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West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.

Gillham, Travis H.

1999-01-14

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Conversion of the West Hackberry geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry salt dome, in southwestern Louisiana, is one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the West Hackberry site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary layers, mapped faults, and a portion of the oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the West Hackberry site that can be used in support of future work.

Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.

2004-08-01

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Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2009-05-01

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West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class I Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The concept is being field tested in low pressure (350 to 800 pounds per square inch (psi)) reservoirs on the north flank of the field and high pressure reservoirs (2500 to 3300 psi) on the west flank of the field.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Kragas, T.

1997-04-08

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West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvi of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer

6

West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

1999-11-03

7

West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic. Air injection on the West Hank began in November of 1994. Although West Flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the West Flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest down structure well. Cumulative injection to date is 1.6 BCF, only approximately 50% of the projected volume required to establish oil production response. Additional air injection is required to further expand the gas cap and thereby bring about oil production. Air injection rates have been restricted due to iron oxide plugging in the injectors. To spread risk among multiple reservoirs, the project was expanded in 1996 to include air injection in low pressure reservoirs on the North Flank of the field. The project reservoirs on the West Flank are much higher pressure (2500-3300 psi) than the project reservoirs on the North Flank (300-600 psi). Air injection began on the North Rank in July of 1996. While West Flank air injection has not yet yielded oil production, air injection has increased oil production in all three low pressure North Hank reservoirs. Production increased in the North Rank after only two months of air injection, much quicker than anticipated. Between July of 1996 and July of 1999, cumulative air injection of 0.9 BCF increased North Flank oil production by 224,000 barrels above the normal decline. As of July, 1999, air injection was generating 270 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) of incremental oil production from the three low pressure reservoirs on the North Flank of the field.

Kenneth Haley; Travis Gillham; Demetrios Yannimaras

1999-03-31

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West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

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Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01

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West Hackberry Tertiary Project, Class I; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries

11

West Hackberry Tertiary Project, Class I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries.

Haley, Kenneth A.; Gillham, Travis H.; Yannimaras, Demetrios

2002-03-04

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West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

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West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01

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Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

Bruce Cerveny; Tor Kragas; Travis Gillham

1998-01-13

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Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

Demetrios Yannimaras; Travis Gillham

1998-07-14

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Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

Bruce Cerveny; Tor Kragas; Travis Gillham

1997-07-10

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Quarterly Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity discharge. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid.

Demetrois Yannimaras; Travis Gillham

1998-04-15

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Annual Technical Progress Report - West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. Air injection on the west flank began in November of 1994. Although west flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the west flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest downstructure well.

Allen Fornea; Bruce Cerveny; Travis H. Gillham

1997-09-30

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Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

2015-02-01

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Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

1978-11-01

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West Hackberry tertiary project. Summary annual report, September 3, 1996--September 2, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are in the Oligocene Age sands located on the west and north flanks of West hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. By the end of the fourth year of Budget period 1, air injection has been under way at West Hackberry since November of 1994 on the west flank and since July of 1996 on the north flank. During the past year, the most noteworthy events were: (1) increased oil production in low pressure reservoirs on the north flank, (2) demonstrated economic viability of air injection in low pressure reservoirs, (3) increased west flank reservoir pressure as a result of air injection and (4) intensified program of technology transfer activities. This report includes a discussion of the areas of progress.

Gillham, T.H.

1997-09-21

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West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1996-01-10

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West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are the Camerina sands located on the west and north flanks of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1996-07-11

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West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, June 3, 1994--September 2, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic.

Gillham, T.H.

1994-08-31

25

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, March 3, 1993--June 3, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This reservoir has been unitized and is designated as the WH Cam C RI SU. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic.

Gillham, T.H.

1994-09-01

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West Hackberry tertiary project. Quarterly technical progress report, September 3, 1994--December 2, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. The target reservoir has not produced since January of 1993 when the last of the reservoir`s producing wells watered out.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1994-11-30

27

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, March 3, 1995--June 2, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. Air injection was initiated on November 17, 1994. During this quarter, the West Hackberry Tertiary Project completed the first six months of air injection operations. The following events are reviewed in this quarter`s technical progress report: (1) early nitrogen breakthrough seen in the Gulf Land D No. 56; (2) corrosion downhole in the air injectors and at the wellsite injection skid; (3) fill in the Watkins No. 16 air injection well; (4) temperature logs run in air injectors(after 24 hours of shut-in); (5) substantial air compressor down time; and (6) official startup ceremony and technology transfer activities.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1995-05-31

28

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, December 3, 1994--March 2, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. The current quarter marked the first full quarter of air injection. This report addresses: (1) Evidence of Spontaneous High-Temperature Combustion; (2) Results of the Reservoir Monitoring Program; (3) Status of Surface Injection Operations; and (4) Plans for a 3-D Seismic Survey over East and West Hackberry Fields.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1995-03-01

29

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presented uneconomic. During this quarter, the West Hackberry Tertiary Project completed the first ten months of air injection operations. Plots of air injection rates and cumulative air injected are included in this report as attachments. The following events are reviewed in this quarter`s technical progress report: (1) successful workovers on the Gulf Land D Nos. 44, 45 and 51 and the Watkins No. 3; (2) the unsuccessful repair attempt on the Watkins No. 16; (3) gathering of additional bottom hole pressure data; (4) air compressor operations and repairs; and (5) technology transfer activities.

NONE

1995-10-11

30

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

Gillham, T.H.

1997-09-10

31

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are the Camerina sands located on the west and north flanks of west Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. During the third quarter of 1996, air injection continued on the west flank and was initiated on the north flank. In addition, the first oil production from air injection occurred and the air injection flowline to the north flank neared completion. The following topics are discussed herein: (1) summary of west flank activities; (2) first oil production occurs on the north flank; (3) operation and maintenance of air injection system; (4) installation of equipment for north flank air injection; and (5) plans for the upcoming quarter.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1996-10-14

32

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. The first quarter of 1996 was outstanding both in terms of volume of air injected and low cost operations. More air was injected during this quarter than in any preceding quarter. The compressors experienced much improved run time with minimal repairs. Low operating costs resulted from no repairs required for injection or production wells. A discussion of the following topics are contained herein: (1) performance summary for the injection and production wells, (2) air compressor operations, (3) updated bottom hole pressure data, (4) technology transfer activities and (5) plans for the upcoming quarter.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1996-04-10

33

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1995--September 2, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1997-05-01

34

West Hackberry Tertiary Project annual technical progress report, September 3, 1993--September 2, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering ternary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%--60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%--90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

Gillham, T.H.

1994-09-27

35

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

1997-01-14

36

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

Taylor, A

1980-02-29

37

West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

1982-01-01

38

Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

39

Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

40

Depositional patterns and structural styles-Hackberry Salt Dome, Cameron Parish, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West and East Hackberry fields of north-central Cameron Parish, Louisiana, are associated with a large southeast-plunging salt ridge. Episodes of salt movement influenced the depositional patterns and reservoir trap styles of the Oligocene- and Miocene-age sedimentary section. The Oligocene lower Hackberry channels were influenced by the salt structure, resulting in the Manchester-Holmwood channel system flanking the east and south sides of the salt dome and the Choupique channel system flanking the west side of the salt dome. The depositional patterns and structural bed dips of the younger Oligocene Camerina A to marginulina section demonstrate a major period of salt movement and erosion. The resulting truncation of the Camerian A sandstones, sealed by overlying shales, provides the dominant trap style for the majority of the reservoirs. This same general period of salt movement influenced the orientation of the Oligocene Marginulina to Miogypsinoides expansion fault system to the east. The Sweet Lake salt dome, down through to this expansion system, probably represents a southeast extension of this ancestral salt ridge.

Spencer, J.A.; Sharpe, C.L.; Gillham, T.H.; Wright, D.N. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

41

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

42

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

43

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

None

1998-06-01

44

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

NONE

1999-06-01

45

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

None Available

2000-06-01

46

The Approach to Cleanup at West Cumbria's Nuclear Sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cleanup of West Cumbria's nuclear sites is one of the most important and demanding managerial, technical and environmental challenges facing the UK over the next century. Considerable progress has already been made in cleaning up the Sellafield, Calder Hall, and Low-level Waste Repository (LLWR) sites but there remains significant challenge ahead. There are more than 200 nuclear facilities at the sites including redundant fuel storage ponds, redundant chemical plants and silos of solid waste and sludge. These legacy buildings exist alongside commercially operating reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. They are all linked together by a complex network of services including gas supplies, water supplies, waste disposal routes, and chemical supply routes. Many of the buildings requiring cleanup are very old and date back to the early years of the British nuclear industry. They were not designed with decommissioning in mind, and some require substantial improvement to provide a safe foundation from which to retrieve waste and decommission. The cleanup of these legacy facilities must be carefully balanced with the ongoing operations that provide services to commercial customers. Cleanup must be carried out safely and efficiently, without impacting upon commercial operations whose revenue is vital to funding the Cleanup organizations scope of work. This paper will introduce the cleanup approach at West Cumbria's Sellafield nuclear site. It will provide an overvied nuclear site. It will provide an overview of what is being done in preparation to meet the formidable but rewarding challenge ahead. (authors)

47

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2005-09-30

48

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

49

78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation  

Science.gov (United States)

...Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS, ``Designation of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Pursuant to Section 102(c) of the Marine Protection, Research and...

2013-06-24

50

76 FR 45879 - West, a Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Training Administration [TA-W-73,198] West, a Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal, Including On-Site Leased Workers...June 21, 2010, applicable to workers of West, A Thomson Reuters Legal, including on-site leased...

2011-08-01

51

76 FR 27365 - West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Training Administration [TA-W-75,099] West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased...applicable to workers and former workers of West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal...

2011-05-11

52

76 FR 50272 - West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Training Administration [TA-W-75,099] West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased...Reconsideration for workers and former workers of West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal...

2011-08-12

53

Structural analysis of the West Hackbery No. 6 SPR storage cavern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four separate structural analyses of the West Hackberry No. 6 SPR storage cavern are presented. One analysis covers the creep response of the cavern beginning shortly before the time when an accidental fire occurred and proceeding through the cavern recertification pressure test. The second analysis models the surface uplife that is expected during the same pressure test. The third and fourth numerical studies investigate the structural response of West Hackberry No. 6 to slabbing and a rapid pressure drop. All analyses indicate that this cavern should be structurally stable for the conditions assumed.

Benzley, S.E.

1980-08-01

54

Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

1992-03-01

55

Remedial design services for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from radium-processing facilities which operated in the area during the early 1900's. The waste materials, containing radium and other radioactive isotopes were placed in three separate landfill sites. Major public health risks are indoor radon gas build-up and indoor/ outdoor gamma radiation. In 1989, the EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) which chose excavation and off-site disposal of material as the preferred alternative. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight key elements of the design process for the remedial action at Montclair. Those key elements are as follows: meeting community relations challenges; measuring radioactive contamination; developing plans and specifications; packaging of remedial action contacts; and continually improving both the process and the designs

56

Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

2002-05-14

57

Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

58

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment

59

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2006-09-21

60

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2008-12-17

61

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

2007-09-27

62

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment

63

Creating livable communities: a case study of the Heartland site Somerset West  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT:Heartland Properties are currently developing 700 ha of land (called the Heartland Site), in the Somerset West area. The site is within the urban edge of Cape Town and is to be developed as a mixed use development comprising residential, commercial, educational and recreational land uses. The developer and his professional team have committed themselves to a coordinated spatial, urban design and transport planning approach. Using the above approach, a reduction in both the number ...

Frieslaar, Andre; Jones, John; Marks, Antony

2007-01-01

64

Geophysical survey for cone penetrometer site, CPT-4, 200 West area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a geophysical survey performed at the Hanford Reservation. The objective of the survey was to locate subsurface obstructions that may affect cone penetrometer work at site CPT-4, adjacent to and west of borehole 299-W18-252, Figure 1. Based upon the results of the survey, possible ''drill sites'' within the zone, with the least likelihood of encountering identified obstructions, were identified

65

Site Ranking and Potential Assessment for Concentrating Solar Power in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access to electricity is poor in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP presents better opportunities for increasing access to electricity and for diversifying sources of energy in the ECOWAS region; however, to date, except for Burkina Faso, no site evaluation pertaining to the region has ever been performed for CSP. This study provides potential assessment and site ranking for large-scale CSP projects in the ECOWAS region. It computes the nominal potential power and gives the corresponding energy yield with many scenarios. By considering only 1% of the suitable land area with daily DNI greater or equal to 5 kWh/m2, a land slope less or equal to 5% and distance to transmission line not more than 100 km, the study showed, for example, that West Africa has a potential nominal capacity of 21.3 GW for parabolic trough technology.

Anselme Rungundu

2013-03-01

66

The Ramsar Sites of Disko, West Greenland : A Survey in July 2001  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The three Ramsar sites of Disko Island in West Greenland were surveyed for breeding and staging waterbirds in July 2001. Two of the areas (no. 1 and 2) held a high diversity of waterbirds and proved to be of international importance for the Greenland white-fronted goose, while the third (no. 3) held very few waterbirds and hardly meet any of the specific waterbird criteria of the Ramsar convention

Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

2001-01-01

67

Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl4. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl4 distributions

68

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report

69

West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

NONE

1997-06-01

70

Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

71

Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

2006-09-15

72

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

73

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

CH2M HILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

2012-09-27

74

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS Corporation

2010-09-17

75

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC

2011-09-28

76

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

2013-09-19

77

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

78

Sorption measurements performed under site-specific conditions - Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, disposal sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sorption coefficients have been determined using site-specific sediments and trench waters, collected from the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Experimental apparatus and procedures are described to preserve the anoxic character of the liquid phases during experiments. Experiments using anoxic and oxidized trench waters were performed as functions of solution pH, soil/solution ratio, water and soil composition. The lowest sorption was observed with the combination of anoxic waters and untreated soil - the combination most closely resembling the immediate trench environment. For best results in predictive applications, sorption data should be determined under conditions which simulate those in the field as closely as possible. The total radionuclide retention capacity of reducing geochemical environments is the sum of sorption processes on solid phases, as well as precicipation, and coprecipitation reactions involving iron mineral phases

79

Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

1992-03-01

80

Initial site characterization approach and preliminary results, 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride Expedited Response Action, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Expedited Response Action (ERA) is being proposed to remediate the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington. The ERA is based on the preliminary conceptual model that carbon tetrachloride vapors remaining in the unsaturated zone continue to provide a source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to the groundwater. The goal of the initial phase of site characterization was to refine this conceptual model, and to collect data in support of the selection and design of an initial remedial action, while meeting the accelerated schedule of the ERA. Using this approach, site characterization activities were designed to make optimum use of field screening-level data and existing boreholes. Field tasks included analysis of soil gas samples collected from the bottoms of boreholes or detected at the wellhead; a soil gas survey; a pilot test of a vapor extraction system; and groundwater sampling and analysis. Results of this initial phase of site characterization suggest that carbon tetrachloride vapors are still contained within the unsaturated zone in concentrations sufficient to support an effective early removal action

81

West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

82

Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

1990-03-01

83

Radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park site, West Chicago, Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park, West Chicago, Illinois, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the fall of 1981 and the spring of 1982. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of water and airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results show that the materials containing 232Th and daughters are present in surface and subsurface locations, comprising a total volume of about 15,000 cubic yards, with concentrations as high as 11,000 pCi/g. These contaminants are a source of radon and daughter radionuclides which may produce slightly elevated airborne radioactivity levels off-site. There is no evidence that materials are moving off-site through ground water, although small subsurface deposits exceeding 5 pCi/g exist north of the fenced site in a landfill area, and to the southeast of the site near the tennis courts. These off-site deposits do not present a significant radiological hazard to the public at this time

84

Spectral Ratio Estimates for Site Effects on the Horst-Graben System in West Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Recordings of micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes have been used to quantify site effects in the central-west Turkey which contains one of the world's best examples of a rapid intra-continental extension with its high population and industrial potential. We analyzed 436 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging between 2.0 and 5.6 using three component digital recordings from 32 stations. Site functions were obtained using two different spectral ratio approaches (horizontal to vertical spectral ratio, HVSR, and standard spectral ratio, SSR). HVSR estimates of transverse and radial S-waves were compared with one another. Epicentral distance, magnitude and back-azimuth dependencies of site functions were also evaluated. In general, HVSR values from transverse and radial S-waves are similar within a factor of 2. The back-azimuth dependencies of transverse S-wave HVSR results are more significant than distance and magnitude dependencies. On the other hand, averaging of transverse and radial S-wave HVSR results eliminates systematic back-azimuth dependencies caused by source radiation effects. Distributions of HVSR estimates along ~N-S linear array, which traversed main grabens in the region with a station spacing of 3-4 km, reflect subsurface geological complexities in the region. The sites located near the basin edges are characterized by broader HVSR curves. Broad HVSR peaks could be attributed to the complexity of wave propagation related to significant 2D/3D velocity variations at the sediment-bedrock interface near the basin edges. The results also show that, even if the site is located on a horst, the presence of weathered zones along the surface could cause moderate frequency dependent site effects. Comparison of HVSR and SSR estimates for the stations on the graben sites showed that SSR estimates give larger values at lower frequencies which could be attributed to lateral variations in regional velocity and attenuation values caused by basin geometry and edge effects.

Akyol, N?hal; Kurtulmu?, Tevf?k Özgür; Çamyildiz, Murat; Güngör, Tal?p

2013-12-01

85

Investigation of possible sites for a power station in the South West by the Central Electricity Generating Board  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines the issues involved in siting a nuclear power station in Dorset. It falls under the headings: introduction (present and future position; government policy; the local authorities' role); supply of electricity to South West England (present system; reasons for, and ways of providing more capacity); nuclear power stations (size; appearance; employment; transportation; safety); the Herbury and Winfrith sites (description of site and surrounding area; construction and operation of a power station; implications). Conclusions and recommendations are added. (U.K.)

86

WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities.

NONE

2003-09-12

87

WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning for cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (10) ongoing characterization of facilities such as the waste tank farm and process cells; (11) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises; and (12) flushing and rinsing HLW solidification facilities

88

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

2009-09-24

89

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

90

Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.40N, Long. 2.30E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

91

Site selection, drilling, and completion of two horizontal wells in the Devonian Shales of West Virginia. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a summary of the geologic site selection studies, planning, drilling, completing, stimulating, and testing of two horizontal wells drilled in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin in West Virginia. Each horizontal well was designed and managed by BDM as the prime contractor to the Department of Energy. The first well was drilled with industry partner Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation in Putnam County, West Virginia. The second well was drilled with Consolidated Natural Gas Company in Calhoun County, West Virginia. This report summarizes four reports prepared by BDM which detail the site selection rationale and the drilling and completion operations of each well. Each horizontal well is currently producing commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The successful application of horizontal well technology represent continued development of the technology for application to tight and unconventional natural gas resources of the United States. Continued technology development is expected to ultimately result in commercial horizontal well drilling activity by industry in the Appalachian Basin.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Johnson, H.R.

1992-03-01

92

Public health assessment for West Site Hows Corners, Plymouth, Penobscot County, Maine, region 2. Cerclis No. MED985466168. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Site/Hows Corner National Priorities List site is a former waste oil storage and transfer facility. The site was identified in 1987, when nearby residential wells were found to be contaminated with chlorinated solvents. On-site soils were found to be contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The Hows Corner site is classified as a public health hazard based on past exposure of residents to contamination in their residential wells, and also past exposure to contaminated soils of workers and others who may have come onto the site. The site is also classified as a current indeterminant public health hazard, based upon the possibility that contaminants in the groundwater may volatilize and affect the ambient air above the ground surface and because of possible increased migration of contaminated groundwater off the site.

NONE

1996-10-18

93

Precipitation pathways for five new ice core sites in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice cores provide a wealth of information about past climate and atmospheric circulation however a good understanding of the precipitation patterns, potential source regions and transport pathways is essential in their interpretation. Here we investigate the precipitation pathways for a transect of five new ice cores drilled in the southern Antarctic Peninsula and Ellsworth Land. We utilize in situ observations from automatic weather stations to confirm that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data adequately captures annual and sub-annual variability, with evidence of a slight cold bias in the 2 m temperatures. Back trajectory analysis, from the British Atmospheric Data Centre trajectory service, reveals that warm and snowy years are associated with air masses that originate (5 days before reaching the site) from the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea, while cold and dry years are associated with air masses from the Antarctic continent. There is a clear seasonal migration in the trajectories at each site, reflecting the east to west migration of the Amundsen Sea Low, known to have a strong influence on climate in this region.

Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.

2015-04-01

94

Precipitation pathways for five new ice core sites in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice cores provide a wealth of information about past climate and atmospheric circulation however a good understanding of the precipitation patterns, potential source regions and transport pathways is essential in their interpretation. Here we investigate the precipitation pathways for a transect of five new ice cores drilled in the southern Antarctic Peninsula and Ellsworth Land. We utilize in situ observations from automatic weather stations to confirm that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data adequately captures annual and sub-annual variability, with evidence of a slight cold bias in the 2 m temperatures. Back trajectory analysis, from the British Atmospheric Data Centre trajectory service, reveals that warm and snowy years are associated with air masses that originate (5 days before reaching the site) from the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea, while cold and dry years are associated with air masses from the Antarctic continent. There is a clear seasonal migration in the trajectories at each site, reflecting the east to west migration of the Amundsen Sea Low, known to have a strong influence on climate in this region.

Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.

2014-06-01

95

NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML team surveyed three sites in the Sierras with their terrestrial waveform lidar (DWEL) and collected Trac measurements of LAI, while UMB collected additional discrete ground-based lidar scans and additional forestry measures at San Joaquin and the Sierras; A team from the UWM collected leaf-level reflectance and transmission spectra and measured leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. This multifaceted collaboration, funded by the NSF NEON and NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Science programs, will support key scientific developments by combining the expertise from multiple sensing modalities. This experiment highlights the advantages of data and skills sharing in remote sensing applications. An overview of the larger effort and individual early science will be presented.

Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

2013-12-01

96

Tree-Ring Analysis of Netleaf Hackberry: Applications of Dendrochronology in Riparian Conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Current global climate change predictions present uncertainties regarding the variability of river flows in the southwest that could lead to escalating ecosystem stress throughout the region. These predictions reinforce a growing need for a more adaptive approach to management of river systems. Dendrochronology is a proven and effective tool for examining historic influences of climate on ecosystems and offers insights into how ecosystems may respond to changing climate conditions. While dendrochronology is often utilized in forest and upland systems, potential applications in riparian ecosystems have not been fully established. This study investigates the dendrochronological characteristics and monitoring applications of the common riparian tree Netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata). The study was completed in the semi-arid Upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. The Upper Santa Cruz River is characterized by a cascading series of shallow sedimentary groundwater basins and a roughly 40-mile riparian forest compromised of signature southwest riparian tree species. Results from the study confirm that hackberry trees do cross-date effectively and growth rates correlate with stream flow and with maximum and minimum temperature patterns. This information can be used to help understand how changing climate patterns may impact growth trends and the overall health of riparian species. Given increasing demands on water resources, understanding the impacts of hydrologic regimes on riparian ecosystems could contribute to management decisions about groundwater and in-stream flows. Furthermore, dendrochronological analysis can provide a new and integrated riparian health assessment tool to management agencies and conservation organizations.

McCoy, A. L.; Meko, D. M.; Wong, J.; Orr, B. J.

2009-12-01

97

Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

Ehman, K D

2006-05-10

98

The Hydrogeologic Conditions in the Upper Dockum Group at the Waste Control Specialists Site, West Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site in Andrews County, west Texas has licenses from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous material. Four landfills are constructed on the WCS site, including a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. All landfills are constructed below grade and within the low-permeability Triassic Dockum Group mudrocks (Cooper Canyon Formation). The Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. The Dockum would be generally classified as an aquitard. At the WCS site, the vertical effective hydraulic conductivity of the Dockum is 1.2×10-9 cm/s, and its horizontal effective conductivity is 2.9×10-7 cm/s. Core samples reveal that at least the upper 300+ feet of the Dockum is in the unsaturated zone. The average capillary pressure in Dockum core samples is -2.84 MPa, with an average saturation of 0.87. High saturation values are not surprising, as Dockum air-entry pressures range from 0.016 to 9.8 MPa, with a mean of 1.0 MPa. Heat dissipation sensors, thermocouple psychrometers, and advanced tensiometers installed in Dockum borehole arrays generally show capillary pressures one order of magnitude less than those measured on core samples. These differences with core data are attributed to the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase within Dockum materials. In the vicinity of an instrumented borehole, the gas phase pressure equilibrates with atmospheric pressure, lowering the capillary pressure. Little fluid has circulated vertically through the Dockum. Measurements of the electrical conductivity of a saturated paste consisting of water and crushed core sample (a metric for pore-water salinity) show strong vertical variations. A chloride bulge in the sediments above the Dockum indicates that the Dockum has received very little recharge in the past.

Holt, R. M.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Pickens, J. F.; Powers, D. W.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cook, S.

2011-12-01

99

Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing PuroliteR A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCgTM, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludge is then disposed at

100

Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing Purolite{sup R} A530E resin (which has been proven effective in removing Tc-99). The water is then transferred to the biological treatment building for further treatment. When the lead vessel in each of the two treatment trains becomes fully loaded with Tc-99, the Purolite A530E resin is transferred to a separate tank where it is heated to 160 deg. F to remove volatile organics prior to disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The biological treatment building has a maximum flow capacity of 2,500 gpm. Groundwater from the nonradiological extraction wells and treated groundwater from the RAD building are initially pumped into an equalization tank and then into two parallel fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). The FBRs contain granulated activated carbon in suspension for microbes to populate, a carbon-based food source for the microbes to eat (e.g., MicroCg{sup TM}, molasses, or sodium lactate), and nitrate for the microbes to breathe (represents 'anoxic' conditions that contain little or no dissolved oxygen). The FBRs are maintained at a temperature between 55 deg. F and 90 deg. F, and at a pH between 6.5 and 6.8, to maximize microbial growth. The FBRs break down the nitrate, reduce the hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and break down a good portion of the carbon tetrachloride and TCE. From the FBRs, groundwater is pumped through a carbon separation tank, then through a splitter box that divides the water evenly between four membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that further break down the contaminants. The MBRs have aeration capacity to provide sufficient oxygen for maintaining the aerobic biological process. The MBRs use submerged membranes for filtration. Vertically strung fibers are found in the membrane zone where a vacuum draws water through tiny pores in the fibers. The liquid is then pumped to air strippers to remove any volatile organics that have passed through the bioreactors. Solids from the MBRs are pumped to rotary drum thickeners and centrifuges for dewatering prior to lime being added to kill the bacteria and control odor. The conditioned sludg

Byrnes, Mark E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States); Simmons, Sally [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, Washington (United States); Morse, John [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington (United States)

2013-07-01

101

Numerical analysis of carbon tetrachloride movement in the saturated and unsaturated zones in the 200 West Area, Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1955 to 1973, carbon tetrachloride was used in processing operations at Z Plant, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Large quantities of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to the 200 West Area soils via crib and trench disposal facilities during this period.The main purpose of this report is to describe the numerical modeling that was used to estimate the effects of carbon tetrachloride volatilization in the vadose zone and carbon tetrachloride absorption by water in both the vadose zone and aquifer on the flow or movement of the immiscible liquid carbon tetrachloride in both the vadose zone and aquifer near 216-Z-9 Trench site. Another purpose is to show the differences in results from two different models (and computer codes)

102

Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program final report: Site characterization of the Pacific Study Area, West Coast, Northern Site (W-N)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the outcome of a Pacific Ocean research program begun in November 1978 by Sandia National Laboratories for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. The six-year oceanographic program was in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation of possible sea disposal of defueled, decommissioned, nuclear-powered submarines. Evaluation guidelines were written to define a site suitable for such sea disposal. This final report, which combines results from two previous progress reports and data from recently completed studies, characterizes a suitable site, the West Coast, Northern Site (W-N). Although W-N is neither the only possible nor the best Pacific site, it is one suitable location under the site evaluation guidelines. 95 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs

103

Climatology of aerosol composition (organic versus inorganic) at nonurban sites on a west-east transect across Europe  

OpenAIRE

In the framework of the European CARBOSOL project (Present and Retrospective State of Organic versus Inorganic Aerosol over Europe: Implications for Climate), atmospheric aerosol was continuously sampled for 2 years at six sites along a west-east transect extending from Azores, in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, to K-Puszta (Hungary), in central Europe. Aerosols were analyzed for ²¹°Pb, inorganic ions, elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), macromolecular type...

Pio, Casimiro; Legrand, Michel; Oliveira, Tiago S.; Afonso, Joana; Santos, C.; Caseiro, A.; Fialho, Paulo; Barata, Filipe; Puxbaum, Hans; Sanchez-ochoa, A.; Kasper-giebl, Anne; Gelencse?r, Andra?s; Preunkert, Susanne; Schock, M.

2007-01-01

104

STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROL ON CCL4 AND CHCL3 CONCENTRATIONS IN THE 200 WEST AREA, HANFORD SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in eastern Washington. Remediation requires a high-resolution understanding of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these lithofacies have on CCl4 migration through the unconfi ned aquifer. To increase the level of detail of our current understanding, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater fl ow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were standardized and used to create a cross section displaying the depth and continuity of lithofacies. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and that other fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. The infl uence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

Winsor, K.; Last, G.V.

2008-01-01

105

West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2003 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. During 2003, cleanup of radioactive waste from the former nuclear fuels reprocessing plant that shut down operations in the 1970s was continued at the WVDP. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Work activities at the WVDP during 2003 included: (1) maintaining canisters of vitrified high-level waste in a shielded facility; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste offsite for disposal; (3) shipping packaged spent nuclear fuel assemblies to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; (4) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely size-reduced and packaged for disposal; (5) decontaminating the fuel storage pool and the cask unloading pool; (6) decontaminating the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (7) cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (8) planning for decontamination and dismantlement of the vitrification facility; (9) continuing preparation of the Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Impact Statement; and (10) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises

106

78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation  

Science.gov (United States)

...and west of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel (ARBC) of Louisiana. The...Designation of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal...Designation of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material...

2013-05-21

107

Remote installation of a new riser on an existing West Valley site tank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of remotely installing new access ports, risers, on existing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks has been developed by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for use on two of the storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, NY. The equipment designed includes a semi-remote concrete coring machine and fully remotely operated machines for flame cutting, grinding, and welding

108

Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9 % of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6 % think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory. PMID:25784608

Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

2015-04-01

109

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes thsessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. This analysis does not consider temporary construction items and, therefore, does not consider hazards associated with temporary construction items. This analysis will be reviewed and updated to reflect new East-West Drift design changes, construction modifications, and ''as built'' documentation of the East-West Drift when completed. A major difference between this analysis and previous ESF SSAs is the inclusion of hazards that arise as a result of non-accident events, (e.g., ''off-normal'' operations, adverse environmental conditions, or ''out-of-tolerance'' conditions). Non-accident events, that were not included in previous ESF SSAs, include environmental and/or toxic hazards such as leaking gases/fluids, off-gassing reactions, and excessive dust, particulates, exhaust fumes, noise, temperature, etc. which could have an adverse health effect on personnel

110

FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems

111

Study of the ancient iron-smelting sites at Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west, Nigeria, using neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis was used to obtain concentrations of some elements in samples of potsherds and furnaces obtained from Pantaki, Tsauni and Samaru-west ancient iron-smelting sites. Using WARD method, cluster analysis of the elements was carried out to establish the relationship between the archaeological samples in term of similarity in elemental concentrations. It was found that there is some level of similarity among the potsherd samples from the three sites. Also, most of furnace samples display some similarity. It was established that there was cultural linkage between the iron-smelters at the different sites. The similarity between the samples lead to a conclusion that pot makers and furnace makers could have existed, who obtained clays from common sources, made and sold the products to users in different communities.

112

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. This analysis does not consider temporary construction items and, therefore, does not consider hazards associated with temporary construction items. This analysis will be reviewed and updated to reflect new East-West Drift design changes, construction modifications, and ''as built'' documentation of the East-West Drift when completed. A major difference between this analysis and previous ESF SSAs is the inclusion of hazards that arise as a result of non-accident events, (e.g., ''off-normal'' operations, adverse environmental conditions, or ''out-of-tolerance'' conditions). Non-accident events, that were not included in previous ESF SSAs, include environmental and/or toxic hazards such as leaking gases/fluids, off-gassing reactions, and excessive dust, particulates, exhaust fumes, noise, temperature, etc. which could have an adverse health effect on personnel.

NA

1999-06-08

113

Late-Holocene climate evolution at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica: Bubble number-density estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

A surface cooling of ???1.7??C occurred over the ???two millennia prior to ???1700 CE at the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) Divide site, based on trends in observed bubble number-density of samples from the WDC06A ice core, and on an independently constructed accumulation-rate history using annual-layer dating corrected for density variations and thinning from ice flow. Density increase and grain growth in polar firn are both controlled by temperature and accumulation rate, and the integrated effects are recorded in the number-density of bubbles as the firn changes to ice. Numberdensity is conserved in bubbly ice following pore close-off, allowing reconstruction of either paleotemperature or paleo-accumulation rate if the other is known. A quantitative late-Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction is presented for West Antarctica using data obtained from the WAIS Divide WDC06A ice core and a steady-state bubble number-density model. The resultant temperature history agrees closely with independent reconstructions based on stable-isotopic ratios of ice. The ???1.7??C cooling trend observed is consistent with a decrease in Antarctic summer duration from changing orbital obliquity, although it remains possible that elevation change at the site contributed part of the signal. Accumulation rate and temperature dropped together, broadly consistent with control by saturation vapor pressure.

Fegyveresi, J.M.; Alley, R.B.; Spencer, M.K.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Steig, E.J.; White, J.W.C.; McConnell, J.R.; Taylor, K.C.

2011-01-01

114

Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

Arlen F. Chase

2014-09-01

115

Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Among these, a goodexample is the hexachlorocyclohexane soil pollution from Turda Area. The soil quality from this region is also affected by otheractivities like: waste disposal, oil and natural gases extraction.

PROOROCU M.

2009-12-01

116

1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980's, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site

117

1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-08-01

118

PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

119

PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

2014-01-01

120

Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

2009-08-27

121

Site Selection of Local Marketing Cooperatives of Agricultural Crops in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Undoubtedly one of the necessities of today's world is the competition with other countries to achieve a balanced position, yet superior in many aspects of economic, social, political and cultural aspects. Based on the statistics, 31.54 percent of the Iran total population lives in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of their income. One of the major problems of agricultural economy in Iran refers to many brokers and intermediaries in the transfer of goods from the producer to the consumer. This reduces the producer's share of the proceeds from the sale of products. Agricultural marketing cooperatives are very important tools to decrease this gap. So in this research have been tried to know and recognize the best places in creating Local Marketing Cooperatives of Agricultural Crops in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.in this regard, 18 place information layers have been used and finally the best places were known.

Mohammad Jalalzadeh

2014-03-01

122

Environmental monitoring of the main nuclear sites of Piemonte (North-West Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper are described the monitoring activities of ARPA Piemonte, principally focused on one of the two major Italian nuclear sites located in Piemonte: Nuclear Site of Saluggia that, together with the Nuclear Power Plant of Trino Vercellese (272 MWe) are the most important nuclear installations of the Region. Both these sites are located in Po Plain and are quite close together (not more than 20 km). Moreover their discharges flow directly into the Po river (Nuclear Power Plant) or into the Dora Baltea, one of the most important Po affluent, a few kilometres prior to the confluence into Po river

123

Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

124

Nesting Sites of Apis cerana Fabr. (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Two Different Altitutes of Polyculture Plantations in West Sumatera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural cavities in polyculture plantations are important for the conservation of honeybees. This study was aimed to determine the diversity, nest sizes, and fluctuations in the use of sites for nesting by Apis cerana Fabr. in polyculture plantations in two altitudes in West Sumatra. A census method was used to obtain the data variables in 10 plantations (five locations for each altitute. Polyculture plantations used as the study sites were dominated by coconut in lowland areas and coffee in highland areas. The results showed that nesting sites of Apis cerana were found amongst 18 species of plants belonging to 15 families (12 species in lowlands and seven species in highlands. Most of the nests were placed on Cocos nucifera (coconut trees in lowland sites, and on Erythria variegata (dadap in highland sites. Nests were also found to be located mostly in the cavities of trees with diameter 21-60 cm. Nest entrances were located at 228.31 cm above ground surface (ags in highland and at 116.04 cm ags in lowlands. The nest entrances in highlands measured 12.21 by 3.73 cm (height and width, and in the lowlands 14.93 by 7.36 cm. The percentage of tree cavities used for nesting was statically higher in lowland (40.73% compared to high land (17.86%, but it fluctuated very slightly in both high or lowland areas during observation. The percentage of trees with nests decreased in December and January but increased in February, with the same patterns found in both high and lowlands. Our research suggests that higher tree diversity in polyculture plantations promotes increased use by honeybees for nesting. Thus, the more tree diversity in polyculture plantations the better it could conserve natural honey bees populations.

JASMI

2014-09-01

125

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-08-01

126

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01

127

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-10-01

128

2001 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2001 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 2001 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the U.S. Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that any potential risk posed by these residues is much less than the risks encountered in normal everyday life.

NONE

2002-12-01

129

Geophysical studies at proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in west Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the disposal of high-level nuclear waste is officially a national problem, the federal government has charged each state with the responsibility of disposing of its own low-level nuclear waste. Texas has considered many possible areas for its disposal facility, but has studied two sites in Hudspeth County extensively. Geophysical methods have been used to study the subsurface structure of these sites, evaluate the earthquake hazards, and set up monitoring of possible leakage from the sites. The structural studies employed the same techniques as used in petroleum exploration, but with a ore balanced reliance between seismic and potential field methods. Since the scale of these investigations was relatively small (a few miles in extent), high-resolution methodology was employed. This aspect of the project mainly impacted the seismic reflection work. The depth to the bedrock was a major concern because the near-surface alluvium is generally a good natural barrier to any potential leakage. The location of any faults near the sites was also a major concern, because faults were both an indicator of potential earthquake hazards and a possible pathway for rapid movement of any material that might leak from the site. Analysis of the tectonic stability of the site involved regional geophysical data on a crustal scale and an evaluation of the historical earthquake record. A network of seismograph stations was established in the region to monitor contemporary seismicity.region to monitor contemporary seismicity. Compared to typical petroleum applications of geophysical data, these studies involved a wide variety of data and an analysis that required the methodical integration of these data

130

Sergentomyia spp.: breeding sites in vertisols and peri-domestic habitats in North West Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand flies belonging to the genus Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot, 1920, are hematophagous insects feeding mostly on reptiles and birds, but some species feed also on mammals including humans. Sergentomyia spp. frequently comprise the vast majority of sand flies trapped along with Phlebotomus spp., the vectors of mammalian leishmaniasis. Within the framework of a project on the ecology and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, putative breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies were studied. Large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) covered with sand fly-proof mesh were deployed over cracked vertisol and related habitats for up to 3 nights, and emerging sand flies were collected daily. Emergence traps (ETs) were also adapted to sample other putative breeding sites including tree trunks, termite mounds, rock piles and vertical river banks. Productive breeding sites were identified in the trunks and roots systems of trees, vertisol fields, cracks and burrows in vertisol dry river banks and termite mounds. Emerging flies were also collected form a stone wall and a rock pile situated inside a village. Significantly more Sergentomyia spp. were trapped in vertisols by ETs deployed over root system than in open fields. Similarly, more sand flies emerged from cracks in the vertisol in fallow Sorghum than in fallow sesame fields. Productive breeding sites were characterized by stable micro-climatic conditions. Species composition of emerging sand flies varied with habitat, season and geographical location. PMID:24841132

Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Belay, Shewaye; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

2014-09-01

131

Geological and hydrological investigations at Sidi Kreir Site, west of Alexandria, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sidi-Kreir site lies along the Mediterranean Sea coast at km 30 to km 33 westwards from the center of the city of Alexandria. The studied site covers approximately 10 km2 from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Mallehet (Lake) Maryut southward. This study includes the results of geological investigation of the site both structurally and stratigraphically, and the groundwater conditions, in relation to the erection of a nuclear power station in the site. The surface geology has been mapped using aerial photographs on scale of 1:20,000. Twenty-five drillholes were core-drilled in order to outline the subsurface geology and to observe the groundwater fluctuations. Selected core samples and soil samples were tested geologically in thin sections, physically and mechanically. Water samples were also collected and tested for total dissolved solids and specific weight. Groundwater level fluctuations were observed for a period of one year in 75 wells and drillholes. Furthermore three pumping tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the freshwater aquifer. These properties were also calculated using the core samples data

132

Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast coal mines with As-contaminated water from an historic gold ore processing site near Reefton. Precipitates were collected from distinctly different settings, an active acid mine drainage treatment plant at Stockton mine and the neutralisation/oxidation zone of acid mine drainage discharge at the abandoned Blackball Coal Mine. The two mine sites produce precipitates with different compositions and mineralogy. Arsenic adsorption onto precipitates from each site was determined in batch and column tests under laboratory conditions. Batch experiments indicate As adsorption occurs rapidly during the first 5 h and reaches equilibrium after 24 h. At equilibrium, and for a dosing ratio of 50 g of precipitate per litre of water, As concentrations decreased from 99 mg/L to 0.0080 mg/L with precipitates from Stockton and to 0.0017 mg/L with precipitates from Blackball. Arsenic adsorption capacity is up to 12 mg/g on precipitates from Stockton sludge and 74 mg/g on precipitates from Blackball. The Blackball precipitate adsorbs more As than precipitates from Stockton which iss than precipitates from Stockton which is probably due to the higher Fe oxide content but pH and surface structure could also play a role. The column experiment confirmed that adsorption of As from a continuous waste stream onto these precipitates is possible, and that passive remediation using this waste product mixed with gravel to enhance permeability could be a viable approach at As-contaminated mine sites. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

133

Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

N/A

2004-08-31

134

Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of the skin by a 'beta-rich' object. This is an object for which the content of the beta/gamma-emitting radionuclide caesium-137 exceeds the content of americium-241. It has been shown that it is extremely unlikely that deterministic effects could occur from encountering any of the beta-rich objects found on West Cumbrian beaches. The likelihood of members of the public ingesting a radioactive particle from the consumption of seafood and the associated health risks have also been estimated using a conservative scoping approach in consultation with the Food Standards Agency. The risks to local consumers of seafood have again been found to be very low. The assessment approach and findings of the studies undertaken will be described. (authors)

Brown, Joanne; Etherington, George; Pellow, Peter [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (United Kingdom)

2014-07-01

135

Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of the skin by a 'beta-rich' object. This is an object for which the content of the beta/gamma-emitting radionuclide caesium-137 exceeds the content of americium-241. It has been shown that it is extremely unlikely that deterministic effects could occur from encountering any of the beta-rich objects found on West Cumbrian beaches. The likelihood of members of the public ingesting a radioactive particle from the consumption of seafood and the associated health risks have also been estimated using a conservative scoping approach in consultation with the Food Standards Agency. The risks to local consumers of seafood have again been found to be very low. The assessment approach and findings of the studies undertaken will be described. (authors)

136

Mercury (Hg-Resistant Bacteria in Hg-Polluted Gold Mine Sites of Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, ten mercury-resistant heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from mercurycontaminated gold mine sites in Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia. The bacteria (designated strains SKCSH1- SKCSH10 were capable of growing well at ~200 ppm of HgCl except for strain SKCSH8, which was able to grow at 550 ppm HgCl . The bacteria were mesophylic and grew optimally at 1% NaCl at neutral pH with the optimal growth temperature of 25-37 ºC. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolates were closely related to the family Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae and they were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and Aeromonas sp. Eight bacterial strains were shown to belong to the Pseudomonas branch, one strain to the Stenotrophomonas branch and one strain to the Aeromonas branch of the ã-Proteobacteria. Phylogeny based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that four of the isolates (SKCSH1, SKCSH4, SKCSH7, SKCSH9 could be classified as representatives of four novel species in the genus Pseudomonas that were allocated to P. moraviensis (96.96% similarity and P. plecogossicida (94.53, 96.61, and 96.73% similarity. Four other isolates could be allocated to P. plecogossicida (97.57 and 98.66% similarity and P. hibiscicola (99.97% similarity, one isolate to Stenotrophomonas africana (99.69% similarity, and one other isolate to Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae (99.43% similarity. The findings of this study provide the first information of the phylogenetically-diverse Hg-resistant bacteria in the Hg-polluted sites of Indonesia that may be highly useful for developing in situ bioremediation or detoxification of Hg-contaminated sites in Indonesia.

SITI KHODIJAH CHAERUN

2012-06-01

137

Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures that showed staining (a possible indicator of past or present hydraulic activity) are rare, vertical to near-vertical, and occur mainly in, and adjacent to, mechanically stiff siltstone and sandstone interbeds. No interconnected fracture networks were observed. A series of pressurized air tests were conducted to evaluate fracture interconnectivity at and below the landfill facilities. Three pairs of vertical and three pairs of inclined boreholes were tested at depths ranging from 40 to 215 feet below ground surface. Borehole packers and volume-displacement tools were placed in each borehole to isolate the injection and observation horizons and minimize borehole storage effects, respectively. Injection pressures ranged from 1 to 5 psig. Pressures within the injection boreholes quickly stabilized and slowly decayed due to porous media flow, while no pressure changes occurred in the observation boreholes. These tests confirm the absence of hydrologically significant fracture networks in the subsurface at the WCS site.

Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

2011-12-01

138

Sediment deposition from Hurricane Rita on Hackberry Beach chenier in southwestern Louisiana: Chapter 6E in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

Hurricane Rita significantly impacted the chenier forests of southwestern Louisiana, an important habitat for Neotropical migratory birds. Sediment deposition was measured along transects at Hackberry Beach chenier, and Rita's effects on chenier structure and morphology were determined.

Faulkner, Stephen; Barrow, Wylie; Doyle, Thomas; Baldwin, Michael; Michot, Thomas; Wells, Christopher; Jeske, Clint

2007-01-01

139

Surface energy balance measurements at a tropical site in West Africa during the transition from dry to wet season  

Science.gov (United States)

In one of the first micrometeorological experiments at a tropical site in West Africa, direct measurements of all surface energy balance components were carried out. The experiment NIMEX-1 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria (7°33' N, 4°33' E), was conducted from February 19, 2004 to March 9, 2004, during the transition from the dry to the wet season. Three typical weather situations could be observed: firstly, monsoonal winds from the southwest blew over desiccated soils. Almost 100% of the available energy at the surface was transformed into sensible heat flux. Secondly, after several thundershowers, monsoonal winds swept over soils of increased water content, which led to a partitioning of the available energy corresponding to Bowen ratios between 0.3 and 0.5. Thirdly, harmattan winds advected dry dusty air from northern directions, which reduced the incoming shortwave radiation. Again, Bowen ratios range from 0.3 to 0.5 during daytime, whereas latent heat fluxes are still high during the night due to the advection of very dry air. No systematic non-closure of the surface energy balance could be found for the NIMEX-1 dataset. Unlike other experiments in Europe, most of the ogives for the sensible and latent heat flux were found to be convergent during NIMEX-1 in Ile-Ife. This can be attributed to the homogeneity of the surrounding bush, which lacks the defined borders found in agriculturally cultivated landscapes.

Mauder, M.; Jegede, O. O.; Okogbue, E. C.; Wimmer, F.; Foken, T.

2007-07-01

140

Assessment of radiological situation in the Murzhik inhabited point area on the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research program on the radiological situation assessment around of the Murzhik inhabited point due to information about high mortality in this region, situated in the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site, was realized. In the framework of this study the radiological inspection was carried out. Radiation contamination of examined area around the Murzhik village is very heterogeneous. The region most part including the section on the test site area are characterizing by radiation contamination and external gamma-dose close to background one. However some areas (radioactive cloud traces, explosion craters, underground test boreholes) are demonstrating high contamination levels and radiation dose rate (up to 1 mSv·h-1). This conducts to very high external irradiation doses and its can have some radiation effects. The effects have been observed in different populations of animals used as biological indicators. Although the majority of morphological parameters does not confirm the harmful influence of contamination the genetic indexes have been demonstrated the statistical differences between irradiated and control populations of animals in chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequencies and high genome instability. The health status of the Murzhik village human population was compared with control group health. With help of statistical analysis the considerable difference between two populations does not found by a majority of indexes. With help ound by a majority of indexes. With help of micronuclei test it is revealed that lymphocyte cytogenesis damages frequency in the Murzhik inhabitants in two times higher than this value in the control group. The most noticeable effect - it is very high considerable increase (in 7 times, p<0.007) the observed dicentric chromosomes frequency (concerned as reliable indicator of radiation effects)

141

Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of IODP Site U1396 and compiled chronology offshore of south and south west Montserrat, Lesser Antilles  

Science.gov (United States)

sediments around volcanic islands contain an archive of volcaniclastic deposits, which can be used to reconstruct the volcanic history of an area. Such records hold many advantages over often incomplete terrestrial data sets. This includes the potential for precise and continuous dating of intervening sediment packages, which allow a correlatable and temporally constrained stratigraphic framework to be constructed across multiple marine sediment cores. Here we discuss a marine record of eruptive and mass-wasting events spanning ˜250 ka offshore of Montserrat, using new data from IODP Expedition 340, as well as previously collected cores. By using a combination of high-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy, AMS radiocarbon dating, biostratigraphy of foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils, and clast componentry, we identify five major events at Soufriere Hills volcano since 250 ka. Lateral correlations of these events across sediment cores collected offshore of the south and south west of Montserrat have improved our understanding of the timing, extent and associations between events in this area. Correlations reveal that powerful and potentially erosive density-currents traveled at least 33 km offshore and demonstrate that marine deposits, produced by eruption-fed and mass-wasting events on volcanic islands, are heterogeneous in their spatial distribution. Thus, multiple drilling/coring sites are needed to reconstruct the full chronostratigraphy of volcanic islands. This multidisciplinary study will be vital to interpreting the chaotic records of submarine landslides at other sites drilled during Expedition 340 and provides a framework that can be applied to the stratigraphic analysis of sediments surrounding other volcanic islands.

Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Coussens, Maya; Talling, Peter J.; Jutzeler, Martin; Cassidy, Michael; Marchant, Isabelle; Palmer, Martin R.; Watt, Sebastian F. L.; Smart, Christopher W.; Fisher, Jodie K.; Hart, Malcolm B.; Fraass, Andrew; Trofimovs, Jessica; Le Friant, Anne; Ishizuka, Osamu; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Endo, Daisuke; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Hornbach, Matthew J.; Kataoka, Kyoko; Lafuerza, Sara; Maeno, Fukashi; Manga, Michael; Martinez-Colon, Michael; McCanta, Molly; Morgan, Sally; Saito, Takeshi; Slagle, Angela L.; Stinton, Adam J.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Villemant, Benoit; Wang, Fei

2014-07-01

142

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

NONE

1995-05-31

143

Strategic petroleum reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1995. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of 3 the weeks Island facility, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 4.5 million m{sup 3} (30 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Transfer of Weeks Island oil began in November, 1995 with 2.0 million m{sup 3} (12.5 million barrels) transferred by December 31, 1995. Degasifying the crude oil is a major pollution prevention initiative because it will reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements by three or more orders of magnitude. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. There were only two reportable oil and three reportable brine spills during 1995, down from a total of 10 reportable spills in 1994. Total volume of oil spilled in 1995 was 56.3 m{sup 3} (354 barrels), and the total volume of brine spilled was 131.1 m{sup 3} (825 barrels). The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to five in 1995. All of the spills were reported to appropriate agencies and immediately cleaned up, with no long term impacts observed.

NONE

1996-05-31

144

Design of an Electrical Network for the West Bank of Palestine with the Selection of Optimum Site of the Generating Power Plant  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to design an electrical network for the West Bank of Palestine selecting the optimum site of the generating power plant. The required network should have the optimum configuration and realize the technical and economical requirements. It should provide the consumer with electric energy of high quality, reduce the cost of electric energy supplied to consumer and have the minimum possible total annual cost.

Khammash, Maher J.

2005-01-01

145

Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west cross drift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestone SP33ABM4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model

146

Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

147

Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 ± 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

2011-06-01

148

Program for the removal of the neutralized Purex high-level waste (HLW) stored at the West Valley site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is being made at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) on the development of a HLW sludge resuspension or mobilization system. The HLW is to be homogenized in-tank and transferred to the Slurry-Fed Ceramic Melter for vitrification. The current approach being taken to remove the sludge phase of the HLW is reflected in the WVDP Scale Model Development Program (SMDP). Sluicing equipment used at other DOE facilities is simulated at a reduced scale, and screened in a One-Sixth Scale Model of the West Valley HLW storage tank. The SMDP, as well as the development of a simulant sludge, and planned tank modification will be discussed

149

Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

150

Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

Myers, J.A.

1995-06-05

151

Three-dimensional representations of salt-dome margins at four active strategic petroleum reserve sites.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing paper-based site characterization models of salt domes at the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been converted to digital format and visualized using modern computer software. The four sites are the Bayou Choctaw dome in Iberville Parish, Louisiana; the Big Hill dome in Jefferson County, Texas; the Bryan Mound dome in Brazoria County, Texas; and the West Hackberry dome in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A new modeling algorithm has been developed to overcome limitations of many standard geological modeling software packages in order to deal with structurally overhanging salt margins that are typical of many salt domes. This algorithm, and the implementing computer program, make use of the existing interpretive modeling conducted manually using professional geological judgement and presented in two dimensions in the original site characterization reports as structure contour maps on the top of salt. The algorithm makes use of concepts of finite-element meshes of general engineering usage. Although the specific implementation of the algorithm described in this report and the resulting output files are tailored to the modeling and visualization software used to construct the figures contained herein, the algorithm itself is generic and other implementations and output formats are possible. The graphical visualizations of the salt domes at the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites are believed to be major improvements over the previously available two-dimensional representations of the domes via conventional geologic drawings (cross sections and contour maps). Additionally, the numerical mesh files produced by this modeling activity are available for import into and display by other software routines. The mesh data are not explicitly tabulated in this report; however an electronic version in simple ASCII format is included on a PC-based compact disk.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Stein, Joshua S.

2003-01-01

152

Relationships between climate, soil moisture and phenology of the woody cover in two sites located along the West African latitudinal gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThe study quantifies the relationships at local scale between phenology and determinants of climate and soil water resources at two sites located along the latitudinal gradient of West Africa, one in the central Sahel (Mali), the other in the Sudanian bioclimatic zone (Benin). The aim is to improve our knowledge on possible vegetation response to possible climate change. Within the Sudanian site, average annual rainfall is 1200 mm, extending from April to October, while, in the Sahelian site, it is 370 mm, occurring from June to September. Physical data were collected from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis research programme. The phenology of the dominant species was monitored in four types of vegetation cover at the wetter site, and in three types of vegetation cover at the drier site. For each sampled plant, leafing, flowering and fruiting were recorded as binary variables in terms of the presence/absence of phenophases. A small proportion of the variability of each phenophase occurrence is explained by the logit models. However, rainfall rise is significantly linked to leafing probability increase in the Sahelian site but not in the Sudanian site. Day length extension and temperature decrease are significantly correlated with an increase in leafing in the Sudanian site, but not in the Sahelian. On both sites, the increase in cumulative rainfall is not found to be linked to an increased probability of reproductive phenophases (negative or non-significant relationships). Air temperature is positively correlated with flowering rate in the Sudanian site, but, all other factors being constant, no climate factors are found to be highly significant of flowering occurrence in the Sahel. Fruiting probability is positively correlated mainly with temperature within the Sahelian site. Leafing occurrence is positively correlated with soil moisture in the 0-1 m layer for the Sudanian site, but not for the Sahelian site. Significant relationships between fruiting occurrence and soil moisture may reflect a prior selection of plants on fruiting period that maximizes seed dispersion and germination differently at the two sites. While vegetative and reproduction schedules may be determined by specific genetic factors, the physical environment controls the possibility of their expression. Reduction of the rainfall amount and intensity may increase reproduction rates in wet areas. Although this factor should decrease leafing rate, it does not influence reproduction at dry sites, except through the decrease in air humidity. In wetter areas, increasing temperature may reduce leafing, but may increase reproduction rates. Cover reduction may have an impact on local physical factors and, consequently, probably also affects vegetation phenology.

Seghieri, Josiane; Vescovo, Aude; Padel, Karine; Soubie, Remy; Arjounin, Marc; Boulain, Nicolas; de Rosnay, Patricia; Galle, Sylvie; Gosset, Marielle; Mouctar, Abakar H.; Peugeot, Christophe; Timouk, Franck

2009-08-01

153

CDC: West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

154

Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

155

Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

McKee, E.H.

1998-02-01

156

Geostatistical Analyses of the Persistence and Inventory of Carbon Tetrachloride in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents two separate geostatistical studies performed by researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the carbon tetrachloride plume in the groundwater on the Hanford Site.

157

Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

1993-05-01

158

Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

159

SOILS IN RELATION TO ARCHEOLOGY AT THE TELL SITE OF UIVAR IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An understanding of soils and how they develop is crucial for explaining why the archeological deposits are located in particular places. This is because the interaction of many soil-forming factors, including climate, topography, vegetation, and parental materials werealso important consideration to humans in deciding where habitation and other site types were established. Soil chemistry is being utilized for paleo-environmental reconstruction. Elements commonly enriched in soil due to human activity include carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and calcium, potassium and to a lesser degree sulfur, copper and zinc. The geomorphologic survey revealed significant changes of the alluvial landscape around the Late Neolithic/Early Copper Age, tell site of Uivar. Neolithic tell evolution started assoon as fluvial aggradation ceased ~ 6.5 Ka ago at the beginning of the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Basal parts of the colluvium of the tell site date at earliest 4-3.5 ka. The youngest colluvium in foot-slope position may date to the medieval period ~ 1 ka ago.The study showed that the mound is from bottom to the top made up by antrophogenic sediments. The tell site buries a fossil calcaric Fluvisols and at surface an Urbic –Humic – Anthropic –Regosol with an excessive content of mobile phosphorus (650 ppm and mobilepotasium (840 ppm.

Gheorghe Rogobete

2011-12-01

160

Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4; Geologiskt underlag foer val av prioriterad plats inom omraadet vaester om Simpevarp. Delrapport 1-4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field.

Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden); Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

2003-03-01

161

Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: Implications for ozone uptake calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold. - Modelled and observed ozone concentrations and meteorology agreed well in daytime (poorer at night), leading to close agreement for estimates of plant ozone uptake.

Klingberg, Jenny [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 461, 405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: jenny.klingberg@dpes.gu.se; Danielsson, Helena [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 5302, 400 14 Goeteborg (Sweden); Simpson, David [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, 0313 Oslo (Norway); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Radio and Space Science, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Pleijel, Hakan [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 461, 405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2008-09-15

162

Securing of the spent nuclear fuel stored on Gremikha site - the former Soviet submarine base in north-west of Russia - 59371  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the G8 Global Partnership the French Commission on Atomic Energy (CEA) is in charge of the French funded projects aimed to secure the materials susceptible to be a subject of the proliferation or a malicious use. The securing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the former soviet submarines is of a special importance for CEA and the Russian Rosatom. Our main bilateral project has focused on two kinds of the SNF (alpha cores and VVR assemblies) stored at Gremikha, the former submarine base in the North-West of Russia. As of 2011 a significant results have been achieved: 2/3 of VVR type assemblies have been removed from Gremikha and reprocessed at PO Mayak. Nine alpha cores are unloaded and stored on at Gremikha. The main task now is to prepare the removal from Gremikha of all the remaining SNF and also to set up the needed infrastructure at the sites where this SNF will be moved. Substantial funding and technical assistance both from France and Russia will be required for that. Beyond the operator of the Gremikha site (SevRAO), the CEA and Rosatom involve many expert organizations from both countries such as AREVA, Kurchatov Institute and many others. Their contribution is one of the key elements of the success. (authors)

163

General investigation of radionuclide retention in migration pathways at the West Valley, New York low-level burial site. Final report 1 Oct 78-14 Feb 80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report evaluates the containment capabilities of the low-level, solid radioactive waste burial ground at West Valley, New York. The investigation included a surface water study, a trench water study, geotechnical and radiochemical studies of soils, a geotechnical analysis of a research trench and analysis of subtrench core data. Tritium is the most abundant beta emitter in trench water while strontium-90 is the predominant beta emitter in surface water. Strontium-90 ranks as the second most abundant trench water radionuclide in 6 of the 11 trenches studied. Four radionuclides were found to have either definite or possible migration. Carbon-14 was found to migrate at a much slower rate than tritium, which migrated to a depth slightly greater than 3.2m below the trench flow. There is also inconclusive evidence for strontium-90 migration beneath the trenches. Plutonium-238 was detected immediately beneath all 3 trenches studied and in 4 of the 5 trench cores. Results predicted by testing performed in 1977 were confirmed by standard engineering tests on soils fron the site. Soil samples taken from the north burial area trench caps and analyzed for tritium showed approximate background levels at the surface and above background levels at depths of 20 to 50 centimeters

164

West Coast Poverty Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

165

Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500?m and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500?m exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m3 and 4.5 ?g/m3, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between ? 14.1 W m?2 and ? 35.6 W m?2, ? 6.7 W m?2 and ? 13.4 W m?2 and 5.5 W m?2 to 22.5 W m?2, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is regulated by BC, which results in a positive forcing. • The surface forcing is governed by scattering aerosol leading to a negative forcing. • These two neutralize and the resultant TOA negative forcing is constant annually

166

Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD{sub 0}.{sub 500} {sub ?m} and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD{sub 0.500} {sub ?m} exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m{sup 3} and 4.5 ?g/m{sup 3}, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between ? 14.1 W m{sup ?2} and ? 35.6 W m{sup ?2}, ? 6.7 W m{sup ?2} and ? 13.4 W m{sup ?2} and 5.5 W m{sup ?2} to 22.5 W m{sup ?2}, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is regulated by BC, which results in a positive forcing. • The surface forcing is governed by scattering aerosol leading to a negative forcing. • These two neutralize and the resultant TOA negative forcing is constant annually.

Menon, Harilal B., E-mail: harilalm@gmail.com [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Shirodkar, Shilpa [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat State 380009 (India); Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)

2014-01-01

167

Geothermal investigations in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

1982-11-01

168

Atmospheric nitric oxide and ozone at the WAIS Divide deep coring site: a discussion of local sources and transport in West Antarctica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first measurements of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO along with observations of ozone (O3, hydroperoxides (H2O2 and MHP and snow nitrate (NO3– on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS were carried out at the WAIS Divide deep ice-coring site between 10 December 2008 and 11 January 2009. Average ±1? mixing ratios of NO were 19 ± 31 pptv and confirmed prior model estimates for the summer boundary layer above WAIS. Mean ±1? mixing ratios of O3 of 14 ± 4 ppbv were in the range of previous measurements from overland traverses across WAIS during summer, while average ±1? concentrations of H2O2 and MHP revealed higher levels with mixing ratios of 743 ± 362 and 519 ± 238 pptv, respectively. An upper limit for daily average NO2 and NO emission fluxes from snow of 8.6 × 108 and 33.9 × 108 molecule cm–2 s–1, respectively, were estimated based on photolysis of measured NO3– and nitrite (NO2– in the surface snowpack. The resulting high NOx emission flux may explain the little preservation of NO3– in snow (~ 30% when compared to Summit, Greenland (75–93%. Assuming rapid and complete mixing into the overlying atmosphere, and steady state of NOx, these snow emissions are equivalent to an average (range production of atmospheric NOx of 30 (21–566 pptv h–1 for a typical atmospheric boundary-layer depth of 250 (354–13 m. These upper bounds indicate that local emissions from the snowpack are a significant source of short-lived nitrogen oxides above the inner WAIS. The net O3 production of 0.8 ppbv day–1 triggered with NO higher than 2 pptv is too small to explain the observed O3 variability. Thus, the origins of the air masses reaching WAIS Divide during this campaign were investigated with a 4-day back-trajectory analysis every 4 h. The resulting 168 back trajectories revealed that in 75% of all runs air originated from the Antarctic coastal slopes (58% and the inner WAIS (17%. For these air sources O3 levels were on average 13 ± 3 ppbv. The remaining 25% are katabatic outflows from the East Antarctic Plateau above 2500 m. When near-surface air from the East Antarctic Plateau reaches WAIS Divide through a rapid transport of less than 3 days, O3 levels are on average 19 ± 4 ppbv with maximum mixing ratios of 30 ppbv. Episodes of elevated ozone at WAIS Divide are therefore linked to air mass export off the East Antarctic Plateau, demonstrating that outflows from the highly oxidizing summer atmospheric boundary layer in the interior of the continent can episodically raise the mixing ratios of long-lived atmospheric chemical species such as O3 and enhance the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere above WAIS.

S. Masclin

2013-09-01

169

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Aiw Frank/Mid-County Mustang Site, West Whiteland Township, PA, September 29, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This decision document presents the final selected remedial action for the AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site (`the Site`). This remedy addresses excavation and disposal of contaminated soils and waste, groundwater remediation and an alternative water supply. Groundwater contamination represents a primary threat; therefore, the extraction and treatment of groundwater and an alternative water supply will be required. Soils and waste onsite represent a low-level threat that may through future site use adversly affect human health and groundwater quality; therfore and excavation and off-site disposal will be required.

NONE

1996-01-01

170

Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the West Fork White River Basin, Indiana, 2001  

Science.gov (United States)

Data were gathered from July through September 2001 at 34 randomly selected sites in the West Fork White River Basin, Indiana for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (drainage area and land use) and biological-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related, using Spearman's rho, to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-characteristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score, which was most influenced by ash-free dry mass, was negatively related to one (percent closed canopy) of nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one fish-community attribute (percent tolerant). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one attribute (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index) and one metric score (EPT index metric score). The periphyton PC1 was not related to the five basin-characteristic or 12 nutrient variables examined. The seston PC1 site score, which was most influenced by particulate organic carbon, was negatively related to two of the 12 nutrient variables examined: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July) and total phosphorus (July). Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (EPT-to-total ratio). The seston PC1 was not related to the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. To understand how the choice of sampling sites might have affected the results, an analysis of the drainage area and land use was done. The 34 randomly selected sites in the West Fork White River Basin in 2001 were skewed to small streams. The dominant mean land use of the sites sampled was agriculture, followed by forest, and urban. The values for nutrients (nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) and chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) were compared to published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) values for Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions VI and IX and Level III Ecoregions 55 and 72. Several nutrient values were greater than the 25th percentile of the published USEPA values. Chlorophyll a (periphyton and seston) values were either greater than the 25th percentile of published USEPA values or extended data ranges in the Aggregate Nutrient Ecoregions and Level III Ecoregions. If the proposed values for the 25th percentile were adopted as nutrient water-quality criteria, many samples in the West Fork White River Basin would have exceeded the criteria.

Frey, Jeffrey W.; Caskey, Brian J.; Lowe, B. Scott

2007-01-01

171

West Nile Virus Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

172

Elemental characterization of metal artifacts recovered from archaeological sites Higueras 1sector west and sector B and Esquivilca south central coast of Lima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A group of 70 metal artifacts from the Archaeological Rescue Project Loop Costa have been analyzed using non-destructive methods of analysis by X-ray fluorescence, in order to characterize them and to determine the chemical elemental composition of these objects, finding that these pieces are copper alloys, material used to manufacture their distinct metal utensils in every place. In Esquivilca Sector B copper-tin alloys and copper were used and in Higueras 1 Southwest Sector, copper-antimony and arsenic allows. Also some parts have an adhered material which contains sulfur and mercury, which leads us to think that in Higueras 1 Sector South West, pigments of these minerals were used on metal parts. (orig.)

173

What's West Nile Virus?  

Science.gov (United States)

... How the Body Works Main Page What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > ... most at risk for the infection. Continue West Nile Symptoms Most of the time, symptoms of West ...

174

Intake of trace and major elements through drinking water pathway by the adult population of the six villages around the uranium deposit site of Domiasiat, West Khasi hills, Meghalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elements such as Fe, Zn, K, Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Se and U were analyzed to determine their concentrations in drinking water collected from six villages around the uranium ore deposit site in Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. The estimation of the concentration of these elements in the drinking water samples collected was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, except for Uranium, estimation was done using a Laser based Fluorimeter. The concentration of the elements vary from 0.2 ppb -1.7 ppm and it has been observed that all the elemental concentration fall well below the WHO prescribe guidelines. Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected was found out to be less than 0.5 ppb. (author)

175

Inversion of resistivity soundings in the archaeological site of Mahilaka (North-West of Madagascar) using the generalized linear inverse method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the generalized inverse method which is used for the inversion of resistivity sounding. The technique has been applied to a resistivity soundings survey whose stations are selected in the zones of resistivity anomalies over an archaeological site. The site covers an area of 0.75 square kilometer in the north-western part of Madagascar, bordering the east Mozambic Channel. The one-dimensional (1-D) model fits well the observed data and the generalized linear inverse method appears to be a powerful scheme with which to interpret resistivity sounding data. (author). 29 refs, 6 figs

176

Study of the spectral ratios derived from seismic refraction data for evaluation of the local seismic effects in six sites between south of Mizil and west of Giurgiu  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of spectral ratios derived from seismic records along the seismic refraction line Vrancea 99 is performed for six sites located south of Mizil. Records generated by four big shots (300 - 900 Kg charge) are analyzed in each size and 24 curves of spectral ratios are obtained. A first sight shows that the spectral ratios depend not only on the local geological and physical conditions but also on epicentral distance from source to the site as well as the magnitude of the released energy by the seismic source. Nevertheless it is noticed that the frequency windows with the high spectral ratios are about the same regardless of the position and magnitude of the source which suggests the influence of the local conditions. Generally, the sites from the north of Bucharest city, namely Parepa Rusani, Gradistea and Pantelimon show low spectral ratios while the southern sites, Singureni, Stanesti and Gaujani present higher spectral ratios in the frequency window from 0.1 - 10 Hz. The northern group of sites presents a diminution of the spectral ratios from about 2 Hz (0.5 s) to 7 - 8 Hz ( 0.14 - 0.12 s). The southern group has the peaks of spectral ratios within a better individualized frequency window, 3-6 Hz (0.33 - 0.16 s). A secondary peak is around 12 - 13 Hz (? 0.08 s). Such quite high resonance frequencies are generated by the shallow layers with thicknesses from a few tens meters (0.08 s corresponds to 32 m thickness) to one - two hundred meters (0.16/0.33/0.5 one - two hundred meters (0.16/0.33/0.5 s ? 60, 120, 190 m thickness). (author)

177

Environmental consequences of postulated radionuclide releases from the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site as a result of severe natural phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated radionuclide releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Battelle Memorial Institute Columbus Laboratories JN-1b Building at the West Jefferson site. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, and high straight-line winds. Maximum radioactive material deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum radioactive material deposition values likely to occur offsite are also given. The most likely calculated 50-year collective committed dose equivalents are all much lower than the collective dose equivalent expected from 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation and medical x-rays. The most likely maximum residual plutonium contamination estimated to be deposited offsite following the events are well below the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed guideline for plutonium in the general environment of 0.2 ?Ci/m2. The likely maximum residual contamination from beta and gamma emitters are far below the background produced by fallout from nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere

178

East-West Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Started in 1960 by the U.S. Congress, the East-West Center's primary purpose is "to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States." To accomplish this purpose, the Center serves as a functional hub for education, cooperative research, and scholarly dialogue. On their homepage, visitors can look over the latest news from scholars at the Center, look over a list of upcoming events sponsored by the Center, and also learn about some of their most recent publications. Academics visiting the site may wish to click on over to the "Research" area. Here they will find information on their primary areas of interest, which include population and health, environmental change, and politics and governance. Finally, visitors should look at their "Publications" area, as it includes free downloads, abstracts, and access to ordering information.

179

Zooplankton of West Madagascar  

Science.gov (United States)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

2014-05-01

180

West Nile Fever: A Medical Detective Story  

Science.gov (United States)

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at the West Nile virus. Tracking an Epidemic reports on how the link was made between sick crows and people during the summer of 1999 in New York City. West Nile Q&A answers more than 20 frequently asked questions. Taking on West Nile tracks the efforts of scientists and officials to study and combat the virus in the year following the New York City outbreak. Mosquito Hunting, with text, photos, and audio, shows the work of an entomologist and her team of students as they look for the potential vectors of the virus.

181

Potential Use Of Activated Carbon To Recover Tc-99 From 200 West Area Groundwater As An Alternative To More Expensive Resins Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite(regsign) A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO4-) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO4- selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (4-. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

182

West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be ...

183

Modeling Shallow Groundwater Geochemistry and Carbon Isotopes: Test of Methodology for CO2 Storage Evaluation at an EOR Site, West Texas, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Geochemical mixing, reaction, and isotopic models are being used to study the Dockum aquifer above the SACROC oilfield in Scurry County, Texas, the longest running (>35 years) engineered CO2 injection on record. Geochemical data used in the modeling are from fresh to slightly saline groundwater (200 to 500 ft depth Triassic-age Dockum Fm. and Permian-age evaporite horizons), and brine from the deeper (6,000 to 7,000 ft) injection/production zone. The goals of this study are to: 1) assess the degree of interaction between shallow groundwater and CO2 injectate, and 2) develop low-cost methods for monitoring shallow groundwater at CO2 sequestration sites. Injectate CO2 is not evident in freshwater above SACROC. Geochemical parameters in groundwater samples do not differ significantly from regional trends and partial pressures (PCO2) of dissolved CO2 are within normal ranges (10-1.6 to 10-3.0). PHREEQC model results show that cation exchange and mixing of Dockum groundwater with Ca-SO4 water from underlying Permian evaporite deposits (aquifer carbonate. This is in contrast to calcite dissolution [CO2 + H2O + CaCO2 = Ca2+ + 2HCO3-], which is a common effect of CO2 gas in freshwater aquifers. Modeling of carbon isotopes (after Appelo and Postma, 2005) indicates the d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Dockum (-3.6 to -13.2 per mil) is dominated by dissolution of dolomite (-2.5 to -7.7 per mil) with initial DIC conditions (-15 to -20 per mil) in equilibrium with a microbial CO2 source (-23 to -28 per mil). Because CO2 gas is not a reactant (carbonate for calcite precipitation originates from dolomite dissolution), input of injectate CO2 has little or no impact on isotopes for normal ranges of PCO2. Therefore carbon isotope ratios may not be useful parameters for monitoring groundwater impacts from CO2 injection in areas where mixing and dedolomitization dominate groundwater chemistry. This research is funded by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) as part of the Phase 2 Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SWP).

Romanak, K. D.; Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Hovorka, S. D.

2009-05-01

184

Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites

185

Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.

Oostrom, Mart; Thorne, Paul D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

2008-12-17

186

West Nile Virus Maps - 2002  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

187

Dracaena in West Africa  

OpenAIRE

This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus description, a key to the species in West Africa; 21 species are treated and illustrated, including 3 for the first time. Each species is fully described, typified and annotated pertinent to West Africa, wit...

Bos, J. J.

1984-01-01

188

American Experience: The Wild West  

Science.gov (United States)

In American history, the West is a place of fact, myth, legend, lore, larger-than-life individuals, and a host of other ideas and notions ripe for discussion and analysis. The PBS program "American Experience" takes all of this on in their series, "The Wild West". They have developed this complementary website which expands on some of the themes of each individual program by offering an interactive "American Frontiers" timeline for visitors, a teacher's guide to using these materials, and two full-length episodes from the series. The "American Frontiers" area allows users to scan through a timeline of important events that begins with the French and Indian War in 1754 and concludes with the annexation of Hawaii in 1898. Moving on, the site also includes "The Westernizer" which asks users to respond to a number of questions to determine what type of person they would have been in the American West. Finally, visitors can watch several episodes from the program in their entirety.

189

DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

2010-03-24

190

Women Artists of the American West  

Science.gov (United States)

The Women Artists of the American West (WAAW) website features the "vital contributions that women have made to the art and history of the American west." Visitors to the site can take in seventeen different collections, arranged according to four themes: community, identity, spirituality, and locality. The exhibits include works by Barbara Zaring and Alcye Frank, who painted the landscape of the American Southwest as a team. Moving on into the Identity area, visitors will find collections such as "Shaping a New Way: White Women and the Movement to Promote Pueblo Indian Arts and Crafts, 1900-1935" and "Lesbian Photography on the U.S. West Coast, 1972-1997." Visitors should also take the time to look through the beautiful work by Betty LaDuke, collected in the collection titled "An Artist's Journey from Oregon to Timbuktu."

191

West Nile virus  

Science.gov (United States)

... or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. About 1 in 10 patients with brain inflammation do not survive. ... Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include: Brain damage Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio ) Death

192

West Virginia Department of Commerce  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Virginia Department of Commerce works to promote the state as a destination for travel, business, and other commercial activities. This website provides access to information about the Departmentâ??s ten separate agencies (such as energy and forestry) along with in-house publications, and thematic areas that cover natural resources, tax incentive programs, and more. The Business and Work Force area has great information on available industrial parks and business locations across the state, complete with an interactive map. Additionally, visitors can learn about transportation options in the state, including railroads, freeways, and barges. Visitors to this well-designed site should also not miss the Recent Publications, which include a state parks brochure, information about the Main Street program, and the Departmentâ??s business magazine, Edge. Finally, perusing the Latest News area is a great way to stay abreast of important programs and initiatives throughout the state.

193

West Nile Weather  

Science.gov (United States)

Last year, nearly twenty-five hundred human cases of West Nile virus were reported to the Centers For Disease Control. But in 2003, there were about four times as many. Now, scientists have found a way to predict how severe this year's outbreak might be.Hot summers mean a higher risk for West Nile virus epidemics. That's according to Ken Kunkel, an atmospheric scientist at the Illinois State Water Survey, and a team of entomologists and ecologists. In the northern United States, West Nile is spread to humans by a mosquito known as Culex pipiens. Its population depends on the number of spring and summer days above 81 degrees Fahrenheit. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2005-06-20

194

Burnt Stone at West Heath, Hampstead  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available British mesolithic sites, often on acid sands, tend to yield little organic material other than charcoal. Flint assemblages form the greatest part of the archaeological evidence. Quantities of burnt stone are usually present. They may be a source of information on past avctivities and so provide important supporting data for the knapped flint. Experiments were carried out to ascertain if the red and white stones, recovered at West Heath, had been burnt.

Myfanwy Stewart

1990-11-01

195

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS  

OpenAIRE

Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population frequency (both in adults and subadults) of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudane...

El Molto, J.; Rothschild, Bruce M.; Robert Woods; Christine Rothschild

2000-01-01

196

A 308-year record of climate variability in West Antarctica  

OpenAIRE

We present a new stable isotope record from Ellsworth Land which provides a valuable 308-year record (1702-2009) of climate variability from coastal West Antarctica. Climate variability at this site is strongly forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and atmospheric pressure in the tropical Pacific and related to local sea ice conditions. The record shows that this region has warmed since the late 1950s, at a similar magnitude to that observed in the Antarctic Peninsula and central West Ant...

Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Turner, John; Wolff, Eric W.

2013-01-01

197

Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

198

Wildfires Out West  

Science.gov (United States)

This video from ClimateCentral looks at the way climate conditions can affect vegetation in the West, and what influence this has on wildfires. Drought and rainfall can have very different wildfire outcomes, depending on vegetation type, extent, and location.

Climate Central

199

Strategies for Public Involvement at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Demonstration Project Act (WVDP Act) of 1980 authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to lead a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in West Valley, New York. The site is owned by the State of New York, through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and its predecessor company, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), have been the prime contractors at the site since the beginning of the Project. One of the primary missions of the Act, demonstrating techniques for solidifying high-level liquid waste, was completed in 2002, a crowning achievement in technical innovation. Since that time, wide-scale decontamination and dismantlement work has continued at the demonstration project, moving the site closer to final cleanup decisions. Since the Act was passed, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) personnel have worked hard to establish trust with the local community through a variety of public education, participation, and involvement activities. These efforts have been varied, and have collectively contributed to the WVDP's success. As the cleanup moves forward, the WVDP partners continue to utilize public involvement strategies to increase trust in a safe and secure future for the community. This paper reviews the various public involvement activities that have, and continvolvement activities that have, and continue to be, employed at the WVDP. (authors)

200

West Chestnut Ridge hydrologic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility included collection and analysis of data on stream flows, watershed areas, precipitation, water levels at piezometer sites, and physiochemical properties of surface water. Seven temporary water-flow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Chip-floating and regression techniques were used to estimate stream flows after some of the temporary structures were destroyed during high flows. Stream flow fluctuations were quantified using coefficients of variation and percent change in total flow between adjacent sampling dates. The difference between precipitation and observed flows (net loss) was calculated for all stations. Two headwater stations (4 and 6) exhibited lower flows per watershed area and channel length, and higher levels of fluctuation in flow than the other stations. These two stations were also similar in watershed area and flow magnitude. Two other headwater stations (5 and 7) with comparable flows had total drainage areas that were similar in size and smaller than those of the other stations. Stations 5 and 7 exhibited high flows per drainage area and section length, especially in the dry period of the year when flows were higher than at all other stations. Fluctuations in flows were lowest at these two stations. Data indicate that these two sections are fed by sources of dependable groundwater. 7 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

201

Mountain West Digital Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

202

"East meets West".  

Science.gov (United States)

For most of the 70s and 80s, the East was considered to be the center of hospital rate regulation and the West the center for free-market competition. Managed care in the East was "home grown" and large, national public companies generally stayed away from these markets. But, in a fascinating shift amid a great deal of turbulence, the East is starting to look at lot like the West. Economics are driving reforms and the best move for lawmakers is to stay out of the way. The train has already left the station. Perhaps the most frightening thing about the most recent Group Health Association data is that the President comes from a state with less than 3% HMO penetration. Many of his trusted advisors come from that state, including physicians who report on the home front. PMID:10135576

1994-06-01

203

West Side Story: Birth of a Classic  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on "Romeo and Juliet", the musical "West Side Story" reinvigorated Broadway by speaking (and singing) frankly about violence, adolescent gangs, and racial prejudice. The show's collaborators included Leonard Bernstein, Stephen Sondheim, and Jerome Robbins, and since its initial performance in 1957, it has become an iconic musical. While the in situ exhibit at the Library of Congress is no longer available for viewing, visitors can take in some of the artifacts related to the show's production on this site. The exhibit is a real treasure trove for musical lovers, and even those who've only heard "I Feel Pretty" once may be won over. The documents are divided into sections that include "Birth of A Musical" and "The Legacy of West Side Story". Along with interpretative introductions, visitors can look at rehearsal photographs from the original productions, posters, opening night telegrams, and choreographic notes.

204

Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

1993-01-01

205

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

Science.gov (United States)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

206

Study of the Vulnerability of Fractured Aquifers in the Context of an Implementation of a Modern Landfill: Application of Remote Sensing and the Geotechnical Method on the Site of Kossihouen (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The workshop of the interdepartmental committee responsible for managing household waste in Abidjan (Ivory Coast in 2007 showed that the landfill site should be chosen out of the coastal sedimentary basin to protect the groundwater of the Continental Terminal aquifer against pollution. Indeed, this aquifer provides the potable water to Abidjan populations and also assures uniformity of the price of water by the water company of the Ivory Coast. But, given the groundwater flow and the possibility of transfer of fluid between the discontinuous and continuous aquifers, is it possible that an activity taking place outside the coastal sedimentary basin of Côte d'Ivoire (such as a landfill site contributes to the pollution of the groundwater in Abidjan. To resolve this problem, the geotechnical surveys, the laboratory tests and in-situ tests were conducted to determine the types of the soil across the study site. The Landsat TM scenes 196-56 of 12/30/1990 were processed to study the fracturation of the site. The geotechnical tests carried out in situ on the study area and the laboratory test allowed knowing the nature of the formations and their differents permeabilities. Indeed, the formations are generally complex and formed of sandy clay of low to very low permeability ranging from 9.8. 10-7 to 1.1. 10-5 m/s in situ and 1.68.10-6 to 1.76. 10-5 m / s in the laboratory. Regarding remote sensing, the Landsat image processing revealed mega-fractures (NE-SW on the site of the modern landfill of Kossihouen.

Yao Blaise KOFFI

2013-04-01

207

House Patterson, Somerset West  

OpenAIRE

House Patterson (1966) in Somerset West was built for a potter. It is hidden from the street by a solid boundary wall, punctured only by a shuttered opening. The “house draws one, as into a spiral shell, towards the central hearth” (Fagan, c.1991:4). An upward spiral route leads the visitor from the street down a long driveway to a ceramic mural, with the front door placed at ninety degrees. On entry the visitor is turned to face the opposite direction where a staircase leads to a mezzani...

Fagan, Gabriel Theron

2008-01-01

208

The evaluation of several corrosion mitigation strategies for oil coolers used by the strategic petroleum reserve.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this study was to first establish the fitness for service of the carbon steel based oil coolers presently located at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry sites, and second, to compare quantitatively the performance of two proposed corrosion mitigation strategies. To address these goals, a series of flow loops were constructed to simulate the conditions present within the oil coolers allowing the performance of each corrosion mitigation strategy, as well as the baseline performance of the existing systems, to be assessed. As prior experimentation had indicated that the corrosion and fouling was relatively uniform within the oil coolers, the hot and cold side of the system were simulated, representing the extremes of temperature observed within a typical oil cooler. Upon completion of the experiment, the depth of localized attack observed on carbon steel was such that perforation of the tube walls would likely result within a 180 day drawdown procedure at West Hackberry. Furthermore, considering the average rate of wall recession (from LPR measurements), combined with the extensive localized attack (pitting) which occurred in both environments, the tubing wall thickness remaining after 180 days would be less than that required to contain the operating pressures of the oil coolers for both sites. Finally, the inhibitor package, while it did reduce the measured corrosion rate in the case of the West Hackberry solutions, did not provide a sufficient reduction in the observed attack to justify its use.

Hinkebein, Thomas E.; Levin, Bruce L.; Enos, David George

2004-10-01

209

Raw material studies of West Central Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the ?a?ak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

Vera Bogosavljevi? Petrovi?

2014-03-01

210

Tectonic overview of the West Gondwana margin  

OpenAIRE

The oceanic southern margin of Gondwana, from southern South America through South Africa, West Antarctica, New Zealand (in its pre break-up position), and Victoria Land to Eastern Australia is one of the longest and longest-lived active continental margins known. It was the site of the 18,000 km Terra Australis orogen, which was initiated in Neoproterozoic times with the break-up of Rodinia, and evolved into the Mesozoic Australides. The Gondwana margin was completed, in Late Cambrian times,...

Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Pankhurst, Robert J.

2008-01-01

211

Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW)  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its curious name, Fast Fourier Transform in the West (FFTW) is a powerful, free "C subroutine library for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in one or more dimensions, of both real and complex data, and of arbitrary input size." Developed by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, FFTW purportedly has outstanding performance when compared with other DFT algorithms. This statement is supported by experimental results from extensive speed and accuracy benchmarks. FFTW can be downloaded directly from this site, along with substantial documentation and three research papers stemming from its development.

Frigo, Matteo

212

Thorium residuals in West Chicago, Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lindsay and Company began operation of its west Chicago, Illinois, plant in 1931, processing thorium ores for thorium and rare earths. From that time until normal operations ceased in 1973, thorium residuals from the operation found their way offsite to Reed-Keppler City Park, the West Chicago Sewage Treatment Plant, and numerous other locations about the city and its environs. The present study located and identified such thorium residuals in the West Chicago area, a total of 75 epicenters having been found in addition to deposits at Reed-Keppler Park, the sewage-treatment plant, and down Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Deposits proved to be almost exclusively the dense, gray, insoluble particles of thorium-ore tailings from the process, which have been historically stored in two large piles in the site waste area. Epicenter locations and associated radiological parameters are given for the 75 locations, along with quantitative descriptions of the larger collections of material at the park, at the sewage-treatment plant, and on the banks of Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Not one of the areas of thorium residuals located outside security fences was found to violate the requirements of 10 CFR 20

213

Study of the Vulnerability of Fractured Aquifers in the Context of an Implementation of a Modern Landfill: Application of Remote Sensing and the Geotechnical Method on the Site of Kossihouen (Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa)  

OpenAIRE

The workshop of the interdepartmental committee responsible for managing household waste in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) in 2007 showed that the landfill site should be chosen out of the coastal sedimentary basin to protect the groundwater of the Continental Terminal aquifer against pollution. Indeed, this aquifer provides the potable water to Abidjan populations and also assures uniformity of the price of water by the water company of the Ivory Coast. But, given the groundwater flow and the possibi...

Koffi, Yao Blaise; Ahoussi, Kouassi Ernest; Kouadio, Konan Emmanuel; Amani Michel Kouassi; Kouassi, Ouattara; Kpangui, Loukou Christophe; Jean Biemi

2013-01-01

214

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

215

75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

...the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B...8 aircraft) on the West Coast of the United States...squadrons at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar in San...viewing on the project Web site at http://www.usmcjsfwest...information, contact the JSF West EIS Project...

2010-12-15

216

Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands : Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco) and Doñana National Park (South-West Spain)  

OpenAIRE

Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain). Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems ...

Elkiathi, Najat; Ramdani, Mohamed; Espinar, Jose? L.; Fahd, Khalid; Serrano, Laura

2013-01-01

217

Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

218

Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

1996-07-01

219

Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

220

Tourist events in the area of West Morava  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current tourist offer, tourism of events presents a kind of tourism that could contribute to extending the tourist demand, especially towards natural and anthropogenic values of a tourist site or region. West Morava's area is the southernmost Panonian-subregion in Serbia, and is related to the valley of the West Morava River. This region is also one of the most visited tourist destinations in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to establish the correlation between the formal events and spa resorts, rural, cultural, and gastronomic tourism in the area which also presents a significant transitive tourist destination.

Bjeljac Željko

2007-01-01

221

Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ? 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ? 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

222

Molecular Biology: East and West  

OpenAIRE

Gastric cancers are anatomically classified as proximal and distal cancers and have marked geographic variations. While distal tumors constitute the majority of gastric cancer cases in the East, including China, Korea, and Japan, most cases in the West are proximal gastric tumors. Five-year survival rate in the West is less than 20%, whereas it is closer to 60% in Korea and Japan. It has been suggested that the higher survival rate in patients in the East than in the West might be due to diff...

Lee, Ju-seog

2010-01-01

223

Sumo: East and West  

Science.gov (United States)

Often misrepresented outside of its home country, the physically intense sport of sumo is revered by the Japanese and is also a part of the Shinto religion. The sport and its changing traditions come under the documentary lens of filmmakers Ferne Pearlstein and Robert Edwards as they spent four years examining the sport for the Independent Lens series on PBS. Visitors to the site can learn about the different wrestlers profiled in the film, the transformation of the sport as bigger, heavier American sumo wrestlers from Hawaii have entered the field, and the promotion of sumo wrestling in the United States. One particularly nice feature of the site is an area entitled Sumo Style which allows users to learn more about the sumo wrestler, his garb, and his movements. The site is rounded out by a trailer for the film and a good selection of related websites, such as the American Sumo Association.

224

North-West Region Monitoring  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Ecological Assessment of the Region, Where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities. Part 2

225

North-West Region Monitoring  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Ecological Assessment of the Region, where Radioactivity Dangerous Enterprises are Located. North-West Region of Russia. Methodological Approaches to the Organizing of Ecological Monitoring System in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities.

226

West Lothian leads in Scotland  

OpenAIRE

Scotland’s first Local Geodiversity Action Plan – the West Lothian Geodiversity Framework – is nearing completion. With help from West Lothian Council, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Lothian and Borders RIGS Group, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has finished the geodiversity audit and the associated report; the GIS & database and outline action plan are well advanced. The project, funded by the Scottish Executive Aggregates Levy Fund and BGS, assesses the state of geodiversity i...

Barron, Hugh; Arkley, Sarah

2005-01-01

227

West Indian intellectuals in Britain:  

OpenAIRE

Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things - new musics, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This lively, innovative book explores the intellectual ideas which the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that for more than a century West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. This is the first comprehensive discussion of the major Caribbean thinkers who came to live in twentieth-cen...

2003-01-01

228

FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-28

229

West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States. PMID:23149586

Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M; Müller, María L; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W; Powers, Ann M; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

2013-01-01

230

West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

231

Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments

232

Alien smuggling: East to West.  

Science.gov (United States)

This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow. PMID:12314893

Walsh, J H

1987-01-01

233

Consequences of wooded shrine rituals on vegetation conservation in West Africa: A case study from the Bwaba cultural area (West Burkina Faso)  

OpenAIRE

Anthropological contributions that challenge several common perceptions on sacred sites are still poorly taken into account in conservation and ecological studies. This paper aims at filling this gap and providing a better framework for biological studies. Local concepts of natural sacred sites and their ritual administration were studied and the ritual practices relating to the vegetation of these sites were analyzed in the Bwaba cultural area in West Burkina Faso. Our research shows that th...

Anne, Fournier

2011-01-01

234

Data report: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. National uranium resource evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Stream sediment samples were collected at 234 sites in Delaware, 1322 sites in Maryland, 5667 sites in Virginia, and 2965 sites in West Virginia. Ground water samples were collected at 284 sites in Delaware, 1188 sites in Maryland, 4834 sites in Virginia, and 4060 sites in West Virginia. Stream water samples were collected at 837 sites in Maryland, 2598 sites in Virginia, and 2910 sites in West Virginia. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 2730 sediment samples from Virginia. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 1765 ground water sites. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site

235

Technical options for the future of West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The West Valley Processing Plant reprocessed spent fuel from 1966 to 1972. It was shut down in 1972 for modifications, and in 1976 NFS decided not to renew the lease. This paper discusses the technical options for dealing with the financial responsibilities. The study shows that there is a range of options for both decommissioning and continued use of the plant with decommissioning involving either the immobilization or the off-site disposal of the wastes

236

Microplastics in the coastal environment of West Iceland  

OpenAIRE

Microplastic particles in the marine environment and the effects on wildlife, human and ecosystem health are just beginning to be understood in a global setting. The presence of microplastics particle in West Iceland are evaluated to determine if there is a detectable gradient of decreasing plastic concentrations with increasing distance from the urban centres around Reykjavik. The study region includes sample sites within urban, semi-rural and rural coastal settings, with 4 si...

Dippo, Benjamin

2012-01-01

237

Serologic Evidence of West Nile Virus Transmission, Jamaica, West Indies  

OpenAIRE

In spring 2002, an intensive avian serosurvey was initiated in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. We collected >1,600 specimens from resident and nonresident neotropical migratory birds before their northerly migrations. Plaque reduction neutralization test results indicated specific neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus in 11 resident species from Jamaica.

Dupuis, Alan P.; Marra, Peter P.; Kramer, Laura D.

2003-01-01

238

Information needs of cancer patients in west Scotland: cross sectional survey of patients' views.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To assess the needs of patients with cancer for information about their condition. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey of patients' views by means of semistructured interview with questionnaire. SETTING: A regional cancer centre and two university hospitals in west Scotland. SUBJECTS: 250 (93%) of 269 cancer patients invited to participate in study who were selected by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and tumour site to be representative of cancer patients in west Scotland. MAIN OUTCOME ...

Meredith, C.; Symonds, P.; Webster, L.; Lamont, D.; Pyper, E.; Gillis, C. R.; Fallowfield, L.

1996-01-01

239

West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... on a regular basis. Help Your Community West Nile Virus Surveillance and Control Programs Support your local ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre ...

240

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

Science.gov (United States)

... detection of illnesses like West Nile virus or Avian influenza (bird flu), known to cause death in birds. If local ... birds to other areas of West Nile virus surveillance and control. Top of Page Print page CDC ...

241

Upgrading of the West Area  

CERN Multimedia

The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

1983-01-01

242

77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the State of West Virginia adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See...West Virginia's minor source permitting program at 45 CSR 13 was approved into the West Virginia...

2012-09-12

243

Climatology of gravity wave activity during the West African Monsoon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gravity wave activity is analysed in the lower stratosphere using 6 year radiosonde data (2001–2006 above two meteorological stations in the West African tropical region such as Niamey (13.47° N; 2.16° E and Ouagadougou (12.35° N; 1.51° W. Monthly total energy density of gravity waves is computed with temperature and horizontal wind perturbations to highlight the West African Monsoon period from June to September. Comparison with monthly total energy density calculated with temperature only supports that observed small-scale temperature and wind perturbations are mostly associated with gravity waves in the lower stratosphere especially for large values during the wet season. Above the two sites, monthly evolution of gravity wave total energy density reveals a maximum intensity of gravity wave activity in July during the West African Monsoon period. Indicators of convective activity such as mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM rain rates reveal to be adequate monsoon proxies to be compared to gravity wave energy intensity during the West African Monsoon.

P. Kafando

2008-12-01

244

West Valley feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems

245

West Valley feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

Pirro, J.

1981-01-01

246

Bouguer gravity anomalies in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four regional gravity features in West Virginia primarily reflect major basement structures, intra-basement ultramafics and Alleghenian structural grain. The central West Virginia gravity high corresponds with the southern and central West Virginia basement arches. The adjacent western West Virginia gravity low correlates with Rome trough basement structure. Calculated gravity profiles, magnetics, deep well and seismic data support the relationship of the western West Virginia gravity low and central West Virginia high to thickened Rome trough sedimentary rocks, Rome trough faulting and ultramafic rocks within the central West Virginia arch. The eastern West Virginia-Virginia gravity low overlies the eastern West Virginia basement arch from Greenbrier County northward along the state line until it divides in Virginia immediately south of Pendleton County, West Virginia. The eastern bifurcation of the low parallels the Great Valley over much of its length and corresponds with tectonically thickened sedimentary rocks contained within the Martinsburg trough basement feature. The western bifurcation largely parallels the Allegheny structural front and Georges Creek syncline. A calculated gravity profile suggests the western bifurcation of the eastern West Virginia-Virginia gravity low and eastwardly adjacent Nittany high can be attributed to low density Middle-Upper Paleozoic rocks within the Georges Creek syncline and thrust fault thickened high density Cambrian - Ordovician carbonates coring Nittany anticlinorium structures. Finally, the Blue Ridge gravity gradient parallels the Blue Ridge front and overlies allochthonous Grenville age crystalline.

Kulander, B.R.; Dean, S.L.

1985-01-01

247

Australia's North West Shelf Venture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

248

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego; Biology)

2006-05-20

249

West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

250

Revisiting the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The West and East Clearwater Lake impact structures are two of the most distinctive and recognizable impact structures on Earth. Known regionally as the "Clearwater Lake Complex", these structures are located in northern Quebec, Canada (56 deg 10 N, 74 deg 20 W) approximately 125 km east of Hudson Bay. The currently accepted diameters are 36 km and 26 km for the West and East structures, respectively. Long thought to represent a rare example of a double impact, recent age dating has called this into question with ages of approximately 286 Ma and approximately 460-470 Ma being proposed for the West and East structures, respectively. Relatively little is known about the East Clearwater Lake structure. There is no surface exposure and what information there is comes from geophysics and two drill cores obtained in the 1960s. In contrast, the West Clearwater Lake structure is relatively well preserved with large ring of islands in the approximately 30 km diameter lake. Much of the work done on West Clearwater stems from field investigations carried out in 1977 driven by the Apollo program, with a focus on the impact melt rocks and other impactites, which are well exposed on the ring of islands. To our knowledge, the Clearwater Lake impact structures have not been the focus of detailed impact geology field investigations since the 1977 expedition and the only geological map that exists is from the 1960s and is at the reconnaissance level. Our knowledge of impact cratering processes have increased substantially since this time, as have the analytical techniques available for samples. This provided the motivation for a joint Canadian-US-UK expedition to the West Clearwater Lake impact structure in August and September 2015, under the auspices of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project, part of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). We focus here on the impactites of the West Clearwater Lake impact structure. Other ongoing studies, also presented at this conference, focus on central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, xxxx and using WCIS as an analog test site for crew studies of sampling protocols].

Osinski, G. R.; Brunner, A.; Collins, G.; Cohen, B. A.; Coulter, A.; Elphic, R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Hodges, K.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M.

2015-01-01

251

Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate stream waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al remained in solution rather than precipitating or adsorbing on solid phases. Changes in the concentration of these generally conservative metals could be used to determine relative flow volumes of acid tributaries and the main stream. An amorphous orange precipitate (probably ferric hydroxides or a mixture of ferric hydroxides and jarosite) was ubiquitous in the acid stream beds and was intimately associated with algae at the most acid sites. Relative sorption of cations decreased with decreasing water pH. However, arsenic was almost completely scavenged from solution within a short distance from the sulfide sources.

Filipek, L.H.; Kirk, Nordstrom D.; Ficklin, W.H.

1987-01-01

252

20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

2012-02-15

253

The Paradox of Open Space Ballot Initiatives in the American West: A New West-Old West Phenomenon?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Support for local open space ballot initiatives in the American West is surprising, given that federal land conservation legislation tends to be lightning rod issues. The central focus of this study is to explore the extent to which the New West-Old West concept explains varying levels of support for local land conservation initiatives. Principal component analysis is used to obtain orthogonal variables of regionally relevant data on population, housing, and occupation/industry. Weighted Least Squares Regression is used to regress the factor analysis variables and population migration variables onto percent voting ‘yes’ for open space initiative. All community variables are significant predictors of levels of support: affluent communities, Old West communities, commuter communities, communities with decennial population increases, communities with non-Western state in-migration, and communities with farm population losses. What explains varying levels of support is not the polarized New West-Old West concept but, rather, a nuanced conception of the changing American West. Keywords: New West-Old West; open space; land conservation; ballot initiatives; environmental concern

Elizabeth A. Shanahan

2010-06-01

254

West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism  

OpenAIRE

The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangement...

Kauders, Anthony D.

2010-01-01

255

76 FR 17033 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XA293 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...fishery in the area from Cape Falcon, Oregon to Humbug...salmon fishery from Cape Falcon, Oregon to...17034

2011-03-28

256

77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XC223 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...the U.S./Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. DATES: The...geographic areas: north of Cape Falcon (U.S./Canada...

2012-10-11

257

76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 0648-XA551 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon...into two geographic areas: north of Cape Falcon (U.S./Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon) and south of...

2011-11-04

258

77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 0648-XC121 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon...into two geographic areas: north of Cape Falcon (U.S./Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon) and south of...

2012-09-10

259

78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...States during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. C. Discussion of Proposed Rule On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. The races will be held on the waters of the...

2013-01-15

260

78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...  

Science.gov (United States)

...navigable waters of the United States during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. The race will be held on the waters of the...

2013-04-15

261

Alternating current for the West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

262

Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

263

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)  

OpenAIRE

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th ce...

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

2012-01-01

264

USDA: West Nile Virus Bibliography, 1965-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

From the USDA Animal Welfare Information Center, this online Bibliography features an extensive array of scientific literature relating to West Nile virus published between 1965 and 2004. The literature "deals with the virus, its effects on animals, how the mosquito harbors and maintains the virus, how the virus is maintained over the seasons and how disease spreads. The major topics include: techniques of viral isolation and purification, viral genetics and strain differentiation, mosquito vector biology and behavior, transmission factors, animal species susceptible to the disease, animals as disease sentinels, disease reservoirs, surveillance programs, vector control programs, etc." Site visitors may view the Bibliography in separate sections, or as one entire document. [NL

265

200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

266

West Nile Virus Problem Space  

Science.gov (United States)

As an emerging disease in the public eye, WNV continues to generate scientific interest as well. Researchers are exploring questions about its origin, evolution, transmission by multiple vectors and host tissues, replication in multiple hosts, viremic period, viral loads, seroconversion and antibody production, detection, vaccine potential, etc. Central to these investigations are the use of molecular data including nucleic acid sequences and the use of bioinformatics. There are multiple ways this data can be used in courses. Other instructors have used West Nile Virus to: * Help students become familiar with Biology Workbench, including the use of Nucleic Acid Tools such as ClustalW and SixFrame as well as Alignment Tools such as DrawGram, BoxShade, and MView, etc. * Locate and download sequence data on line using Biology WorkBench, NCBI, and more. Edit the sequences for comparing sequence data obtained from multiple sources and/or for making shorter labels. * Learn more about the West Nile Virus, including structure of the virus, transmission cycle, replication cycle, viremia, blood titers and the disease in reservoir and incidental hosts, vectors for virus, natural history in the US and around the world, and testing for WNV.

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; )

2005-12-13

267

K West Basin canister survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin.

Pitner, A.L.

1998-08-26

268

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, (14)C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J; Curtis, Jason H; Kenney, William F; Kolata, Alan L; Peterson, Larry C

2012-01-24

269

76 FR 65155 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits  

Science.gov (United States)

...harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna longline (DSLL) fishery...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http://www.pcouncil.org...shallow sets. Longline vessels that make deep sets with longline (DSLL) are...

2011-10-20

270

In situ characterization of the high-level waste sludge at West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information was obtained regarding the physical characteristics of the sludge in the main waste storage tank at the West Valley site. Two mechanical devices were designed and fabricated which enabled valuable information to be obtained concerning the thickness and shear strength characteristics of the sludge, in addition to obtaining a density profile of the supernatant above the sludge

271

Sites for Gamma-ray Astronomy in Argentina  

CERN Document Server

We have searched for possible sites in Argentina for the installation of large air Cherenkov telescope arrays and water Cherenkov systems. At present seven candidates are identified at altitudes from 2500 to 4500 m. The highest sites are located at the Northwest of the country, in La Puna. Sites at 2500 and 3100 m are located in the West at El Leoncito Observatory, with excellent infrastructure. A description of these candidate sites is presented with emphasis on infrastructure and climatology.

Rovero, A C; Allekotte, I; Bertou, X; Colombo, E; Etchegoyen, A; García, B; Garcia-Lambas, D; Levato, H; Medina, M C; Muriel, H; Recabarren, P

2008-01-01

272

Legume rotation effects on early growth and rhizosphere microbiology of sorghum in West African soils  

OpenAIRE

Cereal yield increases in legume rotations on west African soils were the subject of much recent research aiming at the development of more productive cropping systems for the mainly subsistence-oriented agriculture in this region. However, little has been done to elucidate the possible contribution of soil microbiological factors to these rotation effects. Therefore a pot trial was conducted using legume rotation and continuous cereal soils each from one site in Burkina Faso and two sites in...

Marschner, P.; Jo?rgensen, Rainer Georg; Piepho, Hans-peter; Bu?rkert, Andreas

2004-01-01

273

40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment...Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

2010-07-01

274

An Introduction to West African Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

Taiwo, Oladele

275

Structural Preconditions of West Bohemia Earthquake Swarms  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Bohemia and adjacent Vogtland are well known for quasi-periodical earthquake swarms persisting for centuries. The seismogenic area near Nový Kostel involved about 90 % of overall earthquake activity clustered here in space and time. The latest major earthquake swarm took place in August-September 2011. In 1994 and 1997, two minor earthquake swarms appeared in another location, near Lazy. Recently, the depth-recursive tomography yielded a velocity image with an improved resolution along the CEL09 refraction profile passing between these swarm areas. The resolution, achieved in the velocity image and its agreement with the inverse gravity modeling along the collateral 9HR reflection profile, enabled us to reveal the key structural background of these West Bohemia earthquake swarms. The CEL09 velocity image detected two deeply rooted high-velocity bodies adjacent to the Nový Kostel and Lazy focal zones. They correspond to two Variscan mafic intrusions influenced by the SE inclined slab of Saxothuringian crust that subducted beneath the Teplá-Barrandian terrane in the Devonian era. In their uppermost SE inclined parts, they roof both focal zones. The high P-wave velocities of 6,100-6,200 m/s, detected in both roofing caps, indicate their relative compactness and impermeability. The focal domains themselves are located in the almost gradient-free zones with the swarm foci spread near the axial planes of profound velocity depressions. The lower velocities of 5,950-6,050 m/s, observed in the upper parts of focal zones, are indicative of less compact rock complexes corrugated and tectonically disturbed by the SE bordering magma ascents. The high-velocity/high-density caps obviously seal the swarm focal domains because almost no magmatic fluids of mantle origin occur in the Nový Kostel and Lazy seismogenic areas of the West Bohemia/Vogtland territory, otherwise rich in the mantle-derived fluids. This supports the hypothesis of the fluid triggering of earthquake swarms. The sealed focal domains retain ascending magmatic fluids until their critical pressure and volumes accumulated cause rock micro-fractures perceived as single earthquake bursts. During a swarm period, the focal depths of these sequential events become shallower while their magnitudes grow. We assume that coalescence of the induced micro-fractures forms temporary permeability zones in the final swarm phase and the accumulated fluids release into the overburden via the adjacent fault systems. The fluid release usually occurs after the shallowest events with the strongest magnitudes ML > 3. The seasonal summer declines of hydrostatic pressure in the Cheb Basin aquifer system seem to facilitate and trigger the fluid escape as happened for the 2000, 2008, and 2011 earthquake swarms. The temporary fluid release, known as the valve-fault action, influences the surface aquifer systems in various manners. In particular, we found three quantities, the strain, mantle-derived 3He content in CO2 surface sources and ground water levels, which display a 3-5 months decline before and then a similar restoration after each peak earthquake during the swarm activities. The revealed structure features are particularly important since the main Nový Kostel earthquake swarm area is proposed as a site for the ICDP project, `Eger Rift Drilling'.

Novotný, M.; Špi?ák, A.; Weinlich, F. H.

2013-07-01

276

Methane emissions from the West Siberian wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas contributing as much as 20% of the anthropogenic radiative forcing in the contemporary atmosphere. Therefore estimation of the relative contribution of different methane sources to the atmosphere is a crucial task in addressing the problem of global warming. Mires are the main natural source of methane. West Siberia gains the especial importance in this respect as one of the most paludified region in the world with the mire area of 68.5 Mha or 27% of this region area. Since the previously published estimations of the regional flux varied widely from 2 to 22 MtCH4y-1, long-term and large-scale investigations of CH4 emission were organized in this study. More than 1500 methane flux measurements were made during the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. All variety of wetland types was reduced to 8 microlandscape types: palsas, ryams (dwarf pine-shrub-sphagnum communities), ridges, eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic hollows, peat mats and wetland ponds. Mire micro-landscapes of 30 key sites distributed in 7 zones (tundra, forest-tundra, north, middle and south taiga, sub-taiga and forest-steppe) of West Siberia were observed. Methane fluxes were measured by the static chamber method. Emission data were generalized into spatial emission model. The model is based upon a fractional area coverage map of mire micro-landscapes, methane emission periods for each zone and methane flux probability density distributions for each microlandscape type in these zones. The methane emission map with the resolution 0.5°×0.5° was created. It was confirmed that palsas, ryams and ridges had the lowest methane fluxes (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles are -0.04/0/0.04 mgCH4m-2h-1 for palsas, 0/0.04/0.28 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ryams, 0/0.09/0.37 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ridges) while the peat mats, poor fens and fens had the highest fluxes (2.74/4.65/6.11 mgCH4m-2h-1 for peat mats, 1.15/3.35/6.21 mgCH4m-2h-1 for fens combined with poor fens). Highest methane fluxes, reaching hundreds of mgCH4m-2h-1, were observed in shallow ponds. Oligotrophic hollows of middle and south taiga as well as south taiga eutrophic hollows and ponds appeared as the most significant regional methane sources accounting for about 50% of the annual methane flux from West Siberia mires. The latest version of emission model estimates the total flux from all Western Siberia mires at 3.21 MtCH4y-1.

Maksyutov, S.; Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Sabrekov, A.; Peregon, A.; Machida, T.

2010-12-01

277

Anurans Collected in West Malaysia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on September 16-17, when they were spawning in shallow ditches, formed by the wheels of a truck. Amolops larutensis were day active and occurred in the shadow, among stones in a forest stream, particularly close to water falls and rapids. Several while foam nests with a diameter of 5-7 cm were deposited on the same stones just above the water surface on August 27. Other species observed were Bulo melanostictus, Bulo asper, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Kaloula pulchra, Limnonectes laticeps, Limflonectes macrodon, Rana erythraea, Rana glandulosa, Rana nicobarieflsis, and Rhacophorus prominanus.

Cedhagen, Tomas

1997-01-01

278

Liver Transplantation: East versus West  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver transplantation (LT) has evolved rapidly since the first successful liver transplant performed in1967. Despite a humble beginning, this procedure gained widespread acceptance in the western world as a suitable option for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) by the beginning of the 1980s. At present, approximately 25,000 liver transplants are being performed worldwide every year with approximately 90% one year survival. The techniques of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) developed in East Asia in the 1990s to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children and scarcity of deceased donors. While deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) constitutes more than 90% of LT in the western world, in India and other Asian countries, most transplants are LDLT. Despite the initial disparity, outcomes following LDLT in eastern countries have been quite satisfactory when compared to the western programs. The etiologies of liver failure requiring LT vary in different parts of the world. The commonest etiology for acute liver failure (ALF) leading to LT is drugs in the west and acute viral hepatitis in Asia. The most common indication for LT due to ESLD in west is alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) predominates in the east. There is a variation in prognostic models for assessing candidature and prioritizing organ allocation across the world. Model for end–stage liver disease (MELD) is followed in United States and some European centers. Other European countries rely on the Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score. Some parts of Asia still follow chronological order of listing. The debate regarding the best model for organ allocation is far from over.

Shukla, Akash; Vadeyar, Hemant; Rela, Mohamed; Shah, Samir

2013-01-01

279

Site decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

280

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of West Virginia.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

281

Estrategia de evaluación genética en el Síndrome West / A strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: La epilepsia ocupa el segundo lugar entre las enfermedades neurológicas de la infancia y produce afectaciones en las esferas afectiva, cognitiva y social de quienes la padecen, así como en su contexto familiar. Objetivo: diseñar una estrategia para la evaluación genética del Síndrome W [...] est. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de Síndrome West atendidos en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Pinar del Río desde el primero de enero del 2010 al 31 de Agosto del 2011. Resultados: predominó el Síndrome West en el sexo masculino, con debut de los síntomas entre 4 y 6 meses. Se obtuvo una alta correspondencia entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la identificación de antecedentes prenatales positivos. La amenaza de aborto, el parto pretérmino y la hipoxia neonatal fueron las causas perinatales más atribuidas al desarrollo de la enfermedad. El examen físico dismorfológico fue positivo en la mayoría de los pacientes y aportó elementos que ofrecieron el diagnóstico en casos sin etiología definida. Las pruebas metabólicas y cromosómicas, resultaron útiles en la identificación etiológica del Síndrome West. Se diseñó una estrategia de evaluación genética para los pacientes con Síndrome West. Conclusiones: la caracterización del Síndrome West según los protocolos de estudio, facilitó el manejo de forma integral, permitió identificar las causas responsables del trastorno y se diseñó la estrategia para la evaluación genética de los niños con esta enfermedad. Abstract in english Introduction: epilepsy occupies the second place among neurological diseases in childhood and it provokes affectations in the emotional, cognitive and social spheres of epilepsy sufferers, as well as in their familial context. Objective: to design a strategy of genetic assessment in West’s syndrome. [...] Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients suffering from West’s syndrome attended at Provincial Medical Genetics Center in Pinar del Rio from January 1, 2010 - August 31, 2011. Results: West’s syndrome prevailed in male sex and the onset of symptoms by 4 and 6 months. A high correspondence was found between diagnosis of the disease and the identification of positive prenatal history. Threatened abortion, preterm labor and neonatal hypoxia were the perinatal causes ascribed to the development of the disease. Dysmorphological physical examination was positive in the majority of patients and it provided elements that helped with diagnosis of cases without presenting a definite etiology. Metabolic and chromosomal tests were valuable to perform the etiological identification of West’s syndrome. A strategy to carry out the genetic assessment for West’s syndrome patients was designed. Conclusions: West’s syndrome characterization following the protocols of study eased a comprehensive management which allowed the identification of causes and the design of a strategy to complete the genetic assessment of children suffering from this disease.

Deysi, Licourt Otero; Anitery, Travieso Téllez.

2013-02-01

282

Design, installation, testing and startup of a material handling system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

West Valley Nuclear Services Company and the U.S. Department of Energy decided to install a Cement Solidification System (CSS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project to handle certain lower level radioactive wastes. In August 1984, design was initiated on a 55 gallon Material Handling System (MHS) which would interface with and support the operation of the CSS. This paper describes and discusses the design and fabrication of equipment, installation of the system at the site, and startup and performance testing of the system

283

Long term management plan: West Valley disposal area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Energy Authority and its contractor utilized a systematic approach in selecting a long-term management plan for the West Valley LLRW disposal area. Existing site data were compiled, site problems crucial to site stabilization identified, technologies to correct these problems were identified and assessed, and seven viable long-term management plans were developed and evaluated. Technical evaluation narrowed the field of viable plans to the Precast Concrete Barrel Vault (highest score) and Active Maintenance/Natural Stabilization (next highest score). When considering these two plans, the policy question that most influenced final plan selection was the uncertainty of NRC/DOE requirements for the ultimate transfer of custodial responsibility of the LLRW disposal area to DOE (should the State decide to take this action). Implementing an elaborate stabilization technique such as the Precast Concrete Barrel Vault, which may or may not meet the NRC/DOE requirements, would not be a prudent action at this time. Therefore, it was important to selection a plan that provided maximum flexibility, not only for possible site transfer but for implementing an emerging trench stabilization technology should one be judged desirable. lastly, it is important to maintain the flexibility to meet unanticipated site needs or problems. For these reasons, Active Maintenance/Natural Stabilization appears to be the prudent choice at this time. 5 tablesles

284

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Myer, Larry

2006-04-30

285

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-030  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting waste site was located approximately 50 m southwest of the 185-D Building and approximately 16 m north of the east/west oriented road. The site consisted of a lead sheet covering a concrete pad. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2008-03-19

286

Choosing suppliers in North-West Russia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the study was to determine how to choose suppliers in North-West Russia. The aim was to find out whether textbook theories of choosing suppliers can be used as such to the business circumstances of North-West Russia or whether the criteria mentioned in textbooks need to be modified by taking the special features of the business culture of North-West Russia into account. Furthermore, the reason was to find out how to manage risks related to supplier choice. This study was car...

Malaki, Mirva

2013-01-01

287

Biomass burning in West African savannas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter approaches the influence of West African savanna ecosystems on the regional climate by giving, as precisely as possible, the amount of volatilized elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) annually released by bush fires into the atmosphere. In spite of the relative functional similarity of West African savannas, fire behavior and effects vary with the different bioclimatic and phytogeographic zones of the region: Guinea or humid zone; Sudan or mesic zone; and, Sahel or arid zone. In order to reach an acceptable accuracy, results are given for each of the zones described and summarized for West Africa

288

Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

289

Site operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

290

Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports.

A. ArturoLeis

2012-03-01

291

The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland. The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site. Holocene terrestrial vegetational development was inferred at each site from analyses of pollen and microscopical charred particles. Chronologies were provided by numerous I4C dates. Stratigraphies of wet ground and terrestrial pollen and spore types were zooned by stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis. Based on the resultant site pollen asemblage zones (site PAZ), regional PAZ were proposed. Using modem analogues, Holocene floristic richness was estimated from pollen richness in the microfossil assemblages. The results support the hypothesis that disturbance is one of the most important mechanisms behind the maintenance of floristic richness. In particular, the response of estimated floristic richness to the intensity of vegetational fires followed the predictions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. A period of elevated palynological richness and inferred vegetational disturbance was identified at all sites between 6000 and 5200 BC (calendar years). Using correspondence analysis (CA), the major gradient in the terrestrial pollen sequences was identified as a light-shade gradient, and CA first axis sample scores were used as a supplement to standard AP/NAP pollen ratios as an indicator of the shade-tolerancellight-demand of Holocene terrestrial plant communities. In spite of different vegetational developments since 4000 BC, the timing of major changes towards more light-demanding vegetation types were broadly synchronous at the three sites. Using chord distance as a dissimilarity index, rates of palynological change suggest that the interval between 8OOO and 7500 BC (calendar years) was the period of most rapid vegetational change during the Holocene. both in terrestrial as well as lacustrine ecosystems. While climatic forcing of the rapid events around 8000 BC is hypothesised, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response, as reflected by pollen assemblages. Formulated at one site and tested at the two other sites, the model explains regional Culluna-heathland expansions as a result of vegetational burning. Similarly, declines in heathland cover are explained by lack of maintenance by fire. Regional vegetational development in northern West Jutland is reconstructed and special consideration is given to heathland history. The Holocene heathland development is interpreted as resulting from its importance for grazing. It is hypothesized that on poor soils, Calluna-dominated heathland was a better grazing resource than grass-dominated pasture, due to the winter-grazing offered by Calluna and the low palatibility of dominant grasses on poor soils. This hypothesis is relevant for the explanation of the variation in timing of heathland expansions on the different soil types represented by the study sites.

Odgaard, Bent Vad

1994-01-01

292

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WEST COAST TREPONEMATOSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Las poblaciones esqueletales de la costa occidental de Norteamérica fueron claramente afectadas por una treponematosis muy diferente a la previamente documentada en otras partes de Norteamérica. Seis poblaciones del Oeste de la Sierra Cascadas fueron comparadas con cinco poblaciones del Este de las [...] Cascadas. Se registró una alta frecuencia (en adultos y subadultos) de periostitis pauci-ostotic en las seis poblaciones occidentales, idéntico a la periostitis anteriormente registrada con bejel en los beduinos de Negev, los nubianos de Sudan, y el sitio Kit de Iraq. Las poblaciones tempranas del Este de las Cascadas tenían un patrón muy distinto de la enfermedad poliostotic, característico de la pián e idéntico al previamente registrado en Guam. Ambos patrones fueron diferenciados de la sífilis, la cual aparece más tarde (mutación?). Este estudio provee evidencia de que las treponematosis llegaron al Nuevo Mundo a través de dos migraciones, una trayendo pian y la otra, bejel. La población con bejel probablemente derivó de una población diferente de la que tenía pián. Dada la ausencia de variación de treponematosis en un amplio espectro de ambientes representados por poblaciones afectadas con bejel, es claro que el ambiente no es el factor que determina el carácter de la enfermedad. Este estudio va más allá que los estudios de animales, documentando que las treponematosis individuales son enfermedades separadas y no simplemente variaciones inducidas por el medio ambiente Abstract in english Skeletal populations from the western coast of North America clearly were afflicted with a treponemal disease very different from that previously documented elsewhere in North America. Six populations from west of the Sierra Cascades were compared with 5 sites east of the Cascades. A high population [...] frequency (both in adults and subadults) of pauci-ostotic, periostitis was noted in the six western skeletal populations, identical to that reported previously with bejel in Negev Bedouins, Sudanese Nubians, and the Kit site from Iraq. Early populations, from east of the Cascades, had a very different polyostotic disease pattern, characteristic of yaws, and identical to that previously reported in Guam. Both patterns were clearly distinguished from syphilis, which appears to be a later development (mutation?). This study provides evidence that the treponematoses were transported to the New World by way of at least two migrations, one bringing yaws; the other, bejel. The population with bejel likely derived from a different population than that with yaws. Given the absence of treponemal disease variation in the very wide spectrum of environments represented by the bejel-afflicted populations, it is clear that environment is not the factor determining disease character. This study expands on animal studies documenting that the individual treponematoses are separate diseases and not simply climate-induced variation

J., El Molto; Bruce M., Rothschild; Robert, Woods; Christine, Rothschild.

2000-07-01

293

Status of the waste removal system for the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development work is progressing to identify a Mobilization System for the removal of the sludge layer of the neutralized PUREX High-Level Waste (HLW) and cesium loaded zeolite from complex storage tanks at the West Valley site. Equipment is simulated at a reduced scale, and examined in a One-sixth Scale Model of the West Valley HLW storage tanks. Sludge characterization data has been used to formulate a simulant sludge matching the yield strength of the actual PUREX sludge phase. Experimental results predicting the removal efficiencies of the methods examined to date are reported. The West Valley waste removal development program, conceptual design of the overall HLW removal system and its processing steps to the Slurry-Fed Ceramic Melter (SFCM) for vitrification, planned remote tank modification, and status of the waste removal project are discussed

294

West Nile Virus Drug Discovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

Siew Pheng Lim

2013-12-01

295

Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

296

Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

1996-12-01

297

MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE SOLAR UV-B RADIATION AT TROPICAL COASTAL STATION BAKKHALI IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA  

OpenAIRE

Surface solar ultraviolet irradiance has been measured at Bakkhali (21.8ºN, 87.8ºE), a tropical rural station on the coast of Bay of Bengal, India in West Bengal. The measurements show a remarkable variation in UV-B load exists with a peak value at noon. The blockage of direct UV radiation in mangrove forest of costal site appears low when compared with UV load beneath the multiple trees of Mangifera indica in an inland site of Kalyani (22058' N, 88028' E), West Bengal. Mangrove forests hav...

Bhattacharya, R.; Bhoumick, A.

2012-01-01

298

Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign  

OpenAIRE

We evaluated the 2003 Kansas West Nile virus public education campaign. Awareness was widespread but compliance was low. Spanish-speaking persons were poorly informed. Relevant factors included population segment variability, campaign content, media choice, and materials delivery methods.

Averett, Ellen; Neuberger, John S.; Hansen, Gail; Fox, Michael H.

2005-01-01

299

West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

Johansson, Jorgen

2001-01-01

300

40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Remainder of State X West...Monongalia County Monroe County Morgan County Nicholas... Rest of State Unclassifiable...Monongalia County Monroe County Morgan County Nicholas... Rest of State Unclassifiable...Monongalia County Monroe County Morgan County...

2010-07-01

301

Wildlife resources of the West African savanne.  

OpenAIRE

The wild fauna in Africa is a renewable resource and its overexploitation has led to the depletion of animal populations. This thesis focusses on the ecological characterization of the ungulate community of the West African savanna, with special reference to the Biosphere Reserve 'Boucle du Baoulé' in Mali, and makes a contribution to the ecological knowledge required for the conservation and management of West African savanna ecosystems.Part I contains background information on the environm...

Bie, S.

1991-01-01

302

Marine pelagic ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula  

OpenAIRE

The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregio...

Ducklow, Hugh W.; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G.; Quetin, Langdon B.; Ross, Robin M.; Smith, Raymond C.; Stammerjohn, Sharon E.; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

2006-01-01

303

Site Calibration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Site Calibration report is describing the results of a measured site calibration for a site in Denmark. The calibration is carried out by DTU Wind Energy in accordance with Ref.[3] and Ref.[4]. The measurement period is given. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment is detailed described in [1] and [2]. All parts of the sensors and the measurement system have been installed by DTU Wind Energy.

Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

2013-01-01

304

West European magnetic confinement fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is exple, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

305

Major geological events and uranium metallogenesis in South-west China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium is widely distributed in South-west China, with all types but on a not-so-large scale. South-west China is located on the combining site of several large tectonic elements and every tectonic movement has different effects on different regions. To study and clarify the correlation between the major geological events in South-west China and the Uranium metallogenesis, comprehensive research and field investigation are made besides collecting a lot of materials. Through analysis and research on the major geological events in South-west China, the evolution of those e vents is basically clarified and the events closely related with uranium mineralization are determined. It is discovered that there are several ore-forming geologic events in the geological history of South-west China; almost every major tectonic movement cycle is accompanied with uranium metallogenesis, from Jinning Movement to Chengjiang Movement, to Hercynian Movement, to Indosinian Movement. to Yanshan Movement. to Himalayan movement. Even though every major tectonic cycle is accompanied with uranium mineralization, three major geological events are generally obviously related with uranium metallogenesis, i.e. the Rodinian supercontinent breakup even in Jinning-Chengjiang Period, Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement, in which the first one is the process of uranium pre-enrichment and provides the source of uranium. Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement are the important processes for mineralization, mainly the hydrothermal superimposed mineralization. (authors)

306

The West Bank and East Jerusalem Archaeological Database Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Bank and East Jerusalem Archaeological Database forms part of "an Israeli-Palestinian dialog initiative concerning the standing of archeological sites and materials." The project is based at the S. Daniel Abraham Center for International and Regional Studies at Tel Aviv University, and this website affords interested parties the opportunity to learn about their current projects, publications, and research initiatives. An amazing part of this website is the database which offers access to information on close to 6,000 archaeological sites identified by their team of researchers over the past forty years. The sites have been plotted on GIS maps, and they include information about the exact site coordinates, periods of existence, major finds, and survey references. While visitors can't access all of this data currently online, they can see examples here on the website. Additionally, visitors will want to look at the "Publications" area. Here they can peruse full-text versions of publications like "Israel's Relations with the Third World" and "Lyndon Johnson and Israel: The Secret Presidential Recordings".

307

Radiological survey of the former Aeroprojects Facility, West Chester, Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The former Aeroprojects, Incorporated, Facility is located at 200-T East Rosedale Avenue, West Chester, Pennsylvania. The facility was under contract to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) beginning in 1951 to investigate the use of ultrasonic energy in a variety of manufacturing procedures. An unknown quantity of alloys and compounds of aluminum, beryllium, mercury, thorium, and uranium were used on the site. In the mid-1960s, work for the AEC tapered off and Aeroprojects began doing R ampersand D under other government contracts. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Therefore, at the request of DOE, a radiological survey of this site was conducted in May 1988. The survey included a gamma scan of the interior of the building that had been used during the contract work and the area outdoors immediately adjacent to the building. The survey results show that all gamma exposure rates approximated typical background levels found in the southeastern Pennsylvania area and, furthermore, were well within the DOE guideline. However, recently discovered information suggests that small amounts of radioactive residuals may have been buried on site. The areas where these suspected burials would have occurred are included in areas planned to be remediated by the current owners. 5 refs., 1 fig

308

Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Methods Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Results Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26 in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90 in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. Conclusion Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed.

Rahmat Agus

2009-01-01

309

77 FR 12044 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Nevada  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board...meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board...5 p.m. ADDRESSES: West Career and Technical Academy, 11945...recommendations to DOE-EM and site management in the areas of...

2012-02-28

310

Site development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW)

311

Site selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

312

Site selection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO/sub 2/ content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate.

Olsen, C.W.

1983-07-01

313

77 FR 22682 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XB120 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...fisheries in the area from Cape Falcon, Oregon to Point...salmon fishery from Cape Falcon, Oregon to Humbug...9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2012-04-17

314

75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XY08 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason...fishery openings north of Cape Falcon that were scheduled...9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2010-09-09

315

75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason...commercial quota north of Cape Falcon by 800 Chinook...9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2010-12-06

316

77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XC282 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...geographic areas: north of Cape Falcon (U.S./Canada...salmon fisheries north of Cape Falcon. Inseason action...800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2012-10-26

317

75 FR 51183 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XX92 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. The...9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2010-08-19

318

75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...0648-XY31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Previously...9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2010-12-06

319

Blooming Seas West of Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries managers who monitor the health of marine natural resources like coral reefs and fish populations.

2007-01-01

320

West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?  

Science.gov (United States)

The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

2013-12-01

321

Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance.

RW Allen

2000-04-11

322

Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

323

Political struggle and West Indies cricket  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

Jay R. Mandle

1996-01-01

324

Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world. PMID:10724159

Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

2000-03-01

325

ITER site plan and Tokamak buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the ITER Site Plan and Tokamak Buildings design completed during the Engineering Design Activity (EDA). The Site Plan evolved from the development of the ITER Site Requirements and Design Assumptions which is one of the EDA deliverables. Additional features of the Site Plan were the result of building designs and the routing of services for the operation of the tokamak and its support systems. The focal point of the Site Plan is a cluster of buildings referred to as the Tokamak Buildings. At the center of this cluster is a deeply embedded cylindrical pit that contains the tokamak in a cryostat. The superstructure of the building is a large rectangular crane ball which is used to assemble the tokamak and some of the attached support equipment. The Tokamak Pit and superstructure are supported by, and structurally integrated with, the Tritium Building on the east and the Electrical Termination Building on the west. (author)

326

Birmingham and West Point 10 x 20 NTMS areas, Alabama: data report (abbreviated)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sediment samples were collected at 898 and 102 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Ground water samples were collected at 1178 and 189 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Stream water samples were collected at 534 and 69 sites in the Birmingham and West Point quadrangles, respectively. Neutron activation analyses results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water and stream water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented. Data from ground water and stream water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, V, and, when available, He). Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and measurements for ground water and stream water in the Birmingham quadrangle are included. Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements, and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and measurements for ss for most elements and measurements for stream sediments in the Birmingham quadrangle are included on microfiche. Uranium concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.3 to 31.2 ppM with an average of 4.12 ppM. Uranium concentrations in ground water samples ranged from 0.006 to 16.66 ppB with an average of 0.143 ppB. Uranium concentrations in stream water samples ranged from 0.006 to 2.3 ppB with an average of 0.076 ppB

327

The Qualibou caldera, St. Lucia, West Indies  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent geological, geophysical, and hydrogeochemical studies conducted in the Qualibou area of St. Lucia, West Indies, provide new data for reevaluation of the geothermal resource and recommendation of sites for renewed drilling activities. This work supports the original hypothesis of Tomblin that the Qualibou depression is a caldera. Precaldera volcanic activity was concentrated along faults associated with regional NE- and NW-trending structures. Basaltic lavas, dated at 5.5 Ma, crop out along the western coast and are overlain by andesitic composite cones, dated at 1.2 and 0.9 Ma, which form the highest ridges of the island. Superimposed upon the andesitic cones are dacitic domes (0.25 Ma), the eroded plugs of two of these form the spectacular Pitons. The major event in this volcanic field was the intermittent eruption of the Choiseul Pumice concurrent with the formation of the Qualibou caldera (32,000 to 39,000 yrs ago). About 6 km 3 (dense rock equivalent) of lithic-crystal andesitic tephra was erupted mainly as nonwelded to welded pyroclastic flows and surges. Some of these tuffs have been identified in geothermal drill holes within the 12-km 2 caldera. Postcaldera eruption of dacitic tephra and dome lava (20,000 to 32,000 yrs ago) occurred from vents within the caldera and appear to be a result of magmatic resurgence. A 5.2-km-long dipole-dipole DC resistivity survey, measured along a north-south-trending line through the caldera gave apparent resistivity results similar to those obtained in previous studies. These results are compatible with a caldera substructure where low apparent resistivities (geothermal reservoir underlies the Sulphur Springs area and consists of three layers: (1) an upper steam condensate zone; (2) an intermediate two-phase (vapor) zone; and (3) a lower brine zone. Measured temperatures at depth of 212°C are complemented by estimated temperatures of 250°C in the brine layer. The water chemistry of various thermal springs indicates upwelling primarily near the caldera center at Sulphur Springs, which feeds steam to steamcondensate hot springs along the northern caldera wall.

Wohletz, Kenneth; Heiken, Grant; Ander, Mark; Goff, Fraser; Vuataz, François-David; Wadge, Geoff

1986-01-01

328

Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft3 of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

329

Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-04-01

330

Revitalization of a community site-specific art and art festivals : a case of art site Naoshima  

OpenAIRE

This thesis investigates public art and art festivals in the West, and a large scale art project in Japan, Benesse Art Site Naoshima, which is yet to be defined its place in the academic world. Through the case study of Benesse Art Site Naoshima, public art, site-specific art, art festivals, and a role of art museums are discussed. There are two parts to the thesis: (1) a brief survey of public art and site-specific art (of which has roots in Land art) and, (2) the case study of Art Site ...

Kondo, Junko

2012-01-01

331

Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix. PMID:23857022

Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Young, Ginger R; Brault, Aaron C; Levy, Craig E

2013-09-01

332

Topographic data generated from Radarsat Images Over West Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indonesia is a tropical country which has dominant cloud coverage, and some of the area has cloud cover almost all year long. Mapping by optical sensors, especially with Photogrammetric method shows a very good result, but the main constraint is cloud cover conditions, and this was the weakness point of this method.This study describe the technique for deriving Topographic data from Radarsat Synthetic Aperture Radar stereo image pair and apply it to an image pair over West Kalimantan, Indonesia. This paper contains also brief discussion of the use of stereo SAR to derive Digital Elevation Model, the site condition and the source of validation data. The result shows that Radarsat data recommended only for 1 : 100.000 or smaller.

Ishak Hanafiah Ismullah

2005-11-01

333

Radioactivity of Phosphogypsum in South-West of Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphogypsum is the by-product of producing phosphoric acid by reacting phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In the south-west of Spain, and near the town of Huelva, there is a big industrial complex with some factories devoted to the production of phosphoric acid, which produce annually 3 x 106 metric tonnes of phosphogypsum. Of this amount 80% is stored in nearby sites named 'gyp-stacks'. The phosphate rock treated in these factories for the production of phosphoric acid has 238U activities between 1000 and 1600 Bq.kg-1, being their daughters in approximately secular equilibrium. A fraction of these radionuclides, and in different proportion, goes with the phosphogypsum. The radionuclide activity concentrations in various phosphogypsum samples collected at different places in the gyp-stacks are given, and an average dose rate in air due to gamma rays at a point 1 m above these areas is also determined. (author)

334

Moessbauer study of iron redox in West Valley glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-level nuclear wastes at West Valley are high in iron which results in a target glass composition for the vitrification process that contains about 12 wt% Fe2O3. We have developed a series of high-iron glass formulations (up to 21 wt% Fe2O3) in order to accommodate all reasonable waste stream variability. An additional process control variable is the glass redox ratio, Fe2+/(Fe2++Fe3+), since this affects the resultant glass properties including durability, crystallization, glass transition temperature, and melt viscosity. In this study, a range of redox states was obtained by bubbling CO/CO2 mixtures through the melts. The redox state was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and correlations between redox state and CO/CO2 ratio, flow rate, and time were obtained. Analysis of the spectroscopic data provides additional information on changes in the occupation of tetrahedral and octahedral sites with redox state

335

Sulfur impacts on forest health in west-central Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted to evaluate forest health and tree growth in relation to sulfur deposition in mature and immature lodgepole pine and mature trembling aspen. Soil samples were taken in forests near two sour gas processing plants in west-central Alberta. The soil sample sites were classified into high, medium and low deposition classes. The impact of sulfur deposition on soil and foliar chemistry, tree growth, and forest health was evaluated. The analysis of tree growth, using radial increments, revealed no impact associated with the sulfur deposition class. The only indicators of extensive sulfur impacts on major forest communities detected to date are elevated sulfur concentrations in the surface organic horizon and foliage, the proportion of healthy lodgepole pines, and a depression in the annual specific volume increment. No evidence of widespread forest decline has been found. 42 refs., 35 tabs., 29 figs

336

West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 20  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supplement 20 is comprised of changed pages for the SAR which reflect: (1) the change in design basis fuel fed to the process from a minimum of 180 days after reactor discharge to a minimum of 210 days and an effective 24 months after reactor discharge; (2) the design objective of NFS that the concentrations of radionuclides, other than tritium, will not exceed the concentration limits of 10 CFR 20, Appendix B, Table II, column 2, when measured at the discharge from NFS' lagoon system to the on-site waterway; (3) incorporation of modifications to fuel receiving and storage area; (4) an updating of the general information presented in Chapter 1.0; and (5) additional data from the new meteorological tower at West Valley and recent changes in demographic projections

337

Site characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter is intended to:(1) identify criteria important to the siting of the LLW waste disposal facility, (2) justify the importance of geologic and hydrologic criteria with regard to the site performance period of intended waste isolation, and (3) suggest geologic and hydrologic guidelines and restrictions for siting a LLW disposal facility. The geologic and hydrologic criteria discussed are: Geologic Considerations: Sedimentology/stratigraphy, Material weathering, Homogeneity/isotropy, Structural features, Engineering properties. Groundwater Considerations: Groundwater flow systems, Flow/transport characteristics, Vadose zone, Depth to uppermost aquifer, Aquifer characteristics, Groundwater use. Surface Water Considerations: Flood hazard areas, Proximity to surface water body. Landform Stability: Mass movement susceptibility, Geomorphic landform stability; Seismic Risk; Mineral Resources; Mined Areas

338

Site development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

339

Electricity sector integration in West Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional and global integration initiatives push for more electricity sector integration everywhere in the world, including West Africa. The creation of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) in 2000 and important investments under this new structure in 2006 are concrete actions that will result in a more integrated West African electricity sector. But will this integrated sector be more functional than the previous ones? Will the identified electricity sector problems be solved with the new power pool? This paper analyzes how power sector integration is presented by international institutions (the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Energy Council and World Bank) and identifies three problematic issues with the current integration approach: lack of African ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes

340

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America  

OpenAIRE

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?...

Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

2010-01-01

341

The intertidal fish fauna of the west coast of South Africa - species, community and biogeographic patterns  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the first quantitative survey of intertidal fish from the South African west coast 62 intertidal rock pools were sampled at two sites, using the ichthyocide rotenone. A total of 2 022 fish representing 14 species belonging to only two families - the Clinidae (88-98% by number) and the Gobiesocidae (12-2%) - were caught. Clinus superciliosus, C. heterodon and the gobiesocid Chorisochismus dentex were the most abundant species in terms of both numbers and biomass. Vertical ...

Griffiths, C. L.; Prochazka, K.

2012-01-01

342

Physico-chemical characterization of urban atmospheric pollution in West Africa and health impact study  

OpenAIRE

This thesis was a contribution to the CORUS-POLCA (French acronym for " POLlution des Capitales Africaines ") program with the aim to characterize particulate pollution on traffic sites of two West-African capitals (Bamako, Mali and Dakar, Senegal) and to study aerosol biological impacts on lung inflammation. Urban particulate pollution with levels much higher than WHO norms, are in the focus due to intense African traffic sources and domestic fires. In this context, fundamental research of t...

Doumbia, El Hadji Thierno

2012-01-01

343

Awareness and utilization of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Contraception is a major component of reproductive health. Assessing the levels of contraceptive awareness and use helps to identify potential areas of intervention. Hence, this study was conducted to assess awareness, practice and associated factors of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 204 street women from Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Participants were recruited from “cluster” sites such ...

Megabiaw Berihun

2012-01-01

344

Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal : HighARCS Project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans. It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010

Andersen, Jan; Lund, SØren

2013-01-01

345

An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park  

OpenAIRE

Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and o...

Randall, R. M.; Rautenbach, I. L.; Avery, D. M.

1990-01-01

346

Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa  

OpenAIRE

Data are presented for termite assemblages across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West and Central Africa. Sampling was by standardised 100 mx2 m transects in: primary forest, several ages of regenerating forest, agroforestry plots, short fallows, mixed food crop fields, and mechanically cleared plots. Most sites were in southern Cameroon––two additional transects were conducted in primary forest in Congo (Brazzaville). Species richness was negatively cor...

Eggleton, P.; Bignell, D. E.; Hauser, S.; Dibog, L.; Norgrove, L.; Madong, B.

2002-01-01

347

Co-limitation of photosynthetic capacity by nitrogen and phosphorus in West Africa woodlands  

OpenAIRE

Photosynthetic leaf traits were determined for savanna and forest ecosystems in West Africa, spanning a large range in precipitation. Standardized major axis fits revealed important differences between our data and reported global relationships. Especially for sites in the drier areas, plants showed higher photosynthetic rates for a given N or P when compared with relationships from the global data set. The best multiple regression for the pooled data set estimated Vcmax and Jmax from NDW and...

Ferreira Domingues, T.; Meir, P.; Feldpausch, T.; Saiz, G.; Veenendaal, E. M.; Schrodt, F.; Bird, M.; Djagbletey, G.; Hien, F.; Compaore, H.; Diallo, A.; Lloyd, J.

2010-01-01

348

Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

349

FINDING SOLUTIONS AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) faces a number of sizeable challenges as it begins to transform its mission from managing risk to reducing and eliminating risk throughout the DOE Complex. One of the greatest challenges being addressed by DOE-EM as this transformation takes place is accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning of thousands of facilities within the DOE Complex that were once used to support nuclear-related programs and projects. These facilities are now unused and aging. Finding solutions to complete the cleanup of these aging facilities more safely, efficiently, and effectively while reducing costs is critical to successfully meeting DOE-EM's cleanup challenge. The Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) of Hot Cells at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a near-term project funded through the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) for the specific purpose of identifying, evaluating, demonstrating, and deploying commercially available technologies that are capable of streamlining the cleanup of hot cells in unused facilities while improving worker safety. Two DOE project sites are participating in this LSDDP: the WVDP site in West Valley, New York and the Hanford River Corridor Project (RCP) site in Richland, Washington. The WVDP site serves as the host site for the project. Technologies considered for demonstration and potential deployment at both LSDDtion and potential deployment at both LSDDP sites are targeted for application in hot cells that require the use of remote and semi-remote techniques to conduct various cleanup-related activities because of high radiation or high contamination levels. These hot cells, the type of cleanup activities being conducted, and technologies selected for demonstration are the main topics discussed in this paper. The range of cleanup-related activities addressed include in-situ characterization, size-reduction, contamination control, decontamination, in-c ell viewing, and various types of handling, retrieval, and dismantlement tasks. The primary focus of the LSDDP of Hot Cells is on demonstrating technologies capable of reducing cost and schedule baselines for work scopes involving in-situ characterization (including nondestructive examination to access in-cell areas), size-reducing equipment and piping, contamination control, and decontaminating surfaces (including equipment surfaces). Demonstrations of technologies that can streamline these tasks are scheduled for the WVDP site. Demonstrations scheduled for the Hanford RCP site focus on work scope activities involving remote-inspection and viewing. Each demonstration conducted will be assessed using evaluation criteria established by the participating sites to determine if selected technologies represent a significant improvement over current baseline technologies being used to perform work. If proven to be effective, each of the commercially available technologies demonstrated has th e potential to be quickly deployed at other sites, resulting in improved worker safety, reduced cleanup costs, and accelerated schedule completion for many of the most challenging cleanup efforts now underway throughout the DOE Complex

350

Power and water for South West Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description is given of the background, origin, growth, present position and immediate future of the South West Africa Water and Electricity Corporation (Pty) Ltd. (SWAWEK) in its endeavour to stimulate the growth and development of the territory of South West Africa. The further development of the enormous potential of the Kunene River and in addition, the development of the potential of the Okavango River not only for the generation of electrical power but also for the supply of water, will expand the infrastructure necessary for the future development of the territory of S.W.A. (South Africa).

Wolmarans, A.D.W.

1975-01-01

351

Historical glacier length changes in West Greenland  

OpenAIRE

Past glacier fluctuations provide insight into glacier dynamics, climate change, and the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise. Here, the length fluctuations since the 19th century of 18 local glaciers in West and South Greenland are presented, extending and updating the study by Weidick (1968). The studied glaciers all showed an overall retreat with an average of 1.2 ± 0.2 km over the 20th century, indicating a general rise of the equilibrium line along the west coast of Greenland duri...

Leclercq, P. W.; Weidick, A.; Paul, Frank; Bolch, Tobias; Citterio, M.; Oerlemans, J.

2012-01-01

352

Screening Terror on the West Wing  

OpenAIRE

This chapter situates a special stand-alone episode of The West Wing ‘Isaac and Ishmael’, within the broader context of the emerging ‘War on Terror’, arguing that the show played an important role in communicating terrorism for the American public and in narrowing the space for debate in the wake of 9/11. To make this argument, the episode is analysed through a discourse analysis as part of the evolving approach to the screening of terror adopted in The West Wing. It is argued that ...

Holland, J.

2011-01-01

353

Acceleration of West Antarctic glacier discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

The glaciers that flow from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Amundsen Sea are some of the fastest on the continent. Together they account for roughly a third of the flow from the west part of the ice sheet. Over the past few decades these glaciers have only gotten faster: From 1973 to 2013 their combined rate of discharge increased 77%, report Mouginot et al. As much as half of this increase took place in a burst from 2003 to 2009, and in recent years the combined discharge of these glaciers has accounted for nearly 10% of global sea level rise.

Schultz, Colin

2014-08-01

354

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

355

Nuclear energy in West Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power is an important issue in the energy policy of many countries. A brief overview of the situation in nuclear power in some highly-developed European countries is presented. A progress in the development of fast breeder reactors is envisaged. Research into and development of technologies for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants is under way. Demonstration projects have been implemented in Germany and in the UK. BNFL and Cogema have increased their capabilities for spent fuel reprocessing. Sweden has developed a complex programme for waste disposal. The present trend in Europe is towards underground disposal, and suitable sites are being sought. The environmental cleanliness of nuclear power is a major asset. (M.D.). 3 tabs., 1 fig

356

Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

357

Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

Ben Guirat, S.; Ben Aissa, N.; Mhiri, A.

2009-07-01

358

Mapping and Assessment of the Seaweed Resources (Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria spp.) off the West Coast of Ireland  

OpenAIRE

The seaweed biomass survey was designed to gather important information on those seaweed resources that are extensively harvested at present (mainly Ascophyllum nodosum) and those that offer a significant potential for future development (Laminariaceae). The first major objective of the project was to measure the intertidal biomass of Ascophyllum nodosum at selected sites along the Irish west coast. A total of 258 survey sites of varying size were selected by the survey team. They were consid...

Hession, C.; Guiry, M. D.; Mcgarvey, S.; Joyce, D.

1998-01-01

359

Genotype-by-Environment Interaction and Testing Environments for Plantain and Banana (Musa spp. L.) Breeding in West Africa  

OpenAIRE

With reduced budgets allocated for international agricultural research, site rationalisation had become an important issue to consider when carrying out multilocational testing of promising selections. The aim of this paper was to determine the importance of the genotype-by-environment interaction in multilocational trials of plantains and bananas (Musa spp. L.) in selected sites of West Africa comprising the humid forest and the forest-savanna transition zones. A sample of plantain-banana hy...

Ortiz, R.; Cauwer, L.

1999-01-01

360

The Drigg low-level waste site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

361

Site Accessibility  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institutes of Health, NIH is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

362

Site Restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

363

Site Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors Clayton, Matthews and Simon offer their work, titled "Site Investigation," for free download. The text is broken up into chapters, and can be accessed together or separately. Additionally, users can also access a free copy of "Critical State Soil Mechanics" by authors Schofield and Wroth.

Clayton, C.R.I.

364

75 FR 18755 - Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA  

Science.gov (United States)

...basins at Cameron LNG in Hackberry, LA and PPG Industries...Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor...not dominant in their fields, and governmental jurisdictions...deg]19'52'' W and west to a point at 30[deg...16'50.3'' W then west to the shoreline...

2010-04-13

365

Orientation study in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, West-Central Florida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An orientation study was conducted in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, west-central Florida, in preparation for a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. The study was conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). A total of 60 surface sites and 294 ground water sites were sampled. The study includes field data and neutron activation analyses for uranium and supplemental elements, as well as determination of helium by mass spectroscopy. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program

366

An assessment of the present and future implications of radioactive contamination of west Cumbria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sellafield nuclear fuels reprocessing plant operated by BNFL on the Cumbrian coast in the UK has been discharging radionuclides to the marine and atmospheric environments since the early 1950s. In recent years the site has been the subject of a series of radiological impact assessments carried out by the NRPB. The paper summarises and presents the results of one particular study: an assessment of the average individual doses in west Cumbria over the next two centuries from past and projected future discharges from the site. In all cases doses were below the dose limit for the general public. (Author)

367

The earliest occupation of north-west Europe: a coastal perspective  

OpenAIRE

Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and younger parts of the ‘Cromerian Complex’ Stage. The older of these sites pre-date ~0.5 Ma based on the presence of a Mimomys micromammal fauna, and may be as old as 0.78-1.0 Ma. On the European co...

Cohen, K. M.; Macdonald, K.; Joordens, J. C. A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P. L.

2012-01-01

368

Writing the New West: A Critical Review  

Science.gov (United States)

A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

2009-01-01

369

Russian gas in the west European market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

370

West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

Ronald N. Harpelle

2012-12-01

371

Comparative symptomatology of West Nile fever.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 358, ?. 9278 (2001), s. 254-255. ISSN 0140-6736 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 13.251, year: 2001 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/ lancet /article/PIIS0140673601054915/fulltext

Hubálek, Zden?k

2001-01-01

372

Structural preconditions of West Bohemia earthquake swarms.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 34, ?. 4 (2013), s. 491-519. ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia earthquake swarm s * depth-recursive refraction tomography * CEL09 refraction profile Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 5.112, year: 2013

Novotný, Miroslav; Špi?ák, Aleš; Weinlich, F. H.

2013-01-01

373

Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West  

Science.gov (United States)

This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

University of Utah Seismograph Stations

374

West Nile Virus: ecology, epidemiology and prevention.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Darmstadt : Steinkopff, 2006, s. 217-242 ISBN 3-7985-1591-3 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/0726 Grant ostatní: European Commission EVK2-2000-00070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

Hubálek, Zden?k; K?íž, B.; Menne, B.

375

DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN WEST VIRGINIA LAKES  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a data report presenting the species and abundance of phytoplankton in 4 lakes sampled by the National Eutrophication Survey in the state of West Virginia. Results from the calculation of several water quality indices are also included (Nygaard's Trophic State Index, Palm...

376

Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

Frederic Tangy

2013-09-01

377

Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa  

OpenAIRE

PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Ste?phane; Koule?mou, Ke?koura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fode?; Dore?, Amadou; Soropogui, Barre?; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Ste?phane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Gu?nther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane

2006-01-01

378

A SMALL OIL SPILL AT WEST FALMOUTH  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a report about oil and its effects in marine environments, a technically complex subject that is further shrouded by controversy between conflicting interests. This report focuses on an investigation of a modest oil spill which occurred at West Falmouth, Massachusetts in ...

379

American Indian Studies in West Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

Bartelt, H. Guillermo

1986-01-01

380

South West Province Eye Care Programme, Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Situation analysis The South West Province of Cameroon is one of two English speaking provinces, much of which is situated in the equatorial rainforest. Most of the estimated 1.2 million inhabitants live in rural areas. The main occupation is agriculture for subsistence and employment in agro-industrial estates.

Joseph Enyegue Oye

2005-01-01

381

Fast Recession of a West Antarctic Glacier  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, in West Antarctica, reveal that the hinge-line position of this major ice stream retreated 1.2+/-0.2 km per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies ice thinning at 3.5+/-0.6m ice per year.

Rignot, E. J.

1998-01-01

382

South West Province Eye Care Programme, Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Situation analysis The South West Province of Cameroon is one of two English speaking provinces, much of which is situated in the equatorial rainforest. Most of the estimated 1.2 million inhabitants live in rural areas. The main occupation is agriculture for subsistence and employment in agro-industrial estates.

Joseph Enyegue Oye

2005-06-01

383

Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns suche input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

384

The crustal thickness of West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

2014-01-01

385

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Based on Pacific Coast Fisheries Information...participated in the West Coast commercial salmon...California coastal coho, Central California coastal...April 28, 2000 (Central Valley spring Chinook...FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1....

2013-02-14

386

Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.)

387

Evidence for elevated and spatially variable geothermal flux beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterogeneous hydrologic, lithologic, and geologic basal boundary conditions can exert strong control on the evolution, stability, and sea level contribution of marine ice sheets. Geothermal flux is one of the most dynamically critical ice sheet boundary conditions but is extremely difficult to constrain at the scale required to understand and predict the behavior of rapidly changing glaciers. This lack of observational constraint on geothermal flux is particularly problematic for the glacier catchments of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet within the low topography of the West Antarctic Rift System where geothermal fluxes are expected to be high, heterogeneous, and possibly transient. We use airborne radar sounding data with a subglacial water routing model to estimate the distribution of basal melting and geothermal flux beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica. We show that the Thwaites Glacier catchment has a minimum average geothermal flux of ? 114 ± 10 mW/m(2) with areas of high flux exceeding 200 mW/m(2) consistent with hypothesized rift-associated magmatic migration and volcanism. These areas of highest geothermal flux include the westernmost tributary of Thwaites Glacier adjacent to the subaerial Mount Takahe volcano and the upper reaches of the central tributary near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core drilling site. PMID:24927578

Schroeder, Dustin M; Blankenship, Donald D; Young, Duncan A; Quartini, Enrica

2014-06-24

388

75 FR 65515 - NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,347] NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt Consulting, West Columbia, SC; Notice of...

2010-10-25

389

West Valley demonstration project high level, transuranic, and greater than class C wastes - 59048  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Located in the scenic hills of Western New York, 35 miles south of Buffalo, the 68 hectare West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a unique and challenging environmental cleanup project that currently manages High Level, Transuranic, and Greater than Class C wastes. Before the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility of cleaning up the site, the site was the location of the only commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing facility to operate in the United States. Operated by Nuclear Fuels Services from 1966-72, the site was owned by the State of New York and licensed by the Atomic Energy Commission. During operations, the plant reprocessed approximately 640 metric tons of commercial and defense nuclear fuel. When commercial operations were discontinued and the facilities were returned to New York State, there were nearly 2, 271, 247 liters (nearly 600, 000 gallons) of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in an underground storage tank, there were approximately 750 unprocessed fuel assemblies, and there was a highly contaminated Main Plant Process Building (MPPB). The West Valley Demonstration Project Act of 1980 (the Act) authorized DOE to conduct a cleanup of the site, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the State agency responsible for managing the property. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license was placed in abeyance and DOE arrived on site in 1981. Since that time, serived on site in 1981. Since that time, several significant cleanup milestones have been completed, including vitrification (solidification in a glass matrix) of the high level liquid waste, containing approximately 15 million curies, into 275 high level waste canisters and the disposition of more than 19, 000 subsequent drums of low-level radioactive waste (LLW); the shipment of the remaining 125 SNF assemblies that were in storage on site; and the shipment of more than 304, 800 cubic meters (1, 000, 000 cubic feet) of LLW for offsite disposal. More recent accomplishments at West Valley have included deactivation and decontamination of the still-very-contaminated MPPB, management of the underground high level waste tanks (4) and their associated vaults (3), and processing and packaging of both legacy waste and waste generated as a result of decommissioning activities. This paper focuses on the high level, greater than Class C, and Transuranic waste challenges at West Valley and the options to address those challenges. (authors)

390

Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos in 2001–2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community.During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals.PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p?-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p?-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p?-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p?-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study group from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of Cd when controlling for age and gender and the study group from Usinsk had higher concentrations of Se than the others. Compared to the results from Nelmin-Nos in 2001–2003, a clear decrease in p,p?-DDE concentrations for both women and men was observed.The current study indicates a significant reduction of several PTSs in human blood samples from North West Russia over the past 10 years.

Charlotta Rylander

2011-10-01

391

Kosovo West: work in progress on radiological environmental assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last war in the Balkan area, spring-summer 1999, NATO forces admitted the use in Kosovo of 30 mm bullets fired by A-10 anti-tank aircraft and, in July 2000, provided the United Nations with a detailed map indicating sites where DU bullets had been used. CISAM, Joint Centre of Military Studies and Application, performed eight environmental check campaigns (October '99, April, August, November '00, January, May, October '01 and June '02). The CISAM scientific expert Team, assisted by a Company of the 7. NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) Regiment Cremona, during the first and the second mission discovered some places within the area assigned to the Multi National Brigade West (MNBW) where the DU bullets had been used. Up to day the Team performed approximately 600 field measurements; the 7. Rgt. NBC surveyed 700 locations and the CISAM Laboratory analysed more than 350 samples. The poster presents the summarized results of the campaigns focused to measure the depleted uranium and other radionuclides concentrations in environmental matrix and, in particular, gives the data concerning the site NATO 28, Djakovica Army Garrison and the air sample campaigns

392

Replication Cycle and Molecular Biology of the West Nile Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and modify the host cell environment. Although much has been learned about virion structure and virion-endosomal membrane fusion, the cell receptor(s used have not been definitively identified and little is known about the early stages of the virus replication cycle. Members of the genus Flavivirus differ from members of the two other genera of the family by the lack of a genomic internal ribosomal entry sequence and the creation of invaginations in the ER membrane rather than double-membrane vesicles that are used as the sites of exponential genome synthesis. The WNV genome 3' and 5' sequences that form the long distance RNA-RNA interaction required for minus strand initiation have been identified and contact sites on the 5' RNA stem loop for NS5 have been mapped. Structures obtained for many of the viral proteins have provided information relevant to their functions. Viral nonstructural protein interactions are complex and some may occur only in infected cells. Although interactions between many cellular proteins and virus components have been identified, the functions of most of these interactions have not been delineated.

Margo A. Brinton

2013-12-01

393

West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

Ashley, Paul R.

2008-02-01

394

Epidemiological studies on bluetongue virus infection in West Java, Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In monitoring of sentinel cattle in West Java, seroconversions to orbiviruses occurred mostly at the end of the wet season. A low altitude site gave more reactors than did a high altitude site. Due to perceived inefficiencies of the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, a competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) was applied and the results compared with the AGID test results. C-ELISA detected antibodies at an earlier stage of infection than did the AGID test. Not all sera reacting in the AGID test reacted in C-ELISA, suggesting that the C-ELISA is more specific in detecting bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies than the AGID. However, as the infection status of most field sera was not known, this could not be confirmed conclusively from the available data. A comparison of isolation methods indicated that isolates were obtained more frequently if samples were passaged in embryonated eggs before blind passage in A edes albopictus cells followed by passage in BHK-21 cells. Six BTV serotypes, 1,7,9,12,20,21 and 23 were identified and confirmed from apparently healthy sentinel cattle blood at low altitudes; BTV serotype 21 was also isolated from a pool of the Avaritia sub-genus of the Culicoides spp which contained 227 C. fulvus and 20 C. orientalis. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

395

West Nile virus vector Culex modestus established in southern England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk posed to the United Kingdom by West Nile virus (WNV has previously been considered low, due to the absence or scarcity of the main Culex sp. bridge vectors. The mosquito Culex modestus is widespread in southern Europe, where it acts as the principle bridge vector of WNV. This species was not previously thought to be present in the United Kingdom. Findings Mosquito larval surveys carried out in 2010 identified substantial populations of Cx. modestus at two sites in marshland in southeast England. Host-seeking-adult traps placed at a third site indicate that the relative seasonal abundance of Cx. modestus peaks in early August. DNA barcoding of these specimens from the United Kingdom and material from southern France confirmed the morphological identification. Conclusions Cx. modestus appears to be established in the North Kent Marshes, possibly as the result of a recent introduction. The addition of this species to the United Kingdom's mosquito fauna may increase the risk posed to the United Kingdom by WNV.

Golding Nick

2012-02-01

396

Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

1999-08-10

397

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 1. Executive summary. Preliminary feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of a preliminary study, of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the West Valley, New York site. In the hydraulic fracturing and injection process the liquid waste would be diluted, and mixed with cement, clay and other additives to form a stable solid matrix after injection. The waste could be injected into the shale beds, 800 to 1,500 feet below the existing site in zones suitable for horizontal fracturing and to provide satisfactory long term isolation. Hydraulic fracturing has been in use for the disposal of radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Tennessee since the mid 1960's. To date, over 1.8 million gallons of grout containing radioactive waste have been successfully injected at that site. In this study the West Valley site has been assessed in terms of the requirements for satisfactory disposal of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing on the basis of currently available information. A program of research and development, required to confirm or reject this means of disposal at the West Valley site, has been outlined

398

75 FR 26196 - Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation...proposed new recreation fee site...Trail is located near Houston, MS. Currently, this...in November 2010. The site will contain 12 miles...Mississippi, 100 West Capitol Street, Suite 1141,...

2010-05-11

399

Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-Palestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 ?W cm(-2), from TV broadcasting was 0.007 ?W cm(-2) and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 ?W cm(-2). The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 ?W cm(-2). The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ~62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 ?W cm(-2). PMID:21835841

Lahham, Adnan; Hammash, Alaa

2012-05-01

400

Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of the temporal and spatial compartmentalization of West Nile virus subtypes within North America.

Mores Christopher N

2009-07-01

401

High Heat-Flow Beneath the Central Portion of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the tectonic setting and slow seismic velocities in the upper mantle, the geothermal heat flow beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is expected to be both relatively high and spatially variable. Unfortunately, very few heat flow measurements have been made in West Antarctica to confirm or refute this expectation. During December 2011, high-precision temperature measurements were made in the 3405-m deep borehole recently completed at the WAIS Divide ice core site (79o 28.059'S, 112o 05.137'W) in the central portion of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Interpretation of the temperature measurements indicates the ice sheet is melted at the bed at this location and that the basal melting rate is extraordinarily high, 1.5~cm a-1 (the borehole does not penetrate all the way to the bed to protect the underlying environment). The associated geothermal heat flux is estimated to be about 240 mW m-2, 4--5 times the continental average. Given the absence of a surface depression at the WAIS Divide site, this high heat flow is likely to be the regional value (horizontal scale ? 30~km), rather than simply a local anomaly.

Clow, G. D.; Cuffey, K. M.; Waddington, E. D.

2012-12-01

402

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations.

1978-05-01

403

Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations

404

[West syndrome associated with epileptic negative myoclonus].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 10-month-old girl who had brief epileptic negative myoclonus during the course of West syndrome. She began to have epileptic spasms in series at the age of 8 months. Video-electroencephalograph (EEG) monitoring revealed that she also had brief epileptic negative myoclonus when she was 10 months old. Brief atonia of limbs occurred in isolation or in a cluster during drowsiness or sleep. The ictal EEG exhibited diffuse polyspikes and waves or diffuse high-voltage slow waves that were overlapped by low-voltage fast waves. 3 to 4 hundred milliseconds of silent periods were observed in the bilateral deltoid electromyograms, which correspond to the EEG patterns. The occurrence of other types of seizures, partial seizures in particular, accompanied by epileptic spasms has been fully investigated. This is the first case report of a patient with West syndrome whose coexisting epileptic negative myoclonus was confirmed by a silent electromyogram pattern. PMID:25403066

Shibata, Takashi; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Oka, Makio; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

2014-09-01

405

Future markers of the West Greenlandic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about the aspectual marking and future marking in West Greenlandic. There are about 40-50 aspectual suffixes, divided into ‘inner’ phasal and ‘outer’ phasal aspect (Kristoffersen 1991) and about five future tense suffixes in WG (Fortescue 1980). The order of the suffixes is stem + inner aspect + outer aspect + tense + modality + inflection. In this presentation I shall talk about the future tense suffixes only. The future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future. All future tense suffixes have more than one meaning and belong to different semantic categories. It means that the same suffix can appear more than one time in the same word, and the meanings will be different depending on the telicity of the stem, the context and the suffixes added to it. The sources of the future tense suffixes are different, -niar (inevitable future, will) from intension and belongs to five different semantic categories, -ssa (should, future) from should and has a modal meaning too, -jumaar (vaque future) from wish, -ler (near future/be about to) from begin, and -ssamaar (planed future) a compound suffix coming from wish and should. –ssa (should, future) seems to be the default future suffix, and it is used when none of the others can be used. It seems that some of the tense suffixes i.e. past (-sima, perfective, perfect, preterite) and future (-ler, begin, be about to, near future) originally had a more or less concrete aspectual meanings and have developed into more abstract tense meanings (Fortescue 1996). The aim of the project is to find out when to use the different meanings in both written and spoken languages. It is based on interviews where the informants are talking about things about future, daily spoken language from colleges and in the media, and a questionnaire where the informants should fill in the empty slots in a verbal context with different inherent aspectual meanings. Fortescue, Michael (1980) Affix ordering in West Greenlandic derivational processes. In: International journal of American linguistics. – vol. 46, no. 4, p. 259-278. Fortescue, Michael (1996) Tense, mood and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic and Chukchi. In: La dynamique et la culture inuit. /Nicole Tersis et Michèle Terrien (eds.) p. 151-175. Kristoffersen, Lars (1991) Verbal derivation and inflection in a functional grammar of West Greenlandic. Magisterkonferens, Københavns Universitet, Institut for Eskimologi.

Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

406

Colposcopy services in the West Midlands region.  

OpenAIRE

A survey of all 72 consultant gynaecologists in the West Midlands region was carried out to determine their views on colposcopy services. All districts provided a colposcopy service and 47 consultants practised colposcopy. The consultants differed considerably in their views on criteria for referring women for investigation after smears. All but one thought that a positive smear result was an indication for immediate referral but whereas 55 thought that women with one or more inflammatory sme...

Woodman, C. B.; Jordan, J. A.

1989-01-01

407

Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

Will Kymlicka

2002-10-01

408

Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East  

OpenAIRE

Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

Will Kymlicka

2002-01-01

409

Health Perceptions - where the East meets West  

OpenAIRE

This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

2012-01-01

410

Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented.

Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Johnson, S. G.; Mariani, R. D.; Simpson, M. F.; Westphal, B. R.

2000-03-20

411

Migratory birds and West Nile virus.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58. ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Disease s ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zden?k

2003-01-01

412

Impressions from South-West Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...

Hardouin, J.

1987-01-01

413

West Africa LP gas market development study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jointly sponsored with the World Bank, this essential study explores the opportunity for greatly expanded LP Gas use in the West Africa region. LP Gas supply in the area is increasing rapidly, This offers the opportunity for bringing modern energy to millions without current access, protects forests the only current source of energy for many, and encourages governments to adopt proactive policies that will reap benefits of the increasing availability of LP Gas. (author)

414

Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision: West meets East  

OpenAIRE

Complete mesocolic excision is a relatively new concept in western literature. It follows the same concept of total mesorectal excision and units’ routinely performing complete mesocolic excisions have good pathological results as well as good improvements in overall survival, disease free survival and local recurrence. And yet unlike total mesorectal excision, uptake in the West has been relatively slow with many units sceptical of the true benefits gained by taking up a more technically c...

Chow, Carina F. K.; Kim, Seon Hahn

2014-01-01

415

Recharge modelling for the West Bank aquifers.  

OpenAIRE

Recharge can take two main forms, direct recharge from rainfall infiltrating the ground or indirect recharge from leakage from wadi beds. The recharge processes operating in the West Bank can be summarised as rainfall recharge, wadi recharge, urban recharge processes and irrigation losses. Rainfall recharge is the predominant form of recharge, whilst wadi recharge, urban and irrigation losses are only minor components. However, these minor components can be locally important. ...

Hughes, A. G.; Mansour, M. M.

2005-01-01

416

Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented

417

Rod consolidation experience at West Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four fuel assemblies were consolidated in December, 1985, at West Valley, New York. The equipment used was Nuclear Assurance Corporation's fuel disassembly elevator, which performed well and produced even rod pulling forces so that no fuel rods were broken. One rod with a collapsed section of cladding cracked at the damaged section and released a small quantity of Krypton-85 gas. No Health Physics effects were observed from this release. Nine additional assemblies will be consolidated in February and March of 1986

418

Collaborative work between the West and Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam). PMID:25132788

Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

2013-12-01

419

Collaborative work between the West and Asia  

OpenAIRE

The “Collaborative Work between the West and Asia” session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

Hser, Yih-ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

2013-01-01

420

Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility, West Jefferson, Ohio, date of survey: May 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United States Department of Energy's Battelle Nuclear Science Facility located in West Jefferson, Ohio. Gamma ray data were collected over a 5.5 km2 area centered on the facility by flying east-west lines spaced 61 m apart. Processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was primarily due to radionuclides currently being processed due to the hot lab operations. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be due to naturally occurring background radiation consistent with variations due to geologic base terrain and land use of similar areas

421

Significant impact of the East Asia monsoon on ozone seasonal behavior in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region  

OpenAIRE

The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004–2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacific region. The basic common features of O3 seasonal behaviors over all the m...

He, Y. J.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z. F.; Pochanart, P.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.

2008-01-01

422

Hybrid pine for tough sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

423

Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry  

CERN Document Server

The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

Scalera, Giancarlo

2015-01-01

424

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting Waste Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-030  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting waste site was located approximately 50 m southwest of the 185-D Building and approximately 16 m north of the east/west oriented road. The site consisted of a lead sheet covering a concrete pad. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

425

Site Restoration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

2002-04-01

426

Site Restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

427

Implementing comprehensive de-licensing process for the West Jefferson North Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Implementation of the comprehensive de-licensing process for the West Jefferson North (WJN) facility was documented through the Final Certification of Completion. The Final Certification of Completion summarizes the performance and results of the final status surveys of the affected and unaffected areas of the West Jefferson North (WJN) site as part of the completion of the Columbus Closure Project (CCP). Final status survey processes adhered to the requirements of the 'Radiological Characterization and Final Status Plan for Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project, West Jefferson Site' DD-97-02, Rev. 0 (hereinafter DD-97-02), as reflecting the requirements of draft NUREG 5849. Surveys were performed throughout the decommissioning and remediation activities performed at the WJN and documented in Final Status Survey Reports (FSSR). Throughout the project, the CCP activity engaged the oversight of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), and the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). The ESSAP of the ORISE fulfilled the Independent Verification Contractor (IVC) role for the CCP under contract to the Oak Ridge Office of the DOE. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also performed independent review of the in-process final status surveys. The FSSR, in conjunction with the IVCeys. The FSSR, in conjunction with the IVC Letter Reports and the NRC inspection reports, document that the endpoint criteria objectives of the NRC-approved Decommissioning Plan have been met for WJN site as covered by the CCP. (author)

428

ANÁLISE DA PROFILAXIA ANTIMICROBIANA PARA A PREVENÇÃO DA INFECÇÃO DO SÍTIO CIRÚRGICO EM UM HOSPITAL DO CENTRO-OESTE BRASILEIRO / ANTIMICROBIAL PROPHYLAXIS ANALYSIS FOR PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTION IN A BRAZIL CENTRE-WEST HOSPITAL / ANÁLISIS DE LA PROFILAXIS ANTIMICROBIANA PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE LA INFECCIÓN DEL SITIO QUIRÚRGICO EN UN HOSPITAL DE LA REGIÓN CENTRO OESTE DE BRASIL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetiva analisar a profilaxia antimicrobiana no perioperatório de cirurgias limpas, em um hospital universitário do Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Estudo transversal descritivo, realizado em 700 prontuários de pacientes maiores ou igual a 18 anos, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico limpo ent [...] re 2008 a 2010. Utilizou-se formulário estruturado e previamente avaliado. Para análise dos dados foram computados dois indicadores: a profilaxia antimicrobiana em até uma hora antes da incisão cirúrgica e a profilaxia antimicrobiana até 24 horas no pós-operatório, além das variáveis: antimicrobiano de escolha; dose de acordo com o peso do paciente e doses adicionais (repique) no intraoperatório, em cirurgias com tempo superior a 4 horas. Foram considerados os registros de até 30 dias após o procedimento cirúrgico ou de 12 meses nos casos de implantes de próteses e similares. Verificou-se que 86,6% receberam profilaxia antimicrobiana, em 75,1%, a primeira dose obedeceu ao tempo preconizado e em 96,9%, o antimicrobiano de escolha foi a Cefazolina. Houve inadequação em 70,6% quanto à duração da profilaxia, 96,8% dose de acordo com o peso e 70% das doses adicionais. A taxa de infecção do sítio cirúrgico foi de 10%, sendo o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à Meticilina, o agente etiológico mais frequente. Apesar das diretrizes referirem cautela quanto à profilaxia antimicrobiana, o estudo mostrou inadequações que podem trazer prejuízos para a segurança dos pacientes. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la profilaxis antimicrobiana en el perioperatorio de cirugías limpias en un hospital clínico de la región Centro-Oeste de Brasil. Estudio transversal descriptivo, realizado en 700 historiales de pacientes mayores de 18 años, sometidos a procedimientos quirúrg [...] icos limpios entre 2008 y 2010. Se utilizó un formulario estructurado y previamente validado. Para analizar los datos fueron calculados dos indicadores: profilaxis antimicrobiana hasta antes de una hora de la incisión quirúrgica, y profilaxis antimicrobiana hasta 24 horas del postoperatorio, además de las siguientes variables: antibiótico elegido; dosis de acuerdo con el peso del paciente; dosis adicionales en el intraoperatorio, en cirugías de duración mayor a 4 horas. Fueron considerados los registros de hasta 30 días después del procedimiento quirúrgico, o 12 meses en los casos de implantes de prótesis o similares. Se verificó que el 86,6% de los pacientes recibió profilaxis antimicrobiana; en el 75,1% de los pacientes la primera dosis obedeció al tiempo recomendado; y en el 96,9% de los casos, el antibiótico elegido fue Cefazolina. Hubo disconformidades en el 70,6% de los pacientes en cuando a la duración de la profilaxis, en el 96,8% respecto a la dosis de acuerdo con el peso y en el 70% de las dosis adicionales. La tasa de infección en el sitio quirúrgico fue de 10%, siendo el Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la Meticilina, el agente etiológico más frecuente. A pesar de que las directrices indican cuidado en cuanto a la profilaxis antimicrobiana, el estudio mostró disconformidades que pueden provocar perjuicios en la seguridad de los pacientes. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean surgery, at a university hospital in Centre-West Brazil. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was completed using 700 records of patients 18 years of age or older undergoing clean surgery between 2008 and 201 [...] 0. The study used a previously evaluated, structured form for data collection. Two indicators were analyzed: antimicrobial prophylaxis within one hour of incision, and antimicrobial prophylaxis 24 hours postoperatively, considering the following variables: antimicrobial selected; dose according to the weight of the patient, additional doses during surgery, and surgical procedures taking longer than four hours. Records completed within

Cyanéa, Ferreira Lima Gebrim; Jéssica, Guimarães Rodrigues; Maressa Noemia, Rodrigues Queiroz; Regiane Aparecida, Santos Soares Barreto; Marinésia Aparecida, Prado Palos.

2014-08-01

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Fate of nuclear waste site remains unclear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S., located in West Valley, N.Y., has been shut down since 1972, and no efforts have yet been made to clean up the site. The site contains a spent-fuel pool, high level liquid waste storage tanks, and two radioactive waste burial grounds. Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., has been leasing the site from the New York State Energy RandD Authority. Federal litigation may ensue, prompted by NRC and DOE, if the company refuses to decontaminate the area when its lease expires at the end of 1980. DOE has developed a plan to solidify the liquid wastes at the facility but needs additional legislation and funding to implement the scheme

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Texas site selection and licensing status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

Avant, R.V. Jr.

1989-11-01

431

Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd3) (2.1 million cubic meters [m3]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m3) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd3(420,000 m3). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd3 (2.58 million m3)

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