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Sample records for west hackberry site

  1. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  2. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  3. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  4. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  5. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  6. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  7. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  8. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  9. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  11. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  12. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  13. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  20. Responsive service at West Kent sites.

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    Operations manager, Ashley Heming, and area sales manager, Andy Cassie, of specialist cleaning and cleaning services company, CK Group, explain how a close 15-year relationship with Kent's Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust is continuing, with the firm having recently undertaken a thorough preoccupation clean at the new 513-bed PFI-funded Pembury Hospital, one of the UK's first acute hospitals to offer 100% single-bed en suite accommodation, before its first patients moved in. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie explains, the company will undertake similar work for further phases, and has also provided a specialist decontamination service on Victorian buildings set for demolition at the site. PMID:21859067

  1. Water problems at the West Valley burial site

    A history of the water problems encountered at the West Valley, New York, burial site is presented with recommendations concerning operation at this site to prevent migration of radioactivity off site. When a permit to bury wastes was first issued in 1963, the possibility of water ponding in trenches because of relatively impermeable soil was recognized. Water rose persistently in 3 completed trenches in the north burial area, so the permit was revised in 1968 to be more explicit on how the trenches should be constructed to minimize the entrance of water into completed trenches. Water has not risen in the 7 trenches in the south burial area, which were completed in accordance with the revised permit. Water continued to rise in the 4 trenches in the north burial area and in early 1975 water from 2 of these trenches began to seep out through the cover. Three of the trenches were pumped to halt this seepage. Monitoring of surface streams has indicated no large-scale migration of radioisotopes away from the burial site. However, extraneous sources of radioactivity made it impossible to detect small amounts of seepage. Soil samples taken in 1973 near the trenches confirmed that there was no large-scale underground migration. The borings did indicate the existence of perched groundwater near the problem trenches in the north burial area that could result in the horizontal migration of water in or out of trenches. The USGS is now making a detailed hydrogeological study of the burial area. Erosion control and prevention of water from entering completed trenches are the main environmental problems at the West Valley burial site

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  4. Structural analysis of the West Hackbery No. 6 SPR storage cavern

    Benzley, S.E.

    1980-08-01

    Four separate structural analyses of the West Hackberry No. 6 SPR storage cavern are presented. One analysis covers the creep response of the cavern beginning shortly before the time when an accidental fire occurred and proceeding through the cavern recertification pressure test. The second analysis models the surface uplife that is expected during the same pressure test. The third and fourth numerical studies investigate the structural response of West Hackberry No. 6 to slabbing and a rapid pressure drop. All analyses indicate that this cavern should be structurally stable for the conditions assumed.

  5. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3H and 99Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Remedial design services for Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund sites

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from radium-processing facilities which operated in the area during the early 1900's. The waste materials, containing radium and other radioactive isotopes were placed in three separate landfill sites. Major public health risks are indoor radon gas build-up and indoor/ outdoor gamma radiation. In 1989, the EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) which chose excavation and off-site disposal of material as the preferred alternative. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight key elements of the design process for the remedial action at Montclair. Those key elements are as follows: meeting community relations challenges; measuring radioactive contamination; developing plans and specifications; packaging of remedial action contacts; and continually improving both the process and the designs

  7. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2005

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment

  10. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    2013-06-24

    ...: Comments. The comment period for the proposed rule and draft EIS published May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29687), is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...

  11. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    2013-05-21

    ... permits. Pursuant to its voluntary NEPA policy, published at 63 FR 58045 (October 29, 1998), EPA typically... designation through a rulemaking proposal published in the Federal Register (FR), as here. Formal designation... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site...

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2007-09-27

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2006-09-21

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment

  16. Construction of hexahedral elements mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw SPR site

    Park, Byoung Yoon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The three-dimensional finite element mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw site has been constructed using the sonar and seismic survey data obtained from the field. The mesh is consisting of hexahedral elements because the salt constitutive model is coded using hexahedral elements. Various ideas and techniques to construct finite element mesh capturing artificially and naturally formed geometries are provided. The techniques to reduce the number of elements as much as possible to save on computer run time with maintaining the computational accuracy is also introduced. The steps and methodologies could be applied to construct the meshes of Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry strategic petroleum reserve sites. The methodology could be applied to the complicated shape masses for not only various civil and geological structures but also biological applications such as artificial limbs.

  17. Radiation exposure rates and radionuclide concentrations in soil around the Argonne National Laboratory-West Site

    As part of the routine environmental monitoring program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, exposure rates were measured around the Argonne National Laboratory-West Site in 1973, 1976, and 1980, and soil samples were collected in 1978. Elevated exposure rates were measured along the northern and western sides of the EBR-II facility, in a drainage ditch on the west side of the EBR-II facility, around the perimeter of the radioactive scrap and waste facility, and at the southwest corner of the TREAT facility. Exposure rates measured in the 1980 survey were all less than 30 μR/h. Overall results indicated that except for the drainage ditch, the operation of the nuclear facilities for the past 21 years has not produced any general contamination of the soil around the ANL-W Site

  18. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl4. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl4 distributions

  19. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report

  2. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

    2006-09-15

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  3. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Biedermann, Charles A. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Steiner, II, Robert E. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Fox, James R. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Hoch, Jerald J. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States); Werchowski, Rebecca L. [CH2M HILL BWXT West Valley, LLC, West Valley, NY (United States)

    2015-09-15

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2014. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2014 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2013

    Rendall, John D. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Pendl, Michael P. [CH2MHILL • B& W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2014-09-16

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2013. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2013. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2013 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012

    Rendall, John D. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV); Steiner, Alison F. [URS Professional Solutions (URSPS); Klenk, David P. [CH2M HILL • B& amp; W West Valley, LLC (CHBWV)

    2013-09-19

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS Corporation

    2010-09-17

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    None, None

    2011-09-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011

    none,

    2012-09-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  12. Holocene accumulation and ice flow near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core site

    Koutnik, Michelle R.; Fudge, T. J.; Conway, Howard; Waddington, Edwin D.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Buizert, Christo; Taylor, Kendrick C.

    2016-05-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Core (WDC) provided a high-resolution climate record from near the Ross-Amundsen Divide in Central West Antarctica. In addition, radar-detected internal layers in the vicinity of the WDC site have been dated directly from the ice core to provide spatial variations in the age structure of the region. Using these two data sets together, we first infer a high-resolution Holocene accumulation-rate history from 9.2 kyr of the ice-core timescale and then confirm that this climate history is consistent with internal layers upstream of the core site. Even though the WDC was drilled only 24 km from the modern ice divide, advection of ice from upstream must be taken into account. We evaluate histories of accumulation rate by using a flowband model to generate internal layers that we compare to observed layers. Results show that the centennially averaged accumulation rate was over 20% lower than modern at 9.2 kyr before present (B.P.), increased by 40% from 9.2 to 2.3 kyr B.P., and decreased by at least 10% over the past 2 kyr B.P. to the modern values; these Holocene accumulation-rate changes in Central West Antarctica are larger than changes inferred from East Antarctic ice-core records. Despite significant changes in accumulation rate, throughout the Holocene the regional accumulation pattern has likely remained similar to today, and the ice-divide position has likely remained on average within 5 km of its modern position. Continent-scale ice-sheet models used for reconstructions of West Antarctic ice volume should incorporate this accumulation history.

  13. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  14. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    Jackson, J. P.; Pastor, R. S.

    2002-02-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex.

  15. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex

  16. West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26

    The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

  17. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  18. Radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park site, West Chicago, Illinois

    This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park, West Chicago, Illinois, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the fall of 1981 and the spring of 1982. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of water and airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results show that the materials containing 232Th and daughters are present in surface and subsurface locations, comprising a total volume of about 15,000 cubic yards, with concentrations as high as 11,000 pCi/g. These contaminants are a source of radon and daughter radionuclides which may produce slightly elevated airborne radioactivity levels off-site. There is no evidence that materials are moving off-site through ground water, although small subsurface deposits exceeding 5 pCi/g exist north of the fenced site in a landfill area, and to the southeast of the site near the tennis courts. These off-site deposits do not present a significant radiological hazard to the public at this time

  19. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    NONE

    2003-09-12

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9

  20. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  2. Near-surface water balance of an undeveloped upland site in west-central Florida

    Bidlake, W.R.; Boetcher, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made to examine the near-surface water balance of a dry prairie site in west-central Florida. The water balance, which was defined on a unit area basis and for a depth of 5.5 meters, was described for the period June 1991 to October 1992. Precipitation during the 498 days of field measurements was 2,245 millimeters. Evapotranspiration, the second largest component, was 1,419 millimeters. Water yield was 808 millimeters and the change in soil water storage was 19 millimeters. Computed vertical water flux was less than 4 percent of evapotranspiration because of the small hydraulic conductivity of a clay layer that began at a depth of 5.5 meters.

  3. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.40N, Long. 2.30E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2009-09-24

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  5. Red fox ( Vulpes vulpes L.) favour seed dispersal, germination and seedling survival of Mediterranean Hackberry ( Celtis australis L.)

    Juan, Traba; Sagrario, Arrieta; Jesús, Herranz; Cristina, Clamagirand M.

    2006-07-01

    Seeds of the Mediterranean Hackberry Celtis australis are often encountered in fox faeces. In order to evaluate the effect of gut transit on the size of seeds selected, the rates and speed of germination and on the survival of the seedlings, Mediterranean Hackberry seeds from fox faeces were germinated in a greenhouse. The results were compared with those of seeds taken from ripe, uneaten fruits. Fox-dispersed seeds were smaller and lighter than the control ones and had higher (74% vs. 57%) and more rapid germination (74.5 days vs. 99.2 days). Seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds showed significantly greater survival by the end of the study period (74.1% vs. 43.6%) than the control ones. Survival in seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds was related to germination date, late seedlings showing poorer survival. This relationship was not observed away in the control seedlings. Seed mass did not affect seedling survival. Seedling arising from fox-dispersed seeds grew faster than control ones. These results suggest that fox can play a relevant role as seed disperser of Mediterranean Hackberry.

  6. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  7. Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214

    Byrnes, Mark E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States); Simmons, Sally [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, Washington (United States); Morse, John [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing Purolite{sup R} A530E

  8. Startup of the New 200 West Pump-and-Treat, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington - 13214

    On June 28, 2012, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) completed the construction and acceptance testing for a new 2,500 gallon-per-minute (gpm) pump-and-treat (P and T) system in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. This system is designed to remove Tc-99, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene (TCE), nitrate, and total and hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange, anoxic and aerobic bioreactors, and air stripping. The system will eventually remove uranium from groundwater using ion exchange as well. The startup of the P and T system is important because it will ensure that contaminants from the 200 West Area never reach the Columbia River. When fully operational, the 200 West P and T will include approximately 23 extraction wells and 21 injection wells. The extraction wells are 8 inches in diameter, are completed with well screens 100 feet or more in length, and are distributed throughout the central portion of the 5-square-mile carbon tetrachloride plume. The injection wells are also 8 inches in diameter and are installed up-gradient of the plumes to recharge the aquifer and down-gradient of the plumes for flow-path control. Groundwater in the 200 West Area is approximately 250 feet below ground surface, and the aquifer is 200 feet or more in thickness. All of the contaminants (except nitrate) are found within the perimeter of the carbon tetrachloride plume and occur at various depths throughout the aquifer. The 200 West P and T consists of two separate buildings to conduct groundwater treatment. The RAD building contains an ion exchange system to remove Tc-99 from groundwater at a maximum flow rate of 600 gpm. The RAD building only accepts water from those extraction wells showing elevated Tc-99 concentrations. Groundwater initially fills an influent tank, is then pumped through particulate filters (to remove suspended materials), and then passes through two parallel treatment trains containing PuroliteR A530E resin

  9. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Integrated characterization of the geologic framework of a contaminated site in West Trenton, New Jersey

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Burton, William C.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2012-01-01

    Fractured sedimentary bedrock and groundwater at the former Naval Air Warfare Center in West Trenton, New Jersey (United States of America) are contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Predicting contaminant migration or removing the contaminants requires an understanding of the geology. Consequently, the geologic framework near the site was characterized with four different methods having different spatial scales: geologic field mapping, analyses of bedrock drill core, analyses of soil and regolith, and S-wave refraction surveys. A fault zone is in the southeast corner of the site and separates two distinct sedimentary formations; the fault zone dips (steeply) southeasterly, strikes northeasterly, and extends at least 550 m along its strike direction. Drill core from the fault zone is extensively brecciated and includes evidence of tectonic contraction. Approximately 300 m east of this fault zone is another fault zone, which offsets the contact between the two sedimentary formations. The S-wave refraction surveys identified both fault zones beneath soil and regolith and thereby provided constraints on their lateral extent and location.

  12. An Early Pleistocene high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction from the West Turkana (Kenya) HSPDP drill site

    Stockhecke, Mona; Beck, Catherine; Brown, Erik T.; Cohen, Andrew; Deocampo, Daniel M.; Feibel, Craig S.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rabideaux, Nathane M.; Sier, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP), and the related Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP), recovered ~2 km of drill core since 2012. At the HSPDP West Turkana Kaitio (WTK) site a 216 m-long core that covers the Early Pleistocene time window (1.3 to 1.87 Ma) during which hominids first expanded out of Africa and marine records document reorganization of tropical climate and the development of the strong Walker circulation. WTK carries particular interest for paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions as it is located only 2.5 km from the location of one of the most complete hominin skeletons ever recovered (Nariokotome Boy). XRF core scanning data provide a means of evaluating records of past environmental conditions continuously and at high resolution. However, the record contains complex lithologies reflecting repeated episodes of inundation and desiccation along a dynamic lake margin. Here we present a methodological approach to address the highly variable lithostratigraphy of the East African records to establish comprehensive paleoclimate timeseries. The power spectrum of the presented hydroclimate record peaks at Milankovitch cycles, qualifying HSPDP drill cores from the Turkana Basin to be used as high-resolution Early Pleistocene paleoclimate archive. Comparing these data with marine climate reconstructions sheds light into athmospheric processes and continental climate dynamics.

  13. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  14. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  15. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, a coastal site on the west coast of India

    Suresh, T.; Desa, Elgar

    We report here the observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000-2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa (15.456°N, 73.801°E), a coastal site on the west coast of India. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five channel sunphotometer with wavelengths at 440, 500, 675, 870 and 936 nm. The site enjoys a tropical climate and is under the influence of the strong southwest or summer monsoon and weak northeast or winter monsoon. Being a coastal station land-sea breeze play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (±0.15) and 0.23 (±0.097), respectively, while the Angstrom exponent is 1.31 (±0.347). The aerosol properties over the site showed a distinct seasonal variations, with high values of AOT observed during summer, with mean values of 0.48 (±0.15) and 0.26 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively, while during the winter relatively low values were observed, with mean value of 0.41 (±0.14) and 0.19 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively. The values of Angstrom exponents observed at the site suggest that the aerosol comprise mostly of the small size particles, with relatively larger particles being observed during summer than winter. An anti-correlation is observed between the inter-annual variations in the aerosol loading and the rainfall over Goa. Aerosol properties show diurnal variations, with comparatively lower values of AOT being observed in the evening. These diurnal variations are within a limit of 10% of the average values observed for the day. Seasonal patterns in the diurnal variations of aerosol optical depths have been observed. Considering the effect of the meteorological parameters over the aerosol, it is observed that the AOT is positively correlated with water vapor column, however the wind is found to aid in the reduction of aerosol load over Goa. It can be inferred from the weak

  16. Pliocene and pleistocene hominid-bearing sites from west of lake turkana, kenya.

    Harris, J M; Brown, F H; Leakey, M G; Walker, A C; Leakey, R E

    1988-01-01

    Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil localities near the western shoreline of Lake Turkana, ranging in age between 1 million and 3.5 million years in age, have produced important new hominid specimens including most of a Homo erectus skeleton and a relatively complete early robust australopithecine cranium. The lacustrine, fluviatile, and terrestrial strata are designated the Nachukui Formation, which is subdivided into eight members. The distribution of sedimentary facies within the Nachukui Formation suggests that, as today, the Labur and Murua Rith ranges formed the western margin of the basin and were drained by eastward-flowing rivers that fed into the forerunner of the present lake or a major river system. There is also stratigraphic evidence for tectonic movement during the deposition of these sediments. Twenty-three of the tuffs observed in the succession occur also in the Koobi Fora Formation east of the lake and in the Shungura Formation of the lower Omo Valley and permit precise correlation among these three localities. Fortyseven fossiliferous sites from West Turkana have yielded more than 1000 specimens of 93 mammalian species. The mammalian fossils represent nine sequential assemblages that augment information about faunal and environmental change from elsewhere in the basin. PMID:17820626

  17. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the IDAF (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) international program, this study aims to study the chemical composition of precipitation and associated wet deposition at the rural site of Djougou in Benin, representative of a West and Central African wet savanna. Five hundred and thirty rainfall samples were collected at Djougou, Benin, from July 2005 to December 2009 to provide a unique database. The chemical composition of precipitation was analyzed for inorganic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+, K+, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-) and organic (HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2H5COO-, C2O42-) ions, using ion chromatography. The 530 collected rain events represent a total of 5706.1 mm of rainfall compared to the measured pluviometry 6138.9 mm, indicating that the collection efficiency is about 93%. The order of total annual loading rates for soluble cations is NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. For soluble anions the order of loading is carbonates > HCOO- > NO3- > CH3COO- > SO4,SUP>2- > Cl- > C2O42- > C2H5COO-. In the wet savanna of Djougou, 86% of the measured pH values range between 4.7 and 5.7 with a median pH of 5.19, corresponding to a VWM (Volume Weighed Mean) H+ concentration of 6.46 μeq·L-1. This acidity results from a mixture of mineral and organic acids. The annual sea salt contribution was computed for K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- and represents 4.2% of K+, 41% of Mg2+, 1.3% of Ca2+, and 7.4% of SO42-. These results show that K+, Ca2+, SO42-, and Mg2+ were mainly of non-marine origin. The marine contribution is estimated at 9%. The results of the chemical composition of rainwater of Djougou indicates that, except for the carbonates, ammonium has the highest VWM concentration (14.3 μeq·L-1) and nitrate concentration is 8.2 μeq·L-1. The distribution of monthly VWM concentration for all ions is computed and shows the highest values during the dry season, comparing to the wet season. Identified nitrogenous compound sources (NOx and NH3) are domestic animals, natural emissions from savanna soils

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2003

    This Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2003 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. During 2003, cleanup of radioactive waste from the former nuclear fuels reprocessing plant that shut down operations in the 1970s was continued at the WVDP. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Work activities at the WVDP during 2003 included: (1) maintaining canisters of vitrified high-level waste in a shielded facility; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste offsite for disposal; (3) shipping packaged spent nuclear fuel assemblies to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; (4) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely size-reduced and packaged for disposal; (5) decontaminating the fuel storage pool and the cask unloading pool; (6) decontaminating the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (7) cleanup of waste in the plutonium purification cell (south) and extraction cell number 2 in the main plant; (8) planning for decontamination and dismantlement of the vitrification facility; (9) continuing preparation of the Decommissioning and/or Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Impact Statement; and (10) monitoring the environment and managing contaminated areas within the Project facility premises

  19. Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program final report: Site characterization of the Pacific Study Area, West Coast, Northern Site (W-N)

    This report describes the outcome of a Pacific Ocean research program begun in November 1978 by Sandia National Laboratories for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. The six-year oceanographic program was in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation of possible sea disposal of defueled, decommissioned, nuclear-powered submarines. Evaluation guidelines were written to define a site suitable for such sea disposal. This final report, which combines results from two previous progress reports and data from recently completed studies, characterizes a suitable site, the West Coast, Northern Site (W-N). Although W-N is neither the only possible nor the best Pacific site, it is one suitable location under the site evaluation guidelines. 95 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs

  20. New Seep Sites along the West-African Passive Margin Identified from Seismo-Acoustic Data

    Fekete, N.; Spiess, V.; Caparachin, C.; Ding, F.; Gehrmann, R.; Riepshoff, H.; Trampe, A.; Foucher, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    Recent and ongoing venting activity is documented offshore West Africa by large pockmarks, as has been observed by previous marine expeditions along the continental margin (e.g. Meteor Cruises M47/3 and M56). In summer 2008, an interdisciplinary campaign was carried out in cooperation between the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences in Bremen and IFREMER, Brest. The main scientific goal of the cruise was to assess the influence of different geological settings on the nature of venting and related features. Multi-frequency seismo-acoustic tools including swath bathymetry, sediment echosounder, flare imagery, and high-resolution multichannel seismics were utilized within the scope of geophysical studies for investigating the distribution of seep structures and associated subsurface feeder systems. Observations confirm a widespread occurrence of pockmarks along the continental margins of Gabon, Congo and Angola in deep water. Spatial surveys have further shown that venting-related features are present on different scales, particularly with sizes of tens of meters in diameter and topographical expressions on the meter scale. While these structures seem to be related to relatively shallow gas reservoirs, larger ones reveal roots to gas reservoirs in several hundred meters below the seafloor. At some sites, gas flares of a few hundred to over a thousand meters height could be identified within the water column. Comparing target areas north and south of the Congo Canyon, it has become evident that different driving forces and sedimentary and tectonic boundary conditions may be responsible for fluid venting and its distribution. While in the north, a thick sediment cover restricts seepage to selected zones of weakness and higher permeability, salt diapirism in the south is massively fracturing overlying sediments, creating numerous promising morphological features at the seafloor. However, only a few active vents could be found in the area of salt diapirism

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  2. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory. PMID:25784608

  3. FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    N/A

    2004-08-31

    The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

  5. Radiochemical measurements for evaluating air quality in the vicinity of low-level waste burial sites - the West Valley experience

    Radioactive wastes buried in the commercial low-level burial site at West Valley, New York, consist primarily of low-density, low-specific-activity wastes. Except for contaminated soil and building rubble the wastes were shipped and buried uncompacted in steel drums, wooden boxes, cardboard cartons, or concrete casks. The wet climate at West Valley led to decomposition of the containers and biodegradation of much of the organic material in the wastes. As anoxic conditions developed in the trenches, appreciable quantities of organic complexing agents formed in the trench water, and a variety of gaseous decomposition products formed in the void space within each trench. The escape of the gaseous decomposition products through the trench cover presents the most significant pathway for uncontrolled release of radioactivity from the trenches and the greatest impact on air quality at the now inoperative West Valley site. The radioactive gases HT, 85Kr, 14CH4, 3HCH3, 14CO, 14CO2, 222Rn, and 14C- and 3H-hydrocarbons were identified in the voids beneath the trench covers. Studies were conducted to identify radionuclides and chemical species vented to the atmosphere, to evaluate the mechanisms of venting, and to quantify the leak rate of each radioactive gas. These studies required specialized techniques for sample collection, species separation, and radionuclide measurement. A close relationship exists between the experimental data obtained and the computer models which were developed to estimate gas production rates in a trench and the transport to and escape from the surface of a trench. As a result, field measurements and computer calculations are found to be as important for post-closure characterization of the site as are the radiochemical measurements

  6. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    PROOROCU M.; A. DINUŢĂ; Raluca HAŢEGAN; Antoanela POPOVICI; P. BELDEAN; Sînziana PAULIUC

    2009-01-01

    Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Amon...

  7. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    During the maritime archaeological explorations a few sites of protohistoric in nature have been noticed along the saurashtra coast. the trial excavations of a few sites namely Bet Dwarka and Bhokhira on the western saurashtra coast yielded...

  8. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    PROOROCU M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Among these, a goodexample is the hexachlorocyclohexane soil pollution from Turda Area. The soil quality from this region is also affected by otheractivities like: waste disposal, oil and natural gases extraction.

  9. Data collected from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at twenty-three sites in West Hawaii, 1999 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0002767)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at 23 sites in West Hawaii. Survey sites are 8 to 14 m deep and are all located on reef shelfs with moderate...

  10. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980's, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site

  11. The Origin of The Acheulean: The 1.7 Million-Year-Old Site of FLK West, Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania).

    Diez-Martín, F; Sánchez Yustos, P; Uribelarrea, D; Baquedano, E; Mark, D F; Mabulla, A; Fraile, C; Duque, J; Díaz, I; Pérez-González, A; Yravedra, J; Egeland, C P; Organista, E; Domínguez-Rodrigo, M

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of the Acheulean is one of the hallmarks of human evolution. It represents the emergence of a complex behavior, expressed in the recurrent manufacture of large-sized tools, with standardized forms, implying more advance forethought and planning by hominins than those required by the precedent Oldowan technology. The earliest known evidence of this technology dates back to c. 1.7 Ma. and is limited to two sites (Kokiselei [Kenya] and Konso [Ethiopia]), both of which lack functionally-associated fauna. The functionality of these earliest Acheulean assemblages remains unknown. Here we present the discovery of another early Acheulean site also dating to c. 1.7 Ma from Olduvai Gorge. This site provides evidence of the earliest steps in developing the Acheulean technology and is the oldest Acheulean site in which stone tools occur spatially and functionally associated with the exploitation of fauna. Simple and elaborate large-cutting tools (LCT) and bifacial handaxes co-exist at FLK West, showing that complex cognition was present from the earliest stages of the Acheulean. Here we provide a detailed technological study and evidence of the use of these tools on the butchery and consumption of fauna, probably by early Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:26639785

  12. Deterioration of groundwater quality in the vicinity of an active open-tipping site in West Malaysia

    Rahim, Bahaa-Eldin E. A.; Yusoff, I.; Samsudin, A. R.; Yaacob, W. Z. W.; Rafek, A. G. M.

    2010-06-01

    There is an urgent need for characterization of leachate arising from waste disposal to ensure a corresponding effective leachate management policy. Field and laboratory studies have been carried out to investigate the impact of municipal landfill leachate on the underlying groundwater at a site in West Malaysia. The solid waste was disposed of directly onto an unprotected natural soil formation. This situation was made worse by the shallow water table. The hydrochemical composition of groundwater in the vicinity of the site (background) is a dilute mixed cation, bicarbonate water. The high ionic balance error of ~13.5% reveals that the groundwater body underneath the site was a highly contaminated leachate rather than contaminated groundwater. Elevated concentration of chloride (355.48 mg/L), nitrate (10.40 mg/L as NO3), nitrite (14.59 mg/L), ammoniacal-N (11.61 mg/L), sodium (227.56 mg/L), iron (0.97 mg/L), and lead (0.32 mg/L) measured downgradient indicate that the contamination plume has migrated further away from the site. In most cases, the concentration of these contamination indicators, together with the ranges of sodium percentage (66.3-89.9%) and sodium adsorption ratio (10.1-19.7%), were found to be considerably higher than the limit values of safe water for both domestic and irrigation purposes, respectively.

  13. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  14. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  15. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  16. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. PMID:27073166

  17. Subglacial Lake CECs: Discovery and in situ survey of a privileged research site in West Antarctica

    Rivera, Andrés.; Uribe, José; Zamora, Rodrigo; Oberreuter, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery and on-the-ground radar mapping of a subglacial lake in Antarctica, that we have named Lake CECs (Centro de Estudios Científicos) in honor of the institute we belong to. It is located in the central part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, right underneath the Institute Ice Stream and Minnesota Glacier ice divide, and has not experienced surface elevation changes during the last 10 years. The ratio between the area of the subglacial lake and that of its feeding basin is larger than those for either subglacial lakes Ellsworth or Whillans, and it has a depth comparable to that of Ellsworth and greater than that of Whillans. Its ice thickness is ˜600 m less than that over Ellsworth. The lake is very likely a system with long water residence time. The recent finding of microbial life in Lake Whillans emphasizes the potential of Subglacial Lake CECs for biological exploration.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  19. Environmental monitoring of the main nuclear sites of Piemonte (North-West Italy)

    In this paper are described the monitoring activities of ARPA Piemonte, principally focused on one of the two major Italian nuclear sites located in Piemonte: Nuclear Site of Saluggia that, together with the Nuclear Power Plant of Trino Vercellese (272 MWe) are the most important nuclear installations of the Region. Both these sites are located in Po Plain and are quite close together (not more than 20 km). Moreover their discharges flow directly into the Po river (Nuclear Power Plant) or into the Dora Baltea, one of the most important Po affluent, a few kilometres prior to the confluence into Po river

  20. 2001 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin Site

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The 2001 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 2001 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the U.S. Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that any potential risk posed by these residues is much less than the risks encountered in normal everyday life.

  1. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  2. Geological and hydrological investigations at Sidi Kreir Site, west of Alexandria, Egypt

    Sidi-Kreir site lies along the Mediterranean Sea coast at km 30 to km 33 westwards from the center of the city of Alexandria. The studied site covers approximately 10 km2 from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Mallehet (Lake) Maryut southward. This study includes the results of geological investigation of the site both structurally and stratigraphically, and the groundwater conditions, in relation to the erection of a nuclear power station in the site. The surface geology has been mapped using aerial photographs on scale of 1:20,000. Twenty-five drillholes were core-drilled in order to outline the subsurface geology and to observe the groundwater fluctuations. Selected core samples and soil samples were tested geologically in thin sections, physically and mechanically. Water samples were also collected and tested for total dissolved solids and specific weight. Groundwater level fluctuations were observed for a period of one year in 75 wells and drillholes. Furthermore three pumping tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the freshwater aquifer. These properties were also calculated using the core samples data

  3. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, A coastal site on the west coast of India

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.S.

    variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (23), 2115. Smirnov, A., Holben, B.N., Dubovik, O., O’Neill, N.T., Eck, T.F., Westphal, D.L., Goroch, A.K., Pietras, C., Slutsker, I...

  4. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus sp. strain NBRIEAG-8 from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal

    Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Namrata; Singh, Nandita [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Eco-auditing Lab.; Verma, Praveen C.; Singh, Ankit; Mishra, Manisha [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering; Sharma, Neeta [Lucknow Univ., UP (India). Plant Pathology Lab.

    2012-09-15

    Arsenic contaminated rhizospheric soils of West Bengal, India were sampled for arsenic resistant bacteria that could transform different arsenic forms. Staphylococcus sp. NBRIEAG-8 was identified by16S rDNA ribotyping, which was capable of growing at 30,000 mg l{sup -1} arsenate [As(V)] and 1,500 mg l{sup -1} arsenite [As(III)]. This bacterial strain was also characterized for arsenical resistance (ars) genes which may be associated with the high-level resistance in the ecosystems of As-contaminated areas. A comparative proteome analysis was conducted with this strain treated with 1,000 mg l{sup -1} As(V) to identify changes in their protein expression profiles. A 2D gel analysis showed a significant difference in the proteome of arsenic treated and untreated bacterial culture. The change in pH of cultivating growth medium, bacterial growth pattern (kinetics), and uptake of arsenic were also evaluated. After 72 h of incubation, the strain was capable of removing arsenic from the culture medium amended with arsenate and arsenite [12% from As(V) and 9% from As(III)]. The rate of biovolatilization of As(V) was 23% while As(III) was 26%, which was determined indirectly by estimating the sum of arsenic content in bacterial biomass and medium. This study demonstrates that the isolated strain, Staphylococcus sp., is capable for uptake and volatilization of arsenic by expressing ars genes and 8 new upregulated proteins which may have played an important role in reducing arsenic toxicity in bacterial cells and can be used in arsenic bioremediation. (orig.)

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994.

  6. Strategic petroleum reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    NONE

    1996-05-31

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1995. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of 3 the weeks Island facility, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 4.5 million m{sup 3} (30 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Bryan Mound and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Transfer of Weeks Island oil began in November, 1995 with 2.0 million m{sup 3} (12.5 million barrels) transferred by December 31, 1995. Degasifying the crude oil is a major pollution prevention initiative because it will reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements by three or more orders of magnitude. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. There were only two reportable oil and three reportable brine spills during 1995, down from a total of 10 reportable spills in 1994. Total volume of oil spilled in 1995 was 56.3 m{sup 3} (354 barrels), and the total volume of brine spilled was 131.1 m{sup 3} (825 barrels). The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to five in 1995. All of the spills were reported to appropriate agencies and immediately cleaned up, with no long term impacts observed.

  7. Geohydrology of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground, 200-West Area, Hanford Site

    Bjornstad, B.N.

    1990-05-01

    Construction a disposal facility for solid, mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State (Figure 1) is planned. A site-specific performance assessment for each new disposal facility to ensure that wastes will be isolated from the environment is required. To demonstrate the adequacy of the facility for isolating the wastes, computer codes are used to simulate the physical processes that could cause the waste to migrate to underground water supplies or to the land's surface. The purpose of this report is provide a compilation and interpretation of geologic and hydrologic data available use in the performance assessment modeling. A variety of data are needed to model flow and transport from a solid-waste burial trench. These data include soil water content, soil moisture potential, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and phase mineralogy of the soils and sediments within the vadose zone. The hydrologic data that are critical for quantifying the water storage and transport properties for unsaturated soils require a characterization of the heterogeneities of various soil layers and the moisture characteristic curves for these layers. Hydraulic properties and mineralogic data for the saturated sediments are also important for modelling the flow and transport of wastes in the unconfined aquifer. This report begins with a discussion of the procedures and methods used to gather data both in the field and in the laboratory. This is followed by a summary of the geology, including the stratigraphic framework, lithofacies, and mineralogic/geochemical characteristics of the suprabasalt sediments. The hydrology of the region of the site is discussed next. In this discussion, the characteristics of the uppermost aquifer(s), unsaturated zone, and the various hydrogeologic units are presented. 54 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    Brown, Joanne; Etherington, George; Pellow, Peter [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of

  9. Health risks from radioactive objects on beaches in the vicinity of the Sellafield site in west Cumbria

    A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of the skin by

  10. Model metadata report for the GSI3D model of shallow geophysical surveys for the ground seaward of the Drigg Low Level Waste Repository Site, West Cumbria

    Callaghan, E.; Kearsey, T.; Finlayson, A; Auton, C.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the GSI3D model built from shallow resistivity sounding data acquired for ground seaward of the Drigg Low Level Waste Repository site, West Cumbria. The calculated 7-layer 3D model shows resistivity characteristics of Quaternary sequences overlying sandstone bedrock.

  11. Statement of Basis/Proposal Plan for West of Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Georgia Fields Site (631-19G) Operable Unit

    The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP) is to describe the preferred remedial alternative(s) for the West of Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Georgia Fields Site (631-19G) Operable Unit (GFS) and to provide for public involvement in the decision-making process

  12. Ancient harp seal hunters of Disko Bay (Vol. 330):Subsistence and settlement at the Saqqaq culture site Qeqertasussuk (2400-1400 BC), West Greenland

    Morten Meldgaard

    2004-01-01

    The Saqqaq Culture site Qeqertasussuk (2400-1400 BC) is situated in the south eastern corner of Disko Bay, West Greenland. The site was excavated between 1983 and 1987 by Qasigiannguit Museum. The stratified cultural deposits are exceptionally well preserved by permafrost and yielded hundreds of thousands of animal bones, feathers, plant remains, insect remains, wooden implements, and a wealth of other organic refuse as well as stone tools, house ruins, stone set fireplaces and...

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

  14. Aerosol optical properties over a coastal site in Goa, along the west coast of India

    Shirodkar, Shilpa; Menon, Harilal B.

    2015-08-01

    Spectral characteristics of the Aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured over a coastal site in Goa (15.46°N and 73.83°E), from a plateau ~50 m above mean sea level, for the period 2008-2010, are analyzed to understand the inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal variability and to delineate different aerosol sources. A Microtops-II sunphotometer having five different wavelengths centered at 0.380, 0.440, 0.500, 0.675 and 0.870 μm was used to estimate AODs in different seasons classified as: winter monsoon season from December to March (WMS), spring inter-monsoon season from April to May (SIMS), summer monsoon season from June to September (SMS) and fall inter-monsoon season from October to November (FIMS). The number of data (AODs) generated in each season is 569 in WMS, 131 in SIMS, 38 in SMS and 256 in FIMS. The highest AOD at 500 nm (AOD500) was recorded in SIMS (0.43±0.18) while the lowest value was observed in SMS (0.32±0.10). The seasonal mean values of Ångström α computed from the least-square method in the wavelength range 0.440-0.870 μm showed higher values (1.23±0.20) in FIMS than those in SMS (0.75±0.34). The highest Ångström β values were noticed in SIMS (0.25±0.10) and lowest in FIMS (0.17±0.06). To make a source appropriation and thus to resolve the complexity of aerosols in the study area, α was computed in different wavelength ranges, viz: short wavelengths (0.440-0.500 μm) and long wavelengths (0.675-0.870 μm), which revealed differing α values for different ranges of wavelengths. To account for the curvature, a second order polynomial fit is introduced. Subsequently, the second-order Ångström exponent (ά) and the coefficient of the second-order polynomial fit are analyzed to understand the dominant aerosol type.

  15. Assessment of radiological situation in the Murzhik inhabited point area on the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site

    The research program on the radiological situation assessment around of the Murzhik inhabited point due to information about high mortality in this region, situated in the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site, was realized. In the framework of this study the radiological inspection was carried out. Radiation contamination of examined area around the Murzhik village is very heterogeneous. The region most part including the section on the test site area are characterizing by radiation contamination and external gamma-dose close to background one. However some areas (radioactive cloud traces, explosion craters, underground test boreholes) are demonstrating high contamination levels and radiation dose rate (up to 1 mSv·h-1). This conducts to very high external irradiation doses and its can have some radiation effects. The effects have been observed in different populations of animals used as biological indicators. Although the majority of morphological parameters does not confirm the harmful influence of contamination the genetic indexes have been demonstrated the statistical differences between irradiated and control populations of animals in chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequencies and high genome instability. The health status of the Murzhik village human population was compared with control group health. With help of statistical analysis the considerable difference between two populations does not found by a majority of indexes. With help of micronuclei test it is revealed that lymphocyte cytogenesis damages frequency in the Murzhik inhabitants in two times higher than this value in the control group. The most noticeable effect - it is very high considerable increase (in 7 times, p<0.007) the observed dicentric chromosomes frequency (concerned as reliable indicator of radiation effects)

  16. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J., E-mail: raul.diaz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jose.lopezm@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear Nabor Carrillo, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: albertoe@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-}2{sub .5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1{sup st} , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil

  17. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry, and biomass

  18. Distribution of clay minerals in drift sediments on the continental rise west of the Antarctic Peninsula, ODP Leg 178, Sites 1095 and 1096

    Hillenbrand, C.-D.; W. Ehrmann

    2001-01-01

    The clay mineral compositions of upper Miocene to Quaternary sediments recovered at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 178, Sites 1095 and 1096, from the continental rise west of the Antarctic Peninsula were analyzed in order to reconstruct the Neogene and Quaternary Antarctic paleoclimate and ice dynamics. The clay mineral assemblages are dominated by smectite, illite, and chlorite. Kaolinite occurs only in trace amounts. Analysis of a surface-sample data set facilitates the assignment of thes...

  19. Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west cross drift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestone SP33ABM4

    In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model

  20. Three-dimensional representations of salt-dome margins at four active strategic petroleum reserve sites.

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Stein, Joshua S.

    2003-01-01

    Existing paper-based site characterization models of salt domes at the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been converted to digital format and visualized using modern computer software. The four sites are the Bayou Choctaw dome in Iberville Parish, Louisiana; the Big Hill dome in Jefferson County, Texas; the Bryan Mound dome in Brazoria County, Texas; and the West Hackberry dome in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A new modeling algorithm has been developed to overcome limitations of many standard geological modeling software packages in order to deal with structurally overhanging salt margins that are typical of many salt domes. This algorithm, and the implementing computer program, make use of the existing interpretive modeling conducted manually using professional geological judgement and presented in two dimensions in the original site characterization reports as structure contour maps on the top of salt. The algorithm makes use of concepts of finite-element meshes of general engineering usage. Although the specific implementation of the algorithm described in this report and the resulting output files are tailored to the modeling and visualization software used to construct the figures contained herein, the algorithm itself is generic and other implementations and output formats are possible. The graphical visualizations of the salt domes at the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites are believed to be major improvements over the previously available two-dimensional representations of the domes via conventional geologic drawings (cross sections and contour maps). Additionally, the numerical mesh files produced by this modeling activity are available for import into and display by other software routines. The mesh data are not explicitly tabulated in this report; however an electronic version in simple ASCII format is included on a PC-based compact disk.

  1. Geophysical Methods, Tracer Leakage, and Flow Modeling Studies at the West Pearl Queen Carbon Sequestration/EOR Pilot Site

    Bromhal, G. S.; Wilson, T. H.; Wells, A.; Diehl, R.; Smith, D. H.

    2003-12-01

    Recently, a few thousand tons of CO2 were injected into the West Pearl Queen field, a depleted oil reservoir in southeastern New Mexico, for a pilot carbon sequestration project. Small amounts of 3 different perfluorocarbon tracers were injected with the CO2. Approximately 50 capillary absorption tube samplers (CATS) were located across the field within 2m of the grounds surface to detect the tracers in extremely small (~10-13L) quantities. After only several days, the CATS detected quantities of tracers at distances of up to 350m from the injection well. Greater amounts of tracers were detected in the different directions. The underground transport mechanism(s) are uncertain; however, appearance of tracer in the CATS after only a 6 day period suggests that CO2 movement may have occurred through near-surface processes. Subsequent tracer measurements made over 10 and 54 day time periods revealed continued tracer leakage. To try to understand the tracer information, we conducted lineament interpretations of the area using a black and white aerial photo taken in 1949, digital orthophotos, and Landsat TM imagery. Lineament interpretations revealed distinct northeast and northwest trending lineament sets. These directions coincided roughly with the direction of tracer-leakage into areas northwest and southwest of the injection well. The near-surface geology consists of a few-feet thick veneer of late Pleistocene and Holocene sand dunes covering the middle Pleistocene Mescalero caliche. A survey of the caliche was made using ground penetrating radar (GPR) to attempt to identify any preferential migration pathways. Modeling studies also were performed to identify the potential leakage pathways at the site. Because of the relatively fast appearance of tracers at large distances from the injection well, simple diffusion through the surface layers was ruled out. Wind patterns in the area have also made transport through the atmosphere and back into the ground highly unlikely

  2. Executive summary of the site stabilization study for the LLRW [low-level radioactive waste] disposal area at West Valley, New York: Task 7, Final report

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop an integrated set of site management plans for the West Valley low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal area. The plans were directed to upgrade the disposal area so that passive custodial care and monitoring activities would be sufficient to protect public health and safety and the environment. To fulfill the project objectives, the project was organized into tasks; the last of which, Task 7, Project Summary, is the subject of this report. A summary of each project task is described herein. 19 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

  4. Regulatory examination of the radiation-hygienic situation at Sites of Temporary Storage in North-West Russia prior to the beginning of major spent fuel removal works

    The paper describes a regulatory project carried out, under a collaborative agreement between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation (FMBA) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), by the Institute of Biophysics (Technical Support Organisation to FMBA) and western specialists. The project is one several addressing aspects of the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste at Sites of Temporary Storage (STSs) operated by Federal Enterprise SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha on the Kola Peninsula in North-West Russia, and the decommissioning of the sites. Industrial and regulatory projects are addressing options for removing spent submarine fuel currently stored in poor conditions at the sites and moving it to more appropriate storage facilities. The work described in this paper was to review and collate independent data on the current radiation situation and radiation control in the areas at and around the sites. The project has the ultimate objectives to develop norms and standards and supporting regulatory guidance for application during and upon completion of rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and Gremikha, and this work provides a 'baseline' of radiation conditions, before operations begin to remove the spent fuel. The examination identified and prioritised areas of contamination on and around the sites in terms of their current significance for the safety and health of workers and the public and their possible future significance for the environment and potential future users of the sites. Some areas on the sites had high dose rates - up to about 140 μSv/h in Andreeva Bay and 8500 μSv/h in Gremikha - due to contamination from past spent fuel storage practices. Although there do not appear currently to be areas of severe contamination outside the sites, some of the contamination on-site is in forms that will migrate with time, for example in streams and marine sediments. (author)

  5. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    Pitt, William A., Jr.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  6. Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey

    Arlen F. Chase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

  7. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  8. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  9. Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), Division of Lands and Natural Resources (DLNR) of the State of Hawaii Fish Surveys from 23 West Hawaii Aquarium Project Sites during 1999-2005 (NODC Accession 0002767)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are from underwater visual surveys of fish stocks at 23 sites in West Hawaii. Survey sites are 8 to 14 m deep and are all located on reef shelves with moderate...

  10. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

  11. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

  12. Interspecific and annual variation in pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird in two East Asian hackberries, Celtis biondii and Celtis sinensis.

    Yoshikawa, T; Masaki, T; Isagi, Y; Kikuzawa, K

    2012-05-01

    Pre-dispersal seed predation by granivorous birds has potential to limit fruit removal and subsequent seed dispersal by legitimate avian seed dispersers in bird-dispersed plants, especially when the birds form flocks. We monitored pre-dispersal seed predation by the Japanese grosbeak, Eophona personata, of two bird-dispersed hackberry species (Cannabaceae), Celtis biondii (four trees) and Celtis sinensis (10 trees), for 3 years (2005, 2007 and 2008) in a fragmented forest in temperate Japan. Throughout the 3 years, predation was more intense on C. biondii, which, as a consequence, lost a larger part of its fruit crop. Grosbeaks preferred C. biondii seeds that had a comparatively lower energy content and lower hardness than C. sinensis, suggesting an association between seed hardness and selective foraging by grosbeaks. In C. biondii, intensive predation markedly reduced fruit duration and strongly limited fruit removal by seed dispersers, especially in 2007 and 2008. In C. sinensis, seed dispersers consumed fruits throughout the fruiting seasons in all 3 years. In C. biondii, variation in the timing of grosbeak migration among years was associated with annual variation in this bird's effects on fruit removal. Our results demonstrate that seed predation by flocks of granivorous birds can dramatically disrupt seed dispersal in fleshy-fruited plants and suggest the importance of understanding their flocking behaviour. PMID:22136589

  13. Securing of the spent nuclear fuel stored on Gremikha site - the former Soviet submarine base in north-west of Russia - 59371

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the G8 Global Partnership the French Commission on Atomic Energy (CEA) is in charge of the French funded projects aimed to secure the materials susceptible to be a subject of the proliferation or a malicious use. The securing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the former soviet submarines is of a special importance for CEA and the Russian Rosatom. Our main bilateral project has focused on two kinds of the SNF (alpha cores and VVR assemblies) stored at Gremikha, the former submarine base in the North-West of Russia. As of 2011 a significant results have been achieved: 2/3 of VVR type assemblies have been removed from Gremikha and reprocessed at PO Mayak. Nine alpha cores are unloaded and stored on at Gremikha. The main task now is to prepare the removal from Gremikha of all the remaining SNF and also to set up the needed infrastructure at the sites where this SNF will be moved. Substantial funding and technical assistance both from France and Russia will be required for that. Beyond the operator of the Gremikha site (SevRAO), the CEA and Rosatom involve many expert organizations from both countries such as AREVA, Kurchatov Institute and many others. Their contribution is one of the key elements of the success. (authors)

  14. Surface Formation and Preservation of Very-Low-Porosity Thin Crusts ( "Glazes") at the WAIS Divide Site, West Antarctica

    Fegyveresi, J. M.; Alley, R. B.; Muto, A.; Spencer, M. K.; Orsi, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Observations at the WAIS Divide site show that near-surface snow is strongly altered by weather-related processes, producing features that are recognizable in the ice core. Prominent reflective "glazed" surface crusts develop frequently during the summer. Observations during austral summers 2008-09 through 2012-13, supplemented by Automated Weather Station data with insolation sensors, documented formation of such crusts during relatively low-wind, low-humidity, clear-sky periods with intense daytime sunshine. After formation, such glazed surfaces typically developed cracks in a polygonal pattern with few-meter spacing, likely from thermal contraction at night. Cracking was commonest when several clear days occurred in succession, and was generally followed by surface hoar growth. Temperature and radiation observations showed that solar heating often warmed the near-surface snow above the air temperature, contributing to mass transfer favoring crust formation. Subsequent investigation of the WDC06A deep ice core revealed that preserved surface crusts were seen in the core at an average rate of ~4.3 ± 2 yr-1 over the past 5500 years. They are about 40% more common in layers deposited during summers than during winters. The total summertime crust frequency also covaried with site temperature, with more present during warmer periods. We hypothesize that the mechanism for glaze formation producing single-grain-thick very-low-porosity thin crusts (i.e. "glazes") involves additional in-filling of open pores. The thermal conductivity of ice greatly exceeds that of air, so heat transport in firn is primarily conductive. Because heat flow is primarily through the grain structure, for a temperature inversion (colder upper surface) beneath a growing thin crust at the upper surface, pores will be colder than interconnected grains, favoring mass transport into those pores. Transport may occur by vapor, surface, or volume diffusion, although vapor diffusion and surface

  15. A ~600 kyr duration Early Pleistocene record from the West Turkana (Kenya) HSPDP drill site: elemental XRF variability to reconstruct climate change in Turkana Boy's backyard

    Stockhecke, M.; Beck, C. C.; Brown, E. T.; Cohen, A.; Deino, A. L.; Feibel, C. S.; Sier, M.

    2015-12-01

    Outcrops in the Kenyan and Ethiopian rift valleys document repeated occurrences of freshwater lakes and wooded landscapes over the past 4 million years at locations that are currently seasonally-dry savanna. Studies of the rich fossil records, in combination with outcropping lacustrine sequences, led to major breakthroughs in our knowledge of driving factors in human evolution. However, study of continuous drill core from ancient lake basins provides a basis for to unravel East African climate dynamics in an unseen fashion. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP), and the related Olorgesailie Drilling Project, recovered ~2 km of drill core since 2012. A major project goal is characterization of East African paleoclimate in order to evaluate its impact on hominin evolution. XRF core scanning data provide a means of evaluating records of past environmental conditions continuously and at high resolution. However, the HSPDP records contain complex lithologies reflecting repeated episodes of inundation and desiccation of the lake basins. Nevertheless, careful data evaluation based on detailed lithostratigraphy, which includes smear-slide microscopic analyses and X-radiographic images, allows disentanglement of complex signals and robust identification of continuous sequences for any cyclostratigraphic and statistical analysis. At the HSPDP Turkana Basin site a 175.6 m-long core the covers the Early Pleistocene time window during which hominids first expanded out of Africa and marine records document reorganization of tropical climate and the development of the strong Walker circulation. This drill site carries particular interest as it is located in only 2.5 km from the location of one of the most complete hominin skeletons ever recovered (Turkana Boy). Here we present a methodological approach to address the highly variable lithostratigraphy of the East African records to establish comprehensive and environmentally meaningful paleoclimate timeseries

  16. Field screening of soil vapors at a subsurface gasoline contaminated site in West Liberty, Morgan County, Kentucky

    Leaking underground storage tanks containing petroleum products pose a serious threat to groundwater quality nationwide. Many releases constitute an emergency situation due to exposure to toxic/flammable vapors and contamination of potable water sources. These conditions require that data from the contaminated area be acquired quickly and cost-effectively. A complaint was lodged by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Department of Highways in August 1988, concerning the quality and odor of water from their well. Preliminary sampling by the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection revealed results which indicated gasoline contamination. Subsequent sampling showed contamination of five potable wells in the area. One operating service station with three underground storage tanks containing gasoline and several abandoned underground storage tanks are in the immediate area where contamination had been identified. The objectives of an investigation initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey, Louisville, and Kentucky Dept. for Environmental Protection were to determine the degree and extent of contamination from gasoline constituents, locate the sources of contamination, and assess the impact of contamination on the quality of soils, groundwater and surface water. Soil vapors were obtained with an Environmental instruments soil vapor sampling device. Results of soil vapor and groundwater analyses indicate the origin of contamination is the operating service station's underground storage tank system. Several problems were encountered with this soil vapor technique. Sampling under dissimilar meteorological conditions produced varying results. Extraction of soil vapors at a rate of one liter per minute did not produce optimum results. Advantages of this soil vapor technique include a cost-effective screening of samples, prompt results, safety and no disruption of site hydraulics

  17. Blueprint Site Boundary West Hawaii

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This draft shapefile was developed for staff of the NOAA Fisheries Service, Pacific Island Regional Office and the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council. These...

  18. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    Menon, Harilal B., E-mail: harilalm@gmail.com [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Shirodkar, Shilpa [Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panjim, Goa 403602 (India); Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat State 380009 (India); Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-01

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD{sub 0}.{sub 500} {sub μm} and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD{sub 0.500} {sub μm} exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 μg/m{sup 3} and 4.5 μg/m{sup 3}, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 μm4.0 μm. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between − 14.1 W m{sup −2} and − 35.6 W m{sup −2}, − 6.7 W m{sup −2} and − 13.4 W m{sup −2} and 5.5 W m{sup −2} to 22.5 W m{sup −2}, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is

  19. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500μm and angstrom wavelength exponent (α) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500μm exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 μg/m3 and 4.5 μg/m3, and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 μm4.0 μm. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between − 14.1 W m−2 and − 35.6 W m−2, − 6.7 W m−2 and − 13.4 W m−2 and 5.5 W m−2 to 22.5 W m−2, respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. - Highlights: • Temporal variation of AOD during the year 2008 exhibits a bimodal distribution. • SSA in the atmosphere is regulated by BC, which results in a positive forcing. • The surface forcing is

  20. Oakland, West

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  1. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, August 31-September 2, 1977

    A radiological survey was conducted at the former locations of the West Stands, the New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. General radiochemistry and/or physics research for the MED/AEC program was performed at these sites during the 1940s. The buildings have since been razed. The survey was undertaken to determine the presence of any radionuclides remaining from the MED/AEC operations that could have been spilled or released from the former structures. Environmental soil samples (corings) were collected from the areas where the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory once stood. The soil corings were taken at what appeared to be undisturbed locations near the sites of the three former facilities. Analyses of the soil corings included determination of the concentrations of 137Cs, the 232Th decay chain, the 226Ra decay chain, and uranium in the soil. The levels of uranium and the 226Ra decay chain found in the samples indicated that no concentrations above natural background levels were present. Slightly elevated levels of 60Co were found in soil taken from the top 5 cm of the ground at two sampling sites, but this activity was presumed to have been traceable to induced activity from contaminated stainless steel that had been stored in the area during operations not related to MED/AEC activities. No increased radiation dose attributable to exposure to residual radioactivity from MED/AEC activities is expected

  2. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  3. Elemental characterization of metal artifacts recovered from archaeological sites Higueras 1sector west and sector B and Esquivilca south central coast of Lima

    A group of 70 metal artifacts from the Archaeological Rescue Project Loop Costa have been analyzed using non-destructive methods of analysis by X-ray fluorescence, in order to characterize them and to determine the chemical elemental composition of these objects, finding that these pieces are copper alloys, material used to manufacture their distinct metal utensils in every place. In Esquivilca Sector B copper-tin alloys and copper were used and in Higueras 1 Southwest Sector, copper-antimony and arsenic allows. Also some parts have an adhered material which contains sulfur and mercury, which leads us to think that in Higueras 1 Sector South West, pigments of these minerals were used on metal parts. (orig.)

  4. Isolation and characterization of selective and potent human Fab inhibitors directed to the active-site region of the two-component NS2B-NS3 proteinase of West Nile virus.

    Shiryaev, Sergey A; Radichev, Ilian A; Ratnikov, Boris I; Aleshin, Alexander E; Gawlik, Katarzyna; Stec, Boguslaw; Frisch, Christian; Knappik, Achim; Strongin, Alex Y

    2010-05-01

    There is a need to develop inhibitors of mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including WNV (West Nile virus). In the present paper, we describe a novel and efficient recombinant-antibody technology that led us to the isolation of inhibitory high-affinity human antibodies to the active-site region of a viral proteinase. As a proof-of-principal, we have successfully used this technology and the synthetic naive human combinatorial antibody library HuCAL GOLD(R) to isolate selective and potent function-blocking active-site-targeting antibodies to the two-component WNV NS (non-structural protein) 2B-NS3 serine proteinase, the only proteinase encoded by the flaviviral genome. First, we used the wild-type enzyme in antibody screens. Next, the positive antibody clones were counter-screened using an NS2B-NS3 mutant with a single mutation of the catalytically essential active-site histidine residue. The specificity of the antibodies to the active site was confirmed by substrate-cleavage reactions and also by using proteinase mutants with additional single amino-acid substitutions in the active-site region. The selected WNV antibodies did not recognize the structurally similar viral proteinases from Dengue virus type 2 and hepatitis C virus, and human serine proteinases. Because of their high selectivity and affinity, the identified human antibodies are attractive reagents for both further mutagenesis and structure-based optimization and, in addition, for studies of NS2B-NS3 activity. Conceptually, it is likely that the generic technology reported in the present paper will be useful for the generation of active-site-specific antibody probes for multiple enzymes. PMID:20156198

  5. Intake of trace and major elements through drinking water pathway by the adult population of the six villages around the uranium deposit site of Domiasiat, West Khasi hills, Meghalaya

    Elements such as Fe, Zn, K, Mn, Ni, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Se and U were analyzed to determine their concentrations in drinking water collected from six villages around the uranium ore deposit site in Domiasiat, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. The estimation of the concentration of these elements in the drinking water samples collected was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, except for Uranium, estimation was done using a Laser based Fluorimeter. The concentration of the elements vary from 0.2 ppb -1.7 ppm and it has been observed that all the elemental concentration fall well below the WHO prescribe guidelines. Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected was found out to be less than 0.5 ppb. (author)

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in West Virginia. Preliminary background report

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the West Virginia Public Service Commission, comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the state senate. Commissioners are appointed for six year terms. They must be free from any pecuniary or employment interest in public utilities. The Commission possesses the exclusive authority to regulate public utilities. While local governments retain the power to control the use of their streets and to grant franchises to public utilities, they cannot use this power to infringe on the exercise of regulatory power by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  8. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  9. Using environmental isotopes to characterize hydrologic processes of the Nelson Tunnel acid mine drainage site, West Willow Creek watershed, Creede, CO

    Krupicka, A.; Williams, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage continues to be a pressing ecological issue across the Mountain West. Traditional remediation strategies usually involve the installation of an expensive and unsightly “end-of-pipe” water treatment plant without a full understanding of the overall hydrology of the system. In this study we show how applying water chemistry techniques to investigate water sources, ages, flow paths and residence times in a watershed affected by acid mine drainage can lead to alternative, less expensive methods of reclamation. We use both radiogenic (3H and 14C) and stable (18O and D) environmental isotopes to age waters and characterize the level of surface and groundwater interaction. Tritium content for waters collected in the tunnel was largely found to be 0-3 TU, indicating an age of greater than 50 years. This was supported by 14C values of DIC in tunnel samples that indicated ages and a hydraulic residence time on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Stable isotopes 18O and D plotted closely to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Combined with the heavy faulting and dominant welded volcanic tuffs of the region, this all indicates a system with very little surface-ground water interaction and a long, deep, likely channelized flow path. A future up-gradient pumping test would help confirm these findings and further elucidate the location and mechanism of the system’s primary recharge to the mine workings.

  10. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  11. Inversion of resistivity soundings in the archaeological site of Mahilaka (North-West of Madagascar) using the generalized linear inverse method

    This paper describes the generalized inverse method which is used for the inversion of resistivity sounding. The technique has been applied to a resistivity soundings survey whose stations are selected in the zones of resistivity anomalies over an archaeological site. The site covers an area of 0.75 square kilometer in the north-western part of Madagascar, bordering the east Mozambic Channel. The one-dimensional (1-D) model fits well the observed data and the generalized linear inverse method appears to be a powerful scheme with which to interpret resistivity sounding data. (author). 29 refs, 6 figs

  12. Analysis of echo sounding data North-Central Pacific (and west North Atlantic). Final technical report, September 1, 1976--March 31, 1978. [Site selection for marine disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Hayes, D.E.

    1978-05-01

    Recognizing the need to consider several potentially suitable sites for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, a very preliminary search was made through available data for such sites in the North Pacific and West North Atlantic Oceans. The criteria used were: the site must be between high-productivity belts and outside of 200 mile limit; a minimum of 50 meters of sediment, preferably 100 to 150 meters; the sediment should be red clay with minimum or no biogenic components; the sediment should contain no unconformities; and no strong discontinuous internal reflectors; the area should have no tele-seismicity, be topographically subdued, have minimal bottom currents, have no or low economical potential (Mn nodules, etc.), and be large enough (1 to 2/sup 0/ on a side) to be feasible for disposal. Some of these criteria may need to be relaxed; others may need to be added. Seismic data were the basic information used to cull out potential areas, and there are very few areas that meet the criteria as interpreted seismically. Initial site specific data assessment reported included examination of all available geophysical/geological data in and around the MPG-1 area (approximately 29/sup 0/ to 31/sup 0/N; approximately 156/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/W); a topographic relief was described and the disposition of the thin (less than 100 m) sediment blanket and the acoustic character was mapped. A 15-day cruise was conducted in the MPG-1 area aboard the R/V VEMA and included detailed seismic measurements and heatflow/coring experiments to discern the variability of these parameters.

  13. Characterization of a VHS virus genotype III isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss at a marine site on the west coast of Norway

    Ottem Karl F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norwegian production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss has been without any outbreaks of VHS for many years until the disease emerged in a farm in western Norway in November 2007. The fish were, in addition to VHS virus, positive for gill chlamydia-like bacteria, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and a microsporidian. A new VHS virus genotype III was isolated from the fish in RTgill-W1 cells and the complete coding region (11,065 nucleotides was sequenced. This virus was also used in a challenge experiment to see if it could cause any mortality in rainbow trout in sea water. Results This is the first time a nearly complete sequence of a genotype III virus isolate has been presented. The organization of the genes is the same as in the other VHS virus genotypes studied (GI and GIV. Between the ORFs are nontranslated regions that contain highly conserved sequences encompassing the polyadenylation signal for one gene, and the putative transcription initiation site of the next gene. The intergenic regions vary in length from 74 nt to 128 nt. The nucleotide sequence is more similar to genotype I isolates compared to isolates from genotype II and IV. Analyses of the sequences of the N and G protein genes show that this new isolate is distinct from other VHS virus isolates and groups closely together with isolates from genotype III. In a challenge experiment, using intraperitoneal (ip injection of the isolate, co-habitation with infected fish, and bath challenge, mortalities slightly above 40% were obtained. There was no significant difference in mortality between the bath challenged group and the ip injected group, while the mortality in the co-habitation group was as low as 30%. Conclusions All VHS virus isolates in genotype III are from marine fish in the North East Atlantic. Unlike the other known genotype III isolates, which are of low virulence, this new isolate is moderately virulent. It was not possible to detect any changes

  14. What's West Nile Virus?

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  15. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  16. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  17. West-Side Story

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  18. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still th...... facing immediate endangerment, althoug the minority dialects (including East Greenlandic and Polar Eskimo) face increasing pressure from the standard Central West Greenlandic dialect....

  19. Call From China West

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  20. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  1. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  2. Census Snapshot: West Virginia

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in West Virginia. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in West Virginia. In many ways, the almost 3,500 same-sex couples living in West Virginia are similar to married ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)

    ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

    2010-03-24

    Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

  4. US west coast

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  5. Islam and the West

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  6. West African Antislavery Movements

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  7. The great West Road

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  8. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  10. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  11. Ebola in West Africa

    Lul Raka; Monica Guardo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  12. Drought in West Africa

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  13. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  14. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  15. Kahekili, West Maui, Hawaii Fish and Benthic Data from Surveys in January and August 2008 (NODC Accession 0065597)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish and benthos baseline surveys were made at 155 sites of the near shore region off Kahekili Beach Park, West Maui in January and August, 2008. Survey sites were...

  16. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Thorium residuals in West Chicago, Illinois

    Lindsay and Company began operation of its west Chicago, Illinois, plant in 1931, processing thorium ores for thorium and rare earths. From that time until normal operations ceased in 1973, thorium residuals from the operation found their way offsite to Reed-Keppler City Park, the West Chicago Sewage Treatment Plant, and numerous other locations about the city and its environs. The present study located and identified such thorium residuals in the West Chicago area, a total of 75 epicenters having been found in addition to deposits at Reed-Keppler Park, the sewage-treatment plant, and down Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Deposits proved to be almost exclusively the dense, gray, insoluble particles of thorium-ore tailings from the process, which have been historically stored in two large piles in the site waste area. Epicenter locations and associated radiological parameters are given for the 75 locations, along with quantitative descriptions of the larger collections of material at the park, at the sewage-treatment plant, and on the banks of Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Not one of the areas of thorium residuals located outside security fences was found to violate the requirements of 10 CFR 20

  18. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 5: Argonne National Laboratory-West site assessment team report

    The facilities addressed in this study include the Analytical Laboratory (AL), the Experimental Fuels Laboratory (EFL), the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF), the Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) Laboratory, the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility, and the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Vault and Workroom. The Site Assessment Team found no ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the AL, EFL, NDA Laboratory, or TREAT. For those facilities, any potentially adverse conditions or potentially adverse conditions or potentially hazardous events were found to be of little or no consequence due to compensatory and mitigative measures existing in the facilities or within the ANL-W operations

  19. West Bank and Gaza : Teachers

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza is focusing on strengthening its education system: provision of schooling is relatively equitable and increased decentralization is planned. West Bank & Gaza (WB&G) spent 1.3 percent on public education as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This year, the Palestinian Authority (PA) published a report entitled Homestretch to Freedom, which outlines the obj...

  20. Ebola in West Africa.

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  1. Ebola in West Africa

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  2. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  3. Antibody Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Birds, Illinois, 2002

    Ringia, Adam M.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Koo, Hyun-Young; Van de Wyngaerde, Marshall; Brawn, Jeff D.; Novak, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies to West Nile virus were detected in 94 of 1,784 Illinois birds during 2002. Captive and urban birds had higher seropositivity than did birds from natural areas, and northern and central Illinois birds’ seropositivity was greater than that from birds from the southern sites. Adult and hatch-year exposure rates did not differ significantly.

  4. Potential impact of sand mining on macrobenthic community at Kalbadevi Beach, Ratnagiri, West coast of India

    Sivadas, S.; Sautye, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    The intertidal area at Kalbadevi, Ratnagiri has been identified as one of the potential sites for placer minerals along the west coast of India. Considering the prospects of commercial mining, benthic sampling was conducted during February and May...

  5. The West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration Project (2001) and Post Monitoring Project (2002) -- Stowe, Vermont

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the Federal Emergency...

  6. Post Monitoring (2003) of the West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration Project -- Stowe, Vermont

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the Federal Emergency...

  7. PALAEOVEGETATION AND PALAEOENVIRONMENT BASED ON POLLEN ANALYSIS AT THE ZHONGBA SALT PRODUCTION ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE,SOUTH WEST CHINA%中坝制盐遗址的孢粉分析与古植被、古环境

    李宜垠; 赵凤鸣; 李水城; 崔海亭

    2011-01-01

    考古证据表明,距今4000多年以前,重庆三峡地区的中坝遗址就开始了规模性的盐业生产.为了解盐业生产的环境背景及其影响,在中坝遗址厚达12.5m的文化堆积层进行了孢粉取样和分析.AMS 14C测年结果显示,这些样品分别来自新石器时代晚期(4420~3700aB.P.)、商至西周(3550~2700aB.P.)和东周(2700 ~2300aB.P.).孢粉分析表明:中坝遗址的样品均以草本植物花粉和蕨类植物孢子占绝对优势.主要以禾本科(Poaceae)、楼梯草属(Elatostema)和蹄盖蕨属(Athyrium)为主,而乔灌木植物花粉所占比例很低,除松属(Pinus)、桦木属(Betula)、枫杨属(Pterocarya)、栎属(Quercus)花粉外,还见到夹竹桃科(Apocynaceae)、女贞属(Ligustrum)、檵木属(Loropetalum)和枫香属(Liquidambar)等亚热带树种的花粉.中坝遗址及附近地区自新石器时代以来的植被以少林、灌丛草地为主,遗址周围分布大片杂草群落,并可能有大面积的农田,表明这个地区始终存在较强的人类活动.早在新石器时代,制盐业和种植业使得低山丘陵与河谷的森林植被遭到破坏,遗址附近的河谷形成疏林草地景观.商至西周时期,尽管气候变干,但人类活动仍很强烈,似乎气候变化对盐业生产的影响不大;东周时期的气候较为温暖湿润,制盐业和农业活动规模扩大,森林植被破坏程度加大,草坡随之增多.%Zhongba archaeological site ( 30°20'43"N, 108°01 '37"E, elevation 135 ~ 148m) is located in the terrace of Canjing River,6km from Zhongxian County,Congqing City. Archaeological evidence from the Zhongba site indicates that salt production was well developed in a time period more than 4000a B. P old. To explore the natural background of the salt production and its effect on the environment, samples from a cultural layer with a depth of 12.5m in Zhongba archaeological site were collected for pollen analysis. According to AMS C dating data, these samples

  8. Malaria vector populations across ecological zones in Guinea Conakry and Mali, West Africa

    Coulibaly, Boubacar; Kone, Raymond; Barry, Mamadou S.; Emerson, Becky; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Niare, Oumou; Beavogui, Abdoul H.; Traore, Sekou F; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Riehle, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a pervasive public health problem in sub-Saharan West Africa. Here mosquito vector populations were explored across four sites in Mali and the Republic of Guinea (Guinea Conakry). The study samples the major ecological zones of malaria-endemic regions in West Africa within a relatively small distance. Methods Mosquito vectors were sampled from larval pools, adult indoor resting sites, and indoor and outdoor human-host seeking adults. Mosquitoes were collected at sit...

  9. A comparative survey of the fish populations of 10 West-Midlands meres of SSSI status

    Holland, R.K.; Goldspink, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This is a comparative survey of the Fish Populations of 10 West-Midlands Mere of Site of Special Scientific Interest Status. The meres of the Shropshire-Cheshire plain (West Midlands) comprise over 60 water bodies. Water quality in the meres ranges from naturally eutrophic to nutrient limited and some of them have received Site of Special Scientific Interest status (SSSIs). This survey was commissioned in order to obtain quantitative information on the fish fauna of selected SSSIs and evaluat...

  10. Atmospheric density remote sensing of mesosphere and thermosphere to be used for spacecraft design by adopting VHF radar and HF Doppler sounder at low latitude West Pacific site during winter

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Chen, A. J.

    The VHF radar and HF Doppler sounder located at the subtropical and low latitude observing site of Taiwan has been used to make a simultaneous observation for atmospheric parameters from the troposphere, to the middle atmosphere, and then to the thermosphere during the time period of the weak convective motions of cold front in winter time. For observations at mesospheric heights, time dependent wind velocities with three-dimensional profiles are detected in the backscattered power, radial velocities and Doppler spectral width. For observations at thermospheric heights, time-dependent phase path change of high frequency radio wave reflected from ionospheric heights is used to measure Doppler frequency variation of gravity wave parameters. The density perturbations caused by the propagation of the gravity waves due to the weak convective motions in winter time were calculated from the VHF radar and HF Doppler sounder observations simultaneously. These short-term middle atmospheric and thermospheric density changes are a key element needed for space vehicle design purposes. Projects such as the Space Shuttle, Shuttle II, Tethered Satellite, Hubble Space Telescope, Aerobraking Orbital Transfer Vehicle, and Aeroassisted Flight Experiment will benefit from such studies.

  11. Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java

    Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ∼ 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ∼ 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  13. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    None

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  15. GeoPowering the West

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  16. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005).

  17. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments

  18. FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site

    Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-28

    This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

  19. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  20. Trade networks in West Africa

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade......To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... by looking at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly...

  1. Geohydrologic study of the West Lake Basin

    Gephart, R.E.; Eddy, P.A.; Arnett, R.C.; Robinson, G.A.

    1976-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to (1) collect and interpret geochemical data on the surface, unconfined, and confined waters of the West Lake Basin, and (2) evaluate the potential for radiochemical contamination of the uppermost confined aquifers. The report assesses the suitability of Gable Mountain Pond for receiving waste water from 200 East Area operations and applies a predictive digital computer model to assess the impacts to the groundwater regime of maintaining, increasing, or decreasing water discharge into Gable Mountain Pond. East of the 200 East Area lies a natural depression which has been dammed and used as a liquid waste disposal site (B Pond). B Pond waste waters directly recharge the underlying unconfined aquifer. This report will examine the suitability of using B Pond for receiving additional waste waters which would otherwise be discharged to Gable Mountain Pond. A predictive digital computer model will be used for assessments involving various discharges into B Pond.

  2. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  3. A Security Guard With West Nile Virus Encephalitis.

    Smith, Letha

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old male working as a security supervisor in an office building was seen for return to work by the on-site occupational health nurse. He was observed to have slow gait as he entered the clinic waiting area, was pale, diaphoretic, and slow in responding to questions. His return to work note stated he was recovering from West Nile Virus (WNV). Implications for return to work are presented. PMID:26245464

  4. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic an...

  5. Upgrading of the West Area

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  6. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  7. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  8. Status of the WEST project

    Power exhaust has been identified as a challenge for ITER and a potential showstopper on the roadmap towards fusion energy. Reliable power exhaust requires a thorough integration of physics and technology. The WEST project main objective is the minimization of risks for ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC) construction and operation. The WEST project also fills the gap on long pulse tokamak operation in the European fusion program. It offers a readily available integrated tokamak environment for ITER but also at a later stage for DEMO divertor testing. The assessment of ITER PFC performance and lifetime as well as innovative PFC under relevant power fluxes and particle fluence is the central thrust of the WEST program. Other issues including operation at high radiated fraction in compact divertor geometry, demonstration of detachment control over long pulse, exhaust physics at large aspect ratio and operation in double null are key topics which will be also tackled in the perspective of the fusion reactor. The WEST project consists in the transformation of the French Tore Supra facility into a diverted tokamak with ITER-like divertor PFC. The limited Tore Supra circular cross section plasma is turned into D-shape diverted plasma by the addition of two poloidal field coils inside the upper and lower region of the vacuum vessel. The carbon environment is changed into a tungsten environment with a set of new actively cooled plasma facing components. 9 MW of ICRH and 7 MW of LHCD will provide relevant heat and particle load conditions on the divertor PFC over duration up to 1000s. A new infrared thermography system, together with embedded temperature sensors and calorimetry of the cooling circuits will ensure PFC protection and accurate power balance. A new visible spectroscopy system will monitor all potential tungsten sources. The WEST assembly phase has started in October 2014. The manufacturing of the divertor coils casing, conductors and supporting

  9. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans by county of residence, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by...

  10. West Valley feasibility study

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems

  11. West Valley feasibility study

    Pirro, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

  12. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  13. Tracks and Other Signs of Otters in Rice Fields in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra: a Preliminary Study

    Aadrean

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified otters based on tracks and other signs in a West Sumatran rice field. Field surveys were conducted from July to December 2008 at Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia. We identified one species, Aonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815 based on the size and form of 8 fore and 17 hind footprints. Further, we describe three types of spraint site, sliding sites and other evidence of otter existence in this area.

  14. 辽西城子山遗址夏家店下层文化期农业活动特征及环境效应%AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN LOWER XIAJIADIAN CULTURE PERIOD OF THE CHENGZISHAN SITE, WEST LIAONING PROVINCE

    赵克良; 李小强; 周新郢; 孙楠

    2011-01-01

    Lower Xiajiadian culture was a very important farming period in the archaeological culture series of West Liaoning Province. Chengzishan Site is situated in Sanguandianzi, Lingyuan City, Liaoning Province. The section we investigated , a 2l0cm deep section at an elevation of 553m at latitude 41°18'34.3"N , longitude ll9°28'5. 4"E.is located on the northeast part of the Chengzishan Site. We got a detailed record of agricultural activities and its impact on the environment in Lower Xiajiadian period through the notes of pollen.microcharcoal,charred seeds and nutshell. The record indicates that the original vegetation was coniferous forest dominated by Pinus ; because of the 'slash-and-burn' cultivation, the original forest disappeared, meanwhile, the secondary Corylus sp. shrubs and anthropogenic weeds increased. The peaks of microcharcoal concentration followed by the peaks of Poaceae pollen percentage, show that the high intensity and frequency of fire was used for farming. Long term farming lead to the soil fertility decrease,and the weakness of agricultural activities was mainly caused by the abandoned cultivation in the later stage. Our research reveals that the agricultural activities of Lower Xiajiadian people in Chenzishan site experienced four stages: deforestation for farming, settlement and cultivation, abandonment of the cultivated land and restoration of original vegetation.%以辽西城子山文化遗存剖面为研究对象,运用花粉、炭屑、炭化种子和果壳等指标,重建城子山地区夏家店下层文化期农业活动特征及环境效应.研究显示城子山原生植被主要为松属针叶林,先民采用"刀耕火种"农业模式毁林开荒,导致原生植被消失以及次生榛属灌丛和杂草增加.城子山剖面中禾本科花粉含量峰值与炭屑浓度峰值相对应,表明先民高强度或频度用火主要与农业活动有关.长期耕作活动造成土壤肥力下降,先民弃耕是后期农业活动衰弱的主

  15. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  16. Conjoined twins in West Africa.

    Mabogunje, O A; Lawrie, J H

    1980-01-01

    12 cases of conjoined twins from West Africa were reported between 1936 and 1978. Eight sets were liveborn and were surgically separated either in local hospitals or abroad. Four were stillborn. Two new cases of stillborn conjoined twins were recently delivered at this hospital. The most common type and the ones most likely to be born alive were the omphalopagi. Surgical separation was successful in 5 cases but the twins separated at Zaria died about a month later. Emergency operations were p...

  17. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  18. 75 FR 58364 - Foreign-Trade Zone 114-Peoria, IL Site Renumbering Notice

    2010-09-24

    ... 114 was approved by the FTZ Board on December 21, 1984 (Board Order 288, 50 FR 1606, 1/11/1985) and... 5703 West Smithville Road, Bartonville; Site 5 (37 acres) located at 278 Koch Street, Pekin; Site 6...

  19. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  20. Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California

    Filipek, L.H.; Kirk, Nordstrom D.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate stream waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al remained in solution rather than precipitating or adsorbing on solid phases. Changes in the concentration of these generally conservative metals could be used to determine relative flow volumes of acid tributaries and the main stream. An amorphous orange precipitate (probably ferric hydroxides or a mixture of ferric hydroxides and jarosite) was ubiquitous in the acid stream beds and was intimately associated with algae at the most acid sites. Relative sorption of cations decreased with decreasing water pH. However, arsenic was almost completely scavenged from solution within a short distance from the sulfide sources.

  1. Alternating current for the West

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  2. The Evaluation of the Selected On-Site Location for a New Nuclear Facility on a Multi-Facility Site

    Pelindaba is a multi-facility nuclear and chemical site in the North West Province of South Africa where Necsa currently operates SAFARI-1. A proposed new dedicated isotope production reactor facility is to be constructed on this site. The siting process followed is tailored from the IAEA guidelines. This paper describes the site selection and site characterization for a new facility at Pelindaba. (author)

  3. Contaminated sites

    The term 'Contaminated sites' refers to soil and groundwater contamination caused by local sources such as landfills or industrial sites. As of July 2002, there were in Austria 2,372 sites registered as potentially contaminated sites, from them: 165 sites required remediation, for 55 sites non remedial measures were necessary and to date 65 sites were remediated with a cost of 700,000 M Euro. An overview about funding of remedial measures, estimation of the extent of the problem (remediation requirements, chlorinated hydrocarbons accidents), deficits (lack of legal harmonization, slow implementation of remedial measures, etc.) is presented. Table 1. (nevyjel)

  4. Comments on Ode to the West Wind

    徐岩; 张冬妮

    2013-01-01

      Ode to the West Wind, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, is considered as a masterpiece in the English literature, even in the whole culture. There is no denying that Ode to the West Wind is not simply to sing of the west wind, while there are many thoughts that Shel ey wants to express. This paper has comments on it from three aspects — the revolution, the new ideas and the writer himself.

  5. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  6. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights...... from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa.
...

  7. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  8. K West Basin canister survey

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  9. Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia

    To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

  10. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event... areas: A race area, where all persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in...

  11. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    2012-09-12

    ... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed approval of the revised regulation, 45 CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards, submitted by West Virginia...

  12. Magnetotelluric array data analysis from north-west Fennoscandia

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Jones, A. G.; Pedersen, L. B.; Becken, M.; Biolik, M.; Cherevatova, M.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Gurk, M.; Hübert, J.; Jones, A. G.; Junge, A.; Kamm, J.; Korja, T.; Lahti, I.; Löwer, A.; Nittinger, C.; Pedersen, L. B.; Savvaidis, A.; Smirnov, M.

    2015-06-01

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 synchronous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites was occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. We estimated MT transfer functions in the period range from 0.003 to 105 s. The Q-function multi-site multi-frequency analysis and the phase tensor were used to estimate strike and dimensionality of MT data. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 2-D behaviour of the data with 3-D effects at some sites and period bands. In this paper we present 2-D inversion of the data, 3-D inversion models are shown in the parallel paper. We choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Seven crustal-scale and four lithospheric-scale 2-D models are presented. The resistive regions are images of the Archaean and Proterozoic basement in the east and thin Caledonian nappes in the west. The middle and lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. The southern end of the Kittilä Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. The thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozioc Svecofennian Domain, not in the Archaean. The thickness of the lithosphere is around 200 km in the north and 300 km in the south-west.

  13. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  14. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  17. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  18. West Nile virus: a growing concern?

    Gould, L. Hannah; Fikrig, Erol

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has subsequently spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. This review describes the epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in North America and the prospects for effective treatments and vaccines.

  19. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  20. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It e

  1. Growing Readers: Wendy Wilcox--West Bloomfield Township Public Library, MI

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 youth services librarian Wendy Wilcox begged her boss for the chance to make West Bloomfield Township Public Library (WBTPL) one of 20 demonstration sites for the Public Library Association (PLA)/Association for Library Service to Children initiative Every Child Ready To Read. While all participating libraries teach parents and caregivers…

  2. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine

    Olberg, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  3. Engineering geological and geophysical investigations for road construction in the municipality of Sisimiut, West Greenland

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Clausen, Helle; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    In connection with a road construction project between the towns of Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq in Central West Greenland, the Arctic Technology Centre has been involved in prospecting and site investigations. This paper presents a selection of results concerning the climatic conditions and...... design and construction work in order to counter the effects of permafrost degradation and increased active layer thickness....

  4. Structural Preconditions of West Bohemia Earthquake Swarms

    Novotný, M.; Špičák, A.; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-07-01

    The West Bohemia and adjacent Vogtland are well known for quasi-periodical earthquake swarms persisting for centuries. The seismogenic area near Nový Kostel involved about 90 % of overall earthquake activity clustered here in space and time. The latest major earthquake swarm took place in August-September 2011. In 1994 and 1997, two minor earthquake swarms appeared in another location, near Lazy. Recently, the depth-recursive tomography yielded a velocity image with an improved resolution along the CEL09 refraction profile passing between these swarm areas. The resolution, achieved in the velocity image and its agreement with the inverse gravity modeling along the collateral 9HR reflection profile, enabled us to reveal the key structural background of these West Bohemia earthquake swarms. The CEL09 velocity image detected two deeply rooted high-velocity bodies adjacent to the Nový Kostel and Lazy focal zones. They correspond to two Variscan mafic intrusions influenced by the SE inclined slab of Saxothuringian crust that subducted beneath the Teplá-Barrandian terrane in the Devonian era. In their uppermost SE inclined parts, they roof both focal zones. The high P-wave velocities of 6,100-6,200 m/s, detected in both roofing caps, indicate their relative compactness and impermeability. The focal domains themselves are located in the almost gradient-free zones with the swarm foci spread near the axial planes of profound velocity depressions. The lower velocities of 5,950-6,050 m/s, observed in the upper parts of focal zones, are indicative of less compact rock complexes corrugated and tectonically disturbed by the SE bordering magma ascents. The high-velocity/high-density caps obviously seal the swarm focal domains because almost no magmatic fluids of mantle origin occur in the Nový Kostel and Lazy seismogenic areas of the West Bohemia/Vogtland territory, otherwise rich in the mantle-derived fluids. This supports the hypothesis of the fluid triggering of earthquake

  5. Implementation of Location Base Service on Tourism Places in West Nusa Tenggara by using Smartphone

    Karya Gunawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to create an application that can assist users in finding information about tourism places in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. West Nusa Tenggara is one of the provinces in Indonesia and one of the second tourists’ destinations after Bali. It is a small Sunda Island which consists of two large islands located in the west of Lombok and Sumbawa that located in the east to the capital of Mataram on the island of Lombok. The area of West Nusa Tenggara province is 19,708.79 km2. The application provides information such as descriptions of sights, tourism spot address, photo galleries, and the available facilities and the closest track to where the tourism spot is by using Google maps. Google maps can display map locations and closest routes from the user's position to the tourism place. Determination of the position of the user and position of Tourism sites using GPS (Global Positioning System. This application is made by using the Java programming language for Android with Eclipse 4.2.1 IDE that can be used on the Smartphone device based on Android. The result of the research is the creation of location-based services applications to search a place of Tourism in West Nusa Tenggara province so as to help tourists visiting the West Nusa Tenggara. The benefit of this application is that to determine the path in finding the tourism places.

  6. Structure of Asclepias syriaca L. population against phytocenotic and habitat conditions in Widuchowa (West Pomerania)

    Bacieczko Wanda; Borcz Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Asclepias syriaca L. is on the invasive species list in Poland. Its sites are scattered, with the exception of cultivation sites; they are also not well identified in the country and that is why they have not been presented in the ATPOL (Distribution Atlas of Vascular Plants in Poland) yet. In this study, spatial structure of A. syriaca population against phytocenotic and soil conditions in Widuchowa (West Pomerania)were examined. Number of specimens, their density per 1 m2, and mean crowding...

  7. REVIEW: Social and Environmental Issues of Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan

    TSUYOSHI KATO; IIN PURWATI HANDAYANI; BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO; CECEP KUSMANA; ONRIZAL

    2005-01-01

    Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP) is a cluster of lakes located in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan Province with the total area of 132,000 ha. From 1981 to January 1999 this site was recognized as Suaka Margasatwa Danau Sentarum (Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve). Since 1994 this site had been declared as Ramsar site. DSNP is a “monumental site”, since the only undisturbed peat swamp forest was found in this site. Peat swamp forest in the national park stores the oldest tropical peat i...

  8. On vertical velocity fluctuations and internal tides in an upwelling region off the west coast of India

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (1990) 31,865-873 On Vertical Velocity Fluctuations and Internal Tides in an Upwelling Region off the West Coast of India A. S. Unnikrishnan and M. K. Antony National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004... of flow and wind and temperature oscillations at a mooring site in the shelf waters off the west coast of India are discussed. The vertical velocities were computed from a time series of vertical temperature profiles assuming that horizontal advection...

  9. Site organization and site arrangement

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW)

  10. Remains of the ancient ports and anchorage points at Miyani and Visawada, on the west coast of India: A study based on underwater investigations

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    The recent underwater explorations on the Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, India between Miyani on the west and Porbandar on the east yielded the existence two ports at Visawada and Miyani. Both sites are situated along the creeks, which would have served...