significance for the safety and health of workers and the public and their possible future significance for the environment and potential future users of the sites. Some areas on the sites had high dose rates - up to about 140 ?Sv/h in Andreeva Bay and 8500 ?Sv/h in Gremikha - due to contamination from past spent fuel storage practices. Although there do not appear currently to be areas of severe contamination outside the sites, some of the contamination on-site is in forms that will migrate with time, for example in streams and marine sediments. (author)

  9. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  10. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  11. Consequences of strip mine reclamation: vegetation and economics of reclaimed and unreclaimed sites in west-central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the vegetation on 36 strip mines which varied in reclamation effort and age. Vegetation on sites that had not been resoiled was most influenced by site age and historic liming and fertilization efforts. Six sites, all older than 30-years-old, were closed canopy woodlots dominated by either planted Pinus or volunteer Populus. Three sites 15-23 years old that had undergone repeated liming and fertilization efforts before abandonment were also dominated by planted Pinus or volunteer Populus and had stem densities quite similar to woodlot sites. All other sites less than 30 years old had open canopies and ground cover dominated by Cladonia, Polytrichum, Andropogon virginicus, Danthonia spicata, and bare soil. These sites had low tree stem densities and growth, and were not rapidly developing into woodlots. Barren spoils were significantly associated with low pH values, and results suggest that soil chemistry is currently dominated by aluminum buffering, not pyrite oxidation. Historical information was used to reconstruct the history of mining and reclamation in a watershed within the study area. An economic analysis of the costs and benefits of minimal and total reclamation was performed. Reclamation costs, fishery benefits, land productivity benefits, and state financed reclamation expenditures were included. The results were quite sensitive to assumptions about the value of a fisherman-day, the analytical period, and the discount rate. When a fisherman-day was valued at $35, the analysis included 1945-1983, and a 4% discount rate was used, benefits of total reclamation exceeded costs by 6%.

  12. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the oldest (2.34 Ma) Lokalalei archaeological site complex of the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, northern Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Schuster, Mathieu; Roche, Hélène; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Thuo, Peter; Prat, Sandrine; Harmand, Sonia; Davtian, Gourguen; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Bohn, Marcel

    2010-09-01

    At the northwest end of the Lake Turkana Basin (northern Kenya Rift), intensive fieldwork conducted on the Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine Nachukui Formation by the National Museums of Kenya and the West Turkana Archaeological Project (WTAP), led to the discovery of more than 50 archaeological sites aged between 2.4 and 0.7 Ma. Among them is the Lokalalei archaeological site complex, which includes the two oldest archaeological sites (2.34 Ma) found in the Kenyan segment of the East African Rift System. The environmental background of the two sites was described as a succession of ephemeral streams with floodplain palaeosols in which the archaeological sites are situated, bordering the western bank of a large axial meandering river flowing southward. The Lokalalei 1 (LA1) and Lokalalei 2C (LA2C) archaeological sites are of extreme importance in terms of knowledge of hominins' knapping activities. The stratigraphic position of the LA1 and LA2C sites as well as implications on the technical differences between the two sites have been successively discussed by Roche et al. (1999), Brown and Gathogo (2002), and Delagnes and Roche (2005). In terms of stratigraphic position, Lokalalei 2C was estimated to be slightly higher in the section (i.e. younger) than Lokalalei 1. An alternative stratigraphic correlation was proposed by Brown and Gathogo (2002), who suggested that LA2C site should have been approximately 100,000 years younger than LA1. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the Lokalalei sites have been developed following controversy on the stratigraphic position and time interval between the LA1 and LA2C sites. High-resolution lithostratigraphic work based on bed-to-bed field correlations, facies sedimentology and tephra geochemistry confirms that the LA2C site is slightly higher in the section than the LA1 site by about 11.20 m. This represents a time interval of ˜74,000 years based on an assumed sedimentation rate of 152 mm/ka. Sedimentary facies analysis indicates that the hominin occupation sites were situated in the vicinity of a lagoon/embayment environment close to the shoreline of an open lake. This lake was part of the broad lake development described across East Africa during the 2.7-2.4 Ma period. Palaeontological data associated with the sites suggest at the LA1 site a lake margin habitat, and at the LA2 sites an habitat with poor and sparse vegetation along channels of an alluvial fan system landward of the lake margin. They also confirm the aridity trend mentioned at the global scale for this period, which is demonstrated in the upper Lokalalei sediment sequence by progradation of an alluvial fan environment over the lake shoreline. Associated conglomeratic deposits could have been the source from which the knappers collected their raw materials. In addition, rapid variations from humid to arid episodes in a unique environment such as the East African Rift may have had a major influence in controlling hominin evolution.

  13. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

  14. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

  15. Radionuclide migration at sites of temporary storage of SNF and RW in North-West Russia - Contribution to regulatory development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest in the 1960s at Andreeva in the Kola Bay and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further stored material was received after 1985. These technical bases have since been re-categorised as sites of temporary storage. It is necessary to note that, during the storage of RW and SNF, certain conditions arose which resulted in failure of the storage barrier system, resulting in release of radionuclides. Remediation activities at the site focus on reduction of major risks associated with most hazardous radioactive source terms. In addition, the long term management of the sites includes consideration of how to remediate contaminated areas, not only because they affect continuing work at the site, but also because this work will influence final radiological status of the sites. The optimum approach to remediation will be affected by how quickly radionuclides could move, both during the remediation works and, so far as any residual activity is concerned, after the works are completed. Present investigations reported here are directed to determination of sorption-desorption parameters of radionuclides in the studied areas, which will affect their underground migration, with the purpose of accounting for regional peculiarities in optimization process of the STSs remediation. The work is being carried out by the TSO State Research Centre - Institute of Biophysics, of Russian Federation, with assistance from western experts. The work forms part of a regulatory collaboration programme on-going between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency which is designed to support the development of norms and standards to be applied in the remediation of these sites of temporary storage. (author)

  16. Hydrochemical And Isotopic Characterization Of The El-Negella Site As A Candidate Site For Nuclear Power Plant West Matrouh, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes the geochemical and radiological evaluation for samples of ground and surface water and was also carried out to study the suitability of the selected site (El- Negeila site, Egypt) for construction of nuclear power plant. The results will be evaluated to establish the radiological baseline and to monitor the impact of power plant on the surrounding area. To achieve this purpose, the study was subdivided into two parts; the first one deals with the radioactivity distribution in the environment while the second part was focused on the hydrochemistry of water resources. Generally, at the site selection of any nuclear power reactor, the distribution pattern of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides is essential for evaluation and control of public exposure, and investigations have been performed for hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater including chemical analysis of major and minor elements. The study deals with studying the major cations such as Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++ (by using the acationic ion chromatographic column) and the major anions such as Cl-, NO3- and SO4-- as well as measurement of stable isotopes (2H, 18O). These parameters are highly essential to evaluate the hydrological cycle, characterizing water masses and their origin, interconnection of water bodies and identification of recharge sources and recharge zones. Tritium was used as environmental radioactive isotope to study the groundwater recharge and dating, identification of recharge sources and recharge zone, surface water and groundwater interaction as well as sea water intrusion. The study could mainly applied to initiate a radiological assessment program for Egypt, and to establish a baseline map of background levels at El-Negeila site which will be of great value when a nuclear power plant at El-Negeila site, Egypt, will be constructed.

  17. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4; Geologiskt underlag foer val av prioriterad plats inom omraadet vaester om Simpevarp. Delrapport 1-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden); Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field.

  18. Field screening of soil vapors at a subsurface gasoline contaminated site in West Liberty, Morgan County, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaking underground storage tanks containing petroleum products pose a serious threat to groundwater quality nationwide. Many releases constitute an emergency situation due to exposure to toxic/flammable vapors and contamination of potable water sources. These conditions require that data from the contaminated area be acquired quickly and cost-effectively. A complaint was lodged by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Department of Highways in August 1988, concerning the quality and odor of water from their well. Preliminary sampling by the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection revealed results which indicated gasoline contamination. Subsequent sampling showed contamination of five potable wells in the area. One operating service station with three underground storage tanks containing gasoline and several abandoned underground storage tanks are in the immediate area where contamination had been identified. The objectives of an investigation initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey, Louisville, and Kentucky Dept. for Environmental Protection were to determine the degree and extent of contamination from gasoline constituents, locate the sources of contamination, and assess the impact of contamination on the quality of soils, groundwater and surface water. Soil vapors were obtained with an Environmental instruments soil vapor sampling device. Results of soil vapor and groundwater analyses indicate the origin of contamination is the operating service station's underground storage tank system. Several problems were encountered with this soil vapor technique. Sampling under dissimilar meteorological conditions produced varying results. Extraction of soil vapors at a rate of one liter per minute did not produce optimum results. Advantages of this soil vapor technique include a cost-effective screening of samples, prompt results, safety and no disruption of site hydraulics

  19. General investigation of radionuclide retention in migration pathways at the West Valley, New York low-level burial site. Final report 1 Oct 78-14 Feb 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report evaluates the containment capabilities of the low-level, solid radioactive waste burial ground at West Valley, New York. The investigation included a surface water study, a trench water study, geotechnical and radiochemical studies of soils, a geotechnical analysis of a research trench and analysis of subtrench core data. Tritium is the most abundant beta emitter in trench water while strontium-90 is the predominant beta emitter in surface water. Strontium-90 ranks as the second most abundant trench water radionuclide in 6 of the 11 trenches studied. Four radionuclides were found to have either definite or possible migration. Carbon-14 was found to migrate at a much slower rate than tritium, which migrated to a depth slightly greater than 3.2m below the trench flow. There is also inconclusive evidence for strontium-90 migration beneath the trenches. Plutonium-238 was detected immediately beneath all 3 trenches studied and in 4 of the 5 trench cores. Results predicted by testing performed in 1977 were confirmed by standard engineering tests on soils fron the site. Soil samples taken from the north burial area trench caps and analyzed for tritium showed approximate background levels at the surface and above background levels at depths of 20 to 50 centimeters

  20. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Harilal B., E-mail: harilalm@gmail.com [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Shirodkar, Shilpa [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat State 380009 (India); Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-01

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD{sub 0}.{sub 500} {sub ?m} and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD{sub 0.500} {sub ?m} exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m{sup 3} and 4.5 ?g/m{sup 3}, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between ? 14.1 W m{sup ?2} and ? 35.6 W m{sup ?2}, ? 6.7 W m{sup ?2} and ? 13.4 W m{sup ?2} and 5.5 W m{sup ?2} to 22.5 W m{sup ?2}, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is regulated by BC, which results in a positive forcing. • The surface forcing is governed by scattering aerosol leading to a negative forcing. • These two neutralize and the resultant TOA negative forcing is constant annually.

  1. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Harilal B; Shirodkar, Shilpa; Kedia, Sumita; S, Ramachandran; Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2014-01-15

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500 ?m and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500 ?m exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m(3) and 4.5 ?g/m(3), and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between -14.1 Wm(-2) and -35.6 Wm(-2), -6.7 Wm(-2) and -13.4 Wm(-2) and 5.5 Wm(-2) to 22.5 Wm(-2), respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. PMID:24012896

  2. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500?m and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500?m exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m3 and 4.5 ?g/m3, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between ? 14.1 W m?2 and ? 35.6 W m?2, ? 6.7 W m?2 and ? 13.4 W m?2 and 5.5 W m?2 to 22.5 W m?2, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is regulated by BC, which results in a positive forcing. • The surface forcing is governed by scattering aerosol leading to a negative forcing. • These two neutralize and the resultant TOA negative forcing is constant annually

  3. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, August 31-September 2, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological survey was conducted at the former locations of the West Stands, the New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. General radiochemistry and/or physics research for the MED/AEC program was performed at these sites during the 1940s. The buildings have since been razed. The survey was undertaken to determine the presence of any radionuclides remaining from the MED/AEC operations that could have been spilled or released from the former structures. Environmental soil samples (corings) were collected from the areas where the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory once stood. The soil corings were taken at what appeared to be undisturbed locations near the sites of the three former facilities. Analyses of the soil corings included determination of the concentrations of 137Cs, the 232Th decay chain, the 226Ra decay chain, and uranium in the soil. The levels of uranium and the 226Ra decay chain found in the samples indicated that no concentrations above natural background levels were present. Slightly elevated levels of 60Co were found in soil taken from the top 5 cm of the ground at two sampling sites, but this activity was presumed to have been traceable to induced activity from contaminated stainless steel that had been stored in the area during operations not related to MED/AEC activities. No increased radiation dose attributable to exposure to residual radioactivity from MED/AEC activities is expected

  4. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Rick Davis, Kevin Roe, Edward Mitchell, Paula Keener-Chavis Carolyn Sheehan, Peter Crowhurst, Simon Richards,and Volker Ratmeyer along with the Quest-4000 team. .

  5. Elemental characterization of metal artifacts recovered from archaeological sites Higueras 1sector west and sector B and Esquivilca south central coast of Lima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 70 metal artifacts from the Archaeological Rescue Project Loop Costa have been analyzed using non-destructive methods of analysis by X-ray fluorescence, in order to characterize them and to determine the chemical elemental composition of these objects, finding that these pieces are copper alloys, material used to manufacture their distinct metal utensils in every place. In Esquivilca Sector B copper-tin alloys and copper were used and in Higueras 1 Southwest Sector, copper-antimony and arsenic allows. Also some parts have an adhered material which contains sulfur and mercury, which leads us to think that in Higueras 1 Sector South West, pigments of these minerals were used on metal parts. (orig.)

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  7. Intake of trace and major elements through drinking water pathway by the adult population of the six villages around the uranium deposit site of Domiasiat, West Khasi hills, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elements such as Fe, Zn, K, Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Se and U were analyzed to determine their concentrations in drinking water collected from six villages around the uranium ore deposit site in Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. The estimation of the concentration of these elements in the drinking water samples collected was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, except for Uranium, estimation was done using a Laser based Fluorimeter. The concentration of the elements vary from 0.2 ppb -1.7 ppm and it has been observed that all the elemental concentration fall well below the WHO prescribe guidelines. Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected was found out to be less than 0.5 ppb. (author)

  8. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  9. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  10. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  11. Using environmental isotopes to characterize hydrologic processes of the Nelson Tunnel acid mine drainage site, West Willow Creek watershed, Creede, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupicka, A.; Williams, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage continues to be a pressing ecological issue across the Mountain West. Traditional remediation strategies usually involve the installation of an expensive and unsightly “end-of-pipe” water treatment plant without a full understanding of the overall hydrology of the system. In this study we show how applying water chemistry techniques to investigate water sources, ages, flow paths and residence times in a watershed affected by acid mine drainage can lead to alternative, less expensive methods of reclamation. We use both radiogenic (3H and 14C) and stable (18O and D) environmental isotopes to age waters and characterize the level of surface and groundwater interaction. Tritium content for waters collected in the tunnel was largely found to be 0-3 TU, indicating an age of greater than 50 years. This was supported by 14C values of DIC in tunnel samples that indicated ages and a hydraulic residence time on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Stable isotopes 18O and D plotted closely to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Combined with the heavy faulting and dominant welded volcanic tuffs of the region, this all indicates a system with very little surface-ground water interaction and a long, deep, likely channelized flow path. A future up-gradient pumping test would help confirm these findings and further elucidate the location and mechanism of the system’s primary recharge to the mine workings.

  12. Inversion of resistivity soundings in the archaeological site of Mahilaka (North-West of Madagascar) using the generalized linear inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the generalized inverse method which is used for the inversion of resistivity sounding. The technique has been applied to a resistivity soundings survey whose stations are selected in the zones of resistivity anomalies over an archaeological site. The site covers an area of 0.75 square kilometer in the north-western part of Madagascar, bordering the east Mozambic Channel. The one-dimensional (1-D) model fits well the observed data and the generalized linear inverse method appears to be a powerful scheme with which to interpret resistivity sounding data. (author). 29 refs, 6 figs

  13. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Randall, Allan D.

    1977-01-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y., are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and (or) reduced soil in their walls extend to 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975-76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 0.00001 to 0.001 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Trench water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. [Trench waters from Maxey Flats, Kentucky and West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Dayal, R.; Kinsley, M.T.; Clinton, J.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from the disposal trenches of two low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites were analyzed for their inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contents. Since oxidation of the trench waters can occur during their movement along the groundwater flow path, experiments were performed to measure the chemical and physical changes that occur in these waters upon oxidation. Low concentrations of chelating agents, shown to exist in trench waters, may be responsible for keeping radionuclides, particularly /sup 60/Co, in solution. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Characterization of a VHS virus genotype III isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss at a marine site on the west coast of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottem Karl F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norwegian production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss has been without any outbreaks of VHS for many years until the disease emerged in a farm in western Norway in November 2007. The fish were, in addition to VHS virus, positive for gill chlamydia-like bacteria, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and a microsporidian. A new VHS virus genotype III was isolated from the fish in RTgill-W1 cells and the complete coding region (11,065 nucleotides was sequenced. This virus was also used in a challenge experiment to see if it could cause any mortality in rainbow trout in sea water. Results This is the first time a nearly complete sequence of a genotype III virus isolate has been presented. The organization of the genes is the same as in the other VHS virus genotypes studied (GI and GIV. Between the ORFs are nontranslated regions that contain highly conserved sequences encompassing the polyadenylation signal for one gene, and the putative transcription initiation site of the next gene. The intergenic regions vary in length from 74 nt to 128 nt. The nucleotide sequence is more similar to genotype I isolates compared to isolates from genotype II and IV. Analyses of the sequences of the N and G protein genes show that this new isolate is distinct from other VHS virus isolates and groups closely together with isolates from genotype III. In a challenge experiment, using intraperitoneal (ip injection of the isolate, co-habitation with infected fish, and bath challenge, mortalities slightly above 40% were obtained. There was no significant difference in mortality between the bath challenged group and the ip injected group, while the mortality in the co-habitation group was as low as 30%. Conclusions All VHS virus isolates in genotype III are from marine fish in the North East Atlantic. Unlike the other known genotype III isolates, which are of low virulence, this new isolate is moderately virulent. It was not possible to detect any changes in the virus genome that could explain the higher virulence. A major problem for the study of virulence factors is the lack of information about other genotype III isolates.

  16. Modeling Shallow Groundwater Geochemistry and Carbon Isotopes: Test of Methodology for CO2 Storage Evaluation at an EOR Site, West Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanak, K. D.; Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2009-05-01

    Geochemical mixing, reaction, and isotopic models are being used to study the Dockum aquifer above the SACROC oilfield in Scurry County, Texas, the longest running (>35 years) engineered CO2 injection on record. Geochemical data used in the modeling are from fresh to slightly saline groundwater (200 to 500 ft depth Triassic-age Dockum Fm. and Permian-age evaporite horizons), and brine from the deeper (6,000 to 7,000 ft) injection/production zone. The goals of this study are to: 1) assess the degree of interaction between shallow groundwater and CO2 injectate, and 2) develop low-cost methods for monitoring shallow groundwater at CO2 sequestration sites. Injectate CO2 is not evident in freshwater above SACROC. Geochemical parameters in groundwater samples do not differ significantly from regional trends and partial pressures (PCO2) of dissolved CO2 are within normal ranges (10-1.6 to 10-3.0). PHREEQC model results show that cation exchange and mixing of Dockum groundwater with Ca-SO4 water from underlying Permian evaporite deposits (CO2 + H2O + CaCO2 = Ca2+ + 2HCO3-], which is a common effect of CO2 gas in freshwater aquifers. Modeling of carbon isotopes (after Appelo and Postma, 2005) indicates the d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Dockum (-3.6 to -13.2 per mil) is dominated by dissolution of dolomite (-2.5 to -7.7 per mil) with initial DIC conditions (-15 to -20 per mil) in equilibrium with a microbial CO2 source (-23 to -28 per mil). Because CO2 gas is not a reactant (carbonate for calcite precipitation originates from dolomite dissolution), input of injectate CO2 has little or no impact on isotopes for normal ranges of PCO2. Therefore carbon isotope ratios may not be useful parameters for monitoring groundwater impacts from CO2 injection in areas where mixing and dedolomitization dominate groundwater chemistry. This research is funded by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) as part of the Phase 2 Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SWP).

  17. Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Mart; Thorne, Paul D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2008-12-17

    Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.

  18. Palatalization in West Germanic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the palatalization of consonants in historic and living dialects of three West-Germanic languages: Dutch, German, and Frisian. Palatalization was a common feature of the West-Germanic phonological system and can be found in some form in all West-Germanic languages of the present. It is argued that the extent of its…

  19. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  20. Understanding West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding West Nile Virus The West Nile Virus first emerged in the Western Hemisphere in 1999 ... of the brain and spinal cord. What Is West Nile Virus? Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Prevention Last Updated April 02, ...

  1. West-Side Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  2. Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  4. Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

  5. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  6. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

    2010-03-24

    Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

  8. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  9. Cleanup criteria for the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is prescribing decontamination and decommissioning (cleanup) criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project and the West Valley, New York, site. The site is contaminated with various forms of residual radioactive contamination and contains a wide variety of radioactive waste. The NRC is planning to issue cleanup criteria for public comment in Fall 1999. Due to the complexity of the site, and the newness of NRC's cleanup criteria policy, applying NRC's cleanup criteria to this site will be an original regulatory undertaking. (author)

  10. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  11. Charleston folio, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marius R.

    1901-01-01

    The Charleston quadrangle embraces an area of 938 square miles, extending from latitude 38° on the south to 38°30' to the north, and from longitude 81° 30' on the east to 82° on the west.  The quadrangle is located in the State of West Virginia, including parts of the counties of Kanawha, Boone, Putnam, and Lincoln, and is named from the city of Charleston, which is situated at the junction of Elk and Kanawha rivers, in the north-eastern part of the quadrangle.

  12. Burnt Stone at West Heath, Hampstead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myfanwy Stewart

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available British mesolithic sites, often on acid sands, tend to yield little organic material other than charcoal. Flint assemblages form the greatest part of the archaeological evidence. Quantities of burnt stone are usually present. They may be a source of information on past avctivities and so provide important supporting data for the knapped flint. Experiments were carried out to ascertain if the red and white stones, recovered at West Heath, had been burnt.

  13. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  14. West Nile Virus, Guadeloupe

    OpenAIRE

    Quirin, René; Salas, Michel; Zientara, Stéphan; Zeller, Hervé; Labie, Jacques; Murri, Séverine; Lefrançois, Thierry; Petitclerc, Martial; Martinez, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) had reached the archipelago of Guadeloupe, a serologic study in horses and birds was conducted in 2002. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seroneutralization tests identified WNV infection in horses and chickens. Six months later, a high rate of seroconversion was observed in horses.

  15. Glacier Inventory of West Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The inventory includes 5,297 Glaciers from west Greenland between 59 to 71 degrees latitude north and 43 to 53 degrees longitude west. The glacier data basin...

  16. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  17. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  18. West Chestnut Ridge hydrologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility included collection and analysis of data on stream flows, watershed areas, precipitation, water levels at piezometer sites, and physiochemical properties of surface water. Seven temporary water-flow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Chip-floating and regression techniques were used to estimate stream flows after some of the temporary structures were destroyed during high flows. Stream flow fluctuations were quantified using coefficients of variation and percent change in total flow between adjacent sampling dates. The difference between precipitation and observed flows (net loss) was calculated for all stations. Two headwater stations (4 and 6) exhibited lower flows per watershed area and channel length, and higher levels of fluctuation in flow than the other stations. These two stations were also similar in watershed area and flow magnitude. Two other headwater stations (5 and 7) with comparable flows had total drainage areas that were similar in size and smaller than those of the other stations. Stations 5 and 7 exhibited high flows per drainage area and section length, especially in the dry period of the year when flows were higher than at all other stations. Fluctuations in flows were lowest at these two stations. Data indicate that these two sections are fed by sources of dependable groundwater. 7 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  19. The West Heslerton Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-01-01

    The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  20. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  1. West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Shannan L; Ross, Ted M; Evans, Jared D.

    2010-01-01

    Since its isolation in Uganda in 1937, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for thousands of cases of morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. Historically, epidemics were localized to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, and primarily caused a mild febrile illness in humans. However, in the late 1990’s, the virus became more virulent and expanded its geographical range to North America. In humans, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic (approxima...

  2. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  3. A Lateglacial archaeological site in the far north-west of Europe at Rubha Port an t-Seilich, Isle of Islay, western Scotland: Ahrensburgian-style artefacts, absolute dating and geoarchaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithen, Steven; Wicks, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The exact pattern, process and timing of the human re-colonization of northern Europe after the end of the last Ice Age remain controversial. Recent research has provided increasingly early dates for at least pioneer explorations of latitudes above 54°N in many regions, yet the far north-west of the European landmass, Scotland, has remained an unexplained exception to this pattern. Although the recently described Hamburgian artefacts from Howburn and an assemblage belonging to the arch-backed point complex from Kilmelfort Cave have established at least a sporadic human presence during earlier stages of the Lateglacial Interstadial, we currently lack evidence for Younger Dryas/Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) activity other than rare stray finds that have been claimed to be of Ahrensburgian affiliation but are difficult to interpret in isolation. We here report the discovery of chipped stone artefacts with technological and typological characteristics similar to those of the continental Ahrensburgian at a locality in western Scotland. A preliminary analysis of associated tephra, pollen and phytoliths, along with microstratigraphic analysis, suggest the artefacts represent one or more episodes of human activity that fall within the second half of GS-1 and the Preboreal period. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Quaternary Science published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Bathtub primer - lessons from West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear and radioactive waste disposal management can benefit from a through understanding of the problems encountered in the unsuccessful disposal facilities of the past. The commercial low level radioactive waste disposal operation at West Valley, New York, is one of three such failed facilities in the United States. This paper discusses the history and background of this site and others. If then discusses the environmental characteristics and site geology. The paper also discusses the design of the operation at West Valley and the hydrologic problems which resulted in the ultimate contamination and closure of this facility

  5. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  6. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  7. Study of the Vulnerability of Fractured Aquifers in the Context of an Implementation of a Modern Landfill: Application of Remote Sensing and the Geotechnical Method on the Site of Kossihouen (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Blaise KOFFI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The workshop of the interdepartmental committee responsible for managing household waste in Abidjan (Ivory Coast in 2007 showed that the landfill site should be chosen out of the coastal sedimentary basin to protect the groundwater of the Continental Terminal aquifer against pollution. Indeed, this aquifer provides the potable water to Abidjan populations and also assures uniformity of the price of water by the water company of the Ivory Coast. But, given the groundwater flow and the possibility of transfer of fluid between the discontinuous and continuous aquifers, is it possible that an activity taking place outside the coastal sedimentary basin of Côte d'Ivoire (such as a landfill site contributes to the pollution of the groundwater in Abidjan. To resolve this problem, the geotechnical surveys, the laboratory tests and in-situ tests were conducted to determine the types of the soil across the study site. The Landsat TM scenes 196-56 of 12/30/1990 were processed to study the fracturation of the site. The geotechnical tests carried out in situ on the study area and the laboratory test allowed knowing the nature of the formations and their differents permeabilities. Indeed, the formations are generally complex and formed of sandy clay of low to very low permeability ranging from 9.8. 10-7 to 1.1. 10-5 m/s in situ and 1.68.10-6 to 1.76. 10-5 m / s in the laboratory. Regarding remote sensing, the Landsat image processing revealed mega-fractures (NE-SW on the site of the modern landfill of Kossihouen.

  8. West Syndrome: Response to Valproate

    OpenAIRE

    RashmiKumar

    2012-01-01

    Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. Objective: To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndrome. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general outpatient department (OPD) were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30?mg/k...

  9. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  10. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  11. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  12. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljevi? Petrovi?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the ?a?ak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  13. Kahekili, West Maui, Hawaii Fish and Benthic Data from Surveys in January and August 2008 (NODC Accession 0065597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish and benthos baseline surveys were made at 155 sites of the near shore region off Kahekili Beach Park, West Maui in January and August, 2008. Survey sites were...

  14. Response of west Indian coastal regions and Kavaratti lagoon to the November-2009 tropical cyclone Phyan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Mehra, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Radhakrishnan, K.V.; VijayKumar, K.; AshokKumar, K.; Agarwadekar, Y.; Bhat, U.G.; Luis, R.; Rivankar, P.; Viegas, B.

    precipitation (approx.60 mm) at Karwar and approx.45 mm at several other west Indian coastal sites. Impact of Phyan on the west Indian coastal regions was manifested in terms of intensified significant waves (approx.2.2 m at Karwar and Panaji), sea surface...

  15. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 5: Argonne National Laboratory-West site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilities addressed in this study include the Analytical Laboratory (AL), the Experimental Fuels Laboratory (EFL), the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF), the Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) Laboratory, the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility, and the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Vault and Workroom. The Site Assessment Team found no ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the AL, EFL, NDA Laboratory, or TREAT. For those facilities, any potentially adverse conditions or potentially adverse conditions or potentially hazardous events were found to be of little or no consequence due to compensatory and mitigative measures existing in the facilities or within the ANL-W operations

  16. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  17. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  18. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mosquito Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile virus is transmitted to birds through ...

  19. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

  20. Post Monitoring (2003) of the West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration Project -- Stowe, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the Federal Emergency...

  1. The West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration Project (2001) and Post Monitoring Project (2002) -- Stowe, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the Federal Emergency...

  2. Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands : Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco) and Doñana National Park (South-West Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Najat Elkhiati; Mohamed Ramdani; Espinar, José L.; Khalid Fahd; Laura Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain). Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems o...

  3. Nitrogen compounds emission and deposition in West African ecosystems: comparison between wet and dry savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Delon, C.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Adon, M.; Liousse, C.; Serça, D.; Diop, B.; A. Akpo

    2011-01-01

    Surface emission and deposition fluxes of nitrogen compounds have been studied in five sites of West Africa during the period 2002 to 2007. Measurements of N deposition fluxes have been performed in IDAF sites representative of main west and central African ecosystems, i.e., 3 stations in dry savanna ecosystems (from 15° N to 12° N), and 2 stations in wet savanna ecosystems (from 9° N to 6° N). Dry deposition fluxes are calculated from surface measurements of N...

  4. Tourist events in the area of West Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current tourist offer, tourism of events presents a kind of tourism that could contribute to extending the tourist demand, especially towards natural and anthropogenic values of a tourist site or region. West Morava's area is the southernmost Panonian-subregion in Serbia, and is related to the valley of the West Morava River. This region is also one of the most visited tourist destinations in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to establish the correlation between the formal events and spa resorts, rural, cultural, and gastronomic tourism in the area which also presents a significant transitive tourist destination.

  5. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  6. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  7. Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ? 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ? 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

  8. North-West Region Monitoring

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Ecological Assessment of the Region, Where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities. Part 2

  9. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  10. Safer than sleeping with your spouse - The West Valley experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste burial site are reviewed in terms of the following issues: entry of water into burial trenches, transport of radionuclides out of the trenches, ultimate fate of the radionuclides, regulatory and health implications, dose levels from West Valley, and additional measures to reduce effluents. Despite burial of unacceptable waste forms and poor management of the site, annual doses from shallow-land burial at the West Valley site are well within existing and forthcoming standards. Even the maximum annual health risks, less than two in one billion for a public water supply customer and less than four in one billion for a fisherman result in lifetime risks for each which are more than 100-fold below one in a million, a value commonly considered acceptable. Decomposition of buried biodegradable wastes will result in the production of large volumes of gas which in turn will create problems with management of a disposal site. Since tritium and 14C will escape to the atmosphere regardless of whether or not the wastes are incinerated, management of any disposal site may be improved by incineration prior to burial. It appears that worker and public doses will increase if incineration is used, however

  11. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sedimentsNuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that

  12. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow. PMID:12314893

  13. West Nile Virus Ecology in a Tropical Ecosystem in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E.; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R.; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M.; Müller, María L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Barbara W.; Powers, Ann M.; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States. PMID:23149586

  14. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Migratory birds and West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappole, J H; Hubálek, Z

    2003-01-01

    West Nile virus was first recorded in the New World during August 1999 in New York City. Aetiology of the disease in the Old World indicated birds as the likely introductory and amplifying hosts with ornithophilous mosquitoes, e.g. Culex pipiens, as the principal vectors. Speculation regarding likely agents for movement of the virus in its new environment focused on migratory birds, but evidence to date is equivocal. While spread of the disease has been fairly rapid, at a rate of roughly 70 km a month, it has not shown the kind of long-distance, leap frog movements one might expect if transient birds were the principal introductory hosts. Furthermore, movement of the disease has not been focused southward, but shows a radiating pattern with detection sites located in all directions from New York where terrestrial habitat was available. In addition, tests among potential New World, avian hosts have revealed prolonged viraemia (up to 5 days) only in the relatively non-migratory House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Dispersal movements by this species could account for the observed pattern of West Nile virus spread in the Western Hemisphere to date. Regardless of whether avian migration, dispersal, or some other agent is responsible, West Nile virus should reach the New World tropics in another 1-2 years, at which time a vast number of new potential introductory and amplifying avian hosts would be exposed to the disease and mosquito vectors would be available throughout most of the year, likely causing serious, long-term threats to human health and vulnerable avian populations in the region. PMID:12675936

  16. FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-28

    This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

  17. West syndrome associated with hyperlexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, N

    1990-01-01

    Two patients are reported with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia. They had peculiar linguistic and psychosocial development and autistic behavior, yet began to read Japanese and Chinese characters, numbers, Roman alphabet letters, and trademark letters at 3 years of age. Neuropsychologic, electroencephalographic, and radiologic studies were performed at 11 years of age in Patient 1 and at 10 years of age in Patient 2. Although they were able to read fluently with correct intonation, their comprehension was significantly impaired. The neuropsychologic evaluation of both patients demonstrated selective, excellent ability in auditory memory in contrast to impairment of associational abilities, visual retention, and visual constructional abilities. These findings suggest that the functions in the nondominant hemisphere were also impaired. Although children with West syndrome frequently have associated mental retardation, patients with West syndrome associated with hyperlexia have never been reported. A neuropsychologic investigation of epileptic children with mental retardation is necessary for the detection of hyperlexia. PMID:2242178

  18. Mosquito Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Southeastern Wisconsin - 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Meece, Jennifer K; Henkel, James S.; Glaser, Linda; Reed, Kurt D.

    2003-01-01

    In 2001, West Nile virus (WNV) was identified among dead American crows and bluejays in five counties in southeastern Wisconsin. In response to the introduction of WNV, a pilot mosquito surveillance program was initiated in these five southeastern Wisconsin counties during the summer of 2002. Forty sites were selected for surveillance one night each week during a 17-week period. Mosquitoes were collected in carbon dioxide-baited light traps and gravid traps. During the study period 31,419 mos...

  19. Microplastics in the coastal environment of West Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Dippo, Benjamin, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Microplastic particles in the marine environment and the effects on wildlife, human and ecosystem health are just beginning to be understood in a global setting. The presence of microplastics particle in West Iceland are evaluated to determine if there is a detectable gradient of decreasing plastic concentrations with increasing distance from the urban centres around Reykjavik. The study region includes sample sites within urban, semi-rural and rural coastal settings, with 4 si...

  20. A Security Guard With West Nile Virus Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Letha

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old male working as a security supervisor in an office building was seen for return to work by the on-site occupational health nurse. He was observed to have slow gait as he entered the clinic waiting area, was pale, diaphoretic, and slow in responding to questions. His return to work note stated he was recovering from West Nile Virus (WNV). Implications for return to work are presented. PMID:26245464

  1. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  2. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  3. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  4. Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Goutier, Sandrine; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Pinel, Claudine; Bosseray, Annick; Hoen, Bruno; Couetdic, Gérard; Bourahoui, Amina; Lapostolle, Claire; Pelloux, Hervé; Garnier, Martine; Sertour, Natacha; Pelloux, Isabelle; Pavese, Patricia; Cornet, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia crocidurae–associated relapsing fever is endemic to West Africa and is considered benign. We report 4 patients with B. crocidurae–associated neurologic symptoms; 2 of their cases had been misdiagnosed. Frequency and severity of this disease could be underestimated; molecular methods and serodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease might be helpful in its detection.

  5. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic an...

  6. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  7. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by being bitten by an...

  8. NIAID's Role in Addressing West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a human host. Credit: CDC West Nile Virus West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in the Western Hemisphere in ... has since spread across the United States. The virus is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Most human ...

  9. West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birdbaths on a regular basis. Help Your Community West Nile Virus Surveillance and Control Programs Support your local community ... authorities. Dead birds may be a sign that West Nile virus is circulating between birds and the mosquitoes in ...

  10. West Valley feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems

  11. West Valley feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirro, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

  12. Site qualification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen study locations in the North Atlantic have been evaluated in accordance with the Site Qualification Program Plan. This preliminary evaluation has shown that the characteristics of the Madcap, Great Meteor West, and Northern Bermuda Rise study locations are sufficiently unsuitable to warrant downgrading for further study. Archived geological, geophysical and oceanographic data from Cape Verde III and the Gambia Abyssal Plain must be more completely evaluated before a decision for intensive field study can be reached. The remaining study locations are acceptable for intensive field study; however, in some instances possible detracting characteristics, which may require special analysis, have been noted

  13. Data report: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. National uranium resource evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Stream sediment samples were collected at 234 sites in Delaware, 1322 sites in Maryland, 5667 sites in Virginia, and 2965 sites in West Virginia. Ground water samples were collected at 284 sites in Delaware, 1188 sites in Maryland, 4834 sites in Virginia, and 4060 sites in West Virginia. Stream water samples were collected at 837 sites in Maryland, 2598 sites in Virginia, and 2910 sites in West Virginia. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 2730 sediment samples from Virginia. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 1765 ground water sites. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site

  14. Arsenic in groundwater of West Bengal: Implications from a field study

    OpenAIRE

    Neidhardt, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents results of an interdisciplinary field study assessing the contribution of biological and inorganic processes in the mobilisation and accumulation of arsenic in groundwater of the Bengal Delta Plain, West Bengal. Investigations were focussed on the distribution of arsenic in sediments and shallow groundwater of two representative study sites. All results were combined in an effort to develop a conceptional model describing the mobility of arsenic in West Bengal aquifers.

  15. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile 1.2, at Osterville, shall...

  16. The West Virginia Folk Arts Apprenticeship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusta Heritage Center, Elkins, WV.

    This booklet describes an apprenticeship program that encourages and perpetuates West Virginia folk arts. The program is an ongoing project administered by the Augusta Heritage Center located on the campus of Davis and Elkins College in West Virginia. Folk art is the artistic expression of values shared by communities of people. In West Virginia,…

  17. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  18. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on September 16-17, when they were spawning in shallow ditches, formed by the wheels of a truck. Amolops larutensis were day active and occurred in the shadow, among stones in a forest stream, particula...

  19. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities...

  20. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  1. Progress of the West Valley demonstration project vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key vitrification process equipment designed for solidification of the high-level liquid wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center has been installed in a cold testing facility at the site, and has undergone checkout and performance tests for nearly four years. The early testing phases concentrated on functional checkout of the equipment and developing the process flow sheet operating conditions required for safe, steady state, radioactive operations. This paper discusses how the recent testing efforts will focus on determining the chemical processing uncertainty ranges specific to the West Valley systems, and verifying that the canisterized glass produced by this process complies with the limits defined by the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications for the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Form (WAPS) prepared by DOE-RW

  2. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  3. Revisiting the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Brunner, A.; Collins, G.; Cohen, B. A.; Coulter, A.; Elphic, R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Hodges, K.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The West and East Clearwater Lake impact structures are two of the most distinctive and recognizable impact structures on Earth. Known regionally as the "Clearwater Lake Complex", these structures are located in northern Quebec, Canada (56 deg 10 N, 74 deg 20 W) approximately 125 km east of Hudson Bay. The currently accepted diameters are 36 km and 26 km for the West and East structures, respectively. Long thought to represent a rare example of a double impact, recent age dating has called this into question with ages of approximately 286 Ma and approximately 460-470 Ma being proposed for the West and East structures, respectively. Relatively little is known about the East Clearwater Lake structure. There is no surface exposure and what information there is comes from geophysics and two drill cores obtained in the 1960s. In contrast, the West Clearwater Lake structure is relatively well preserved with large ring of islands in the approximately 30 km diameter lake. Much of the work done on West Clearwater stems from field investigations carried out in 1977 driven by the Apollo program, with a focus on the impact melt rocks and other impactites, which are well exposed on the ring of islands. To our knowledge, the Clearwater Lake impact structures have not been the focus of detailed impact geology field investigations since the 1977 expedition and the only geological map that exists is from the 1960s and is at the reconnaissance level. Our knowledge of impact cratering processes have increased substantially since this time, as have the analytical techniques available for samples. This provided the motivation for a joint Canadian-US-UK expedition to the West Clearwater Lake impact structure in August and September 2015, under the auspices of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project, part of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). We focus here on the impactites of the West Clearwater Lake impact structure. Other ongoing studies, also presented at this conference, focus on central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, xxxx and using WCIS as an analog test site for crew studies of sampling protocols].

  4. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  5. West Nile Virus: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    West Nile Virus is the most frequent cause of arboviral disease in the United States. It was first identified in the United States in 1999. Since that time, each of the 48 contiguous states in the United States has seen the disease, and it has been found in 96% of the U.S. counties in infected humans, mosquitoes, birds, horses, or other mammals. Although most often the disease resolves on its own, patients can develop serious and life-threatening complications, and may need further monitoring and treatment. This article reviews the prevalence, transmission, signs and symptoms, complications, treatment, surveillance, and prevention of the disease. PMID:25943218

  6. The Evaluation of the Selected On-Site Location for a New Nuclear Facility on a Multi-Facility Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelindaba is a multi-facility nuclear and chemical site in the North West Province of South Africa where Necsa currently operates SAFARI-1. A proposed new dedicated isotope production reactor facility is to be constructed on this site. The siting process followed is tailored from the IAEA guidelines. This paper describes the site selection and site characterization for a new facility at Pelindaba. (author)

  7. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

  8. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  9. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, L.; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  10. Cd and Pb exposure of earthworms in cultivated soil close to an industrial area in West Berlin. Die Cadmium- und Bleibelastung von Regenwuermern in industrienahen, kultivierten Boeden in Berlin (West)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenfeld, P. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Tierphysiologie und Angewandte Zoologie)

    1989-01-01

    The heavy metal content (Cd, Pb) of earthworms was investigated in relationship of different soil variables on a site close by an industrial area and on an unpolluted site in Berlin-West. The accumulation of heavy metals is much higher on the unpolluted site than on the polluted site, which present plain parts of organic matter. A correlation between heavy metal content and the age of the worms does not exist for all species. (orig.).

  11. Nuclear wastes at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-tiered approach is proposed for separating questions of who manages nuclear wastes from who pays for the management. The proper role of the Federal government in the nuclear fuel cycle is explored in the historical context of the West Valley, New York reprocessing plant, which operated on a private basis from 1966 to 1972. The plant reprocessed 600 metric tons for fuel and produced 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, most of which remains in a carbon steel tank waiting for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or some other agency to assume responsibility for it. A review of the plant's purposes, operations, and shutdown illustrates the difficulties of establising policies and rules for managing the wastes. Future use of the site will dictate the extent of decontamination and decommissioning that is needed, while legal and political issues of responsibility will also affect the rules. The case is made for conducting the cleanup as an experiment, using a prudent, rational, resolute, and charitable approach to taking necessary risks. A step-by-step process of decision and rule-making is proposed as an acknowledgement of the fact that all the answers are not known. ERDA is felt to be the best-suited for management, with guidelines formulated by the NRC. Financial responsibility could be divided between the National Science Foundation and Federal and state governments

  12. Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

  13. Front-end planning and evaluation for West Valley Demonstration Project completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1988, the U.S. Department of Energy and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority announced their intent to prepare a joint environmental impact statement (EIS) to evaluate alternatives for West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) completion and closure and/or long-term maintenance of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) in West Valley, New York. Planning was initiated for the eventual closure of the site, even though vitrification of the high-level waste (HLW) stored at the site was, at that time, a number of years in the future. West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSC), the WVDP management and operations contractor, and their architect/engineer, Raytheon Nuclear Incorporated, were authorized to develop characterization studies and engineering evaluations of closure alternatives for the various facilities of the WNYNSC. This paper presents a summary of the status of that effort, including the resolution of unique problems

  14. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple parameters. It is planned as decision and planning tool for town planners and engineers in local municipality governments and to consulting engineers and contractors in Greenland, which also may be used in other arctic regions. Risk is classified in four categories: Low, Limited, Medium and High based on environmental properties as surface conditions (rock or sedimentary basins), soil grain size classification (gravel, sand, silt and clay) and ice content in the ground. The model uses ground thermal conditions quantified as the Permafrost Thaw Potential, which is defined as the potential active layer increase due to climate warming and surface alterations. Using this methodology it is expected that mapping of vulnerability in towns and construction areas together with proposed adaption and mitigation technologies will be of practical use to technical institutions and public as well as a general tool for the scientific community. The presentation will focus on the application of the Risk Evaluation diagram used in the selected towns in different permafrost zones and is illustrated with present observations of permafrost detoriation in West Greenland.

  15. Performance testing of West Valley Reference 6 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical durability of West Valley Reference 6 glass is being evaluated by using a suite of laboratory tests which highlight the early, interim, and long-term stages of corrosion. The test results are being used to describe the glass corrosion path and its long-term durability. The long-term durability of the SRL Environmental Assessment glass is being evaluated for comparison. Test results also provide parameter values for an analytical corrosion model that can be used in performance assessments of specific disposal sites

  16. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  17. I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Boaz Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia [1] aimed the meeting of the academic community of west Bahia state developing research activities at graduate level and postgraduate ones in several chemistry areas, mainly the analytic chemistry, natural products, theoretical chemistry, medicinal chemistry, chemistry teaching, spectroscopy, materials science, photochemistry and catalysis. Through the plenary lectures, short courses and poster presentation, invited researchers from other institutions ...

  18. West Nile virus: a growing concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, L. Hannah; Fikrig, Erol

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has subsequently spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. This review describes the epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in North America and the prospects for effective treatments and vaccines.

  19. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on September 16-17, when they were spawning in shallow ditches, formed by the wheels of a truck. Amolops larutensis were day active and occurred in the shadow, among stones in a forest stream, particularly close to water falls and rapids. Several while foam nests with a diameter of 5-7 cm were deposited on the same stones just above the water surface on August 27. Other species observed were Bulo melanostictus, Bulo asper, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Kaloula pulchra, Limnonectes laticeps, Limflonectes macrodon, Rana erythraea, Rana glandulosa, Rana nicobarieflsis, and Rhacophorus prominanus.

  20. Peatland classification of West Siberia based on Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentieva, I.; Glagolev, M.; Lapshina, E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest in peatlands for prediction of environmental changes requires an understanding of its geographical distribution. West Siberia Plain is the biggest peatland area in Eurasia and is situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. West Siberian taiga mires are important globally, accounting for about 12.5% of the global wetland area. A number of peatland maps of the West Siberia was developed in 1970s, but their accuracy is limited. Here we report the effort in mapping West Siberian peatlands using 30 m resolution Landsat imagery. As a first step, peatland classification scheme oriented on environmental parameter upscaling was developed. The overall workflow involves data pre-processing, training data collection, image classification on a scene-by-scene basis, regrouping of the derived classes into final peatland types and accuracy assessment. To avoid misclassification peatlands were distinguished from other landscapes using threshold method: for each scene, Green-Red Vegetation Indices was used for peatland masking and 5th channel was used for masking water bodies. Peatland image masks were made in Quantum GIS, filtered in MATLAB and then classified in Multispec (Purdue Research Foundation) using maximum likelihood algorithm of supervised classification method. Training sample selection was mostly based on spectral signatures due to limited ancillary and high-resolution image data. As an additional source of information, we applied our field knowledge resulting from more than 10 years of fieldwork in West Siberia summarized in an extensive dataset of botanical relevés, field photos, pH and electrical conductivity data from 40 test sites. After the classification procedure, discriminated spectral classes were generalized into 12 peatland types. Overall accuracy assessment was based on 439 randomly assigned test sites showing final map accuracy was 80%. Total peatland area was estimated at 73.0 Mha. Various ridge-hollow and ridge-hollow-pool bog complexes prevail here occupying 34.5 Mha. They are followed by lakes (11.1 Mha), fens (10.7 Mha), pine-dwarf-shrub sphagnum bogs (9.3 Mha) and palsa complexes (7.4 Mha).

  1. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olberg, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  2. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  3. Structural Preconditions of West Bohemia Earthquake Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, M.; Špi?ák, A.; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-07-01

    The West Bohemia and adjacent Vogtland are well known for quasi-periodical earthquake swarms persisting for centuries. The seismogenic area near Nový Kostel involved about 90 % of overall earthquake activity clustered here in space and time. The latest major earthquake swarm took place in August-September 2011. In 1994 and 1997, two minor earthquake swarms appeared in another location, near Lazy. Recently, the depth-recursive tomography yielded a velocity image with an improved resolution along the CEL09 refraction profile passing between these swarm areas. The resolution, achieved in the velocity image and its agreement with the inverse gravity modeling along the collateral 9HR reflection profile, enabled us to reveal the key structural background of these West Bohemia earthquake swarms. The CEL09 velocity image detected two deeply rooted high-velocity bodies adjacent to the Nový Kostel and Lazy focal zones. They correspond to two Variscan mafic intrusions influenced by the SE inclined slab of Saxothuringian crust that subducted beneath the Teplá-Barrandian terrane in the Devonian era. In their uppermost SE inclined parts, they roof both focal zones. The high P-wave velocities of 6,100-6,200 m/s, detected in both roofing caps, indicate their relative compactness and impermeability. The focal domains themselves are located in the almost gradient-free zones with the swarm foci spread near the axial planes of profound velocity depressions. The lower velocities of 5,950-6,050 m/s, observed in the upper parts of focal zones, are indicative of less compact rock complexes corrugated and tectonically disturbed by the SE bordering magma ascents. The high-velocity/high-density caps obviously seal the swarm focal domains because almost no magmatic fluids of mantle origin occur in the Nový Kostel and Lazy seismogenic areas of the West Bohemia/Vogtland territory, otherwise rich in the mantle-derived fluids. This supports the hypothesis of the fluid triggering of earthquake swarms. The sealed focal domains retain ascending magmatic fluids until their critical pressure and volumes accumulated cause rock micro-fractures perceived as single earthquake bursts. During a swarm period, the focal depths of these sequential events become shallower while their magnitudes grow. We assume that coalescence of the induced micro-fractures forms temporary permeability zones in the final swarm phase and the accumulated fluids release into the overburden via the adjacent fault systems. The fluid release usually occurs after the shallowest events with the strongest magnitudes ML > 3. The seasonal summer declines of hydrostatic pressure in the Cheb Basin aquifer system seem to facilitate and trigger the fluid escape as happened for the 2000, 2008, and 2011 earthquake swarms. The temporary fluid release, known as the valve-fault action, influences the surface aquifer systems in various manners. In particular, we found three quantities, the strain, mantle-derived 3He content in CO2 surface sources and ground water levels, which display a 3-5 months decline before and then a similar restoration after each peak earthquake during the swarm activities. The revealed structure features are particularly important since the main Nový Kostel earthquake swarm area is proposed as a site for the ICDP project, `Eger Rift Drilling'.

  4. Estrategia de evaluación genética en el Síndrome West A strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Licourt Otero

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La epilepsia ocupa el segundo lugar entre las enfermedades neurológicas de la infancia y produce afectaciones en las esferas afectiva, cognitiva y social de quienes la padecen, así como en su contexto familiar. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para la evaluación genética del Síndrome West. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome West atendidos en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Pinar del Río desde el primero de enero del 2010 al 31 de Agosto del 2011. Resultados: predominó el Síndrome West en el sexo masculino, con debut de los síntomas entre 4 y 6 meses. Se obtuvo una alta correspondencia entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la identificación de antecedentes prenatales positivos. La amenaza de aborto, el parto pretérmino y la hipoxia neonatal fueron las causas perinatales más atribuidas al desarrollo de la enfermedad. El examen físico dismorfológico fue positivo en la mayoría de los pacientes y aportó elementos que ofrecieron el diagnóstico en casos sin etiología definida. Las pruebas metabólicas y cromosómicas, resultaron útiles en la identificación etiológica del Síndrome West. Se diseñó una estrategia de evaluación genética para los pacientes con Síndrome West. Conclusiones: la caracterización del Síndrome West según los protocolos de estudio, facilitó el manejo de forma integral, permitió identificar las causas responsables del trastorno y se diseñó la estrategia para la evaluación genética de los niños con esta enfermedad.Introduction: epilepsy occupies the second place among neurological diseases in childhood and it provokes affectations in the emotional, cognitive and social spheres of epilepsy sufferers, as well as in their familial context. Objective: to design a strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients suffering from West’s syndrome attended at Provincial Medical Genetics Center in Pinar del Rio from January 1, 2010 - August 31, 2011. Results: West’s syndrome prevailed in male sex and the onset of symptoms by 4 and 6 months. A high correspondence was found between diagnosis of the disease and the identification of positive prenatal history. Threatened abortion, preterm labor and neonatal hypoxia were the perinatal causes ascribed to the development of the disease. Dysmorphological physical examination was positive in the majority of patients and it provided elements that helped with diagnosis of cases without presenting a definite etiology. Metabolic and chromosomal tests were valuable to perform the etiological identification of West’s syndrome. A strategy to carry out the genetic assessment for West’s syndrome patients was designed. Conclusions: West’s syndrome characterization following the protocols of study eased a comprehensive management which allowed the identification of causes and the design of a strategy to complete the genetic assessment of children suffering from this disease.

  5. Implementation of Location Base Service on Tourism Places in West Nusa Tenggara by using Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karya Gunawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to create an application that can assist users in finding information about tourism places in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. West Nusa Tenggara is one of the provinces in Indonesia and one of the second tourists’ destinations after Bali. It is a small Sunda Island which consists of two large islands located in the west of Lombok and Sumbawa that located in the east to the capital of Mataram on the island of Lombok. The area of West Nusa Tenggara province is 19,708.79 km2. The application provides information such as descriptions of sights, tourism spot address, photo galleries, and the available facilities and the closest track to where the tourism spot is by using Google maps. Google maps can display map locations and closest routes from the user's position to the tourism place. Determination of the position of the user and position of Tourism sites using GPS (Global Positioning System. This application is made by using the Java programming language for Android with Eclipse 4.2.1 IDE that can be used on the Smartphone device based on Android. The result of the research is the creation of location-based services applications to search a place of Tourism in West Nusa Tenggara province so as to help tourists visiting the West Nusa Tenggara. The benefit of this application is that to determine the path in finding the tourism places.

  6. Ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland in West Africa and its relationship to environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Guiro, Idrissa; Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Huber, Silvia; Mbow, Cheikh; Garcia, Monica; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Sandholt, Inge; Holm-Rasmussen, Bo; Göttsche, Frank M; Ridler, Marc-Etienne; Olén, Niklas; Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard; Ehammer, Andrea; Madsen, Mathias; Olesen, Folke S; Ardö, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The Dahra field site in Senegal, West Africa, was established in 2002 to monitor ecosystem properties of semi-arid savanna grassland and their responses to climatic and environmental change. This paper describes the environment and the ecosystem properties of the site using a unique set of in situ data. The studied variables include hydroclimatic variables, species composition, albedo, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), hyperspectral characteristics (350-1800 nm), surface reflectance...

  7. Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene mollusks of Silveirinha (Figueira da Foz, West Central Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Callapez, P.

    2010-01-01

    A collection of fossil gastropods and bivalves assembled at the Thanetian/Ypresian vertebrate site of Silveirinha (Figueira da Foz, West Central Portugal) is analysed from the point of view of systematics and palaeoecology. The diversity is scarce but the age and exceptional characteristics of the site are factors that substantiate a detailed study. The taxa identified are: Bithynia soaresi sp. nov., Gyraulus antunesi sp. nov., Chlamys sp. and Cardiiacea gen. sp. indet. The prevailing of f...

  8. Feeding behaviour of potential vectors of West Nile virus in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Konaté Lassana; Etter Eric; Soti Valérie; Tran Annelise; Lancelot Renaud; Diaïté Amadou; Fall Assane G; Faye Ousmane; Bouyer Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the Palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. The Djoudj Park, located in Senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from Europe during the study period (Sept. 20...

  9. Pathway for agricultural science impact in West Africa: lessons from the Convergence of Sciences programme

    OpenAIRE

    Nederlof, S.; Röling, N.; Huis, A

    2007-01-01

    The impact of agricultural research on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers in West Africa has been disappointing. This article reports on research on agricultural research that sought to identify an alternative pathway of science that would lead to greater impact. It is based on the analysis of the work at eight pilot learning sites in the Convergence of Sciences (CoS) programme. Each site featured research for development with resource-poor farmers and other stakeholders. On the basis o...

  10. Remains of the ancient ports and anchorage points at Miyani and Visawada, on the west coast of India: A study based on underwater investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    The recent underwater explorations on the Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, India between Miyani on the west and Porbandar on the east yielded the existence two ports at Visawada and Miyani. Both sites are situated along the creeks, which would have served...

  11. Estrategia de evaluación genética en el Síndrome West / A strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deysi, Licourt Otero; Anitery, Travieso Téllez.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La epilepsia ocupa el segundo lugar entre las enfermedades neurológicas de la infancia y produce afectaciones en las esferas afectiva, cognitiva y social de quienes la padecen, así como en su contexto familiar. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para la evaluación genética del Síndrome W [...] est. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome West atendidos en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Pinar del Río desde el primero de enero del 2010 al 31 de Agosto del 2011. Resultados: predominó el Síndrome West en el sexo masculino, con debut de los síntomas entre 4 y 6 meses. Se obtuvo una alta correspondencia entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la identificación de antecedentes prenatales positivos. La amenaza de aborto, el parto pretérmino y la hipoxia neonatal fueron las causas perinatales más atribuidas al desarrollo de la enfermedad. El examen físico dismorfológico fue positivo en la mayoría de los pacientes y aportó elementos que ofrecieron el diagnóstico en casos sin etiología definida. Las pruebas metabólicas y cromosómicas, resultaron útiles en la identificación etiológica del Síndrome West. Se diseñó una estrategia de evaluación genética para los pacientes con Síndrome West. Conclusiones: la caracterización del Síndrome West según los protocolos de estudio, facilitó el manejo de forma integral, permitió identificar las causas responsables del trastorno y se diseñó la estrategia para la evaluación genética de los niños con esta enfermedad. Abstract in english Introduction: epilepsy occupies the second place among neurological diseases in childhood and it provokes affectations in the emotional, cognitive and social spheres of epilepsy sufferers, as well as in their familial context. Objective: to design a strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome. [...] Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients suffering from West’s syndrome attended at Provincial Medical Genetics Center in Pinar del Rio from January 1, 2010 - August 31, 2011. Results: West’s syndrome prevailed in male sex and the onset of symptoms by 4 and 6 months. A high correspondence was found between diagnosis of the disease and the identification of positive prenatal history. Threatened abortion, preterm labor and neonatal hypoxia were the perinatal causes ascribed to the development of the disease. Dysmorphological physical examination was positive in the majority of patients and it provided elements that helped with diagnosis of cases without presenting a definite etiology. Metabolic and chromosomal tests were valuable to perform the etiological identification of West’s syndrome. A strategy to carry out the genetic assessment for West’s syndrome patients was designed. Conclusions: West’s syndrome characterization following the protocols of study eased a comprehensive management which allowed the identification of causes and the design of a strategy to complete the genetic assessment of children suffering from this disease.

  12. Special Issue - A Press Review of The West Normandy Marine Energy Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Special Issue has been undertaken at the initiative of West Normandy that shares the Alderney Race - Europe's second most powerful tidal stream - with the nearby British Channel Island of Alderney. Its objective is to help to understand better the region that by the end of this decade will be home to the first tidal turbines to be deployed in France and some of the first offshore wind-turbines at nearby Courseulles-sur-Mer. Via these articles the reader can discover the depth of the political will locally and nationally to put in place a strong and vibrant French marine renewable energy industry. One hundred and fifty West Normandy SMEs are wanting to be involved in the sector. There are both skills and training directories to assist the energy companies and the developers. This western tip of France has the right industrial infrastructure and experience, with 150 local SMEs already known to be interested in the industry. There are all the necessary R and D as well as education and training facilities. The ports of Cherbourg-Octeville and Caen-Ouistreham offer all tide, and all weather access for installation and/or maintenance vessels. Grid connectivity is already assured. To encourage and facilitate the creation of the industry in West Normandy the region has set up West Normandy Marine Energy - a limited public company which is the primary point of contact for everything relating to marine renewables in West Normandy. Their focus is on offering a special welcome to devices tested in British sites and now interested in using the Alderney Race pilot farms as a first step towards industrialisation. Energy policy in France is being increasingly devolved to the regions, away from central government. West Normandy is now a regional leader in all forms of marine renewables. West Normandy Marine Energy was set up by the West Normandy region, the General Council of the Manche department, and Cherbourg Urban Community

  13. Mangrove swamp rice production in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Agyen-Sampong, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove swamp rice cultivation, located in coastal areas where the population is relatively dense, is one of the oldest forms of rice culture in West Africa. Of approximately 1.2 million hectares of mangrove swamp in West Africa about 200 000 ha is cleared for mangrove swamp rice production in Guinea Bissau, the Gambia, Guinea, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The mangrove swamp rice areas in West Africa cover a wide range of climatic conditions from dry tropical climate (savanna) with 800 mm or le...

  14. Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic poles in the Taoudeni basin (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudzoumou, Florent; Vandamme, Didier; Affaton, Pascal; Gattacceca, Jérôme

    2011-04-01

    A palaeomagnetic study was carried out on Neoproterozoic samples from seven sites of the sub-basins of Gourma and Bobo Dioulasso, which include a Marinoan glaciogenic deposit. Magnetic mineralogy is represented essentially by magnetite and hematite. The mean directions of the sites are calculated on the high temperature component (500-670 °C). Two locations provide data constrained by statistical reversal and fold tests and determining Neoproterozoic virtual geomagnetic poles. The palaeolatitudes display very low values which place the West-African craton in the sub-equatorial position during the Marinoan glaciation. This result enhances the Snowball Earth hypothesis, which places most of the continental landmasses, and notably Africa, at low latitudes during the Neoproterozoic.

  15. Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

  16. Drainage areas of the Monogahela River Basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D.K.; Mathes, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains data for 1,127 drainage-area divisions of the Monongahela River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Monongahela River and Dunkard Creek. Data, compiled in down- stream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miels or larger, and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow- gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county and the 7-1/2 minute quadrangle in which the site lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, is 4,374.94 square miles.

  17. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

  18. Imaging the West Bohemia Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Calo, M.; Bouchaala, F.; Vavrycuk, V.

    2013-12-01

    West Bohemia is located at the suture of three mantle lithosphere plates, the Eger Rift, the Cheb basin and is the site of Quaternary volcanism. This complex tectonic setting results in localized, periodic earthquake swarms throughout the region and many CO2 springs and gas exhalation sites. Nový Kostel, the most active swarm area, experiences frequent swarms of several hundreds to thousands of earthquakes over a period of weeks to several months. It is a unique study area, since the swarm region is surrounded by the West Bohemia Seismic Network (WEBNET), providing observations in all directions. Larger swarms, such as those in 1985/1986, 1997, 2000, 2007 and 2008, have been studied in terms of source mechanisms and swarm characteristics (Fischer and Michálek, 2003; Fischer et al., 2010; Vavry?uk, 2011). The seismicity is always located in the same area and depth range (6-15 km), however the active fault planes differ. This indicates changes to the local stress field, and may relate to the complicated tectonic situation and/or migrating fluids. Many studies have examined individual swarms and compared the earthquake episodes, however the mechanisms behind the phenomenon are still not understood. This has motivated many studies, including recent proposals for a reflection seismic profile directly over the swarm area and multidisciplinary monitoring through ICDP. In this study, we image the velocity structure within and around the swarm area using double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and Weighted Average Model (WAM) post-processing analysis (Calò et al., 2011). The WAM analysis averages together velocity models calculated with a variety of reasonable starting parameters. The velocities are weighted by the raypath proximity and density at an inversion node. This reduces starting model bias and artifacts, and yields a weighted standard deviation at each grid point. Earthquake locations and WEBNET P and S arrival times for the two most recent large swarms, 2008 and 2011, are used in this study. P-wave, S-wave and P-to-S ratio WAMs (P-to-S ratios are calculated directly from the P and S WAMs) reveal interesting features which correlate with the shallowest earthquakes. These features are interpreted in relation to the role of fluids in Nový Kostel. References: Calò, M., C. Dorbath, F. Cornet, & N. Cuenot, 2011. Geophys. J. Int., doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05108.x. Fischer, T., J. Horálek, J. Michálek & A. Boušková, 2010. J. Seismol., 14: 665-682. Fischer, T. & J. Michálek, 2008. Stud. Geophys. Geod., 52: 493-511. Vavry?uk, V., 2011. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 305: 290-296. Zhang, H. & C.H. Thurber, 2003. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 93: 1175-1189.

  19. Site Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This Site Calibration report is describing the results of a measured site calibration for a site in Denmark. The calibration is carried out by DTU Wind Energy in accordance with Ref.[3] and Ref.[4]. The measurement period is given. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured ...

  20. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ArturoLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports.

  1. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  2. Design, installation, testing and startup of a material handling system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and the U.S. Department of Energy decided to install a Cement Solidification System (CSS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project to handle certain lower level radioactive wastes. In August 1984, design was initiated on a 55 gallon Material Handling System (MHS) which would interface with and support the operation of the CSS. This paper describes and discusses the design and fabrication of equipment, installation of the system at the site, and startup and performance testing of the system

  3. Startup and initial experimental results for the West Valley vitrification demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to solidify the wastes at the site and to clean up the facilities used in the solidification operations. The specifics of the Project scope are defined more completely in public law 93368 and as published previously. The focus of this paper is to more fully describe the general process flow sheet, the process and equipment that will be used to vitrify the high-level wastes, summarize the testing completed to date, and present the plans for the remaining cold testing at West Valley

  4. Long term management plan: West Valley disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Authority and its contractor utilized a systematic approach in selecting a long-term management plan for the West Valley LLRW disposal area. Existing site data were compiled, site problems crucial to site stabilization identified, technologies to correct these problems were identified and assessed, and seven viable long-term management plans were developed and evaluated. Technical evaluation narrowed the field of viable plans to the Precast Concrete Barrel Vault (highest score) and Active Maintenance/Natural Stabilization (next highest score). When considering these two plans, the policy question that most influenced final plan selection was the uncertainty of NRC/DOE requirements for the ultimate transfer of custodial responsibility of the LLRW disposal area to DOE (should the State decide to take this action). Implementing an elaborate stabilization technique such as the Precast Concrete Barrel Vault, which may or may not meet the NRC/DOE requirements, would not be a prudent action at this time. Therefore, it was important to selection a plan that provided maximum flexibility, not only for possible site transfer but for implementing an emerging trench stabilization technology should one be judged desirable. lastly, it is important to maintain the flexibility to meet unanticipated site needs or problems. For these reasons, Active Maintenance/Natural Stabilization appears to be the prudent choice at this time. 5 tables

  5. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  6. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (?1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  7. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  8. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jannick Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa.?

  9. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  10. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (?1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  12. [The West Mongolians/Oyirad of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, T

    1993-01-01

    Information is presented on the West Mongolian ethnic group in the Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Topics covered include population estimates and distribution, acculturation, social structure, language, religion, family structure, marriage, and housing. PMID:12318389

  13. West Germany gears up for licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Germany's concept of salt mine waste disposal is discussed with special reference to experience gained at its small reprocessing plant (WAK) in Karlsruhe, and the Asse salt mine near Wolfenbuttel. (author)

  14. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  15. Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos West syndrome: report of nine eases

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Aya Kamiyama; Lúcia Yoshinaga; Edward R. Tonholo-Silva

    1993-01-01

    A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nove casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos.West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or ma...

  16. Site Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This Site Calibration report is describing the results of a measured site calibration for a site in Denmark. The calibration is carried out by DTU Wind Energy in accordance with Ref.[3] and Ref.[4]. The measurement period is given. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment is detailed described in [1] and [2]. All parts of the sensors and the measurement system have been installed by DTU Wind Energy.

  17. UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., El Molto; Bruce M., Rothschild; Robert, Woods; Christine, Rothschild.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las [...] Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos) de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormente registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?). Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente Abstract in english Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population [...] frequency (both in adults and subadults) of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?). This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variation

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-19

    The 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting waste site was located approximately 50 m southwest of the 185-D Building and approximately 16 m north of the east/west oriented road. The site consisted of a lead sheet covering a concrete pad. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Ducklow, Hugh W.; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Sharon E. Stammerjohn; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2006-01-01

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregio...

  20. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    RIPHAHN, Regina T.; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  1. West Nile Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert D.; Bryant, Stefanie N.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.

    2013-01-01

    A recent outbreak of West Nile virus has allowed for observations as to the clinical course of this emerging pathogen during pregnancy. We present three cases of West Nile virus infection during pregnancy. Case 1 presented at term with focal subjective weakness and fever. With supportive care, her symptoms were resolved within 7 days, and she subsequently delivered an unaffected term infant. Case 2 presented in the first trimester with fever and headache. Her symptoms were resolved in 8 days ...

  2. Nonviolent Activism in the West Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Buchhave, Eva Juliane; Schou Drivsholm, Louise; Finnemann, Mette; Thøgersen, Silja

    2013-01-01

    The West Bank has been under occupation since 1967. From the perspective of Giorgio Agamben (1998; 2005) the Palestinians have been assigned to elements of the state of exception and bare life, caused by political, legal, physical and economic constraints. According to Nancy Fraser’s (2008) theory these constraints result in misrepresentation, maldistribution and misrecognition within the West Bank society. The constraints limit nonviolent activism at multiple levels, including movement restr...

  3. Síndrome de West: a propósito de nove casos / West syndrome: report of nine eases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Aya, Kamiyama; Lúcia, Yoshinaga; Edward R., Tonholo-Silva.

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de West é forma de epilepsia generalizada que se inicia no primeiro ano de vida, com pico de incidência entre 5 e 8 meses, caracterizada por espasmos ou mioclonias maciças, regressão do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e alteração eletrencefalográfica denominada hipsarritmia. Relatamos nov [...] e casos de síndrome de West, discutindo aspectos clínicos, etiológicos, evolutivos e terapêuticos. Abstract in english West syndrome is a peculiar form of epilepsy of infancy and childhood characterized by spasms or massive myoclonus, regression neuropsychomotor development, and EEC abnormalities referred as hipsarrhythmia. We report nine cases of West syndrome discussing clinical, etiological, evolutive and therape [...] utic features.

  4. The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Bent Vad

    1994-01-01

    Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland. The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site. Holocene terrestrial vegetational development was inferred at each site from analyses of pollen and microscopical charred particles. Chronologies were provided by numerous I4C dates. Stratigraphies of wet ground and terrestrial pollen and spore types were zooned by stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis. Based on the resultant site pollen asemblage zones (site PAZ), regional PAZ were proposed. Using modem analogues, Holocene floristic richness was estimated from pollen richness in the microfossil assemblages. The results support the hypothesis that disturbance is one of the most important mechanisms behind the maintenance of floristic richness. In particular, the response of estimated floristic richness to the intensity of vegetational fires followed the predictions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. A period of elevated palynological richness and inferred vegetational disturbance was identified at all sites between 6000 and 5200 BC (calendar years). Using correspondence analysis (CA), the major gradient in the terrestrial pollen sequences was identified as a light-shade gradient, and CA first axis sample scores were used as a supplement to standard AP/NAP pollen ratios as an indicator of the shade-tolerancellight-demand of Holocene terrestrial plant communities. In spite of different vegetational developments since 4000 BC, the timing of major changes towards more light-demanding vegetation types were broadly synchronous at the three sites. Using chord distance as a dissimilarity index, rates of palynological change suggest that the interval between 8OOO and 7500 BC (calendar years) was the period of most rapid vegetational change during the Holocene. both in terrestrial as well as lacustrine ecosystems. While climatic forcing of the rapid events around 8000 BC is hypothesised, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response, as reflected by pollen assemblages. Formulated at one site and tested at the two other sites, the model explains regional Culluna-heathland expansions as a result of vegetational burning. Similarly, declines in heathland cover are explained by lack of maintenance by fire. Regional vegetational development in northern West Jutland is reconstructed and special consideration is given to heathland history. The Holocene heathland development is interpreted as resulting from its importance for grazing. It is hypothesized that on poor soils, Calluna-dominated heathland was a better grazing resource than grass-dominated pasture, due to the winter-grazing offered by Calluna and the low palatibility of dominant grasses on poor soils. This hypothesis is relevant for the explanation of the variation in timing of heathland expansions on the different soil types represented by the study sites.

  5. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  6. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel removal program at the West Valley Demonstration Project: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel removal program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) consisted of removing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the storage pool in the plant, loading them in shielded casks, and preparing the casks for transportation. So far, four fuel removal campaigns have been completed with the return of 625 spent nuclear fuel assemblies to their four utility owners. A fifth campaign, which is not yet completed, will transfer the remaining 125 fuel assemblies to a government site in Idaho. A spent fuel rod consolidation demonstration has been completed, and the storage canisters and their racks are being removed from the fuel receiving and storage pool to make way for installation of the size reduction equipment. A brief history of the West Valley reprocessing plant and the events leading to the storage and ownership of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies and their subsequent removal from West Valley are also recorded as background information. 3 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cataldo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

  9. Status of the waste removal system for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development work is progressing to identify a Mobilization System for the removal of the sludge layer of the neutralized PUREX High-Level Waste (HLW) and cesium loaded zeolite from complex storage tanks at the West Valley site. Equipment is simulated at a reduced scale, and examined in a One-sixth Scale Model of the West Valley HLW storage tanks. Sludge characterization data has been used to formulate a simulant sludge matching the yield strength of the actual PUREX sludge phase. Experimental results predicting the removal efficiencies of the methods examined to date are reported. The West Valley waste removal development program, conceptual design of the overall HLW removal system and its processing steps to the Slurry-Fed Ceramic Melter (SFCM) for vitrification, planned remote tank modification, and status of the waste removal project are discussed

  10. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  11. Site seeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In planning the siting of nuclear power stations in South Africa, the Electricity Supply Commission has called in the services of international consultants to assist in assessing environmental considerations

  12. Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in Nitro, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2010-08-01

    The study described in this report assessed brownfield sites designated by the City of Nitro, West Virginia for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The study analyzed three different types of PV systems for eight sites. The report estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of thin film technology and crystalline silicon panels (both fixed-axis tracking and single-axis tracking systems). Potential job creation and electrical rate increases were also considered, and the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  14. Radiological survey of the former Aeroprojects Facility, West Chester, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former Aeroprojects, Incorporated, Facility is located at 200-T East Rosedale Avenue, West Chester, Pennsylvania. The facility was under contract to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) beginning in 1951 to investigate the use of ultrasonic energy in a variety of manufacturing procedures. An unknown quantity of alloys and compounds of aluminum, beryllium, mercury, thorium, and uranium were used on the site. In the mid-1960s, work for the AEC tapered off and Aeroprojects began doing R ampersand D under other government contracts. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Therefore, at the request of DOE, a radiological survey of this site was conducted in May 1988. The survey included a gamma scan of the interior of the building that had been used during the contract work and the area outdoors immediately adjacent to the building. The survey results show that all gamma exposure rates approximated typical background levels found in the southeastern Pennsylvania area and, furthermore, were well within the DOE guideline. However, recently discovered information suggests that small amounts of radioactive residuals may have been buried on site. The areas where these suspected burials would have occurred are included in areas planned to be remediated by the current owners. 5 refs., 1 fig

  15. Contaminated Sites and Site Reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory requirements in Saskatchewan that determine the remediation standards for contaminated sites and their impact on the oil and gas industry were reviewed. Policy directions currently under review and development are identified and summarized. The two most significant pieces of legislation relevant to site remediation in Saskatchewan are the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA), and the Environmental Management and Protection Act (EMPA). Only the OGCA applies to the oil and gas industry for reclamation sites. OGCA requires that sites be restored to their original condition, which means the removal of equipment, the recontouring of the land and return of topsoil. Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food (SAF) administers agricultural crown land in Saskatchewan, while the Environmental Assessment Act (EAA) administers forested crown land. The absence of a single requirement for reclamation of oil and gas production sites, the lack of standards and the confusion caused by various jurisdictions, guidelines and processes for approval of reclamation plans have been noted. Progress towards remedying this situation are being made, however slowly. For example, spill reclamation guidelines and physically affected sites reclamation guidelines are in final draft and are expected to be issued shortly. Chemically affected sites reclamation guidelines are expected to be finalized in 1998. A Contaminated Sites Liability Advisory Group (CSLAG), consisting of industry, government, and non-government agency representatives has been at work for some time to develop a white paper on contaminated sites to advise the Minister of Environment as to suitable policy. The white paper has been recently completed. Initial response from the government has been favourable, but a definitive response has not yet been finalized

  16. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed..., Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 2916). We received no comments on... during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group...

  17. Methane emissions from lakes in West Siberian wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantsev, Vladimir; Glagolev, Mihail; Golubyatnikov, Leonid; Maksutov, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Wetland lakes are less studied component in the methane emission inventories. We investigated methane fluxes in lakes situated in wetlands in most eco-regions of West Siberia including taiga (16 sites overall in sub-taiga, southern taiga, middle taiga, northern taiga), forest-steppe (1 site), forested tundra (1 site) and tundra (5 sites). Flux measurements were made during summer and autumn of 2007 and summer of 2008 and 2009. We used static chambers with base size of 40x40 cm and height of 30 cm and 40 cm floated on water surface. Each observation included collecting 4 samples in a 7-10 minute time step. Methane concentrations in samples were determined with the GC-FID. Concentration trend during exposure and fluxes were calculated with linear regression of concentration versus time. Environmental factors (pH, EC and temperature profile) were measured at each site. Mean fluxes by eco-region and corresponding statistics were obtained. In the following list, numbers in parenthesis are in the given order: 1st quartile/median/3rd quartile: forest-steppe - 98.0/125.6/146.0; sub-taiga - 62.0/84.6/170.3; southern taiga - 2.4/3.8/12.5; middle taiga - 0.1/0.4/1.4; northern taiga - 0.01/0.1/1.2; forested tundra - 0.3/0.6/1.4; tundra - 0.3/0.6/1.1 mgC-CH4m-2h-1. Interestingly, tundra fluxes are same as in the forested tundra to the south, and forest-steppe fluxes are much higher than on the other areas. Observed emission rates vary along with a combination of two factors: eco-region and pH. Probably, eco-region type connects with temperature, and pH connects with conditions of mineral supply. Emission rate dependence on pH has maximum around with pH = 5.2-5.4. Fluxes of CH4 from the lakes in the forest-steppe and sub-taiga are higher than in surrounding wetlands, while lake fluxes in other climate regions of West Siberia are comparable with those from the corresponding wetlands. Our data concur with previous report by (Repo et al, 2007), who observed fluxes at two sites in middle taiga and forested tundra. References: Repo M.E., et al, Release of CO2 and CH4 from small wetland lakes in western Siberia, Tellus, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00301, 2007.

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using infrared dissolved inorganic carbon analyzer, alkalinity titrator and other instruments from the North Atlantic Ocean near Key West, Florida (Class III climate monitoring sites) from 2012-03-23 to 2014-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0132022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data collected to monitor changes to oral reef carbonate chemistry over time, at US affiliated coral reef sites, through quantifying...

  19. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK)

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using infrared dissolved inorganic carbon analyzer, alkalinity titrator and other instruments from the North Atlantic Ocean near Key West, Florida (Class III climate monitoring sites) from 2012-03-23 to 2014-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0132022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data collected to monitor changes to oral reef carbonate chemistry over time, at US affiliated coral reef sites, through quantifying...

  1. Hydrographic data report, west coast of Puerto Rico, 1973--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrographic data included in this report were collected as part of a site selection survey to provide basic oceanographic data to assist the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority in determining the best locations for additional electrical power generating facilities on the island, both nuclear and fossil fuel. Classical oceanographic methods were used in sampling and analyzing sea water at depths from 10 to 300 meters. This report includes data from two sites: the Punta Higuero site, PHI, is the site of the former ''BONUS'' nuclear power plant and the Cabo Rojo Platform, CRP, is a possible site for offshore power generating plants. The two west coast sites are centered about 30 kilometers apart. (CH)

  2. NPP Temperate Forest: OTTER Project Sites, Oregon, USA, 1989-1991, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates and associated field measurements for six sites located along the 250-km, west-east transect of the...

  3. NPP Temperate Forest: OTTER Project Sites, Oregon, USA, 1989-1991, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates and associated field measurements for six sites located along the 250-km, west-east transect of the...

  4. West Valley operation of an integrated radwaste treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York, between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the project's fully integrated waste program is the management of low-level wastes (LLWs) that result from treating high-level waste. At the West Valley Demonstration Project, ?650,000 gal of high-level radioactive waste is stored in an underground tank. The waste has separated into two phases, i.e., a liquid or supernatant that comprises 90% of this 650,000 gal and a 10% layer of sludge on the bottom of the tank. Estimates based on radiochemical analysis show that the supernatant contains ?7.4 million Ci of predominantly 137Cs. The purpose of the integrated radwaste treatment system (IRTS) is to remove as much 137Cs as possible from the supernatant by utilizing an ion exchange technique and to solidify the remaining liquid into a certifiable class C cement LLW form that meets the waste form criteria specified in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) 10CFR61. Waste is to be solidified in 71-gal square drums and remotely handled and stored on-site until determination of final disposition. This paper describes the very successful experiences gained in the treatment and solidification of the LLW stream produced as well as the processes and controls employed on the cemented waste

  5. CANCER IN THE CASPIAN LITTORAL AND NORTH WEST AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A Salmasizadeh

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies undertaken during the last 5 years in the Babol Research Station of the Institute of Public Health Research, Teheran University, with the collaboration of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in the Caspian Littoral and Ardabil area in the north of Iran has indicated the presence of cancer in 48 different sites. The five more prevalent types of cancer found in that area in order of their incidence are esophageal, stomach, skin, lung and liver cancers. Except for cancer of esophagus which occurs with a very high variation in incidence in the area, the incidence of other 4 does not significantly differ in various parts of the region. The incidence of esophageal cancer is maximum in the east and southeast of the area and it gradually decreases towards the reaching its minimum level in Gilan and increasing again to the west in Ardabil area. The incidence is higher among males in the low incidence, almost equal in the high incidence area except in Gombad area where is much higher among females than in males. The total number of cancer of soesophagus registered during the 5 years period is 1420 which constitute 1/10 of all cases reported. Of other types of cancer registered, cancers of skin, cervix uteri and lymphoma, mostly lymphosarcoma are more prevalent. Of the cancers of digestive tube, oesophageal is more prevalent in the east and stomach cancer in the west of the area.

  6. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  7. Electricity sector integration in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal, 3000, Chemin de la Cote-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal Quebec (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    Regional and global integration initiatives push for more electricity sector integration everywhere in the world, including West Africa. The creation of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) in 2000 and important investments under this new structure in 2006 are concrete actions that will result in a more integrated West African electricity sector. But will this integrated sector be more functional than the previous ones? Will the identified electricity sector problems be solved with the new power pool? This paper analyzes how power sector integration is presented by international institutions (the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Energy Council and World Bank) and identifies three problematic issues with the current integration approach: lack of African ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes. (author)

  8. Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, E.K.; Wild, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

  9. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  10. Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

  11. Electricity sector integration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional and global integration initiatives push for more electricity sector integration everywhere in the world, including West Africa. The creation of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) in 2000 and important investments under this new structure in 2006 are concrete actions that will result in a more integrated West African electricity sector. But will this integrated sector be more functional than the previous ones? Will the identified electricity sector problems be solved with the new power pool? This paper analyzes how power sector integration is presented by international institutions (the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Energy Council and World Bank) and identifies three problematic issues with the current integration approach: lack of African ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes

  12. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Tangy; Samantha Brandler

    2013-01-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss t...

  13. THE WEST AND THE CAPE SEA ROUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Dorning

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Changing perceptions and realities Western strategists and politicians have traditionally acknowledged the vital importance of the Cape Sea Route. Their South African counterparts, for their part, have in the past regarded the Cape Sea Route's importance to the West as almost axiomatic, and have frequently sought to use this fact as a bargaining point in their negotiations with the Western Powers.1 There are increasing signs, however, that are-assessment of the importance of the Cape Sea Route is taking place in the West.

  14. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  15. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  16. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  17. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement 20 is comprised of changed pages for the SAR which reflect: (1) the change in design basis fuel fed to the process from a minimum of 180 days after reactor discharge to a minimum of 210 days and an effective 24 months after reactor discharge; (2) the design objective of NFS that the concentrations of radionuclides, other than tritium, will not exceed the concentration limits of 10 CFR 20, Appendix B, Table II, column 2, when measured at the discharge from NFS' lagoon system to the on-site waterway; (3) incorporation of modifications to fuel receiving and storage area; (4) an updating of the general information presented in Chapter 1.0; and (5) additional data from the new meteorological tower at West Valley and recent changes in demographic projections

  18. Energy Reform for West Africa in Climate Change Crisis Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C.; Kasei, R.

    2009-04-01

    UNFCCC reports indicate that those who are least responsible for climate change are also the most vulnerable to its projected impacts. In no place is this more evident than in Sub-Saharan Africa, where greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are negligible from a global scale. In Africa, energy demands could be the major factor that may lead to the increase of its emissions in the very near future. Forests are being lost for domestic energy, Oil produced energy increases carbon foot prints and Hydropower is unreliable due to uncertainties in rainfall patterns. By 2004, the energy consumption mix of West Africa was dominated by oil (58%) followed by natural gas (38%) and hydroelectric (8%) with coal and other energy forms not part of the mix. (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Rainfall and Global radiation using the Armstrong method was analyzed for sites in Nigeria and Ghana. A cost-benefit of the energy productions is presented.

  19. The West Valley Demonstration Project: A decade of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, directed by the United States Department of Energy, is at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in the United States. Operation of the plant ceased in the early 1970s. It was determined in 1980 that the facility provided a unique opportunity for proving known nuclear waste management technology related to both high-level and low-level wastes. The project's overall goal, mandated by Congress in Public Law 96-368, is to demonstrate the solidification of approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level nuclear waste, decontamination and decommissioning of facilities used, disposal of low-level and transuranic waste produced by solidification, and shipment of the solidified high-level waste to a federal repository. This paper discusses the progress made during the first ten years. (author)

  20. Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft3 of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

  1. Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Allen

    2000-04-11

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance.

  2. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Survey of the mineral status of pastures and small ruminants in the West Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Njwe, RM.; Kom, J. de

    1988-01-01

    Four dominant grass species (Hyparrhenia rufa, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum and Sporobolus africanus) of natural pastures of the West Region of Cameroon were sampled at 60 sites between September and November of 1985. The grass samples were analysed for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, mangenese, copper and zinc. Serum was also collected from goats and sheep at the same locations where forages were sampled and analysed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, z...

  5. Awareness and utilization of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megabiaw Berihun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Contraception is a major component of reproductive health. Assessing the levels of contraceptive awareness and use helps to identify potential areas of intervention. Hence, this study was conducted to assess awareness, practice and associated factors of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 204 street women from Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Participants were recruited from “cluster” sites such as m...

  6. The Eco-Village Concept in a Model Experiment in South-West Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Bela BORSOS

    2013-01-01

    One of the methods to face the challenges of the worldwide ecological crisis is the implementation of sustainable development principles at the rural development level. In South-West Hungary, the sparsely populated small village region of Zselic is the location of a small-scale sustainable settlement development project at the abandoned former village site of Gy?r?f?. Over the past twenty years, ecological design principles such as permaculture have guided the re-settlement of the area. Spati...

  7. Considerations and data on the uranium deposits in West-Mecsek Mountains, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the Government of Hungary closed the uranium mining in the Mecsek Mountain. Data are presented on the uranium reserves in the abandoned site of West-Mecsek. The history of uranium mining and the total amount of produced uranium are up to 31 December 1997 is presented. Some countries in Europe also abandon uranium mining, others develop it (Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia etc.). The Hungarian uranium reserves should be registered as a part of the national assets. (R.P.)

  8. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Spickett, Arthur M.; I. Heloise Heyne; Roy Williams

    2011-01-01

    Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the ...

  9. Deep-sea environment and biodiversity of the West African Equatorial margin

    OpenAIRE

    Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    2009-01-01

    The long-term BIOZAIRE multidisciplinary deep-sea environmental program on the West Equatorial African margin organized in partnership between Ifremer and TOTAL aimed at characterizing the benthic community structure in relation with physical and chemical processes in a region of oil and gas interest. The morphology of the deep Congo submarine channel and the sedimentological structures of the deep-sea fan were established during the geological ZAIANGO project and helped to select study sites...

  10. Revitalization of a community site-specific art and art festivals : a case of art site Naoshima

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Junko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates public art and art festivals in the West, and a large scale art project in Japan, Benesse Art Site Naoshima, which is yet to be defined its place in the academic world. Through the case study of Benesse Art Site Naoshima, public art, site-specific art, art festivals, and a role of art museums are discussed. There are two parts to the thesis: (1) a brief survey of public art and site-specific art (of which has roots in Land art) and, (2) the case study of Art Site ...

  11. Heritage sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Tomáš

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; K?pp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 138-141 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * heritage sites * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  12. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  13. West Nile Virus Detection in American Crows

    OpenAIRE

    Yaremych, Sarah A.; Warner, Richard E.; Van de Wyngaerde, Marshall T.; Ringia, Adam M.; Lampman, Richard; NOVAK, ROBERT J.

    2003-01-01

    A dipstick immunochromatographic assay used for West Nile virus (WNV) detection in mosquitoes was investigated for application to testing of fecal, saliva, and tissue samples from dead American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Results suggest that VecTest may be an efficient method for WNV detection in field-collected, dead American Crows, although confirmation of results and further investigation are warranted.

  14. Rapid West Nile Virus Antigen Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Panella, Nicholas A; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Langevin, Stanley A; Brault, Aaron C.; Schooley, Lynn M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Nasci, Roger S.; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    We compared the VecTest WNV antigen assay with standard methods of West Nile virus (WNV) detection in swabs from American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). The VecTest detected WNV more frequently than the plaque assay and was comparable to a TaqMan reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction.

  15. Structural preconditions of West Bohemia earthquake swarms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Miroslav; Špi?ák, Aleš; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 34, ?. 4 (2013), s. 491-519. ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia earthquake swarms * depth-recursive refraction tomography * CEL09 refraction profile Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 5.112, year: 2013

  16. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin,Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; denys, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  17. Education and Koranic Literacy in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The note examines the practical, and literate skills that students acquire at different levels in West African Koranic schools. It is a long-standing parallel system of education, yet, relatively unknown to development planers, thus seldom taken into explicit account in their policies, and strategies. Islamic educational systems have been present since the seventh century, and by the tenth ...

  18. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary Me; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-11-27

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  19. West Nile Virus: ecology, epidemiology and prevention.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zden?k; K?íž, B.; Menne, B.

    Darmstadt : Steinkopff, 2006, s. 217-242 ISBN 3-7985-1591-3 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/0726 Grant ostatní: European Commission EVK2-2000-00070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology , Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  20. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Harpelle, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00) Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00)

  1. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  2. Russian gas in the west European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

  3. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  4. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.349 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... Classification Date Type Brooke Follansbee area bounded on the north by the Market Street Bridge, on the east by West Virginia Route 2, on the south by the extension of the southern boundary of Steubenville...

  5. Overview of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 papers which follow in these proceedings describe in more detail some of the significant technical accomplishments of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) during the past year. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the WVDP, describe the purpose of the project, accomplishments to date, near-term plans and goals, and the overall project tasks and schedule

  6. Ecosystem variability in west Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, E.; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Ribergaard, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the climate conditions off West Greenland during the past 50 years shows large variability in the atmospheric, oceanographic and sea-ice variables, as well as in fish stocks. A positive relationship is found between water temperature and the recruitment of cod and redfish, whereas the...

  7. West Valley upgrades its multicomponent assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wastes generated at the West Valley Demonstration Project vary widely both in radionuclide content and physical characteristics. Multi-component systems have been developed to assay and to classify all types of radioactive waste in conformance with regulations. The experience gained in modifying, developing and automating the radwaste assay system is potentially applicable elsewhere. (U.K.)

  8. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  9. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  10. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  11. West Nile Virus - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? West Nile Virus URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All West Nile Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Hydrological modelling of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.

    A hydrological modelling framework was assembled for simulating discharges of the west-coast rivers of India. The framework is applied to the Mandovi river, Goa, a typical west-coast river. The modelling framework consisted of a digital elevation...

  13. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  14. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  15. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic Unlike European languages tense in the West Greenlandic (WG) language is not marked in the inflection, but it is marked by derivational affixes (henceforth affixes). The West Greenlandic language belongs to Inuit-languages, (Iñupiaq (Alaska), Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic) and is a polysynthetic language. The temporal system is based on future-non-future opposition as in Inuktitut (Canada), which means that all future time reference mu...

  16. Optimal for difficult roofs. East-west orientation; Optimal fuer schwierige Daecher. Ost-West-Ausrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouattour, Mohamed Ali [Solar Frontier Europe GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    With the help of CIS solar modules the unfavorable east-west roofs can be also use efficiently and profitably, since the good weak-light performance almost compensates the weak light components characterized irradiation conditions. [German] Mit Hilfe der CIS-Solarmodule lassen sich auch die unguenstige Ost-West-Daecher effizient und profitabel nutzen, da das gute Schwachlichtverhalten die hier von schwachen Lichtanteilen gepraegten Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse nahezu kompensiert.

  17. Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

  18. Mapping and Assessment of the Seaweed Resources (Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria spp.) off the West Coast of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hession, C.; Guiry, M.D.; McGarvey, S.; Joyce, D.

    1998-01-01

    The seaweed biomass survey was designed to gather important information on those seaweed resources that are extensively harvested at present (mainly Ascophyllum nodosum) and those that offer a significant potential for future development (Laminariaceae). The first major objective of the project was to measure the intertidal biomass of Ascophyllum nodosum at selected sites along the Irish west coast. A total of 258 survey sites of varying size were selected by the survey team. They were consid...

  19. Ecosystem properties of semi-arid savanna grassland in West Africa and its relationship to environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Guiro, Idrissa; Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Huber, Silvia; Mbow, Cheikh; Garcia, Monica; Horion, Stéphanie; Sandholt, Inge; Holm-Rasmussen, Bo; Göttsche, Frank M.; Ridler, Marc-Etienne; Olén, Niklas; Lundegard Olsen, Jørgen; Ehammer, Andrea; Madsen, Mathias; Olesen, Folke S.; Ardö, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    he Dahra field site in Senegal, West Africa, was established in 2002 to monitor ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland and their responses to climatic and environmental change. This article describes the environment and the ecosystem properties of the site using a unique set of in situ data. The studied variables include hydroclimatic variables, species composition, albedo, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), hyperspectral characteristics (350-1800 nm), surface reflectance...

  20. Effects of highway construction on sediment and benthic macroinvertebrates in two tributaries of the lost river, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.

    2007-01-01

    During a three-year study of two tributaries being crossed by a four-lane highway under construction in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia, we found little difference in the amount of fine sediment collected at upstream and downstream sites. The downstream site on one tributary collected significantly greater amounts of sediment in 2003, prior to installation of sediment fencing. Despite several episodic flow events that caused changes in the streambed, benthic macroinvertebrate metrics did not differ significantly annually or seasonally between sites or between streams. On-site controls effectively checked new sedimentation, and benthic macroinvertebrates were not significantly impacted.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  2. West Nile Virus Encephalitis and Myocarditis in Wolf and Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtensteiger, Carol A.; Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen; Osborne, Tanasa S.; NOVAK, ROBERT J.; Lewis, Beth A.; Firth, Margaret L.

    2003-01-01

    In the third season (2002) of the West Nile virus epidemic in the United States, two canids (wolf and dog) were diagnosed with West Nile virus encephalitis and myocarditis with similarities to known affected species (humans, horses, and birds). The West Nile virus infections were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction.

  3. West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarczyk, Kelly; McKenney, Kathryn; Smaldone, Dave; Arborgast, Doug

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia University's Extension Service partnered with the Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program to improve guide performance in West Virginia's tourism industry. The result of this partnership is a West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training program aimed at providing low-cost, widely available training to guides…

  4. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  5. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  6. Radon exposure and cancers other than lung cancer among uranium miners in West Bohemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomásek, L; Darby, SC; Swerdlow, AJ; Placek, V; Kunz, E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations have suggested that radon in the ambient air may cause cancers at sites other than the lung, but the evidence is indirect. We have studied site-specific cancer mortality in 4320 uranium miners in West Bohemia who have been followed-up for an average of 25 years, and in whom a four-fold radon-related excess of lung cancer has already been established. For all cancers other than lung cancer the number of deaths observed was slightly greater than that expected from national r...

  7. Evidence for elevated and spatially variable geothermal flux beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Dustin M; Blankenship, Donald D; Young, Duncan A; Quartini, Enrica

    2014-06-24

    Heterogeneous hydrologic, lithologic, and geologic basal boundary conditions can exert strong control on the evolution, stability, and sea level contribution of marine ice sheets. Geothermal flux is one of the most dynamically critical ice sheet boundary conditions but is extremely difficult to constrain at the scale required to understand and predict the behavior of rapidly changing glaciers. This lack of observational constraint on geothermal flux is particularly problematic for the glacier catchments of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet within the low topography of the West Antarctic Rift System where geothermal fluxes are expected to be high, heterogeneous, and possibly transient. We use airborne radar sounding data with a subglacial water routing model to estimate the distribution of basal melting and geothermal flux beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica. We show that the Thwaites Glacier catchment has a minimum average geothermal flux of ? 114 ± 10 mW/m(2) with areas of high flux exceeding 200 mW/m(2) consistent with hypothesized rift-associated magmatic migration and volcanism. These areas of highest geothermal flux include the westernmost tributary of Thwaites Glacier adjacent to the subaerial Mount Takahe volcano and the upper reaches of the central tributary near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core drilling site. PMID:24927578

  8. Sellafield's Role in the Socio-Economic Development of West Cumbria - 12459

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It would be hard to imagine what West Cumbria, a remote area in the North West of England, would look like without the huge Sellafield nuclear complex. The site is owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and managed by Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), an international private partnership consisting of URS from the United States of America, AMEC from the UK and AREVA from France. Today some 10,000 people work at Sellafield with many more employed through the site's supply chain, a large percentage of which is located directly in West Cumbria. The Government, through the NDA, has committed around pounds 1.5 billion a year for the next three years as we at NMP bring our vast global expertise and experience to deliver substantial improvements to the clean-up mission there. Of this total budget, more than Pounds 800 million a year is spent in that supply chain and around 30 percent of that goes directly to firms in West Cumbria. But the dependency on the nuclear industry is immense and, with the site now entering an extensive decommissioning programme, the threats to jobs, and therefore the local economy, is severe. While Sellafield provides wealth, there are areas of deep deprivation and worklessness. Consequently, Sellafield Ltd, NMP and NDA have partnered with the local community leaders and politicians to form Britain's Energy Coast, a strategic regeneration body driving economic improvements and projects to deliver a vibrant economy for West Cumbria, long into the future. While the threats to our economy are real, the opportunities are potentially transformational. The UK is on the brink of a nuclear renaissance and, if we are successful through the Energy Coast programme, West Cumbria will become the hub, not only of the nuclear industry, but also of green energy production in the UK, with obvious benefits to our local economy. But to achieve this, Sellafield and its new owners are having to change the opportunistic ways of the past to provide a new strategic mode of socio-economic contribution to deliver a sustainable future for the local community. The results so far have been impressive, with over pounds 56 m being committed to socio-economic projects, but the long term aim is to achieve pounds 116 m investment through public/ private partnership. Sellafield is fundamental to this goal. (authors)

  9. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  10. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

  11. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  12. Kosovo West: work in progress on radiological environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last war in the Balkan area, spring-summer 1999, NATO forces admitted the use in Kosovo of 30 mm bullets fired by A-10 anti-tank aircraft and, in July 2000, provided the United Nations with a detailed map indicating sites where DU bullets had been used. CISAM, Joint Centre of Military Studies and Application, performed eight environmental check campaigns (October '99, April, August, November '00, January, May, October '01 and June '02). The CISAM scientific expert Team, assisted by a Company of the 7. NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) Regiment Cremona, during the first and the second mission discovered some places within the area assigned to the Multi National Brigade West (MNBW) where the DU bullets had been used. Up to day the Team performed approximately 600 field measurements; the 7. Rgt. NBC surveyed 700 locations and the CISAM Laboratory analysed more than 350 samples. The poster presents the summarized results of the campaigns focused to measure the depleted uranium and other radionuclides concentrations in environmental matrix and, in particular, gives the data concerning the site NATO 28, Djakovica Army Garrison and the air sample campaigns

  13. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

    1999-08-10

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

  14. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994)

  15. Epidemiological studies on bluetongue virus infection in West Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In monitoring of sentinel cattle in West Java, seroconversions to orbiviruses occurred mostly at the end of the wet season. A low altitude site gave more reactors than did a high altitude site. Due to perceived inefficiencies of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) was applied and the results compared with the AGID test results. C-ELISA detected antibodies at an earlier stage of infection than did the AGID test. Not all sera reacting in the AGID test reacted in C-ELISA, suggesting that the C-ELISA is more specific in detecting bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies than the AGID. However, as the infection status of most field sera was not known, this could not be confirmed conclusively from the available data. A comparison of isolation methods indicated that isolates were obtained more frequently if samples were passaged in embryonated eggs before blind passage in A edes albopictus cells followed by passage in BHK-21 cells. Six BTV serotypes, 1,7,9,12,20,21 and 23 were identified and confirmed from apparently healthy sentinel cattle blood at low altitudes; BTV serotype 21 was also isolated from a pool of the Avaritia sub-genus of the Culicoides spp which contained 227 C. fulvus and 20 C. orientalis. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  16. West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golding Nick

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

  17. General review of West-Siberian mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, V.D.; Ospennikova, L.A.; Skobeyeva, Y.I. [Association Peat Geology (Russian Federation); Matukhina, V.G. [Siberian Research Inst. of Geology and Mineral Raw Materials (Russian Federation); Inysheva, L.I. [Siberian Research Inst. of Peat (Russian Federation); Lapshina, Y.D. [Tomsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Mikhantyeva, L.S. [Association Novosibirsk Geology (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The intensive formation and accumulation of the enormous peat resources in West Siberia is determined by a whole complex of historical and physico-geographical conditions. In this region, peatlands cover a vast area (over 760 000 km{sup 2}) and contain resources of some 113 Gt. A number of mire zones occur from north to south and are differentiated by various degrees of paludification and peat formation. The rate of peat accumulation is about 1-2 mm Al or some 10 Mt per annum overall. Oligotrophic peat is predominant. Peat classification is based on botanic-genetic principles. The peat resources of West Siberia are characterised by a great diversity of physical and chemical properties, thus permitting a wide range of utilisation. However, at present, drainage and peat extraction have practically ceased. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  18. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    traders, and where their differences lie. Finally, we show how a combined approach can make a significant contribution to the scholarly study of space in West Africa. We argue that continuing dialogue among fields can contribute to a reassessment of development policies.......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted by...... historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article is to...

  19. Aerial view of the West Area complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  20. West Nile virus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Berto, Alessandro; Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging flavivirus responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease in North America, Europe, and neighboring countries. Almost all WNV infections in humans are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Transmission during pregnancy and through breastfeeding has been reported, but the risk seems to be very low. West Nile disease in children is less common (1-5% of all WNV cases) and associated with milder symptoms and better outcome than in elderly individuals, even though severe neuroinvasive disease and death have been reported also among children. However, the incidence of WNV infection and disease in children is probably underestimated and the disease spectrum is not fully understood because of lack of reporting and underdiagnosis in children. Infection is diagnosed by detection of WNV-specific antibodies in serum and WNV RNA in plasma and urine. Since no effective WNV-specific drugs are available, therapy is mainly supportive. PMID:26325613

  1. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques ...... from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa.
......Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques...

  2. Aquifer-characteristics data for West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Mathes, Melvin V.

    2001-01-01

    Specific-capacity, storage-coefficient, and specific-yield data for wells in West Virginia were compiled to provide a data set from which transmissivity could be estimated. This data can be used for analytical and mathematical groundwater flow modeling. Analysis of available storage-coefficient and (or) specific-yield data indicates the Ohio River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.20, which is characteristic of an unconfined aquifer. The Kanawha River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.003, which is characteristic of a semi-confined aquifer. The median storage coefficient of fractured-bedrock aquifers is only 0.007, which is characteristic of confined aquifers. The highest median transmissivity of a specific aquifer in West Virginia occurs in Ohio River alluvium (4,800 ft2/d); the second highest occurs in Kanawha River alluvium (1,600 ft2/d). The lowest median transmissivity (23 ft2/d) is for the McKenzie-Rose Hill-Tuscarora aquifer. Rocks of Cambrian age within the Waynesboro-Tomstown-Harpers-Weverton-Loudon aquifer had a low median transmissivity of only 67 ft2/d. Other aquifers with low transmissivities include the Hampshire Formation, Brallier-Harrell Formations, Mahantango Formations, Oriskany Sandstone, and the Conococheague Formation with median transmissivities of 74, 72, 92, 82, and 92 ft2/d, respectively. All other aquifers within the State had intermediate values of transmissivity (130-920 ft2/d). The highest median transmissivities among bedrock aquifers were those for aquifers within the Pennsylvanian age Pocahontas Formation (1,200 ft2/d) and Pottsville Group (1,300 ft2/d), and the Mississippian age Mauch Chunk Group (1,300 ft2/d). These rocks crop out primarily in the southern part of the State and to a lesser extent within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The highest mean annual ground-water recharge rates within West Virginia (24.6 in.) occur within a band that extends through the central part of the State within the eastern part of the Kanawha River Basin. This area of relatively high relief has peaks higher than 4,000 ft and precipitation greater than 50 in./yr. The band of high recharge rates extends northward towards Pennsylvania and includes the Monongahela River Basin, which has a mean annual recharge of 21.4 inches. To the west of this central band lies a region of lower relief with much lower mean annual precipitation rates. Mean annual recharge for the Tug Fork, Twelvepole Creek, and Guyandotte River Basins is only 12.6 inches. For the western part of the Kanawha River Basin, mean recharge is 11.9 inches. The lowest mean annual recharge rates (8.4 in.) within the State occur in the Little Kanawha River Basin and the tributary streams in the region that discharge directly to the Ohio River. West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle is an area characterized by long linear northeast to southwest trending ridges and valleys. The mean annual ground-water recharge rate for this region, which is drained almost entirely by the Potomac River and its tributaries, is 9.4 inches. This area, which is located within a rain shadow resulting from orographic lifting in the higher altitude area to the west, receives less precipitation (approximately 30 in.) than the region to the west.

  3. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  4. Health Perceptions - where the East meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

  5. Collaborative work between the West and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-12-01

    The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam). PMID:25132788

  6. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Suthar, Mehul S.; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing ne...

  7. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  8. The West Jutland Study of Farm Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, DJ; Hansen, O N; Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, J

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the main elements of the West Jutland Study on the Prevention of Farm Accidents, that was presented in four separate papers al the 1996 Occupational Injury Symposium in Sydney, Australia. The objective of the study is to develop and conduct an intervention on the basis of an initial investigation of risk factors, aimed at reducing the number of occupational accidents in a randomly selected, representative sample of Danish farms. The article focuses on the underlying model...

  9. Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa*

    OpenAIRE

    Foege, William H.; Millar, J. D.; Henderson, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1966, a programme to eradicate smallpox and control measles began in West and Central Africa. With WHO and US bilateral technical and financial assistance, the 20 countries mounted a coordinated campaign of mass vaccination, assessment, surveillance, and maintenance activities. The last cases of smallpox occurred in May 1970. The introduction of epidemiologically directed surveillance-containment activities and their rapid success resulted in interruption of smallpox transmission much soon...

  10. Go West : East European migrants in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Many people have migrated between East and West Europe in recent decades. The daily life of these migrants is crucial not only for the migrants themselves but also for the development of future migration. The aim of this thesis is to explore the interaction between migration motives, integration, social networks and migration, and how this affects international migration processes in general. This is done using migration between Sweden on the one hand and Russia, Poland and the Baltic States ...

  11. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ladep, Nimzing G.; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A.; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many W...

  12. Federalism and party democracy in West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Oscar W.

    1989-01-01

    According to Gerhard Lehmbruch, there is a growing inconsistency in West Germany between the principles of a federal polity and party democracy, primarily because the former relies on bargaining, and the latter relies on majority rule as a mechanism of conflict regulation. However, comparative analyses have shown that federalism and party competition are not incompatible. Generally, federal structures are neither detrimental nor conducive to the recruitment function of parties. Competence and...

  13. West Nile Virus: Immunity and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martina, Byron E.E.; Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus; Penelope Koraka; Stephanie M. Lim

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic, arthropod-borne flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but can also infect and cause disease in horses and humans. WNV is endemic in parts of Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, and since 1999 has spread to North America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean. WNV infects the central nervous system (CNS) and can cause severe disease in a small minority of infected humans, mostly immunocompromised or th...

  14. Ash composition of oils of West Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakirova, S.F.; Aleshin, G.N.; Kalinin, S.K.; Kotova, A.V.; Nadirov, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of studying the distribution of trace elements in oils of new fields of West Kazakhstan. It is indicated that for the majority of oils studied, the concentration of trace elements does not depend on the ash content of oils. For resinous asphaltenes and highly sulfur oils of the Buzachi region, there is an increase in the content of iron, vanadium, nickel with a rise in ash content of oils. This is possibly associated with their secondary enrichment with trace elements.

  15. Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented

  16. Undergraduate robot design at West Virginia University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Larry E.

    1995-12-01

    One of the options for students in mechanical engineering at West Virginia University is to participate in a 'robot design' course for their capstone design experience. For the past two years, the project has involved the construction of an autonomous mobile robot for entry in an international competition. This paper describes the design of the 1994-5 robot, reports on its status and offers observations on both the design and some of the pedagogical aspects of the class.

  17. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which European and other Western powers have played a role. Occidentalisms are additionally found to be influenced by the ideological background from which the images are crafted. This is shown by a threef...

  18. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 ?W cm-2, from TV broadcasting was 0.007 ?W cm-2 and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 ?W cm-2. The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 ?W cm-2. The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ?62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 ?W cm-2. (authors)

  19. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mores Christopher N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of the temporal and spatial compartmentalization of West Nile virus subtypes within North America.

  20. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  1. Geology of Northeastern Hardy County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, S.L.; Fisher, R.R. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology); Kulander, B.R. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Lessing, P. (West Virginia Geological Survey, Morgantown, WV (United States)); Kurtz, M.P. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography); Orzechowski, M.L. (Civil and Environmental Consultants, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The Baker, Needmore and Wolf Gap 7.5-minute quadrangles, are located in the Valley and Ridge province of Hardy County, West Virginia. These quadrangles cover the geology of the Cacapon Mountain anticlinorium on the east and the Broadtop synclinorium on the west. Stratigraphically, the Paleozoic section is exposed from the Upper Ordovician Martinsburg Formation to Lower Mississippian Purslane Sandstone. The Cacapon Mountain structure developed by longitudinal ramping from the Lower Cambrian Waynesboro (i.e. Rome) decollement level to the Upper Ordovician Martinsburg detachment horizon. Longitudinal ramping from the Waynesboro to Martinsburg level under Whip Cove anticline (west) along the western flank of Broadtop synclinorium has resulted in the Broadtop overthrust sheet of Jacobeen and Kanes (1974, 1975), which duplicates the Lower Paleozoic section westward to the Bedford syncline. Anderson Ridge anticline in the Cacapon Mountain anticlinorium complex has been redesignated Trout Run anticlinorium because of recent detailed mapping. Short wave length folds developed in the largely incompetent Silurian and Devonian section in the Cacapon Mountain anticlinorium. Also of significance in this structure are extensive thrust faults and back thrusts on Halfmoon Mountain at the northern plunge-out of Trout run anticlinorium. Early layer-parallel shortening values were obtained from fossil deformation and intergranular strain studies, determined by Rf/[O] and Fry analyses of 42 rock samples from the Chemung Formation in the Broadtop synclinorium. Shortening averaged 13%, assuming constant volume.

  2. History and the West Indian nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birbalsingh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.. Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p. Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50 Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95 Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

  3. An aborted Triassic Ocean in west Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplonov, Sergei

    1988-12-01

    A small buried oceanic basin named the Obsky paleo-ocean has been found in West Siberia. It developed from 235 to 218 m.y. during the Triassic by rift propagation and seafloor spreading inside the west Siberian region of the continent. During the postspreading period the Obsky paleo-ocean did not collapse but instead was covered intact by a layer of sediments with a thickness of up to 15 km. This conclusion is based on detailed interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Striped magnetic anomalies marking the paleo-ocean spreading have been separated from the total magnetic field. They have been dated and interpreted within the framework of the Vine-Matthews concept. Seismic and gravitational data have permitted delineation of the Obsky paleo-ocean depression and contouring of the basement relief within its bounds. Investigation of the Obsky paleo-ocean basalts by means of deep boreholes has indicated that they are chemically similar to oceanic tholeiites and has also confirmed the presence of strong residual magnetism in them. Spreading of the Obsky paleo-ocean was a stage in the initial disintegration of Pangea at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary. The presence of a north trending buried spreading center along the axial zone of West Siberia accounts for many features of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the region and its present-day structure.

  4. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  5. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring

  6. ANÁLISE DA PROFILAXIA ANTIMICROBIANA PARA A PREVENÇÃO DA INFECÇÃO DO SÍTIO CIRÚRGICO EM UM HOSPITAL DO CENTRO-OESTE BRASILEIRO / ANTIMICROBIAL PROPHYLAXIS ANALYSIS FOR PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTION IN A BRAZIL CENTRE-WEST HOSPITAL / ANÁLISIS DE LA PROFILAXIS ANTIMICROBIANA PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE LA INFECCIÓN DEL SITIO QUIRÚRGICO EN UN HOSPITAL DE LA REGIÓN CENTRO OESTE DE BRASIL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cyanéa, Ferreira Lima Gebrim; Jéssica, Guimarães Rodrigues; Maressa Noemia, Rodrigues Queiroz; Regiane Aparecida, Santos Soares Barreto; Marinésia Aparecida, Prado Palos.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetiva analisar a profilaxia antimicrobiana no perioperatório de cirurgias limpas, em um hospital universitário do Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Estudo transversal descritivo, realizado em 700 prontuários de pacientes maiores ou igual a 18 anos, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico limpo ent [...] re 2008 a 2010. Utilizou-se formulário estruturado e previamente avaliado. Para análise dos dados foram computados dois indicadores: a profilaxia antimicrobiana em até uma hora antes da incisão cirúrgica e a profilaxia antimicrobiana até 24 horas no pós-operatório, além das variáveis: antimicrobiano de escolha; dose de acordo com o peso do paciente e doses adicionais (repique) no intraoperatório, em cirurgias com tempo superior a 4 horas. Foram considerados os registros de até 30 dias após o procedimento cirúrgico ou de 12 meses nos casos de implantes de próteses e similares. Verificou-se que 86,6% receberam profilaxia antimicrobiana, em 75,1%, a primeira dose obedeceu ao tempo preconizado e em 96,9%, o antimicrobiano de escolha foi a Cefazolina. Houve inadequação em 70,6% quanto à duração da profilaxia, 96,8% dose de acordo com o peso e 70% das doses adicionais. A taxa de infecção do sítio cirúrgico foi de 10%, sendo o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à Meticilina, o agente etiológico mais frequente. Apesar das diretrizes referirem cautela quanto à profilaxia antimicrobiana, o estudo mostrou inadequações que podem trazer prejuízos para a segurança dos pacientes. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la profilaxis antimicrobiana en el perioperatorio de cirugías limpias en un hospital clínico de la región Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Estudio transversal descriptivo, realizado en 700 historiales de pacientes mayores de 18 años, sometidos a procedimientos quirúrg [...] icos limpios entre 2008 y 2010. Se utilizó un formulario estructurado y previamente validado. Para analizar los datos fueron calculados dos indicadores: profilaxis antimicrobiana hasta antes de una hora de la incisión quirúrgica, y profilaxis antimicrobiana hasta 24 horas del postoperatorio, además de las siguientes variables: antibiótico elegido; dosis de acuerdo con el peso del paciente; dosis adicionales en el intraoperatorio, en cirugías de duración mayor a 4 horas. Fueron considerados los registros de hasta 30 días después del procedimiento quirúrgico, o 12 meses en los casos de implantes de prótesis o similares. Se verificó que el 86,6% de los pacientes recibió profilaxis antimicrobiana; en el 75,1% de los pacientes la primera dosis obedeció al tiempo recomendado; y en el 96,9% de los casos, el antibiótico elegido fue Cefazolina. Hubo disconformidades en el 70,6% de los pacientes en cuando a la duración de la profilaxis, en el 96,8% respecto a la dosis de acuerdo con el peso y en el 70% de las dosis adicionales. La tasa de infección en el sitio quirúrgico fue de 10%, siendo el Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la Meticilina, el agente etiológico más frecuente. A pesar de que las directrices indican cuidado en cuanto a la profilaxis antimicrobiana, el estudio mostró disconformidades que pueden provocar perjuicios en la seguridad de los pacientes. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean surgery, at a university hospital in Centre-West Brazil. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was completed using 700 records of patients 18 years of age or older undergoing clean surgery between 2008 and 201 [...] 0. The study used a previously evaluated, structured form for data collection. Two indicators were analyzed: antimicrobial prophylaxis within one hour of incision, and antimicrobial prophylaxis 24 hours postoperatively, considering the following variables: antimicrobial selected; dose according to the weight of the patient, additional doses during surgery, and surgical procedures taking longer than four hours. Records completed within 30 days of the surgical procedure were considered, 12 mont

  7. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  8. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations.

  9. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations

  10. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984. Fourth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth report is the result of the Committee's review of the dosimetric, epidemiological and other scientific data relating to the Sellafield Site and the village of Seascale, together with other relevant advances in scientific knowledge, that have become available since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984. The review was undertaken in response to a request by Government, made to the Committee in September 1989 and recorded as a commitment in answer to a Parliamentary Question regarding COMARE's work programme which included: ''an update and review of cancer incidence in young people in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, in the light of emerging epidemiological work commissioned by Government in 1984 and other relevant work''. [Hansard 10 January 1990, Col 662]. In this report, we review all of the data which has become available since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report and we report our findings and conclusions to Government. (author)

  11. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 1. Executive summary. Preliminary feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a preliminary study, of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the West Valley, New York site. In the hydraulic fracturing and injection process the liquid waste would be diluted, and mixed with cement, clay and other additives to form a stable solid matrix after injection. The waste could be injected into the shale beds, 800 to 1,500 feet below the existing site in zones suitable for horizontal fracturing and to provide satisfactory long term isolation. Hydraulic fracturing has been in use for the disposal of radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Tennessee since the mid 1960's. To date, over 1.8 million gallons of grout containing radioactive waste have been successfully injected at that site. In this study the West Valley site has been assessed in terms of the requirements for satisfactory disposal of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing on the basis of currently available information. A program of research and development, required to confirm or reject this means of disposal at the West Valley site, has been outlined

  12. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to determine: i the importance of selection pressure exerted by both agricultural and public health use of pyrethroid insecticides, ii the phenotypic effects, particularly when the two mutations co-occur; and iii the epidemiological importance of kdr for both pyrethroid- and DDT-based malaria control operations, particularly if/when the two insecticides are to be used in concert.

  13. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  14. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  15. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  16. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  17. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  18. West Valley demonstration project high level, transuranic, and greater than class C wastes - 59048

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located in the scenic hills of Western New York, 35 miles south of Buffalo, the 68 hectare West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a unique and challenging environmental cleanup project that currently manages High Level, Transuranic, and Greater than Class C wastes. Before the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility of cleaning up the site, the site was the location of the only commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing facility to operate in the United States. Operated by Nuclear Fuels Services from 1966-72, the site was owned by the State of New York and licensed by the Atomic Energy Commission. During operations, the plant reprocessed approximately 640 metric tons of commercial and defense nuclear fuel. When commercial operations were discontinued and the facilities were returned to New York State, there were nearly 2, 271, 247 liters (nearly 600, 000 gallons) of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground storage tank, there were approximately 750 unprocessed fuel assemblies, and there was a highly contaminated Main Plant Process Building (MPPB). The West Valley Demonstration Project Act of 1980 (the Act) authorized DOE to conduct a cleanup of the site, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the State agency responsible for managing the property. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license was placed in abeyance and DOE arrived on site in 1981. Since that time, several significant cleanup milestones have been completed, including vitrification (solidification in a glass matrix) of the high level liquid waste, containing approximately 15 million curies, into 275 high level waste canisters and the disposition of more than 19, 000 subsequent drums of low-level radioactive waste (LLW); the shipment of the remaining 125 SNF assemblies that were in storage on site; and the shipment of more than 304, 800 cubic meters (1, 000, 000 cubic feet) of LLW for offsite disposal. More recent accomplishments at West Valley have included deactivation and decontamination of the still-very-contaminated MPPB, management of the underground high level waste tanks (4) and their associated vaults (3), and processing and packaging of both legacy waste and waste generated as a result of decommissioning activities. This paper focuses on the high level, greater than Class C, and Transuranic waste challenges at West Valley and the options to address those challenges. (authors)

  19. Predicted impacts of climate change on malaria transmission in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation due to climate change are expected to alter the spatial distribution of malaria transmission. This is especially true in West Africa, where malaria prevalence follows the current north-south gradients in temperature and precipitation. We assess the skill of GCMs at simulating past and present climate in West Africa in order to select the most credible climate predictions for the periods 2030-2060 and 2070-2100. We then use the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model of malaria transmission, to translate the predicted changes in climate into predicted changes availability of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito populations, and malaria prevalence. We investigate the role of acquired immunity in determining a population's response to changes in exposure to the malaria parasite.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting Waste Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting waste site was located approximately 50 m southwest of the 185-D Building and approximately 16 m north of the east/west oriented road. The site consisted of a lead sheet covering a concrete pad. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  1. Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF) / Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor, Durán; Anna Maria, De Francesco; Valeria, Cortegoso; Gustavo, Neme; Luis, Cornejo; Marco, Bocci.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas e [...] n ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas. Abstract in english The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environm [...] ents of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

  2. Caracterización y procedencia de obsidianas de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste de Argentina y Centro de Chile con metodología no destructiva por fluorescencia de Rayos X (XRF Non-destructive x-ray fluorescence (XRF characterization and sourcing of obsidian from archaeological sites in Central West Argentina and Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Durán

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de 101 análisis químicos por fluorescencia de Rayos X efectuados sobre artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de sitios arqueológicos del Centro Oeste Argentino y Chile Central. También se hace una caracterización química de seis fuentes y subfuentes de obsidiana ubicadas en ambientes cordilleranos y extracordilleranos del sur de Mendoza, Neuquén y Chile Central. Con esa información se discuten propuestas referidas a la movilidad y sistemas de intercambio de las sociedades humanas que ocuparon las dos vertientes de la cordillera de Los Andes durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. Los resultados obtenidos confirman que el método no destructivo por XRF es una herramienta válida para determinar el origen y dispersión de las obsidianas arqueológicas.The results of chemical analysis by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF performed on 101 obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites of Central western Argentina and Central Chile are presented. A chemical characterization of six obsidian sources and subsources located in both Andean and extra-Andean environments of Southern Mendoza, Northern Neuquén and Central Chile, is also performed. Based on this information, different proposals related to mobility patterns and exchange systems of human societies that occupied the two slopes of the Andes during the middle and late Holocene are discussed. The results confirm that non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence is a valid tool to determine the origin and dispersal of archaeological obsidian artifacts.

  3. Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  4. 75 FR 51757 - Foreign-Trade Zone 167-Green Bay, WI; Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...City of Oshkosh and Town of Algoma, Winnebago County; Site 3 (1,654 acres...to the west, in the City of Oshkosh, Winnebago County; and, Site 8 (1,318 acres...the Townships of Algoma and Nekimi, Winnebago County. For further information,...

  5. The West Asia Rinderpest Eradication Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Asia Rinderpest Eradication Campaign (WAREC), a regional UNDP/FAO project (RAB/86/024), was implemented in 11 countries of West Asia, from March 1989 to December 1993. At the time, the total bovine population of these countries was 8,446,000 head: 6,000 in Bahrain; 4,520,000 in Egypt; 1,745,000 in Iraq; 29,000 in Jordan; 26,000 in Kuwait, 52,000 in Lebanon; 136,000 in Oman; 8,000 in Qatar; 724,000 in the Syrian Arab Republic; 50,000 in the United Arab Emirates; and 1,150,000 in Yemen. In WAREC countries, bovines were mostly cattle, except for 2.3 million buffaloes in Egypt, 111,000 in Iraq, and 1,000 in the Syrian Arab Republic. Rinderpest is known as al-taun al-baqr in Arabic, meaning plague of cattle. The earliest records of rinderpest in the West Asian region are from 1827, in Egypt, where a veterinary training centre was established by two French veterinarians, Hamoon and Bruneo, to combat the disease. Since then, rinderpest followed a cycle of approximately 20 years in Egypt, with reappearances in 1842/1843, 1863, 1880 to 1882, 1903/1904, 1912 to 1925, 1945 to 1947, 1950 to 1953, 1958, and 1961 to 1963. In Iraq rinderpest was first noticed during the post-First World War period (1918 to 1923), when the United Kingdom army brought cattle and buffaloes from India for food purposes. Thereafter, the country enjoyed freedom from the disease for six decades. The first epizootic in the Syrian Arab Republic is traceable to the 1920s, and the disease was eradicated by 1934 through quarantine, slaughter and the inoculation of cattle. In Saudi Arabia and Yemen, rinderpest was reported in 1965.

  6. Profiles Junior high School West Java in Education Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Nahadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive studies have been conducted on the existing junior high profile in West Java on Education Learning Environment. The study was conducted by purposive sampling and descriptive done to get an idea about the profile of SMP in West Java implementation of the learning environment. in junior high school in West Java. Research conducted by distributing questionnaires, and observations based on the indicators developed. Based on this research, it is known that, PLH learning in junior high school in West Java has been in force since 2007 after the enactment of the Governor of West Java on environmental education for junior high school students in West Java. Learning that lasts generally implemented in conventional teacher, and it is without any innovations. It has made learning the essential condition runs well, but has not lasted optimally.

  7. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

  8. Minnesota's experiences in siting hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1970's two major siting controversies occurred in Minnesota, the siting of a demonstration Hazardous Waste Disposal Facility and the routing of a power line from North Dakota through the west central part of the state. In both, the public was belatedly involved. In 1980 when the state legislature undertook to develop a process to provide hazardous waste disposal, collection, treatment, and storage facilities, a comprehensive public education and participation effort was built into the siting plan. This paper describes the public education program and its performance and cites the major causes for successes and failures in several communities. The program included not only the citizens and local governments of Minnesota, but also those of the neighboring states and provinces of Canada

  9. Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental History of the Upper West Amarillo Creek Valley at Archaeological Site 41PT185/C, Texas, USA / Historia paleoambiental del Holoceno tardío en el valle Amarillo Creek superior occidental en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C, Texas, EUA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel R, Palacios-Fest.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En combinación, los microinvertebrados, algas calcáreas (Charophyta), e isótopos estables de ostrácodos y girogonitos (los restos calcáreos de carófitas) constituyen una herramienta muy poderosa para reconstruir paleoclimas. Este estudio compara las firmas paleoambientales de moluscos terrestres y a [...] cuáticos, ostrácodos, y carófitas con los valores de los isótopos estables (?18O and ?13C) obtenidos de Cypridopsis sp. (un ostrácodo) y los girogonitos de Chara globularis y Nitella flexilis. Cada una de ellas contribuye con su propia evidencia sobre el cambio ambiental ocurrido entre 1890 ± 40 A.P. y después de 750 ± 40 A.P. en el sitio arqueológico 41PT185/C en el norte de Texas, Estados Unidos de América. La combinación interpretativa de los datos permite una reconstrucción detallada de la variabilidad paleoclimática durante la transición de la Anomalía Climática Medieval a la Pequeña Edad del Hielo, que permite inferir el impacto que dicho cambio tuvo sobre las poblaciones humanas en esta parte del Sudoeste de los Estados Unidos. Abstract in english In combination, microinvertebrates, calcareous algae (Charophyta), and the stable isotopes from ostracodes and gyrogonites (the calcareous remains of charophytes) are a powerful tool for reconstructing paleoclimates. This study compares the paleoenvironmental signatures of land and aquatic mollusks, [...] ostracodes, and charophytes with stable-isotope (?18O and ?13C) values for Cypridopsis sp. (an ostracode) and the gyrogonites of Chara globularis and Nitella flexilis. Each individual signature contributes its own evidence of environmental change between 1890 ± 40 years B.P. and post-750 ± 40 years B.P. at archaeological site 41PT185/C in northern Texas, United States of America. The interpretation of the combined data permits a detailed reconstruction of paleoclimatic variability at the transition from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, allowing inferences about the impact of such environmental change on human populations in this part of the U.S. Southwest.

  10. On a discrete West Nile epidemic model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sophia R.-J., Jang.

    Full Text Available A West Nile epidemic model in discrete-time is proposed. The model consists of two interacting populations, the vector and the avian populations. The avian population is classified into susceptible, infective, and recovered classes while an individual vector is either susceptible or infective. The t [...] ransmission of the disease is assumed only by mosquitoes bites and vertical transmission in the vector population. The model behavior depends on a lumpedparameter R0. The disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 1. Consequently, the disease can persist in the populations if R0 > 1.

  11. COREDIV modelling of WEST plasma scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The WEST (Tungsten(W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project is based on an upgrade of Tore Supra, transforming it in X - point divertor device with tungsten targets. The divertor is a critical component for fusion devices, which must handle the highest thermal and particle loads in the vessel. The WEST configuration will provide for the first time the capability to test ITER-relevant actively cooled plasma facing components under realistic plasma conditions. 3 types of plasma scenarios planned in WEST are presented: high power scenario, standard scenario and high fluence scenario. For these scenarios 4 parameters: plasma current, plasma density, total radiofrequency heating power, and flat top duration have the following values respectively: plasma current [MA]: 0.8, 0.6 and 0.5; plasma density [x1019 m-3]: 9.0, 6.0 and 4.0; total radiofrequency heating power [MW]: 15, 12 and 10; and flat top duration [s]: 30, 60 and 1000. In this paper, numerical simulations of representative WEST scenarios with the COREDIV code are presented. The physical model used in COREDIV is based on a self-consistent coupling of the radial transport in the core to the 2D multi-fluid description of the scrape-off layer (SOL). In the core, the 1D radial transport equations for bulk ions, for each ionization state of impurity ions and for the electron and ion temperature are solved, whereas in the SOL we use the 2D boundary layer code EPIT which is primarily based on Braginskii-like equations for the background plasma and on rate equations for each ionization state of each impurity species. The sputtering processes of tungsten at target plate are taken into account. The results take into account the existence of the self-regulating mechanism which couples the tungsten production at the target with the W radiation in the core. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the influence of the plasma density, auxiliary heating level and divertor configuration on the power to plate, tungsten concentration, core and SOL radiation. (authors)

  12. The New Otter Centre in West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Reuther C

    1988-01-01

    The decision of the forest department of Lower Saxony to close the Oderhaus Otter Research Enclosure in December 31st, 1987 made it necessary to find a new organisational base for the German AKTION FISCHOTTERSCHUTZ. Since July 1987 the organisation has built a new otter centre in Hankensbüttel (50 km north of Braunschweig, 15 km west of the border to the GDR) . The otter centre will be opened at the end of April 1986. This report describes the organisation and function of the new centre.

  13. Once upon a Time in the... West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Pineda Franco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objectif d’observer la manière avec laquelle les films américains sur la Révolution mexicaine ont donné un sens –en perpétuant ou en mettant en doute le mythe national de l’Ouest Nord-Américain– à quelques convictions politiques des Etats-Unis tout au long du XXe siècle. À la fin du XIXe siècle, la vie au Far West est soumise à un processus accéléré de modernisation et l’ère du frontier arrive à son terme. Ironiquement, c’est à ce moment précis que le mythe national de l’Ouest prend de l’ampleur suite à la prolifération d’un vaste corpus culturel qui inclut l’essai historique « The Significance of the Frontier in American History » (1893 de Fredrick Jackson Turner. Dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle, les films de l’Ouest documentent et consolident le mythe du caractère américain décrit par Turner. Ces films ont éveillé chez le citadin nord-américain du XXe siècle de la nostalgie envers son légendaire ascendant de l’Ouest. Cependant, à partir des années cinquante, cette nostalgie a acquis un sens critique et s’est politisée, curieusement, dans des films traitant de la Révolution mexicaine. En recréant la Révolution mexicaine comme une frontière renouvelée pleine de promesses utopiques et de souvenirs nostalgiques du Far West, ces films américains rappellent les tensions politiques de certaines périodes dans l’histoire américaine, comme le maccarthysme et la guerre du Viêtnam.This article investigates the manner in which American motion pictures on the Mexican Revolution provided significance –in either perpetuating or questioning America’s foundational myth of the frontier– to particular ideologies and political beliefs in the United States throughout the twentieth century. At the end of the nineteenth century, the life of the American frontier came to an end due to an accelerated process of modernization. Ironically it was during these years that the myth of the frontier was also made up by means of historical discourses such as “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893 by Fredrick Jackson Turner. During the first decades of the twentieth century, the film genre of the Western documented and consolidated this myth. These movies promoted a nostalgic view of the Wild West. However, this nostalgic view became politicized in those Westerns dealing with the Mexican Revolution. Through recasting the Mexican Revolution as a renewed frontier full of utopian promises and nostalgic recollections of America’s Wild West, these American films recall the political tensions of certain periods in American history, such as McCarthyism, and the Vietnam years.

  14. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  15. The West Waterberg tonstein, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, D.A.; Duff, P.M.D.; Caine, P.M.

    1988-03-01

    What is thought to be the first recorded occurrence of a tonstein in the coalfields of South Africa is described from the Volkrust Shale Formation of the Permian Karoo Sequence in the West Waterberg Coalfield. Now, virtually pure kaolin, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical evidence points to its origin being an airfall tuff of acid composition. The concentrations of Ba, Sr, and Pb in the tonstein are unusually high. It is thought the elements were released from the ash and precipitated as phosphates of mixed composition. The phosphate distribution is not uniform and is apparently related to the fragmental texture of the rock. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. West of Shetlands FPSO or TLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most promising and active areas, in terms of exploration, for hydrocarbon production offshore Europe is located West of the Shetland Islands and lies in water depths ranging from 350 m to 900 m subject to an extremely harsh environment. Three different field-proven concepts from the Doris Engineering's point of view must be considered for this deep water area: a floating Production Storage and Off-loading (FPSO) unit, a production Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and a mini TLP designed to support wellheads and work aver facility. (author). 1 fig

  17. POVERTY STATUS OF JALPAIGURI DISTRICTS WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanada Das

    Full Text Available Jalpaiguri is one of the most backward districts of west Bengal where poverty is a barrier to development. Generally poverty is measured by BPL Indices in rural areas. Below poverty line is an economic bench mark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human need such as clean water, nutrition care, clothing and shelter. This paper is attempted to study the poverty status with some remedial measures.

  18. East-West cooperation at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    From left to right: H. Bokemeyer, in charge of physics for INTAS, J. Sinnaeve, INTAS' general secretary and R. Landua, ATHENA spokesman, visit the ATHENA experiment installations. Heads of INTAS (International Association for the promotion and cooperation of the new independent states of the former Soviet Union) visited CERN on 11 October. This association is in charge of preserving and promoting the scientific potential of the former Soviet Union countries through a cooperation between East and West. In recents years, a certain number of projects related to the LHC experiments have been co-financed by INTAS. The support for young researchers coming from these countries is also a big success.

  19. Zoogeography of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in the West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard; Earl D. McCoy

    2014-01-01

    Four species of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) are known from the West Indies: Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty), Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder, S. didactylus (Latreille), and S. imitatus Nickle and Castner. All are adventive (not native). We document their distributions in West Indian islands/countries by use of records from the literature and examination of specimens. Scapteriscus abbreviatus has been suggested to have arrived in, and been transported about the West Indies in s...

  20. On The Development of West African Accounting System

    OpenAIRE

    Boka Moussa

    2010-01-01

    The authorities of the West African Economic and Monetary Union UEMOA fully understand that accounting plays the significant role in the process of economic development and regional integration in the member states. They decided to establish a common new accounting system, called West African Accounting System (SYSCOA). The accounting system has been developed on the initiative of the Central Bank of West African States "BCEAO". The various accounting systems previously in effect within the W...

  1. Opinions of West Texas pharmacists about emergency contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Sutkin G; Grant B; Irons BK; Borders TF

    2006-01-01

    Background: The pharmacist’s role in dispensing emergency contraception (EC) has become controversial due to the intersection of personal and professional ethics. Therefore, to examine the issue of EC availability, we surveyed a sample of West Texas pharmacists. West Texas is a religiously and politically conservative region where no methods of EC have been made available.Objective: to survey a sample of pharmacists in West Texas about their experience, beliefs, and knowledge of EC both befor...

  2. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... management process for the 2010 ocean salmon fisheries in the Federal Register on December 30, 2009 (74 FR... as threatened under the ESA (73 FR 7816 February 11, 2008). Regardless of their listing status, the... Chinook salmon catch by 30 percent in Canada's West Coast Vancouver Island (WCVI) troll and sport...

  3. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational fisheries in... the 2013 ocean salmon fisheries and 2014 fisheries opening prior to May 1, 2014 (78 FR 25865, May 3... management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), the West Coast Salmon...

  4. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and... announced for the 2013 Ocean Salmon Fisheries and 2014 fisheries opening prior to May 1, 2014 (78 FR 25865... ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), the West Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan...

  5. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), the West Coast...,700 Chinook guideline is not exceeded (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013). NMFS is authorized to...

  6. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We..., Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. The races...

  7. West Side Silence: Producing "West Side Story" with Deaf and Hearing Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Details a collaborative production of "West Side Story" with hearing actors from MacMurray College and deaf actors from the Illinois School for the Deaf. Explores some of the practical dilemmas encountered as the distinctions between the Deaf and hearing communities were negotiated. Explains that the show explored the ways in which sign language…

  8. Texas site selection and licensing status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

  9. Kiviõlis kõlavad "West Side Story" laulud / Inna Grünfeldt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Georg Otsa nim. Muusikakooli viiepäevasest treeninglaagrist Kiviõli Keemiatööstuse hoones ja kontserdist muusikali "West Side Story" lauludega 27. aug. (ettevalmistus 4. sept. Tallinnas esietenduvale muusikalile, projektijuht Eerika Kurm)

  10. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  11. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  12. Use of the Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Citation Process at the West Valley Demonstration Project - 12250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project recently achieved a breakthrough in management of radioactive waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by taking advantage of lessons learned at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites in implementation of the waste-incidental-to-reprocessing citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. This breakthrough involved a revision to the site procedure on waste-incidental to reprocessing. This procedure revision served as the basis for a determination by the DOE West Valley field office using the citation process that three secondary waste streams consisting of equipment that had once been contaminated by association with HLW are not HLW following decontamination and may be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) or transuranic waste. These waste streams, which comprised much of the approximately 380 cubic meters of West Valley waste contaminated by association with HLW, included several vessels and certain tank farm equipment. By making use of lessons learned in use of the citation process by other DOE sites and information developed to support use of the citation process at the Hanford site and the Savannah River Site, the team developed a technical basis for showing that use of the citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1 for the three new waste stream was appropriate and technically justified. The Waste Management Working Group of the EFCOG assisted in transferring lessons learned by drawing on experience from around the DOE complex. This process shared knowledge about effective implementation of the citation process in a manner that proved to be beneficial to the West Valley Demonstration Project and resulted in a technical basis document that could be used to determine that the three new waste streams were not HLW. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110o - 130o E the direction and 60o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  14. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  15. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd3) (2.1 million cubic meters [m3]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m3) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd3(420,000 m3). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd3 (2.58 million m3)

  16. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jannick Kirk

    Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa, with a specific aim at the dissemination of knowledge in field of interaction design both in an academic context, as well as among practitioners. More specifically the paper discusses how interaction design knowledge can be disseminated in West Africa, particularly in Higher Education.

  17. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  18. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements

  19. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenel, N., E-mail: nathalie.ravenel@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Nouailletas, R.; Barana, O.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Balme, S.; Allegretti, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mannori, S. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements.

  20. Cell-mediated and humoral immunity in west syndrome Imunidade celular e humoral na sindrome de West

    OpenAIRE

    Terezinha C. B. Montelli; Maria Tereza R. Iwasso; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha S.; Norma Gerusa S. Mota

    1981-01-01

    The immunological status of five children with West syndrome consequent to previous cerebral lesions was investigated. Three children had West syndrome and two were in transition from West to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. All of them showed cellular immunological deficiencies in the following tests: sensitization to DNCB, intracutaneous reaction to PHA, inhibition of leucocyte migration, blastic transformation of lymphocytes, T and B lymphocytes in peripheric blood and levels of serum immunoglobul...

  1. Diseases, are they site-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction activities in West Germany after the Second World War had the sole purpose of providing space for living; biological aspects were not taken into account. Lately, however, renowned physicians have produced alarming news on 'house-dependent' diseases, and the resulting cry for research into constructional biology has already had consequences: Constructional biology is slowly becoming a subject of research and teaching for technical universities. The author reports on the health aspects of construction sites, building materials, house design, HVAC systems (especially the heating and electrical systems), and environmental factors. (orig./MG)

  2. Host sphingomyelin increases West Nile virus infection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Gabandé-Rodríguez, Enrique; García-Cabrero, Ana M; Sánchez, Marina P; Ledesma, María Dolores; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus (WNV), are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a global health problem. The flavivirus lifecycle is intimately connected to cellular lipids. Among the lipids co-opted by flaviviruses, we have focused on SM, an important component of cellular membranes particularly enriched in the nervous system. After infection with the neurotropic WNV, mice deficient in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which accumulate high levels of SM in their tissues, displayed exacerbated infection. In addition, WNV multiplication was enhanced in cells from human patients with Niemann-Pick type A, a disease caused by a deficiency of ASM activity resulting in SM accumulation. Furthermore, the addition of SM to cultured cells also increased WNV infection, whereas treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of SM synthesis reduced WNV infection. Confocal microscopy analyses confirmed the association of SM with viral replication sites within infected cells. Our results unveil that SM metabolism regulates flavivirus infection in vivo and propose SM as a suitable target for antiviral design against WNV. PMID:26764042

  3. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 ?Sv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  4. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  5. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  6. Alteration of microstructure of West Valley glass by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of West Valley reference glass WVCM-59 were subjected to isothermal heat treatment according to a systematic schedule of time-temperature combinations. Phases crystallizing during heat treatment were analyzed and quantified using an SEM equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray detector and image processing and analyzing capabilities. Only small amounts of noble metals (e.g. Rh, Pd) and RuO2 were present in the as-melted glass, but these frequently serve as nucleation sites during heat treatment. Iron-group spinels containing Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn in variable proportions were the most common phases observed, appearing in quantities up to 3.5 vol% in heat treated glass. The formation of a thoria-ceria phase occurred at temperatures of 900C and below. Acmites formed at temperatures of 800C and below. A lithium phosphate phase with a particularly interesting morphology developed after prolonged heat treatment at temperatures between 600-750C. The same phase appeared in a range of glass compositions. However, canister cooling curves preclude such a phase in production glass. Furthermore, no such phase was found in actual canister-cooled glass

  7. Radioactive waste solidification at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the United States Congress authorized establishment of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) as a US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste management project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center site. The high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the WVDP resulted from the commercial reprocessing of approximately 640 metric tons of spent fuel by Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS). The mission of the WVDP is to immobilize the HLW in a stable and nondispersible form. The US Department of Energy has selected vitrification as the method of solidification and borosilicate glass as the waste form. The HLW immobilized in this glass waste form is being proposed to be placed in a deep geologic burial vault (federal repository) where it will become one component of a permanent, multibarrier waste isolation system. The WVDP has demonstrated successful performance of the vitrification system by establishing the bases for reliable and safe operations for converting HLW into glass. A target glass composition has been established within the processing range which meets the requirements for the safe disposal of the HLW

  8. Adaptation of the ITER facility design to a Canadian site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the status of Canadian efforts to adapt the newly revised ITER facility design to suit the specific characteristics of the proposed Canadian site located in Clarington, west of Toronto, Ontario. ITER Canada formed a site-specific design team in 1999, comprising participants from three Canadian consulting companies to undertake this work. The technical aspects of this design activity includes: construction planning, geotechnical investigations, plant layout, heat sink design, electrical system interface, site-specific modifications and tie-ins, seismic design, and radwaste management. These areas are each addressed in this paper. (author)

  9. Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

  10. PIXE analysis and provenance study of archaeological potsherds from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, P.; Brissaud, I.; Lagarde, G.; Leblanc, J.; Person, A.; Saliege, J.-F.; Heitz, Ch.

    1984-04-01

    The present work is part of an archaeometrical programme dealing with prospection and analytical studies of sites contemporaneous with the West-African Empires during the Middle Ages. The measurement of the chemical composition of archaeological potsherds has been undertaken using PIXE analysis in order to characterize the production areas and to investigate commercial and cultural exchanges in the Inland Niger Delta (Mali). Samples consist of thick clay pellets pressed without binding material. Irradiations were performed in the proton beam of a 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Experimental conditions were the same as those suggested in a previous work. The analysis of a standard pottery has shown that the concentration of more than twenty elements, heavier than aluminium, can be measured with good reproducibility and sufficient accuracy. Experiments were carried out in two steps, a 1 MeV irradiation for detection of elements ranging from aluminium to iron, and then irradition by 3 MeV protons for elements heavier than iron. Five archaeological sites have been considered and especially the megalithic sites of Tondidarou and Dabi, both on the shores of the Tagadji lake, in the South-West of Tombouctou. The results are discussed using statistical treatment and cluster analysis. The typical composition of the clay from this region is then presented.

  11. Seasonal Variations of Water, Energy, and Carbon Fluxes Across a Moisture Gradient in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, S.; Stockli, R.; Orescanin, B.

    2013-12-01

    While grasslands make up nearly 40% of Earth's land surface, many areas remain understudied and under observed. Particularly, tropical grasslands are generally less researched sites due to the remoteness of their location. Model output and satellite data have become key resources when describing and analyzing the ecological processes occurring in these areas. In this project, the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) and fluorescence data are used alongside each other to summarize the productivity both seasonally and annually in several grassland sites in West Africa. While SiB interpreted the overall meteorological processes fairly well, the model struggled to accurately describe the variations in leaf indices, including; leaf area index, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, and fluorescence. Specifically, fluorescence data retrieved by satellite showed variability seasonally, whereas, SiB showed very little. To improve SiB's output, the phenology of each grassland site are examined and altered to create a more realistic description than what had been previously used. The adaption resulted in more accurate modeling of ecological processes in West African grasslands. Comparing the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) to remotely sensed observations.

  12. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  13. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  14. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

  15. Retention of fish larvae in a fjord system - a seasonal study of the larval life in a West Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    The Godthåbsfjord is the largest fjord system on the West Greenlandic coast and an important spawning site for several fish species. It houses the largest inshore stock of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on the west coast but also key species like Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and American plaice...... (Hippoglossoides platessoides) are abundant. The innermost part of the fjord branch Kapisigdlit is the principal spawning site for the fjord population of Atlantic cod, and in 2010 a seasonal study was carried out on the early life of this population. Abundance and distribution of this and other occurring fish...... larval species was recorded from late March to early August along a 25 km transect covering the length of the fjord branch. Cod spawning started when the upper 20 m of the water column had reached a temperature of 2° C, and cod larvae abundances peaked on June 3rd (16 larvae per 100 m3) in the inner...

  16. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site

  17. Comparison Of Mosquito Trapping Method Efficacy For West Nile Virus Surveillance In New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the West Nile virus surveillance program for the state of New Mexico, 13 sites along the Rio Grande River were sampled for mosquitoes during spring and summer 2003. We evaluated 3 different trapping procedures for their effectiveness at capturing selected species of mosquitoes. The 3 methods used were a dry ice-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap set 1.5 m above the ground (standard method), a CDC light trap suspended within the forest canopy, and a g...

  18. Dynamics in carbon exchange fluxes for a grazed semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cropley, Ford; Guiro, Idrissa; Horion, Stéphanie; Ehammer, Andrea; Ardö, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) for semi-arid savanna ecosystems of the Sahel region and its response to climatic and environmental change. A subsidiary aim is to study and quantify the seasonal dynamics in light use efficiency (ε) being a key...... variable in scaling carbon fluxes from ground observations using earth observation data. The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) 2010-2013 was measured using the eddy covariance technique at a grazed semi-arid savanna site in Senegal, West Africa. Night-time NEE was not related to temperature...

  19. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Site Needs Assessment FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Allen

    1999-05-03

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This is the fifth edition of the TFA site needs assessment. As with previous editions, this edition serves to provide the basis for accurately defining the TFA program for the upcoming fiscal year (FY), and adds definition to the program for up to 4 additional outyears. Therefore, this version distinctly defines the FY 2000 progrti and adds further definition to the FY 2001- FY 2004 program. Each year, the TFA reviews and amends its program in response to site users' science and technology needs.

  20. Limits—Urban Density and Mobility Networks in West Berlin during the Period of Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Miriam Carlow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available If space may be conceptualized as a natural resource, much like gas, oil, or minerals, then its production and use can also be thought of as something to be properly managed, taken care of, and not wasted. Limiting the expansion of the footprint of built-up land in urban areas forces this particular resource (space to be used more efficiently—in a sense, compelling it to be more creative and productive. These spatial constraints on urban areas generate different kinds of densification processes within the existing city, propagating densification, and with it new patterns and uses in urban development, as well as novel approaches to mitigating the hazards of dense urban environments. This paper examines the case of how spatial containment in West Berlin during the period of the Berlin Wall (1961–1989 produced such outcomes. West Berlin during this period can be considered a unique case of spatial containment, where a relatively large and vibrant modern city had to work around a clear and indelible limit to its physical expansion. This paper will discuss ways in which the containment influenced patterns of development in West Berlin toward densification and connectivity, focusing on the expansion of its infrastructural networks, and discuss the development of a new building culture around transformation and densification, including hybrid architectures and mitigation devices to deal with difficult sites produced by the densification.